Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, Kaija; Vaara, Jani; Häkkinen, Arja; Vasankari, Tommi; Mäkinen, Juha; Mäntysaari, Matti; Kyröläinen, Heikki
To examine whether retrospectively assessed sports participation (SP) and competitive sports (CS) at the age of 12 years is associated with mental health and health behavior in young adulthood among males. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires. Conducted prior to compulsory military refresher training course in Finland allowing geographically representative sample of Finnish young men. Six hundred eighty males aged between 20 and 35 years. Mental well-being was measured with the short version of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale and mental distress with 5 items of The Short Form Helalth Survey (SF-36) scale. Binary logistic regression models. Sports participation at the age of 12 was associated with better mental health in young adulthood, with both mental well-being (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11) and mental distress (OR = 0.61, 0.41-0.90). Age, years of education, and current physical activity were controlled. Higher level of intensity of SP and the level of CS in childhood were associated with lower level of mental distress in adulthood. No association was found between the level of CS in childhood and mental well-being in adulthood. Further, youth SP seemed to be a risk factor for increased alcohol consumption and use of snuff in adulthood. Despite negative outcomes related to health behavior, the findings provide support for the association between youth SP and positive mental health outcomes in adulthood among males.
Food allergy was studied in a total of 866 Finnish children aged 1, 2, 3 and 6 years in the Helsinki region. The diagnosis was based on history as well as on elimination and challenge performed at home concerning fish, citrus fruit and eggs. The prevalence of food allergy was 19% at one year of age, increased to a peak of 27% at three years, and thereafter decreased to 8% at six years of age. The most common allergenic foods were citrus fruit, tomato, eggs, strawberry and fish. A positive history of food allergy could be confirmed by challenge in about half of the cases in the younger age groups and in 100% at six years of age. The data indicate that food allergy is common in Finnish children.
Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.
Williford, Anne; Elledge, L Christian; Boulton, Aaron J; DePaolis, Kathryn J; Little, Todd D; Salmivalli, Christina
Cyberbullying among school-aged children has received increased attention in recent literature. However, no empirical evidence currently exists on whether existing school-based antibullying programs are effective in targeting the unique aspects of cyberbullying. To address this important gap, the present study investigates the unique effects of the KiVa Antibullying Program on the frequency of cyberbullying and cybervictimization among elementary and middle school youth. Using data from a group randomized controlled trial, multilevel ordinal regression analyses were used to examine differences in the frequencies of cyberbullying and cybervictimization between intervention (N = 9,914) and control students (N = 8,498). The effects of age and gender on frequencies of cyber behaviors were also assessed across conditions. Results revealed a significant intervention effect on the frequency of cybervictimization; KiVa students reported lower frequencies of cybervictimization at posttest than students in a control condition. The effect of condition on the perpetration of cyberbullying was moderated by age. When student age was below the sample mean, KiVa students reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying than students in the control condition. We also found evidence of classroom level variation in cyberbullying and cybervictimization, suggesting cyberbullying is in part a classroom-level phenomenon. KiVa appears to be an efficacious program to address cyber forms of bullying and victimization. We discuss several unique aspects of KiVa that may account for the significant intervention effects. Results suggest that KiVa is an intervention option for schools concerned with reducing cyberbullying behavior and its deleterious effects on children's adjustment.
Silventoinen, K.; Posthuma, D.; Lahelma, E.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.
We analyzed genetic and environmental determinants of self-rated health and its change from adolescence to early adulthood. Questionnaires were mailed to Finnish twins born 1975-1979 at ages 16, 17, 181/2 and, on average, 25 years of age (N = 2465 complete twin pairs). The data were analyzed using
Silventoinen, K.; Lahelma, E.; Posthuma, D.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J
We analyzed genetic and environmental determinants of self-rated health and its change from adolescence to early adulthood. Questionnaires were mailed to Finnish twins born 1975-1979 at ages 16, 17, 181/2 and, on average, 25 years of age (N = 2465 complete twin pairs). The data were analyzed using
Katainen, Riina E; Siirtola, Tiina J; Engblom, Janne R; Erkkola, Risto U; Polo-Kantola, Päivi
Factors that cause a decrease in quality of life (QoL) among middle-aged women are contradictory. Given that previous studies have been presumably performed in ethnically heterogeneous populations, we evaluated the impact of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on QoL in Finnish women because the Finnish population is ethnically homogenous. A total of 6,408 women (aged 41-54 y) who were called for municipal screening mammography received a postal survey concerning their health-related issues. A total of 3,421 women returned the questionnaire. QoL was evaluated with the Women's Health Questionnaire, from which we included eight symptom clusters (somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, cognitive difficulties, anxiety/fears, sexual functioning, vasomotor symptoms, sleep problems, and menstrual symptoms). The effects of variables on QoL were defined with multivariate analysis. Older women had more symptoms. Lower educational level was associated with lower QoL. Retired women had more symptoms than working or unemployed women, and unemployed women had more symptoms than employed women. Increasing body mass index was associated with lower QoL. Women who consumed alcohol occasionally had fewer symptoms, and women who consumed alcohol weekly had more symptoms than abstainers. Women who smoked had more symptoms than nonsmokers. Current hormone therapy users had more symptoms than nonusers, and former hormone therapy users had more symptoms than nonusers or current hormone therapy users. Higher socioeconomic status and healthier lifestyle are beneficial for good QoL in middle-aged women. Thus, women should be encouraged to continue employment and to avoid behavioral health risks.
This study involved 783 randomly selected youths, ages 10-24 years from Edo State Central, Nigeria. This study examined youth sexuality and age at first sexual intercourse. The selected socio-economic characteristics of the youth examined included age, sex, marital status, educational status and religion. It was revealed ...
Reini, Kaarina; Nyqvist, Fredrica
To examine the probability of a high sense of mastery in a population-representative sample of working-age people and to study the differences in mastery between Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns in particular. The data originates from the Western Finland Mental Health Surveys (2008-2014). Associations between sense of mastery and language groups were analyzed with logistic regressions. Swedish-speaking Finns have a higher sense of mastery and the association is mediated by social support. Moreover, a difference in a high sense of mastery is found between Swedish- and Finnish-speaking married women that are outside the labor market. Our findings imply that Finnish-speaking women that are outside the labor market, e.g. on maternity leave or taking care of the household, should be recognized in health and social care services as a group that can benefit from additional support.
Huppertz, C; Bartels, M; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Rose, R J; Kaprio, J; Silventoinen, K
Twin studies have estimated the relative contribution of genes and the environment to variance in exercise behavior and it is known that parental education positively affects exercise levels. This study investigates the role of parental education as a potential modifier of variance in exercise behavior from age 7 to 18 years. The study is based on large datasets from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR: N = 24 874 twins; surveys around the ages of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 years) and two Finnish twin cohorts (FinnTwin12: N = 4399; 12, 14 and 17 years; FinnTwin16: N = 4648; 16, 17 and 18 years). Regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous exercise activities during leisure time was assessed by survey. Parental education was dichotomized ("both parents with a low education" vs "at least one parent with a high education"). The mean in exercise behavior tended to be higher and the variance tended to be lower in children of high educated parents. Evidence for gene-by-environment interaction was weak. To develop successful interventions that specifically target children of low educated parents, the mechanisms causing the mean and variance differences between the two groups should be better understood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Simola, P; Niskakangas, M; Liukkonen, K; Virkkula, P; Pitkäranta, A; Kirjavainen, T; Aronen, E T
Sleep is important to the well-being and development of children. Specially, small children are vulnerable to the effects of inadequate sleep. However, not much is known about the frequency of all types of sleep problems and daytime tiredness in preschool-aged children. To evaluate the prevalence of a wide spectrum of sleep problems, daytime tiredness and associations between these in 3- to 6-year-old Finnish children. A population-based study where parents of 3- to 6-year-old children (n= 904) living in Helsinki filled in the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Of the children, 45% had at least one sleep-related problem occurring at least three times a week: 14.1% were unwilling to go to bed, 10.2% had difficulties in falling asleep, 10.2% had bruxism, 6.4% sleep talking, 2.1% sleep terrors, 8.2% had sleep-related breathing problem, 11.2% had excessive sweating while falling asleep and 12.9% excessive sweating during sleep. Age and gender were related to phenotype of the sleeping problems. In multiple regression analysis, the difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep were most strongly associated with tiredness in the morning and during the day. Different types of sleep problems are frequent in preschool-aged children. Poor sleep quality is associated with morning and daytime tiredness. In screening for sleep problems in children, attention should be paid not only to sleep amount but also to sleep quality. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Williford, Anne; Elledge, L. Christian; Boulton, Aaron J.; DePaolis, Kathryn J.; Little, Todd D.; Salmivalli, Christina
Cyberbullying among school-aged children has received increased attention in recent literature. However, no empirical evidence currently exists on whether existing school-based antibullying programs are effective in targeting the unique aspects of cyberbullying. To address this important gap, the present study investigates the unique effects of…
Dresang, Eliza T.
Radical change, a theory described in Eliza Dresang's 1999 book, "Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age," was developed in the mid-1990s. It serves as a lens through which to examine, explain, and ultimately, use contemporary literature for youth growing up in the Digital Age. It identifies changes in forms and formats,…
Charlene S. Shannon
Full Text Available Many youth programs are delivered to provide opportunities for youth to acquire the assets deemed essential to their development into caring, responsible adults. Engaging as a volunteer is considered an experience that provides access to the acquisition of key developmental assets. To date, research has focused on the positive outcomes that can result for adolescent volunteers with little attention being paid to volunteers younger than age 15. This research explored whether and in what ways being a volunteer contributed to the development of youth ages 8 to 12. Interviews were conducted with 73 Boys and Girls Club youth and seven Club Executive Directors in Atlantic Canada. Results indicated that volunteering offered youth an opportunity to serve their communities, care for its members, and feel valued. Younger youth also developed various skills and experienced enhanced self-esteem and self-confidence.
Lindholm, H; Punakallio, A; Lusa, S; Sainio, M; Ponocny, E; Winker, R
Monitoring cardiovascular risk factors is important in health promotion among firefighters. The assessment of arterial stiffness (AS) may help to detect early signs of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between aerobic fitness, cognitive symptoms and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a measure for AS among Finnish firefighters. The data are one part of a large 13-year follow-up study of the health and physical and mental capacity of Finnish professional firefighters. The subjects in this substudy comprised 65 male firefighters of a mean age of 48.0 (42-58) years in 2009. Their maximal oxygen uptake was successfully measured in two cross-sectional studies in 1996 and 2009, and they responded to questionnaires at both sessions, and their CAVI was measured in 2009. CAVI was calculated from the pulse waveform signal and pulse wave velocity. The lifestyle habits and subjective cognitive stress-related symptoms were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Muscular fitness was measured by the routine test battery used for Finnish firefighters. CAVI was related to age. About one-fifth of the firefighters had a CAVI of >8. Aerobic fitness was the main physiological factor correlating with increased CAVI. Interestingly, VO(2)max and the accelerated decrease in VO(2)max during a 13-year follow-up were associated with signs of impaired vascular function. The cognitive symptoms derived from the Profile of Mood States questionnaire (POMS) were mainly associated with stress and sleeping difficulties. No clear association with physical fitness was found in this population of fit firefighters. Among firefighters, the decrease in aerobic fitness predicts increased arterial stiffness. The speed of the age-related decline in maximal oxygen consumption is as important as absolute level. Against expectations, the cognitive function did not correlate with vascular health parameters. The cognitive symptoms, however, were only mild.
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…
Silventoinen, Karri; Posthuma, Danielle; Lahelma, Eero; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko
We analyzed genetic and environmental determinants of self-rated health and its change from adolescence to early adulthood. Questionnaires were mailed to Finnish twins born 1975-1979 at ages 16, 17, 18 1/2 and, on average, 25 years of age (N=2465 complete twin pairs). The data were analyzed using quantitative genetic methods for twin data by the Mx statistical package. Heritability of self-rated health was greatest at age 16 (63%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 56-67%, men and women together) and declined steadily to age 25 (33%, 95% CI 25-41%). The residual variation was due to unshared environments. Health ratings at different ages were modestly correlated (r=0.33-0.61). These correlations were mainly due to genetic factors, but unshared environment also contributed to them. An important challenge for further research is to identify environmental influences contributing to self-rated health independently of, or in interaction with, genetic factors.
Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.
In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…
Smirnova, Michelle Hannah
The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dresang, Eliza T.
"Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age" (Dresang, 1999) is a landmark work that examines ways in which young readers are affected by the Digital Age. The impetus for the book grew out of Eliza Dresang's observation that printed books with nonlinear, interactive qualities appeal strongly to contemporary children. She noted that…
Sourander, Andre; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Puustjärvi, Anita; Elonheimo, Henrik; Ristkari, Terja; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Piha, Jorma; Ronning, John A
There are no prospective population-based studies examining predictive associations between childhood bullying behavior and adult criminality. To study predictive associations between bullying and victimization at age eight and adult criminal offenses. Nationwide birth cohort study from age 8 to 26 years. The sample consists of 5,351 Finnish children born in 1981 with information about bullying and victimization at age eight from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. National police register information about criminal offenses at age 23-26 years. When controlled for the parental education level and psychopathology score, bullying sometimes and frequently independently predicted violent (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9-7.9, p bullying frequently and more than five crimes during the 4-year period (OR 6.6, 95% CI 2.8-15.3, p bullying were the strongest predictor of adult criminality. In adjusted analyses, male victimization did not independently predict adult crime. Among girls, bullying or victimization at age eight were not associated with adult criminality. Bullying among boys signals an elevated risk of adult criminality.
Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo
Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.
Raevuori, Anu; Dick, Danielle M; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri
We analysed genetic and environmental influences on self-esteem and its stability in adolescence. Finnish twins born in 1983-1987 were assessed by questionnaire at ages 14 (n = 4132 twin individuals) and 17 years (n = 3841 twin individuals). Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg global self-esteem scale and analyzed using quantitative genetic methods for twin data in the Mx statistical package. The heritability of self-esteem was 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.68] in 14-year-old boys and 0.40 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) in 14-year-old girls, while the corresponding estimates at age 17 were 0.48 (95% CI 0.39-0.56) and 0.29 (95% CI 0.11-0.45). Rosenberg self-esteem scores at ages 14 and 17 were modestly correlated (r = 0.44 in boys, r = 0.46 in girls). In boys, the correlation was mainly (82%) due to genetic factors, with residual co-variation due to unique environment. In girls, genetic (31%) and common environmental (61%) factors largely explained the correlation. In adolescence, self-esteem seems to be differently regulated in boys versus girls. A key challenge for future research is to identify environmental influences contributing to self-esteem during adolescence and determine how these factors interact with genetic influences.
Silventoinen, Karri; Helle, Samuli; Nisén, Jessica; Martikainen, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko
The associations between height and reproductive success in humans have attracted long-time scientific interest, but in addition to rather mixed previous results, little is still known about the background mechanisms of these associations. We analyzed the association of adult height with age at first birth and lifetime reproductive success using a twin study design that is able to optimally take into account family background and estimate the contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Information on live births as of June 2009 for 7,830 Finnish twins born 1950-1957 was extracted from the national population register. We found evidence for non-linear associations in men, as men in the third sex-specific height quintile had the highest probability of having one to two children, or three or more children at individual level analyses, and also to have any children when analyzing twin pairs discordant for height. Furthermore, the probability of having a spouse was highest in the third height category in men. Short stature was associated with earlier age at first birth in females, explained by correlated genetic factors, but not with lifetime number of children or having a spouse. Our results suggest that average stature may give some advantage for reproduction in males. In females, genetic factors explained the association between short stature and young age at first birth, which may suggest the role of hormonal factors.
Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.
Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.
Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures.
David Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009 as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE
Rauhut, Daniel; Kahila, Petri
The aim of this paper is to discuss the regional labour market policy response to demographic ageing in Sweden and its consequences on the labour supply of young adults. Regions with ageing problems already experience significant problems at the labour market. The overall conclusion is that labour market policies in Sweden addressing the consequences of ageing fail to include young adults and the policies do not address regional heterogeneity regarding e.g. ageing and youth unemployment.
Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla
This study examined whether an employee's age moderates the relationships between job stressors (i.e. job insecurity, workload, work-family conflict) and self-rated well-being (i.e. work-family enrichment, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, vigor at work). Analysis of covariance and moderated hierarchical regression analysis were used to examine the cross-sectional Finnish data collected among service sector employees (N = 1037), nurses (N = 1719), and academic employees (N = 945). In a situation of high job insecurity, the younger nurses reported higher work-family enrichment, job satisfaction, and vigor compared to their older colleagues. A similar result was also found among the service sector workers in relation to vigor at work. Thus, young age buffered against negative outcomes related to job insecurity. Moreover, older age buffered against the negative effect of high workload on job satisfaction among the service sector and against high work-family conflict on life satisfaction among the academic employees. More attention should be paid to the ability of younger employees to manage problems related to work-family imbalance and high workload, and to older employees' ability to cope with job insecurity. The findings of this study recommend different stress management interventions for older and younger employees.
Eloranta, Sini; Arve, Seija; Isoaho, Hannu; Lehtonen, Aapo; Viitanen, Matti
This study aimed to examine loneliness among two birth cohorts, born 20 years apart, when they were 70 years of age, and to identify factors explaining loneliness. The cohorts consisted of older home-dwelling residents of Turku, Finland, from the birth cohort 1920 in 1991 (N=1530) and the birth cohort 1940 in 2011 (N=1307). Suffering from loneliness was assessed with the question: 'Do you suffer from loneliness?' Cross-tabulations with chi-square test, general linear model (GLM) and multiple regression analysis were used in statistical testing and modeling. In the 1940 cohort, around one-fifth (18%) of the respondents suffered from loneliness at least sometimes, while the corresponding figure in the 1920 cohort was around one-fourth (26%). Our analyses indicated that the effect of cohort was not a statistically significant explanatory factor of loneliness. Living status, self-rated health and memory compared to age peers were statistically significant explanatory factors for suffering from loneliness. When we controlled the effect of depressiveness on the experience of loneliness, it was shown that the effects of living status and self-rated health remained statistically significant, whereas memory compared to age peers did not. Depressiveness itself was highly important. The combined effect of living status and self-rated health emerged as the most significant explanatory factor for loneliness. Older people with poor self-rated health who lived alone were most likely to suffer from loneliness. The findings give healthcare professionals an opportunity to plan for interventions aimed at combating loneliness among home-dwelling older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff
Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n=2682 in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n=952. Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18 age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.
Taanila, Anja; Yliherva, Anneli; Kaakinen, Marika; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna
To investigate the association between learning difficulties (LDs) and behavioural and emotional problems of 8-year-old children in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=9432). A cross-sectional study. Teachers assessed children's behaviour with a Rutter scale (RB2) and assessed their learning with questions about whether a child had difficulties in reading, spelling and mathematics. Of the children, 21.4% (n=1774) had 1 or more learning difficulties (LDs): 12.3% (n=1026) had a verbal LD, 3.0% (n=248) a mathematical LD and 6.0% (n=500) a combined LD. For boys with LDs, an adjusted odds ratio of having behavioural problems was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5-4.0) and emotional problems 3.0 (2.0-4.6), and for girls 3.9 (2.6-5.8) and 5.3 (3.6-8.1), respectively. In boys and girls, verbal difficulties were associated with behavioural and emotional problems whereas mathematical difficulties were associated with behavioural problems in boys and with emotional problems in girls. Divorced and reconstructed family types were significant risk factors for LDs and behavioural problems, whereas a lifelong one-parent family type was a risk factor for behavioural problems, but not for LDs. A child's younger age compared to that of classmates, a mother's and a father's low education level and a low family SES were risk factors for having LDs. More attention should be paid to children whose families are facing adverse circumstances, especially as it affects their preschool education, in order to support their learning and school attendance.
The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...
Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…
Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Dan
To estimate the proportion of U.S. youth that exhibits unrealistic fatalism about its future (not expecting to live past age 30), and to test predictions about risk factors for this expectation. Four waves of a nationally representative telephone survey from 2002 to 2005 with youth ages 14 to 22 (N = 4201) were analyzed using logistic regression to identify correlates and predictors of unrealistic fatalism. Approximately 1 out of every 15 youth interviewed (6.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.9%, 7.5%) responded that they agreed they would not live much past the age of 30. Compared to other youth, fatalists were significantly more likely to be older, male, to identify as Hispanic, and have completed the interview in Spanish. As predicted, recent experience of hopelessness was a strong predictor of fatalism. In addition, nonwhite youth who had experienced hopelessness reported increasing rates of fatalism as they aged. Fatalistic youth engaged in greater suicidal planning, had more accepting attitudes toward suicide, were less attached to religion, and were more impulsive than other youth. Approximately 43% of fatalists forecast a likely death by suicide, whereas the rest anticipated death by an outside source. Fatalists were also more likely not to stay in school. Because youth exhibiting fatalism are at risk for not staying in school and suicidal planning, they should be identified at an early age for referral to programs that are effective in treating youth with hopelessness and suicidal tendencies.
Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R
Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.
Yen, S; Frazier, E; Hower, H; Weinstock, L M; Topor, D R; Hunt, J; Goldstein, T R; Goldstein, B I; Gill, M K; Ryan, N D; Strober, M; Birmaher, B; Keller, M B
To determine the longitudinal impact of borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the course and outcome of bipolar disorder (BP) in a pediatric BP sample. Participants (N = 271) and parents from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study were administered structured clinical interviews and self-reports on average every 8.7 months over a mean of 93 months starting at age 13.0 ± 3.1 years. The structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders (SIDP-IV) was administered at the first follow-up after age 18 to assess for symptoms of BPD. BPD operationalized at the disorder, factor, and symptom level, was examined as a predictor of poor clinical course of BP using all years of follow-up data. The number of BPD symptoms was significantly associated with poor clinical course of BP, above and beyond BP characteristics. Affective dysregulation was most strongly associated with poor course at the factor level; the individual symptoms most strongly associated with poor course were dissociation/stress-related paranoid ideation, impulsivity, and affective instability. BPD severity adds significantly to the burden of BP illness and is significantly associated with a more chronic and severe course and outcome beyond what can be attributable to BP characteristics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goisis, Alice; Remes, Hanna; Barclay, Kieron; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko
Abstract Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (family models (children born to different mothers at different ages) with within-family models (children born to the same mother at different ages). The latter procedure reduces confounding by unobserved parental characteristics that are shared by siblings. We used Finnish population registers, including 124,098 children born during 1987–2000. When compared with maternal ages 25–29 years in between-family models, maternal ages of 35–39 years and ≥40 years were associated with percentage increases of 1.1 points (95% confidence intervals: 0.8, 1.4) and 2.2 points (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 2.9), respectively, in the probability of low birth weight. The associations are similar for the risk of preterm delivery. In within-family models, the relationship between advanced maternal age and low birth weight or preterm birth is statistically and substantively negligible. In Finland, advanced maternal age is not independently associated with the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery among mothers who have had at least 2 live births. PMID:29206985
Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa
It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.
Varje, Pekka; Kokkinen, Lauri; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Väänänen, Ari
To determine whether transitions in the hospitalization structure of different occupational groups have followed similar trends. Secular trends for all-cause hospitalization and five main diagnostic categories among six occupational groups were examined between 1976 and 2010 in Finland. The register-based study consisted of a 5-year follow-up of 1,126,499 Finnish working-aged residents in seven consecutive cohorts. Altogether 451,737 hospitalizations were investigated in 1976 to 2010. The risks of all-cause hospitalization, mental disorders, and respiratory illnesses remained relatively stable, whereas that of musculoskeletal disorders increased (between 31% and 90%) and that of cardiovascular diseases decreased (between 41% and 62%) in all occupational groups. The highest variation was found for cancer. A common health transition pattern seems to have occurred in the occupational groups studied. Nevertheless, the health disparities between the groups were sustained.
Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine
This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…
Early sexual debut increases young peoples' risk for infection with HIV and other STIs. Youth who begin early sexual activity are more likely to have high-risk sex ... Age at Sexual initiation and its determinants among youths in north east Ethiopia 155. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2009;23(2) active females carry the greatest risk of ...
Poorman, Myken D.; Webster, Nicole
Not all 16 year olds can buy hybrid cars to help save gas emissions, but they can learn new, easy ways to save energy. Youth are more likely to develop a greater sense of positive impact on the environment if they learn easy and creative ways to use energy more efficiently at a young age. Through the use of practical applications, youth can begin…
Food Services Department, Babcock University. Ilishan–Remo, Nigeria email@example.com. Abstract. The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within. Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria.
Noel, Valerie A; Oulvey, Eugene; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R
Youth with developmental and psychiatric disabilities encounter significant vocational challenges, even when they receive supported employment services. We examined the barriers to employment for 280 transition-age youth with disabilities enrolled in supported employment in eight community rehabilitation centers. Employment team members identified each youth's top three barriers to employment using a 21-item checklist. Lack of work experience, transportation problems, and program engagement issues represented common barriers for both youth with developmental disabilities (53, 36, and 25%) and youth with psychiatric disabilities (20, 33, and 26%). Additional common barriers among youth with developmental disabilities included cognitive problems (32%) and lack of social skills (23%) and among youth with psychiatric disabilities included poor control of psychiatric symptoms (23%). Despite receiving evidence-based employment services, youth with disabilities encounter many barriers to employment. Awareness of typical barriers for transition-age youth, including those specific to different disability groups, may help employment programs anticipate challenges and develop strategies that avoid these barriers and their effects on employment opportunities.
Christopher M. Kalinyak
Full Text Available This article provides a concise overview of several programs that deliver services to transition-aged youth, ages 14–29. Included are family support, the Assisting Unaccompanied Children and Youth program, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration services, the wraparound approach, intensive home-based treatment, multisystemic therapy, foster care, independent living, mentoring, the Steps to Success program, the Jump on Board for Success program, the Options program, the Positive Action program, the Transition to Success model, and the Transition to Independence Program. Primary focus is placed upon the usefulness of each of the programs in facilitating successful outcomes for transition-aged youth.
Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra
This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at <32 gestational weeks) children at 24 months (controls: 125 Italian and 146 Finnish full-term children). The investigation also covered the effect of maternal education…
Hyvärinen, Marjukka; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Söderberg, Stefan; Eliasson, Mats; Stehouwer, Coen D A
We studied the age and gender difference between acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke risk and examined the extent to which such a difference may be explained by known risk factors. Data from Finnish and Swedish population-based cohorts including 9278 individuals were collaboratively analysed. Hazards ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease and stroke incidence were estimated using the Cox-proportional hazards model. The incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke was higher in all age groups in men than in women, and the gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. There was a 10-year lag in the development of coronary heart disease and stroke in women compared with men. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the incidence of coronary heart disease in men and women were 3.87 (2.49-6.02) and 1.71 (1.07-2.74) at age 50-59 years, and 7.22 (4.59-11.36) and 3.49 (2.18-5.57) at age 60-69 years compared with women aged 40-49 years. For ischaemic stroke, they were 2.64 (1.45-4.82) and 2.17 (1.18-3.97) at age 50-59 years, and 5.19 (2.81-9.58) and 4.89 (2.67-8.97) at age 60-69 years, respectively. Acute coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke events appeared approximately 10 years earlier in men than in women, and these rates remained higher in men than in women in all age groups. The gender difference was more marked for coronary heart disease than for ischaemic stroke. This may be taken into account when developing interventions and treatment strategies.
Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G
Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Schmidt, Eileen; Kiss, Susan Mide; Lokanc-Diluzio, Wendi
To create a mass media campaign that endeavours to a) denormalize tobacco use among youth aged 12-18, b) empower youth to stay tobacco product free, and c) increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use, while using positive messaging. Target age group was youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The mass media campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated within the city of Calgary. The mass media campaign consisted of posters for schools and other venues frequented by youth (e.g., community centres, libraries, fitness centres, restaurants, movie theatres), posters for transit (e.g., bus shelters, LRT shelters, back of bus) print advertisements, television/radio public service announcements, an interactive community website for youth, a media launch event, promotional items, and organizational efforts to cross-promote the campaign. The creative concept was based on intercept interviews, focus group testing, and other research conducted by the campaign's creative team and youth volunteers in order to identify the key elements of this campaign. A total of 149 students completed both a baseline and follow-up survey to evaluate the marketing activities of the campaign. A total of 27 youth participated in prototype testing to compare this positive-messaging campaign with negative-toned tobacco reduction campaigns. Six stakeholders/partners participated in stakeholder interviews to assess their thoughts and learnings regarding the campaign process. The evaluation respondents viewed the campaign positively and showed strong recall of the messaging.
Hollings, Stephen C; Hume, Patria A; Hopkins, Will G
The relative-age effect refers to a higher frequency of athletes with birthdates earlier in the competitive year. Track and field athletics has a 2-year competitive cycle at youth and junior levels that could make it particularly susceptible to the effect. We have therefore investigated the effect in athletics event finalists (first to eighth place) at the 2008 Junior Championships (men and women aged ≤ 19 years; n=1479) and the 2009 Youth Championships (boys and girls aged 16-17 years; n=1445). Counts of finalists differing in age by 1 year were estimated with Poisson regression and compared as factor effects (with ×/÷ 90% confidence limits and assessment of magnitude). The factor effects were: junior men 2.1 (×/÷ 1.4, large); junior women 1.7 (×/÷ 1.4, moderate); youth boys 3.7 (×/÷ 1.4, very large); youth girls 2.1 (×/÷ 1.3, large). Analysis by event group indicated the age effect was greatest in youth boys' sprints & hurdles (4.0, ×/÷ 1.7, very large), throws (7.2, ×/÷ 2.3, very large) and jumps (5.6, ×/÷ 1.9, very large), whereas it was smallest in junior men's throws (1.4, ×/÷ 1.4, small) and youth girls' jumps (1.4, ×/÷ 1.4, small). In conclusion, the marked relative-age effects in athletics must exclude some talented younger athletes from youth and junior championships and presumably discourage them from continuing to senior championships. The consequences are a lower overall standard of performance and, for some athletes, termination of involvement in athletics before realising their full potential. An alternative structure and calendar is needed to make youth and junior athletics championships more equitable.
Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Sharon
Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Furthermore, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socioemotional, health, and substance use problems. Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dresang, Eliza T.; Kotrla, Bowie
While it was perfectly clear to almost everyone during the 1990s that technology was changing, almost no one acknowledged the concomitant change in a sizeable and growing cadre of handheld books for youth. Some of those who did notice expressed puzzlement and regret at the break from a more traditional form and format; others expressed curiosity.…
Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.
The association of more crime with youthful age is widely accepted in social science. However, a literature search revealed no studies of the age-crime relationship that controlled for young ages' economic disadvantage. This research gap is addressed using the California Criminal Justice Statistics Center's arrest detail and Census poverty…
Herrick, Kirsten A; Fakhouri, Tala Hi; Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey, 2012. Nearly all (98.5%) youth aged 12-15 reported watching TV daily. More than 9 in 10 (91.1%) youth aged 12-15 reported using the computer daily outside of school. In 2012, 27.0% of youth aged 12-15 had 2 hours or less of TV plus computer use daily. Among youth aged 12-15, girls (80.4%) were more likely to use the computer 2 hours or less daily when compared with boys (69.4%). Fewer non-Hispanic black youth aged 12-15 (53.4%) reported watching 2 hours or less of TV daily than non-Hispanic white (65.8%) and Hispanic (68.7%) youth. Excessive screen-time behaviors, such as using a computer and watching TV, for more than 2 hours daily have been linked with elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, and being overweight or obese among youth (1-3). Additionally, screen-time behavior established in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood (4). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-supported Expert Panel and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend that children limit leisure screen time to 2 hours or less daily (5,6). This report presents national estimates of TV watching and computer use outside of the school day. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.
Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Cobley, Stephen; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph; Kurz, Dietrich
Relative age describes a youth's age within their age group cohort. Compared to relatively younger peers, relatively older youth in an annual age group cohort have been found more likely to be selected to sports teams, and to receive higher grades in education. This study examined the influence of youth sport participants' relative age on participation and dropout. Using data from the 1995 German Youth Sport Survey (N total=2612), comparisons (stratified by gender and sport type) were made between the relative age of current and former participants. Analyses also considered the type of school youths were enrolled in while exploring the influence of relative age on sport participations. No relative age effects for dropout emerged among males in team or individual sport contexts. Female dropouts were more likely to be relatively older (Q1, OR adjusted: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34-0.80; Q2, OR adjusted: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.84; Q3, OR adjusted: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39-0.89), an effect that was mirrored among 'artistic' sport participants. Boys and girls in schools that were for children of higher academic proficiency were more likely to be currently participating in sport. Findings suggest that relative age-related dropout effects may be context sensitive and different for males and females. For the most part, relative age did not appear to have any relationship with dropout in this sample, with some notable exceptions for females. Overall, factors such as the type of school youths were enrolled in appear to be a more salient influence on sport participation than relative age.
Dec 1, 2011 ... Politics and Conflict in Africa4 offers readings on youth involvement in ... youth from a religious perspective seems primarily to be focused on education .... Conflict. An anthropological definition of war offered in No Peace, No War: An An- thropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts28 is: 'All war is long-term ...
Patricia C. Valery
Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire” were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food” at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40, though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P<0.001. Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35 more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.
In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…
Zhou, Li; Smith, Derrick W.; Parker, Amy T.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora
Introduction: The study reported here explored the relationship between the self-perceived computer competence and employment outcomes of transition-aged youths with visual impairments. Methods: Data on 200 in-school youths and 190 out-of-school youths with a primary disability of visual impairment were retrieved from the database of the first…
Lau Joseph TF
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.
Background: For behavioral as well as physiological reasons, early sexual debut increases young peoples' risk for infection with HIV and other STIs. ... of the study was to determine the median age at first sexual intercourse and the associated factors of sexual initiation among rural and urban youths (age 15- 24 years).
Kaasalainen, Karoliina; Kasila, Kirsti; Komulainen, Jyrki; Malvela, Miia; Poskiparta, Marita
Insufficient physical activity (PA) and poor physical fitness are risks for several noncommunicable diseases among working-aged men. PA programs have been launched to increase activity levels in the population but working-aged men have been underrepresented in these programs. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate validity of a short scale for psychosocial factors among Finnish working-aged men who participated in a PA campaign. The study examined also the associations between psychosocial factors and phase of PA change across fitness groups. Physical fitness was assessed with a body fitness index constructed on the basis of a handgrip test, the Polar OwnIndex Test, and body composition analysis (InBody 720). The men were classified into low ( n = 162), moderate ( n = 358), and high ( n = 320) body fitness index groups. Psychosocial factors and self-reported phase of PA change were assessed with a questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed with confirmatory factor analysis and differences between phases of PA change were examined with one-way analysis of variance. The evaluated scale included factors for self-efficacy, goal setting, skills, and social support. Good physical fitness was related to better perceived self-efficacy and ability to manage one's PA environment. Goal setting was critical for PA change at all fitness levels. Better understanding of the interactions between psychosocial factors and PA change could help in targeting PA programs to low-fit men. Further study should examine the validity of the improved psychosocial measure.
Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570
Staats, Sara; And Others
Self-reports of 250 persons over age 50 confirmed increasing bias toward reporting more youthful age as one ages. Optimistic perceptions of health were maintained in older subjects. Results from two subsets of sample (n=48) indicated that youthful and optimistic bias occurred both in older persons with poorer/failing health and in persons in…
Pfeiffer, Karin A; Watson, Kathleen B; McMurray, Robert G; Bassett, David R; Butte, Nancy F; Crouter, Scott E; Herrmann, Stephen D; Trost, Stewart G; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Fulton, Janet E; Berrigan, David
This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using 2 methods of accounting for age dependency versus 1 standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from 5 studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n = 929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as youth metabolic equivalent) associated with using age groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 y) and age-in-years [each year of chronological age (eg, 12 = 12.0-12.99 y)] versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other 2 methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 youth metabolic equivalent across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2% to 21.7% for age groups and -0.23% to 18.2% for age-in-years compared with the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.
DeJonckheere, Melissa; Nichols, Lauren P; Moniz, Michelle H; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Zhao, Xinyan; Guetterman, Timothy C; Chang, Tammy
There has been little progress in adolescent health outcomes in recent decades. Researchers and youth-serving organizations struggle to accurately elicit youth voice and translate youth perspectives into health care policy. Our aim is to describe the protocol of the MyVoice Project, a longitudinal mixed methods study designed to engage youth, particularly those not typically included in research. Text messaging surveys are collected, analyzed, and disseminated in real time to leverage youth perspectives to impact policy. Youth aged 14 to 24 years are recruited to receive weekly text message surveys on a variety of policy and health topics. The research team, including academic researchers, methodologists, and youth, develop questions through an iterative writing and piloting process. Question topics are elicited from community organizations, researchers, and policy makers to inform salient policies. A youth-centered interactive platform has been developed that automatically sends confidential weekly surveys and incentives to participants. Parental consent is not required because the survey is of minimal risk to participants. Recruitment occurs online (eg, Facebook, Instagram, university health research website) and in person at community events. Weekly surveys collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data are analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data are quickly analyzed using natural language processing and traditional qualitative methods. Mixed methods integration and analysis supports a more in-depth understanding of the research questions. We are currently recruiting and enrolling participants through in-person and online strategies. Question development, weekly data collection, data analysis, and dissemination are in progress. MyVoice quickly ascertains the thoughts and opinions of youth in real time using a widespread, readily available technology-text messaging. Results are disseminated to researchers, policy makers, and
Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto
This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…
Tan, Gui-ping; Lu, Shi-ying; Huang, Min-fang
To Investigate the changes of Bolton index, maxillary and mandibular teeth size and teeth size discrepancy (TSD) in the youth and middle- aged and elderly people. One hundred ninety-one youth dental plaster casts from malocclusion patients and 63 middle-aged and elderly people with snoring or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients were selected. 12 teeth size between the upper and lower first molar, width of maxillary lateral incisor, Bolton anterior and overall ratios and teeth size discrepancy were measured and calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in Bolton anterior and overall ratios (Pelderly people(Pelderly people was smaller.The prevalence of anterior and overall TSD in the youth was 31.4% and 42.4%,while it was 19.05% and 15.9% in the middle-aged and elderly group. There was significant difference(Pelderly group. Prevalence of laminal width of upper lateral incisor in patients with teeth size discrepancy was low. Bolton index does not change by age. Although the teeth size in middle-aged and elderly group are smaller than the youth group, the total reduction is little without clinical significance. The laminal width of upper lateral incisor isn't the main cause for anterior or overall dental size discrepancy. Supported by Research Fund from Department of Public Health of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GWZ2013405 and GWZ2007149).
Full Text Available Background: Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective: To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design: We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213 and boys (n=217 aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results: Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake, vitamin D (32%, potassium (20%, calcium (39%, magnesium (17%, and zinc (16%. Vegetable oils (15% and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14% were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27% and iron (12%. Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14% and vitamin C (22%. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion: Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education
Full Text Available The study material of age differentiation of craniometric parameters according to ephippium center has included 78 lateral head teleroentgenograms of children and youths with neutral occlusion. Craniometric parameters become lower in children aged 13-16 and raise in youth period. It is connected with alteration of main cranicand kephalometric planes towards outer base plane.
Donald T. Kirkendall
Conclusion: Selecting players based on physical maturity (and subsequently, on age does not appear to have any systematic influence on match outcome or season record in youth soccer suggesting that the selection process should be focused on player ability and not on physical maturation.
Schweinhart, Lawrence J.; And Others
Results, to age 19, of a study of 123 Black youths from families of low socioeconomic status, indicate lasting beneficial effects of preschool education in improving scholastic placement and achievement; decreasing delinquency and crime, welfare assistance use, and incidence of teenage pregnancy; and in increasing rates of high school graduation,…
Snyder, Richard G.; And Others
A total of 87 traditional and functional body measurements were taken on a sample of 4,127 infants, children, and youths representing the U.S. population aged two weeks through 18 years. Measurements were taken throughout the United States by two teams of anthropometrists using an automated anthropometric data acquisition system. Standard…
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle
Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…
McDonnall, Michele Capella
A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…
Youth are coming of age in a digital era and learning and exercising citizenship in fundamentally different ways compared to previous generations. Around the globe, a monumental generational rupture is taking place that is being facilitated--not driven in some inevitable and teleological process--by new media and communication technologies. The…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
R. Mate (Rekopantswe)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This study is about subjectivities of young people and about coming of age in a frontier town, Beitbridge, in southern Zimbabwe. The study is motivated by the growing attention to African youth as a social-demographic group and a social phenomenon since the
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup. Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative.
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian
The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski
Bupe Bwalya Bwalya
Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 – 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia. Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youth’s age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia
Full Text Available Aging is a physiological process associated with structural and functional changes in vasculature, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and remodeling, impaired angiogenesis, and defective vascular repair, and with an increasing prevalence of atherosclerosis. The risk of cardiovascular disease differs between men and women, remaining lower in women during their fertile years and reaching values similar to their male peers after menopause. Menopause is marked by the loss of endogenous estrogen production. Therefore, estrogens have been implicated in premenopausal protection from cardiovascular disease, an assumption supported by experimental and some clinical studies, where estrogen induces protective effects in vascular endothelium. Indeed, estradiol promotes endothelial vasodilator synthesis, including NO production through increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and modulates prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 release; the thromboxane A2 pathway plays a key role in regulating vascular tone in females in both normal and in pathophysiologic states.Contrary to experimental results, some clinical trials found no cardiovascular benefit from estrogen replacement therapy in aged postmenopausal women. These discrepancies could be due to the Timing Hypothesis which suggests that estrogen-mediated vascular benefits may occur only before the detrimental effects of aging are established in the vasculature. Thus, there is still a gap in the knowledge, understanding, and general awareness of mechanisms for cardiovascular aging in women.In this review, we discuss clinical and experimental data on the effects of aging, estrogens and hormonal replacement therapy on vascular function of females to delve into how menopause and aging contribute jointly to vascular aging and how estrogen modulates the vascular responses at different ages.
Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.
Dellu-Hagedorn, F; Trunet, S; Simon, H
Impulsivity is a feature of psychiatric disorders such as mania, addictive behaviors or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which has recently been related to complaints of forgetfulness in adults. We investigated whether impulsiveness exerts a long-term influence on cognitive function in rats in a longitudinal study. Impulsivity, assessed by the ability to complete a sequence of presses to obtain food (conditioning box), spatial working memory (8-arm radial maze) assessed with varying degree of attentional load and recognition memory (Y-maze) were tested at different ages. Marked individual differences in impulsivity were observed at youth and remained stable at middle-age despite a general decline in the trait. Working memory scores of impulsive and non-impulsive rats did not differ in youth, whereas by middle-age the impulsive group had impaired working memory and was more sensitive to a higher attentional demand. Thus, impulsiveness in youth predicts cognitive performance in middle-age. These findings may help refine the search for early biological substrates of successful aging and for preventive follow-up of subjects at risk of impaired cognitive aging.
Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor
this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the yo...
In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can ...
Barbara C H Huijgen
Full Text Available Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9 and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2 performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span, inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task, cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test, and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test. "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.
Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.
Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073
Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341
Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Logan, Joseph E; Leemis, Ruth W
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 11 to 15, taking over 5,500 lives from 2003 to 2014. Suicide among this age group is linked to risk factors such as mental health problems, family history of suicidal behavior, biological factors, family problems, and peer victimization and bullying. However, few studies have examined the frequency with which such problems occur among youth suicide decedents or the context in which decedents experience these risk factors and the complex interplay of risk that results in a decedent's decision to take his/her own life. Data from a random sample of 482 youth (ages 11-15) suicide cases captured in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed. The sample had fewer girls than boys (31 vs. 69 %) and comprised primarily White youth (79 %), but also African Americans (13 %), Asians (4 %), and youth of other races (4 %). Narrative data from coroner/medical examiner and law enforcement investigative reports were coded and analyzed to identify common behavioral patterns that preceded suicide. Emergent themes were quantified and examined using content and constant comparative analysis. Themes regarding antecedents across multiple levels of the social ecology emerged. Relationship problems, particularly with parents, were the most common suicide antecedent. Also, a pattern demonstrating a consistent progression toward suicidal behavior emerged from the data. Narratives indicated that youth were commonly exposed to one or more problems, often resulting in feelings of loneliness and burdensomeness, which progressed toward thoughts and sometimes plans for or attempts at suicide. Continued exposure to negative experiences and thoughts/plans about suicide, and/or self-injurious acts resulted in an acquired capacity to self-harm, eventually leading to suicide. These findings provide support for theories of suicidal behavior and highlight the importance of multi-level, comprehensive
Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…
Kelly, Stacy M.; Wolffe, Karen E.
Introduction: Youths and adults without disabilities have been increasing the regularity of their online connectivity at a rapid pace, as previous research has indicated. The study presented here examined the degree to which transition-aged youths with visual impairments have used the Internet and what outcomes they have achieved following their…
Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.
Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…
Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Comparative studies of aging men in a variety of preliterate traditional societies suggest that older men, across cultures, are relatively mild and uncompetitive, as compared to younger men from the same communities. Older men are more interested in receiving than in producing, more interested in communion than in agency; their sense of pleasure and security is based on food, religion, and the assurance of love. The counterculture gives priority to the same themes, and thereby seems to sponsor a premature senescence, in the psychological sense. Various contemporary myths stemming from affluence and consumerism that have led to the new geriatrics are examined, particularly the myth of the all-including, omnipotential self, which is seen as a translation of socialist, collectivist ideals into the domain of personality. The effects of the new psychic collectivism on ego development in the adolescent and postadolescent periods are also considered.
Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J
comparatively lower average vigorous-intensity activity at 5.0-5.9 y. Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...
Saperstein, Alice M; Lee, Seonjoo; Ronan, Elizabeth J; Seeman, Rachael S; Medalia, Alice
There is increasing recognition of the cognitive consequences of socioeconomic adversity during childhood, which can impair learning and negatively affect social and emotional development. However, there is a paucity of research on cognitive functioning and mental health among transition-age homeless youth. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap by examining the prevalence and functional significance of cognitive impairment and mental health disorders in a sample of 18- to 22-year-old homeless youth. Participants (N = 73) were recruited from a vocational support program at Covenant House New York, a care agency for homeless youth. Assessments included diagnostic assessment for mental health disorders and evaluation of neurocognition and vocational outcomes. Youth demonstrated histories of academic instability, academic achievement below expectation, and high rates of untreated psychiatric disorders, the most prominent of which were anxiety, substance use, and mood disorders. Of those who had a mental health diagnosis, more than half demonstrated cognitive deficits. Performance on measures of working memory and verbal memory was academic, vocational, and independent living success in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Monireh Nobahar Ahari
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current study was to compare the effect of aging on balance in different sensory conditions. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study we compared 20 healthy youth (with age 22.75±2.29 and 20 healthy older adults (with age 65.1±4.16 in single leg standing in different sensory conditions. Sensory conditions were open eye/ hard surface (OEHS, closed eye/ hard surface (CEHS, closed eye/ foam surface (CEFS as balance tasks. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and Independent Sample t-test were used. Results: findings showed significant difference between youth and older adults in all three sensory conditions. In addition, in each group, there was significant difference between OEHS and CEHS/ CEFS. Hence, significant difference was seen between CEHS and CEFS in each group. Conclusion: based of our findings sensory information is more critical for balance in elderly than youth. In addition, standing on One-Leg can be used as a proper test for evaluation of older adults.
Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor
Full Text Available this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the youth in Africa and may not suffice in championing policy course for a secured African youth. [Un]employment are only symptoms of asymmetrical laws governing many African states. The principal problems are the constitution, and age limitations respectively (Ombagi 2012. In this guide, the instrument valid for testing and indeed, observing the true condition of young Africans are: the roles of state’s constitution; and the Age Grade limitation factors. These, are critical in the development and security of the youth. George McGovern cited in Jeanette Rankin (2012 noted that he [was] fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young people to die. Two salient factors, rudimentary to youth insecurity in the region in McGovern’s assertions are the law which authorises war and the age grade legally targeted in the war. In assortment of ways, constitutions provide the basis for definition, qualification and categorisation of the youth, who in turn are the direct sufferers of numerous human and state insecurity conditions forced on them by law. Constitution, therefore, plays exclusivist roles and enables the central authority to enforce rules on, and dictate norms for the youth. Despite the need for the state to adjust its behavior to reflect the actual or anticipated preferences of all citizens through a process of policy coordination, laws deprive the youth.
Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa
Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
Bukstein, Oscar G
Transitional age youth (TAY), developing from adolescence to adulthood, exhibit the highest level of alcohol and other drug use of any other age group. Risk factors mirror those for the development of problems and disorders in adolescents. Early screening of both college students and noncollege high-risk TAY in the community is critical to early and effective intervention. Brief interventions using motivational techniques are effective for many TAY, particularly for those in early stages of problem use on college campuses. Professionals in contact with TAY should be aware of evidence-based interventions and providers for substance use disorders in the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
Rodney, Laxley W; Johnson, Dana L; Srivastava, Rameshwar P
The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this three-year study, 1999-2002, was to determine the effectiveness of the FCVP Program's six-component curriculum in reducing violence among participants. Results from posttest scores of 2,315 youth showed girls 12 and over to be most at risk for deviant behaviors; the program was most effective with boys under age 12. Academic performance and bonding to school were protective factors whereas exposure to violence was a risk factor for all four ethnic groups studied--African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Cultural anthropologists, public health specialists, and school officials should know that prevention programs can be designed to reflect the unique, culturally appropriate norms of specific ethnic minority groups, even as these programs address shared risk factors. The authors discuss the promising strategy of enhancing academic performance and school bonding to serve as protective factors against school violence, but they also describe age, gender, and cultural differences that must be addressed in future research.
R. Mate (Rekopantswe)
textabstractDebates about the effects of the 'cultural nationalism' that has accompanied the so-called 'Third Chimurenga' in Zimbabwe since 2000, often portray youth as pawns of officials - for example, as national youth service trainees or as government sponsored artists - rather than as among the
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R
Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.
José Joaquín Costa
Full Text Available In the initial training in computer science in the university we come across a great diversity of experiences and skills of ours students.To understand the evolution of computer use in the course of 10 to 19 years of Portuguese youth, we have prepared a questionnaire on:- Use the computer, context, type of equipment;- Internet access, activities, time, context;- Chat programs, social networking and blogs;- Monitoring of use by parents, modalities;- IT training.From a sample of 390 young Portuguese data were processed to enable comparisons depending on the age groups 10-12, 13-15 and 16-19 years. The information collected will outline an evolutionary framework of skills of young and allow us to have a rough idea of the use of IT from youth when they enter university.
The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.
Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0
Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J; Roelofsma, Peter H M P
To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the attractiveness of games for children younger than the age rating. Participants were 310 Dutch youth. The design was a 3 (age group: 7-8, 12-13, and 16-17 years) x 2 (participant gender) x 7 (label: 7+, 12+, 16+, 18+, violence, no violence, or no label control) x 2 (game description: violent or nonviolent) mixed factorial. The first 2 factors were between subjects, whereas the last 2 factors were within subjects. Three personality traits (ie, reactance, trait aggressiveness, and sensation seeking) were also included in the analyses. Participants read fictitious video game descriptions and rated how much they wanted to play each game. Results revealed that restrictive age labels and violent-content labels increased the attractiveness of video games for all of the age groups (even 7- to 8-year-olds and girls). Although the Pan European Game Information system was developed to protect youth from objectionable content, this system actually makes such games forbidden fruits. Pediatricians should be aware of this forbidden-fruit effect, because video games with objectionable content can have harmful effects on children and adolescents.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006
This report compares young adult admissions to admissions of youths aged 12 to 17, who accounted for 8 percent of Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) admissions in 2004. The report further breaks down the young adult admissions into two subgroups: those aged 18 to 21 (9 percent of all admissions); and those aged 22 to 25 (12 percent of all…
Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the stro...
Schmidt, Jessica; Cunningham, Miranda; Dalton, Lawrence D; Powers, Laurie E; Geenen, Sarah; Orozco, Claudia Guadalupe
The aim of the study was to examine the experience of restrictiveness among transition-aged youth with disabilities in foster care. Utilizing a sample of 207 youth, placement types were explored for differences in disability status, race and sex. Further, youth perceptions of restriction around communication, movement around one's home, and access to the community were examined for youth receiving special education services (SPED), youth receiving developmental disability services (DD), and youth without disabilities. Youth with disabilities were more likely to be placed in more restrictive placement types and had significantly higher levels of perceived restriction around communication, movement, and community when compared to youth without disabilities. Additionally, males with disabilities experienced higher levels of restrictiveness, particularly those who received DD services, while White youth with disabilities also experienced greater community restrictiveness.
Warkentin, T; Borghese, M M; Janssen, I
Weight-related teasing (WT) is associated with poor mental health. This study examined whether weight status moderates the relationship between WT and psychosomatic symptoms within a representative sample of school-aged youth. Data are from the Canadian 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, a nationally representative sample of youth in Grades 6-10. WT, psychosomatic symptoms and body mass index (BMI) were self-reported. The final sample consisted of 20,277 youth (mean age = 14.2 years; 50.2% female). The prevalence who reported being WT at least once a week was 4.6%, 8.1% and 17.3% among youth with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively ( p psychosomatic symptoms ( p psychosomatic symptom z -scores were significantly ( p psychosomatic symptoms independent of BMI category; however, BMI category did not moderate the association between WT and psychosomatic symptoms.
Nivala, Sirkka; Sarvimäki, Anneli
In many countries veterans from World War II are growing old. Research has shown that war experiences continue to impact those who have been involved in war for a long time. The present study targets old injured war veterans from World War II in Finland. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge of the impact of war experiences and injuries on the lifespan of Finnish war veterans. The method used was grounded theory. Data were collected by interviewing 20 aged war veterans in their homes. The analysis resulted in four categories, with also subcategories: (1) lost childhood and youth; (2) war traumas impacting life; (3) starting life from scratch; and (4) finding one's own place. A substantive theory of war veterans' lifelong struggle for freedom throughout the lifespan was outlined. The war overshadowed the whole lifespan of the veterans, but in old age they finally felt free. Since war experiences vary depending on historical context, a formal theory would require additional research.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional baseline data on Irish adolescent youth, specifically the prevalence of movement skills and patterns, in order to generate an overall perspective of movement within the first three years (Junior Certificate level of post-primary education. (2 Methods: Data were collected on adolescents (N = 181; mean age: 14.42 ± 0.98 years, attending two, mixed-gender schools. Data collection included 10 fundamental movement skills (FMS and the seven tests within the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™. The data set was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. (3 Results: Overall, levels of actual mastery within fundamental and functional movement were low. There were statistically significant age-related differences observed, with a progressive decline as age increased in both the object control (p = 0.002 FMS sub-domain, and the in-line lunge (p = 0.048 test of the FMS™. (4 Conclusion: In summary, we found emerging evidence that school year group is significantly associated with mastery of movement skills and patterns. Results from the current study suggest that developing a specifically tailored movement-oriented intervention would be a strategic step towards improving the low levels of adolescent fundamental and functional movement proficiency.
Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K
To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The public Finnish social and health care system has been challenged by the economic crisis, administrative reforms and increased demands. Better integration as a solution includes many examples, which have been taken to use. The most important are the rewritten national and municipals strategies and quality recommendations, where the different sectors and the levels of care are seen as one entity. Many reorganisations have taken place, both nationally and locally, and welfare clusters have been established. The best examples of integrated care are the forms of teamwork, care management, emphasis on non-institutional care and the information technology.
Patravali, P; Gaonkar, V
Professors conducted a survey of 160 18-24 year old students attending 4 colleges of Dharwad city of Karnataka in India to examine their opinion concerning ideal marriage age and age difference between spouses. Females tended to prefer a higher marriage age for males than did males (26.5 vs. 25.5), but the difference was not significant. Rural males believed the ideal marriage age for females be 20 years whereas rural females believed it to be 22 years (p .05). Urban females also believed it to be 22 years and urban males reported 21 years. Most students (57.5%), especially 18-19 year olds (77.5%) and females (61.77% vs. 56.36% for males), said the ideal age difference between spouses was under 5 years. Students who were at least 24 years old tended to state 5-10 (60%). Males also preferred this age difference (42.06% vs. 38.23% for females). 2 20-23 year old male students believed the ideal age difference to be more than 10 years. Students' age was significantly associated with their opinion on the ideal age difference between spouses (p .05). Students from extended families and rural areas tended to prefer a 5-10 year age difference between the spouses with a few mentioning more than 10 years whereas students from nuclear families and urban areas preferred under 5 years with no one mentioning more than 10 years (p .05). These results indicated that both males and females prefer to marry after they have completed their education. The advantages of schooling including improved thinking and decision-making abilities allow them to wisely allocate family resources and decide upon an ideal family size.
Coe, Dawn P; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C; Peddie, Heather
This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the assessments. Fitness was assessed using FITNESSGRAM (aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition). Results were used to determine individual fitness scores. Academic achievement was measured by standardized tests for Math (all grades), English (all grades), and Social Studies (sixth and ninth grades only). The SES was determined using eligibility for free and reduced lunch program. There were no significant differences between fitness groups for Math and English in third-grade students. Sixth- and ninth-grade students with high fitness scored significantly better on Math and Social Studies tests compared with less fit students. Lower SES students scored significantly worse on all tests. Muscular strength and muscular endurance were significantly associated with academic achievement in all grades. Compared with all other variables, SES appears to have the strongest association with academic achievement. However, it also appears that high fitness levels are positively associated with academic achievement in school-aged youth. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying
Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Must, Aviva; Eliasziw, Misha; Phillips, Sarah M; Curtin, Carol; Kral, Tanja V E; Segal, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E; Sikich, Linmarie; Stanish, Heidi I; Bandini, Linda G
We sought to assess the association between age and the prevalence of obesity among children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Analyses were restricted to 43,777 children, ages 10-17, with valid measures of parent-reported weight, height, and ASD status. Exploratory analyses describe the impact of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income on the relationship between age and obesity in ASD. Although the overall prevalence of obesity among children with ASD was significantly (p obesity among children with ASD compared with children without ASD increased monotonically from ages 10 to 17 years. This pattern arose due to a consistently high prevalence of obesity among children with ASD and a decline in prevalence with advancing age among children without ASD. These findings were replicated using a propensity score analysis. Exploratory analyses suggested that the age-related change in obesity disparity between children with and without ASD may be further modified by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. The patterns of prevalence observed with increasing age among children with and without ASD were unexpected. A better understanding of the etiological and maintenance factors for obesity in youth with ASD is needed to develop interventions tailored to the specific needs of these children.
Araujo, Katy B.; Medic, Sanja; Yasnovsky, Jessica; Steiner, Hans
This study used the Response Evaluation Measure-Youth (REM-Y-71), a self-report measure of 21 defense reactions, among school-age children. Participants were elementary and middle school students (n=290; grades 3-8; age range: 8-15; mean=11.73). Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor defense structure consistent with structure among high school and…
Manos, M J; Short, E J; Findling, R L
To compare the effectiveness of a single dose of Adderall (q.d.) with that of 2 daily doses of methylphenidate (b.i.d.; MPH) as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in youths ranging in age from 5 to 17 years. Forty-two youths treated with MPH were compared with 42 youths treated with Adderall. Subjects were matched for age, sex, and DSM-IV diagnostic subtype. Youths were assigned to the Adderall or MPH condition by their prescribing physician. All youths were evaluated under 5 conditions, including baseline, placebo, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg. The best dose was assigned prior to breaking the medication blind and was assigned by the consensus of the psychologist and psychiatrist. Subjective ratings by both teachers and parents were examined for dosage level effects and medication type effects. Best dose was always superior to baseline and placebo conditions. No differences between MPH and Adderall were observed on either teacher or parent ratings of behavior. Both MPH and Adderall have been shown to be effective treatments for children with ADHD. Both medications appear to improve teachers' and parents' ratings of behavior. Single-dose treatments of Adderall appear to be as effective as 2 daily doses of MPH and therefore increase the possibility of managing treatment without involving the school in medication administration. In addition, youths who have previously been unsuccessfully treated with MPH because of adverse side effects or poor response may be successfully treated with Adderall.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric and fitness skills in youth soccer players according to their related age. The existence of relative age effect was also examined. Anthropometric as well fitness variables such as height, weight, BMI, body mass, flexibility, balance, reaction time, jumping ability, and endurance of the lower limb were assessed in 347 amateur young players. Participants’ age ranged from 9 to 16 (M= 12.43, SD= 2.17. Analyses of variance indicated many significant differences among players of different birth quartile (from P< .001 to P< .05 for all the skills that were examined. The chi square test that was conducted to assess the distribution of players, showed that for all four different age groups no statistically significant difference was found regarding the birth quartile of players. In countries that training groups include 2 different age categories, anthropometric and fitness differences because of relative age effect are heightened. However, physical and physiological variables are inaccurate in predicting later success of players. Thus talent identification systems should provide equal opportunities for talented but related younger players. It is suggested an on-going talent identification using a multidimensional evaluation form including technical, physiological, physical, tactical, and psychological parameters.
Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Olek, Lauren; Schatz, Philip
Little is known regarding gender differences in concussion symptom reporting developmentally across the age span, specifically in pre-adolescent athletes. The present study asks: Do boys and girls differ in symptom reporting across the pre-adolescent to post-adolescent age span? This retrospective study utilized baseline assessments from 11,695 10-22 year-old athletes assigned to 3 independent groups: Pre-adolescent 10-12 year olds (n = 1,367; 12%), Adolescent 13-17 year olds (n = 2,974; 25%), and Late Adolescent 18-22 year olds (n = 7,354; 63%). Males represented 60% of the sample. Baseline ImPACT composite scores and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale scores (Total, Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Sleep) were analyzed for the effects of age and gender. Statistically significant main effects were found for age and gender on all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Significant interaction effects were noted between age and gender for all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Total Symptoms and all Symptom factors were highest in adolescents (ages 13-17) for males and females. In the 10-12 age group, females displayed lower Total Symptoms, Physical, and Sleep factors than males. The notion of females being more likely than males to report symptoms does not appear to apply across the developmental age span, particularly prior to adolescence. Females show greater emotional endorsement across the youth age span (10-22 years). Adolescence (13-17 years) appears to be a time of increased symptomatology that may lessen after the age of 18. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...
Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace
Prior studies concerning patterns of intermarriage among immigrants have primarily focused on how factors such as race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and country of origin shape the choice of a spouse. Moreover, they have focused on intermarriage patterns among immigrants who are already in the US. Using the 2010-2014 American Community Survey (ACS), we focus on immigrants who were not US citizens at the time of their marriage and highlight patterns of status exchange, specifically, the exchange of youth for citizenship. Towards this end, we compare the age gap between spouses across four different groups of respondents: 1) non-citizens married to a citizen before or upon arrival to the US; 2) non-citizens married to a citizen after arrival to the US; 3) non-citizens married to a non-citizen before or upon arrival to the US; and 4) non-citizens married to a non-citizen after arrival in the US. We document the fact that a large fraction of marriages between citizens and non-citizens occurred before or upon arrival to the US. We also provide evidence that immigrants who migrate to the US after marrying a US citizen, particularly women, tend to be partnered with much older spouses, signaling an exchange of youth for citizenship.
Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with
Sherman, Susan G; Srirojn, Bangorn; Patel, Shivani A; Galai, Noya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Limaye, Rupali J; Manowanna, Sutassa; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, A
Methamphetamine and alcohol are the leading substances abused by Thai youth. In 2008 the government passed laws that limited alcohol availability and increased the legal drinking age from 18 to 20. We assessed whether the law reduced drinking among methamphetamine-using 18-19 year olds in Chiang Mai. The study compares drinking patterns among methamphetamine smokers aged 18-19 years (n=136) collected prior to the legal changes, to a comparable post-law sample (n=142). Statistical tests for differences between the pre- and post-law samples on problem drinking and recent drinking frequency and drunkenness were conducted. Logistic regression modeled the relative odds of frequent drunkenness, controlling for demographic characteristics. A high prevalence of problematic drinking was present in both samples, with no difference detected. The post-law sample reported a significantly higher median days drunk/month (9 vs. 4, p≤0.01); in adjusted analysis, frequent drunkenness (>5.5 days/month) was more common in the post-law compared to pre-law period in the presence of other variables (AOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3, 3.9). Post-law participants demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the law's components. The study suggests that the new laws did not reduce drinking among high-risk, methamphetamine-smoking 18-19 year olds; rather, the post-law period was associated with increased drinking levels. The data indicate that the law is not reaching high-risk under-aged youth who are at risk of a number of deleterious outcomes as a result of their substance use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Garcia, Antero; Mirra, Nicole; Morrell, Ernest; Martinez, Antonio; Scorza, D'Artagnan
This article explores the relationship between critical literacy practice, digital media production, and civic agency in the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research program in which Los Angeles high school students conduct research and create dynamic, multimedia presentations as leaders of a growing youth movement for…
Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.
... Family Unification Program vouchers in providing housing for youth aging out of foster care. A survey will be administered to all public housing agencies (PHA) that have an allotment of Family Unification... Out of Foster Care AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...
Shilo, Guy; Savaya, Riki
Drawing on minority stress theory, this study examined the mental health effects of the added burden of disadvantaged social status in an Israeli sample of 461 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Bisexuality was associated with lower levels of well-being, and, at a younger age, with higher levels of mental distress. In…
Kelley, Mireille E; Urban, Jillian E; Miller, Logan E; Jones, Derek A; Espeland, Mark A; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D
Approximately 5,000,000 athletes play organized football in the United States, and youth athletes constitute the largest proportion with ∼3,500,000 participants. Investigations of head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football have been limited in size and duration. The objective of this study was to evaluate HIE of athletes participating in three age- and weight-based levels of play within a single youth football organization over four seasons. Head impact data were collected using the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Mixed effects linear models were fitted, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and number of impacts among levels and session type (competitions vs. practices). The three levels studied were levels A (n = 39, age = 10.8 ± 0.7 years, weight = 97.5 ± 11.8 lb), B (n = 48, age = 11.9 ± 0.5 years, weight = 106.1 ± 13.8 lb), and C (n = 32, age = 13.0 ± 0.5 years, weight = 126.5 ± 18.6 lb). A total of 40,538 head impacts were measured. The median/95th percentile linear head acceleration for levels A, B, and C was 19.8/49.4g, 20.6/51.0g, and 22.0/57.9g, respectively. Level C had significantly greater mean linear acceleration than both levels A (p = 0.005) and B (p = 0.02). There were a significantly greater number of impacts per player in a competition than in a practice session for all levels (A, p = 0.0005, B, p = 0.0019, and C, p football and are an important step in making evidence-based decisions to reduce HIE.
Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian
Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.
Full Text Available W artykule omówiono generalny obraz digitalizacji w fińskim sektorze muzealnym. Przedstawiono szacunkowe liczby dotyczące digitalizacji dziedzictwa kulturowego na podstawie przeprowadzonych statystycznych badań, oraz zaprezentowano wiele projektów związanych z ucyfrowieniem fińskich muzeów.\tFiński sektor muzealny jest niezwykle zróżnicowany, podobnie jak stopień skatalogowania i zdigitalizowania kolekcji. W projektach rozwojowych aktywnie uczestniczy cały sektor muzealny. W ostatnich latach, dzięki wielu inicjatywom i badaniom udało się uzyskać szczegółowy obraz fińskiego sektora muzealnego. Największą inicjatywą jest projekt utworzenia Narodowej Biblioteki Cyfrowej, podlegający Ministerstwu Edukacji i Kultury. Celem projektu jest połączenie i udostępnienie zasobów z instytucji pamięci (bibliotek, archiwów i muzeów. Towarzyszą mu rozległe projekty digitalizacji.\tW związku z ogromną różnorodnością systemów do zarządzania kolekcją i praktykami katalogowymi w muzeach, w 2011 r. Państwowy Urząd Muzealny (Museovirasto / National Board of Antiquities, Fiński Związek Muzeów (Suomen museoliitto / Finnish Museums Association i Państwowa Galeria Sztuki (Valtion taidemuseo / Finnish National Gallery zainicjowały projekt Muzeum2015 (Museo2015 / Museum2015. Jego głównymi celami są: unifikacja procesów związanych z zarządzaniem kolekcją, stworzenie architektury korporacyjnej dla zarządzania muzealną kolekcją, stworzenie modelu zarządzania dla architektury korporacyjnej, oraz określenie i stworzenie warunków do zakupu i implementacji ogólnofińskiego systemu zarządzania kolekcją.\tRozwój cyfrowych narzędzi dla najmniejszych, prowadzonych przez wolontariuszy, muzeów lokalnych jest jednym z celów projektu badawczego ViMuseo, prowadzonego na Uniwersytecie w Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopisto / University of Jyväskylä.
Full Text Available This paper uses a post-structuralist perspective to articulate the conceptual limits of the discourse of 'coming of age' as a means of examining concerns about the representation of young female sexuality in the media. Through analysis of the content and production contexts of the films Lolita (1997 and Thirteen (2003, it argues that the discourse of 'coming of age' is grounded in a contradictory logic that produces conflicting aims: a desire to preserve the innocence of youth and a simultaneous expectation that they 'grow up'. Using techniques of Derridean deconstruction, the paper examines the effects that this logic produces in terms of how key aspects of 'coming of age' contradict what the discourse sets out to determine and how this contributes to perceptions of youth sexuality as problematic. It will be shown that these conceptual contradictions remain unseen in attempts to make sense of the controversial aspects of the two films: the issue of pedophilia in Lolita and the problem of teenage rebellion in Thirteen. Importantly, the deconstructive reading suggests that it is the paradoxical underpinnings of this approach to youth identity that enables the discourse to be thought at all. By working to recognise this, it is possible to move beyond the limits of the discourse and think differently about youth in response to the perceived threat posed to young people by media representations of adolescent sex and sexuality.
Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F.; Schorer, Jörg
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes’ birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players’ age position within the age band with regard to players’ birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007–2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high
Doegah, Phidelia Theresa; Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw
The prevalence of obesity is on the increase in Ghana, and the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages may be a determinant. The aim of this study is to use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate water intake among Ghanaian youth 15-34 years old. The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data is used to investigate the effects of socio-demographic factors on water intake behaviours of a sample of 2771 male and 2806 female youth aged 15-34 years old in Ghana. Additionally, data from focus group discussions are used to examine perceptions with regard to water intake. In terms of the analysis, the quantitative bit of the data utilised Stata software and the qualitative data used the Atlas Ti software. Percentages, means, standard deviations, t test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test and Poisson regression were used for the quantitative analysis while the qualitative data was analysed thematically. Quantitative results found that age (IRR = 1.112, 95% CI 1.070-1.156) and region of residence (IRR = 0.855, 95% CI 0.780-0.937; IRR = 0.910, 95% CI 0.834-0.993) were important predictors of water intake in males, while age (IRR = 1.103, 95% CI 1.054-1.153), region of residence (IRR = 0.907, 95% CI 0.844-0.975; IRR = 1.258, 95% CI 1.130-1.400), ethnicity (IRR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.834-1.013) and marital status (IRR = 1.051, 95% CI 0.999-1.106) were found to be important predictors of water intake among females. From the focus group discussion, accessibility and physiological factors were mentioned as issues hampering adequate water intake. The similarities and differences between males and females should sensitise policy makers to the need for more gender-specific interventions to encourage water intake for the purposes of preventing non-communicable diseases. Moreover, intervention(s) to promote water intake should address issues of accessibility, physiological factors, weather and weight management.
Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2
Full Text Available In our study we examined the background of the foreign language knowledge and learning of the Hungarian Youth. Who are successful and what group of learners can convert their knowledge into language certificates? What aspects lie behind their success? We based our analysis on the Magyar Ifjúság 2012 database using the variables that could help us draw conclusions about language skills, language learning and language certificates. As in the first place we studied the effect of age and student status, we divided the sample into 3 main categories: 15-19-year-old secondary school students, 20-24-year-old students mostly students studying at higher education and 25-29-year-old students predominantly workers. We examined several dimensions of language learning: (1 the subjective perception of language skills (2 the objective perception of language skills (language certificates and their level, (3 formal and non-formal education (4 students’ plans to study foreign languages in the future. Examining the similarities and the differences between the groups we also analysed what correlations there were between the socioeconomic status of the parents and the language skills of the students. We analysed the students’ attitude to foreign languages as we ll as their attitude towards English as a foreign language. As a result we detected strong parental influence, however, some differences between the age groups could be observed .
Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
To estimate the prevalence of smoking among Brazilian youth, examining individual, family, and social group factors associated with this habit. Data from youth aged 15 to 24 years living in 17 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, obtained from the Household Survey on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases and Reported Morbidity carried out in 2002 and 2003 by the National Cancer Institute was analyzed. Individual variables (sex, age, schooling, alcohol consumption, self-rated health, physical activity, current school attendance), family variables (age and education of head of household and father, mother, or sibling smoking), and social group variables (best friend smoking, most friends smoking, boyfriend/girlfriend smoking) were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to evaluate the factors associated with smoking were used. Considering the effect of the sampling design, smoking prevalence was 12.8%, ranging from 6.8% in Aracaju to 24.1% in Porto Alegre. The following factors were predictors of smoking: male sex, older age, less schooling, not attending school at the time of the survey, poorer health perception, and alcohol consumption. Peer smoking (friends or boyfriend/girlfriend) and smoking among family members (father/mother or sibling) were associated with smoking. There was an effect of parental birth cohort on smoking, with a higher prevalence of smoking among youth whose parents were born in the 1930s. Individual characteristics and the influence of peers and family were relevant for smoking by the youth. Increasing the dialogue among teenagers, school, schoolmates, friends, and parents could lead to a reduction of substance use among youth.
Mentoring programs that provide guidance and support for disadvantaged youth have expanded rapidly during the past decade in the United States. Research suggests that students with teenage mentors exhibit positive youth development, including enhanced academic self-esteem and connectedness. By contrast, some studies showed that programs that offer…
also identified as "youth at risk") is in part related to deficient functioning of the labour market in developing countries. But, more fundamentally, it is rooted in the inability of poor youth to generate wealth through entrepreneurial endeavors due to ...
Old age and Youth are examples of concepts which have been the focus of many poetsâ attention and Nezami in particular. These concepts have been beautifully depicted in Nezamiâs poems through the color element. The poet has beautifully depicted the young and old generationâs appearance characteristics using his poetic talent and colorful elements of nature. On one hand, white, black and red are examples of the colors used to describe young generation directly or indirectly. On the other hand, old age is described with respect to yellow and white colors. Nezamiâs description of youth and old age is well elaborated in this research with aims at analyzing these concepts with regard to the element of color.
Minister Maija Rask (front, centre) led a Finnish delegation on a visit to CERN last week. Here the delegation inspects CMS preparations with the collaboration's spokesman Michel Della Negra (front, left). On 19 February Finnish Minister of Education, Mrs Maija Rask, visited CERN. She led a delegation composed of Mr. Pekka Huttaniemi, Permanent Representative of Finland to the United Nations, Mrs Pirjo Välinoro, Ministerial Counsellor (Economic affairs), Mr Markku Linna, Director General of the Ministry of Education, and Mr Tapio Kosunen, Special Adviser at the Ministry. Accompanied by Director General Luciano Maiani, the delegation visited CMS experiment and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and met Finnish students and scientists at CERN.
Changing family relationships as a result of divorce are considered a potential threat to children's well-being. This study investigates the well-being of children under the age of eight years in Finnish stepfamilies from the viewpoint of the mother. The goal of this study is to explore how the structural characteristics of the stepfamily and the…
Leerdam, F.J.M. van
The Youth Health Care guideline 'Early screening for hearing impairment, ages 0-19 years' draws the attention of all parties involved to the case finding of, notably, perceptive hearing loss; it helps workers in the Youth Health Care argue their referrals and improve the next steps in the process.
Kramer, Jessica M.; Hwang, I-Ting; Helfrich, Christine A.; Samuel, Preethy S.; Carrellas, Ann
Project "TEAM" teaches transition-age youth with developmental disabilities (DD) to identify physical and social environmental barriers and supports, generate solutions to barriers, and request modifications to increase participation. Establishing the social validity of this environment focused intervention with youth and their parents…
Homel, Jacqueline; Thompson, Kara; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This study examined associations between longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood and postsecondary education (PSE) experiences. Outcomes examined included the type of PSE undertaken, the timing of enrollment, and the likelihood of dropping out. Participants (N = 632; 332 females) were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study of young people interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of the frequency of marijuana use from ages 15 to 25. Logistic regression analyses evaluated class membership as a predictor of the three PSE outcomes, with sex, maternal education, family structure, high school grades, and conduct problems controlled for. Three trajectory groups of marijuana use were identified: abstainers (31%), occasional users (44%), and frequent users (25%). Compared with abstainers, frequent users had the lowest high school grades and the most conduct problems and were least likely to enroll in PSE, especially in a university. Occasional users did not differ from abstainers on high school grades or conduct problems and were no less likely than abstainers to enroll in PSE. However, they delayed enrollment longer and were more likely to drop out of PSE. Frequent marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood may close off opportunities for entering PSE, whereas occasional use may create delays in starting and finishing PSE among less at-risk young people. The mechanisms underlying associations between marijuana use and educational difficulties during emerging adulthood as well as adolescence need to be better understood.
Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K
Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Nyström, Marjatta; Heikinheimo, Tuomas; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Pirinen, Sinikka
The aims of the present study were to provide data on growth changes in the dental arches from age 7 to 32 in Finns with untreated normal Angle Class I occlusions. The material consisted of 33 series of dental casts of 18 women and 15 men. The subjects had been examined and study models taken at the ages of 7, 10, 12, 15, and 32. Dental arch width, overbite, and overjet were measured. Our longitudinal findings show that both the dental arches of young adults are slightly narrowed from adolescence to 32 years of age. All increases in width dimensions took place before 15 years of age. The means of the changes were mostly small, in the order of 0.5 to a few millimetres. Variability in age changes was considerable. In both genders, each variable increased in some subjects and decreased in others during every age interval. Differences between growth changes in the mesial, distal, and gingival intermolar widths indicate that both the maxillary and the mandibular first molars rotate mesiolingually and that the maxillary first molars also become more upright during late occlusal development. We expect the present findings of the changes occurring in the arch dimensions of subjects with untreated normal occlusions to help clinicians in following up occlusal development, choosing an optimal treatment time, and making orthodontic treatment and retention plans. However, because of the wide variability, accurate prediction of future development cannot be made on the individual level.
Saukkonen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T; Laajasalo, Taina; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Jokela, Markus
We examined different forms of victimization experiences in relation to psychopathic features and whether these associations differed in boys and girls among 4855 Finnish school adolescents aged 15-16 years. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self Report (APSD-SR). Victimization was assessed with questions about violent and abusive experiences across lifetime and within the last 12 months. Results from linear regression analysis showed that victimization was significantly associated with higher APSD-SR total scores, more strongly in girls than boys. Recent (12-month) victimization showed significance in the relationship between victimization and psychopathic features; especially recent sexual abuse and parental corporal punishment were strong determinants of higher APSD-SR total scores. The present study demonstrates novel findings on how severe victimization experiences relate to psychopathic features in community youth, especially in girls. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive evaluation of victimization experiences when psychopathic features are present in youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.
Lester, Diarmuid; McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Duncan, Michael; Chambers, Fiona; O'Brien, Wesley
(1) Background: Research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional baseline data on Irish adolescent youth, specifically the prevalence of movement skills and patterns, in order to generate an overall perspective of movement within the first three years (Junior Certificate level) of post-primary education. (2) Methods: Data were colle...
D E Slizovskiy
Full Text Available The article is based on the results of the survey conducted among 500 university students in May-June 2016 to identify the sources and factors influencing the content and structure of the youth perception of the nowadays world order in terms of its justice/injustice and the dominant supporters of democracy in the world. The author focus on the conditions, in which the student youth perception of the crucial political event of this year (forthcoming elections is formed. Based on the results of the research in the theoretical and applied aspects the author suggests discussing the following issues: if the contemporary world stays unfair and contradictory, the Russian youth will stay purely apolitical for the youth indifference to political processes and events finds justification and explanation in the existing social-political order. However, the world is diverse, possesses the hidden potential for changes and cries out for an upgrade. On the one hand, this implicitly implies conditions for violent, explosive and chaotic reactions of the youth; on the other hand, in some situations prevents and in others stimulates independent estimates of political events. Unfortunately, this process remains too bureaucratic and declarative, or is not controlled, managed and organized by the relevant social and political forces, which prevents the youth from making independent political estimates. At the same time the non-systemic opposition bets on the youth part of society and tries to introduce into the political discourse and seduce the youth with the word “revolution” and the slogan “what unites us is more important than differences”.
Betz, Cecily L; Redcay, Gay
A descriptive profile of the health related concerns, school-related and extracurricular activities, employment-related activities, social relationships and future plans of 25 transition-aged youth and young adults (ages 14 to 21 years) were conducted. The findings of this exploratory study provide insight on the impact their chronic condition had upon all aspects of their lives. Sixty percent of respondents indicated they had missed school due to their condition and a third of the respondents had not completed high school. Health care professionals usually were not identified as participatory in youth transition planning. The majority of these transition-aged youth and young adults had positive feelings towards their school experience, although most of the respondents were not involved in school projects or clubs, which suggests their participation in school-related extra-curricular activities was limited. Nearly all of the respondents had some form of employment experience. Most of their work experiences were nonpaying jobs such as serving as a volunteer and participating in school-based employment training. Nearly all of the respondents expressed desires for sustainable employment and fiscal and social independence. Most of the respondents reported having social relationships with just less than half reporting seeing friends outside of school.
Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik
Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…
Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.
Laine, Sonja; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi
This article presents two independent studies of Finnish teachers' conceptions of giftedness and considers whether it is a malleable or fixed quality. The first qualitative study examined elementary school teachers' (N = 212) conceptions via inductive-oriented content analysis, whereas the second study measured teachers' (elementary n = 184,…
Kiilakoski, Tomi; Kivijärvi, Antti
For many young people, youth clubs constitute a key instrument for learning outside the school curriculum. In this article, we scrutinise Finnish youth clubs empirically as spaces of non-formal learning from the perspectives of both professional youth workers and young people themselves. We propose that youth workers tend to present an educational…
This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult"
Stochel, Martyna; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Zejda, Jan; Hyrnik, Joanna; Jelonek, Ireneusz; Siwiec, Andrzej
The aim of the study was the validation and adaptation of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire in the group of the Polish schoolgirls and schoolboys. The study included 399 participants (15-21 years old), all of them high school students in the city of Sosnowiec. The ORTO-15 is a tool created in Italy by L.M. Donini, comprising of 15 items describing intensification of orthorexia risk (population diagnosis). The validation procedure incorporated three basic methods to be applied in the reliability analysis - the comparison of double tests with the same method, the statistical properties analysis of test items as well as analysis of the relation of test items with the general test result. Moreover, the compliance of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire results with other questionnaire focused on eating habits (EAT-26) was studied. The reliability analysis of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire based on repeatability of the responses presents a very good (kappa: 0.81 - 1.00 for 5 items) and a good repeatability (kappa: 0.61 - 0.80 for 10 items). The reliability analysis based on the value of the Cronbach's α reached a satisfactory level (0.7 - 0.9). A full agreement of in the occurrence of orthorexia risk and the risk of eating disorders concerned 47.2% (Kappa = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.004 - 0.09) for the Ortho-40 and 88.2% (Kappa = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.47) for the Ortho-35. The ORTO-15 questionnaire is a reliable tool to identify the risk of ON in population studies in the group of urban youth aged 15 - 21.
Kantala, T; Kinnunen, P M; Oristo, S; Jokelainen, P; Vapalahti, O; Maunula, L
We investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Finnish veterinarians engaged in different practice specialties and evaluated the effect of different background factors on HEV exposure by examining total HEV antibodies in samples collected from the participants of the 2009 National Veterinary Congress in Helsinki, Finland. Finnish veterinarians commonly have total HEV antibodies with seroprevalence of 10.2%. Of the non-veterinarians, 5.8% were seropositive. Increasing age was associated with HEV seropositivity, and, surprisingly, the highest HEV seroprevalence (17.8%) among veterinarians was detected among small animal practitioners. Although no positive correlation between swine contacts and HEV seropositivity was found, 22.7% of veterinarians who had had needle stick by a needle that had previously been injected into a pig versus 9.0% of those who had not were seropositive, even though the finding was statistically non-significant (P = 0.07). Our results suggest that, although contact with swine is a known risk factor for HEV infection, the sources of HEV infections are probably numerous, including travelling abroad and possibly also other reservoirs of HEV than pigs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A
Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.
Ruusunen, Anu; Lehto, Soili M; Tolmunen, Tommi; Mursu, Jaakko; Kaplan, George A; Voutilainen, Sari
Only a few cross-sectional studies have assessed the association between coffee, tea and caffeine and the risk of depression. Our aim was to determine the association in a population-based cohort study. The population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort was recruited between 1984 and 1989 and followed until the end of 2006. We investigated the association between the intake of coffee, tea and caffeine and depression. Eastern Finland. Middle-aged men (n 2232). Altogether, forty-nine men received a discharge diagnosis of depression. We classified subjects into quartiles according to their mean daily coffee intake: non-drinkers (n 82), light drinkers (813 ml/d, n 390). Heavy drinkers had a decreased risk (RR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.08, 0.98) for depression when compared with non-drinkers, after adjustment for age and examination years. Further adjustment for socio-economic status, alcohol consumption, smoking, maximal oxygen uptake, BMI and the energy-adjusted daily intakes of folate and PUFA did not attenuate this association (relative risk (RR) = 0.23, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.83). No associations were observed between depression and intake of tea (drinkers v. non-drinkers; RR = 1.19, 95 % CI 0.54, 2.23) or caffeine (highest quartile v. lowest quartile; RR = 0.99, 95 % CI 0.40, 2.45). Coffee consumption may decrease the risk of depression, whereas no association was found for tea and caffeine intake.
Full Text Available Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8% reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5% than in girls (2.6%. Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth.
Müller, Lisa; Gonaus, Christoph; Perner, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Raschner, Christian
Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183) = 18.0; palpine ski racing and soccer. Thus, selection criteria in both sports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used.
Müller, Lisa; Gonaus, Christoph; Perner, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Raschner, Christian
Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183) = 18.0; psports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used. PMID:28759890
Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A
Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Jonsson, Cecilia; Andersson, Elisabeth Elgmark
The aim is to describe how children and youths perform leisure activities, 1 year after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Basis is to compile previously collected material; patients were extracted from a prospective randomized controlled trial of MTBI. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 73 children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age. The entire group administrated the Interest Checklist at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Statistical significant difference was found in 31 of 50 different activities. The result showed that children and youths did not return to perform leisure activities. Fewer returned in the intervention group than in the control group. An occupational therapist can help children and youths to have balance in their life and continue a functional life after a MTBI. Continued research is needed, how to prevent MTBI and how to support children and youths to continue with leisure activities.
Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.
This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…
Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…
Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson
With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…
Abstract. Background: For behavioral as well as physiological reasons, early sexual debut increases young peoples' risk for infection with HIV and other STIs. Youths who begin sexual activity early are more likely to have high-risk sex or multiple sexual partners and are less likely to use condoms. It is crucial to understand ...
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…
Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.
Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge about the equality work in public sector organisations. Especially, my aim is to bring light into everyday experiences of doing equality work. This is achieved through interviewing equality workers in Finnish ministries. The study draws also on my personal experiences as an equality consultant. The main question I ask is: Which issues influence the content of equality work? According to feminist research, promoting equality is always a poli...
The purpose of the thesis is the Finnish food brand in Chinese market. The whole thesis will be divided into five chapters. The study area focuses on the Finnish food brand in Chinese market, elaborates the Finnish food brand in China, its possibility, predominance, problems, position and process. This thesis will based on analysis of different companies’ cases, combine international marketing, international operation theoretical with the real cases; to elaborate the possibility of F...
Kurppa, Sirpa; Virtanen, Yrjö
The evaluation of the food chain’s environmental impacts was conducted using an environmentalaccounting model developed specifically for the Finnish food chain. The model is based on production and environmental impact data from year 2005. The model considers both Finnish production and Finnish imports in addition to their transport. The targets of the evaluation were the environmental impacts, in 2005, stemming from production. Environmental impacts of the end-use phase were not assessed....
Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina
In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.
The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes
The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes
Frisco, Michelle L; Quiros, Susana; Van Hook, Jennifer
Immigrants' health (dis)advantages are increasingly recognized as not being uniform, leading to calls for studies investigating whether immigrant health outcomes are dependent on factors that exacerbate health risks. We answer this call, considering an outcome with competing evidence about immigrants' vulnerability versus risk: childhood obesity. More specifically, we investigate obesity among three generations of Mexican-origin youth relative to one another and to U.S.-born whites. We posit that risk is dependent on the intersection of generational status, gender, and age, which all influence exposure to U.S. society and weight concerns. Analyses of National Health and Nutrition Examination Studies (NHANES) data suggest that accounting for ethnicity and generation alone misses considerable gender and age heterogeneity in childhood obesity among Mexican-origin and white youth. For example, second-generation boys are vulnerable to obesity, but the odds of obesity for first-generation girls are low and on par with those of white girls. Findings also indicate that age moderates ethnic/generational differences in obesity among boys but not among girls. Overall, ethnic/generational patterns of childhood obesity do not conform to a "one size fits all" theory of immigrant health (dis)advantage, leading us to join calls for more research considering how immigrants' characteristics and contexts differentially shape vulnerability to disease and death.
A Problem in Greek Ethics, A Problem in Modern Ethics and "Soldier Love" indicate that John Addington Symonds responded carefully to social anxieties regarding the influence and corruption of youth and placed increasing emphasis on presenting male same-sex desire as consensual and age-consistent. Situating Symonds's work in the social and political context of the 1880s and 1890s, the article opens up a more complex understanding of Symonds's reception of Greece. It also offers a new reading of his collaboration with Havelock Ellis by arguing that Symonds's insistence on age-equal and reciprocal relationships between men strongly shaped Sexual Inversion . This shows that concerns about age difference and ideals of equality and reciprocity began to impact debates about male same-sex desire in the late nineteenth century - earlier than is generally assumed.
Full Text Available Since the relative age effect (RAE characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR and soccer players (SP. In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183 = 18.0; p<0.001; ω = 0.31 and SP (χ2(3,N = 423 = 33.1; p<0.001; ω = 0.28. In total, only a small number of late maturing athletes were present (0.5-2.3%. Among relatively younger athletes, high percentages of early maturing athletes were found (43.1-43.3%. The findings indicate that relatively younger and less mature athletes are marginalized or totally excluded in alpine ski racing and soccer. Thus, selection criteria in both sports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used.
Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika
This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…
Virtanen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Valpola, S. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, e-mail: email@example.com
One-third of the Finnish land area is covered by mires and peat. GTK has investigated 2.0 million ha of the 9.3 million ha area covered by mires in Finland. According to the EU Commission, the broadly-based Finnish energy economy, with various energy sources, is the best in the EU. As a fuel, peat fulfils the goals of the EU energy policy in Finland well: it is local, its availability is good and the price is stable. The use of peat also enhances national security. At present, peat is used in around one hundred larger applications that co-generate electricity and heat. In Finland, the development of mires has led to several mire complex types and three main types: raised bogs in Southern Finland, aapa mires in Ostrobothnia and Lapland, and palsa mires in Northern Lapland. Peat layers are deepest in southern Finland and partly in the southern Finnish Lake area, the Region of North Karelia and in the area of central Lapland. The mean depth of geological mires is 1.41 m and the thickest drilled peat is 12.3 m. According to peat investigations, the national peat reserve totals 69.3 billion m3 in situ (peatlands larger than 20 hectares). The dry solids of peat are estimated at 6.3 billion tones. Sphagnum peat accounts for 54% and Carex peat for 45% of feasible peat reserves. Peatlands that are technically suitable for the peat industry cover a total area of 1.2 million ha and contain 29.6 billion m3 of peat in situ. Slightly humified peat suitable for horticultural and environmental use totals 5.9 billion m3 in situ. The energy peat reserve is 23.7 billion m3 in situ and its energy content is 12 800 TWh. (orig.)
Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...
...%) of youth would make the decision themselves. Youth ages 15 to 19 were more likely to make this decision with their parents or guardians, while, in general, youth ages 20 and 21 were more likely to make this decision themselves...
Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.
This article reviews the current state of diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia, describing the recent proliferation of research in high-risk psychosis spectrum conditions, which are different from childhood-onset and early onset schizophrenia, and findings of psychotic-like experiences in the normal population. Taken from adult and childhood literature, clinical quandaries in accurate diagnosis, and treatment gaps in co-occurring, or sometimes confounding, conditions are discussed. Thoughts on the impact of schizophrenia on an emerging adulthood trajectory are offered. Recent best practices in the treatment of schizophrenia are consistent with a recovery-oriented model of mental health services for transitional age youth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Considering that self-perception of competence in the relevant domains is important for understanding of individual’s behavior and achievement, the study analyzed the effects of age and gender on global self-worth and domain-specific selfperceptions. The cross-sectional study included 1130 participants of age range 8-23 (520 males and 610 females. The participants were tested by the equivalent forms of six subscales from ‘Self-Perception Profile for Children’, ‘Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents’ and ‘Self-Perception Profile for College Students’. Subscales measured self-evaluations across domains of scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct and global self-worth. Two separate MANOVAs revealed a significant main effect for age in male subsample (Wilks’ Lambda =.83, F (12, 1024=8.35, p<.01 and in female subsample (Wilks’ Lambda =.80, F (12, 1204=11.80, p< .01. An analysis of variance showed that the effect of age in males was significant in physical appearance, behavioral conduct and global self-worth, while in females significant differences were registered in scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance and behavioral conduct. Pedagogical implications refer to enhancing self-concept in youth by appropriate teaching strategies and supportive learning environment. Learning experiences within physical education might be particularly beneficial for female adolescents.
Breuning-Boers,J.M.; Heerdink, M.; Kamphuis,M.; Gameren-Oosterom, H. van; Lanting,C.
The objective of the evidence-based guidelines 'Asthma in children (ages 0-19)' for youth healthcare (CHC) is the prevention and reduction of asthma symptoms. The guidelines contain a lot of recommendations that apply to all disciplines in healthcare that deal with children. Primary prevention
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
Background: Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Methods: Using 2007 National Survey of…
Ryan, Cathryn T; Kramer, Jessica M; Cohn, Ellen S
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the self-disclosure process in regard to connection development and relationship quality in peer mentoring relationships between transition-age youth (ages 15-20) and young adults (ages 18-36) with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Self-disclosure is defined as "the disclosure of inner feelings and experiences to another person" that "fosters liking, caring, and trust, thereby facilitating the deepening of close relationships" ( Reis & Shaver, 1988 , p. 372). Nine peer mentoring dyads with varied interpersonal connections were purposefully selected from a larger intervention study. Recorded mentoring conversations were analyzed for self-disclosure content and peer mentor response. The findings demonstrated trends related to connection development and differences across degree of connection. In relationships with stronger connections, there was a higher quantity of self-disclosure and more frequent disclosure of emotions, and peer mentors responded more frequently with advice and reciprocated self-disclosure. Implications of findings for promoting higher-quality peer mentoring relationships are discussed.
Puhvel, Jaan, 1932-
Tõlgitud kogumikust: The world of the Kalevala : essays in celebration of the 150 year jubilee of the publication of the Finnish national epic / ed. Kai Laitinen. Los Angeles : UCLA Centre for the Study of Folklore & Mythology, 1987
Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Eskeli, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Laine-Alava, M.T.; Hof, M.A. van 't
Occlusal characteristics and anomalies were studied among 869 (428 boys, 441 girls) Tanzanian Bantu children aged 3.5-16 years and 706 (319 boys, 387 girls) Finnish children aged 5-11 years during different emergence stages of the permanent dentition. Various occlusal variables were registered
Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.
The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…
Saunders, Travis John; Gray, Casey Ellen; Poitras, Veronica Joan; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Olds, Timothy; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine how combinations of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and sleep were associated with important health indicators in children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for relevant studies examining the relationship between time spent engaging in different combinations of PA, SB, and sleep with the following health indicators: adiposity, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, emotional regulation/psychological distress, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition, quality of life/well-being, injuries, bone density, motor skill development, and self-esteem. PA had to be objectively measured, while sleep and SB could be objectively or subjectively measured. The quality of research evidence and risk of bias for each health indicator and for each individual study was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 13 cross-sectional studies and a single prospective cohort study reporting data from 36 560 individual participants met the inclusion criteria. Children and youth with a combination of high PA/high sleep/low SB had more desirable measures of adiposity and cardiometabolic health compared with those with a combination of low PA/low sleep/high SB. Health benefits were also observed for those with a combination of high PA/high sleep (cardiometabolic health and adiposity) or high PA/low SB (cardiometabolic health, adiposity and fitness), compared with low PA/low sleep or low PA/high SB. Of the 3 movement behaviours, PA (especially moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA) was most consistently associated with desirable health indicators. Given the lack of randomized trials, the overall quality of the available evidence was low.
Elliott, Ross-Jordon S.; Batiste, Oliver; Hitto, Imran; Walker, Bridget; Leary, Linda D.
Objective: The goals of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum for youth athletes and determine long-term retention in those who have previously participated. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Middle schools. Participants: 887 male and female sixth- through eighth-grade Physical Education students, ranging from…
Jason R Randall
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.
Lemstra, Mark E; Nielsen, Ghita; Rogers, Marla R; Thompson, Adam T; Moraros, John S
Bullying is a form of aggression in which children are intentionally intimidated, harassed or harmed. The main objective of our study was to determine the unadjusted and adjusted risk indicators associated with physical bullying. The second objective was to clarify the impact of repeated physical bullying on health outcomes - namely depressed mood. Every student attending school in the city of Saskatoon, Canada, between grades 5-8 was asked to complete the Saskatoon School Health Survey. In total, 4,197 youth completed the questionnaire; of these, 23% reported being physically bullied at least once or twice in the previous four weeks. After multivariate adjustment, the covariates independently associated with being physically bullied included being male (OR=1.39), attending a school in a low-income neighbourhood (OR=1.41), not having a happy home life (OR=1.19), having a lot of arguments with parents (OR=1.16) and feeling like leaving home (OR=1.23). Children who were repeatedly physically bullied were more likely to have poor health outcomes. For example, 37.3% of children who were physically bullied many times per week had depressed mood in comparison to only 8.1% of children who were never bullied. After regression analysis, children who were ever physically bullied were 80% more likely to have depressed mood. Most of the independent risk indicators associated with physical bullying are preventable through appropriate social policy implementation and family support. It also appears that preventing repeated bullying should be the main focus of intervention in comparison to preventing more infrequent bullying.
Full Text Available Nationally 4-H programs develop educational strategies and provide opportunities for youth and adults to work in partnership as they develop life skills. This study looks at some curricula that enhance self-esteem in at-risk youth ages 8 to 15. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Instrument (CSI measured changes in participants’ self-esteem while the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSl, used only at the onset of the study, alert the staff of potential mental/emotional distress and other behavior that might require an immediate response. The CSI results showed increases in self-esteem. Girls showed a higher increase in self-esteem over the boys.
Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Helakorpi, Satu; Olli, Mari; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka
To study the awareness of the Heart Symbol in different age and educational groups, and changes in the awareness over a 9-year period. In addition, the reported use of products with the symbol was examined. A series of annual cross-sectional postal surveys on Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population. A random sample (n 5000 per annum) from the Finnish population aged 15-64 years, drawn from the National Population Register, received a questionnaire. Men and women (n 29 378) participating in the surveys in 2000-2009. At the early 2000s, 48 % of men and 73 % of women reported to be familiar with the symbol. The corresponding rates were 66 % for men and 91 % for women in 2009. The reported use of products with the symbol increased from 29 % to 52 % in men and from 40 % to 72 % in women. In men, the awareness did not vary by age, whereas older women (45-64 years) were less likely to be aware of the symbol compared with younger women (25-34 years). Men and women with the highest education were best aware of the symbol and more likely to use the products in the early 2000s. The educational differences diminished or disappeared during the study period. The majority of Finnish adults are familiar with the Heart Symbol, and the reported use of such products increased in all age and educational groups, especially among the less educated. The symbol may work as an effective measure to diminish nutrition-related health inequalities.
Huang, Anna S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9–12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. PMID:26562059
Valente-dos-Santos, J; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; Duarte, J; Pereira, J; Rebelo-Gonçalves, R; Figueiredo, A; Mazzuco, M A; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M
This study evaluates the contributions of age, skeletal maturation, body size and composition, training and playing position to the development of agility and dribbling speed in young male soccer players (10-18 years) followed longitudinally. 83 players [defenders (n=35), midfielders (n=27), forwards (n=21)] were followed annually over 5 years (average: 4.4 observations per player). Skeletal age (SA), stature, body mass, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, agility and dribbling speed were measured annually. Body composition was estimated from the 2 skinfolds. Annual training volume was estimated from weekly participation forms completed by coaches. The multiplicative allometric models with the best statistical fit showed that statural growth of 1 cm predicts 1.334 s and 1.927 s of improvement in agility and dribbling speed, respectively. Significant independent effects of fat-free mass and annual volume training were found for agility and dribbling speed, respectively (Pagility (from 12 to 18 years of SA) and dribbling speed (from 13 to 18 years of SA) differed significantly among players by playing positions (midfielders>forwards>defenders). The present results provide developmental models for the interpretation of intra- and inter-individual variability in agility and dribbling speed among youth soccer players across adolescence, and may provide a framework for trainers and coaches to develop and evaluate individualized training protocols. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ebyRace , age s 15-24, ... often the first to know their friend is suicidal, and we need to help them know where to ... 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to: 1 perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2 make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese. To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1 Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2 More vigorous
Janssen, Ian; Leblanc, Allana G
The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should be incorporated or added when possible
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M.; Reischl, Stephen F.; Landel, Rob F.
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPatellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.
Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M; Reischl, Stephen F; Landel, Rob F
Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.
Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano
Background The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. Methods The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. Results The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Conclusion Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27000776
Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.
Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J
There is a lack of information about the influence of age on functional movement tests (FMT) and performance tests as well as in their relationships in young basketball players. The purpose of the present study was to determine the variations in FMT and jump and/or sprint performance scores between age groups (U-14 vs. U-16) in Highly-trained young basketball players. The second purpose was to investigate the relationship between FMT for lower body and jump and/or sprint performance in highly-trained young (U-14 and U-16) male basketball players. Descriptive study. Thirty elite young (U-14 to U-16) male basketball players performed several FMT (weight-bearing dorsiflexion test [WB-DF] and a modified Star Excursion Balance test [SEBT]) and performance including unilateral and bilateral countermovement jumps, unilateral horizontal jumping, linear sprinting and performance tests. All anthropometric and performance tests showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump with left leg (p=0.127). Five out of the eight FMT performed showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump and/or sprint performance test between age groups (U-16 vs U-14). The findings of this study support the idea that the age of the player should be considered when interpreting FMT scores, which could have implications when implementing the FMT for injury risk prediction. 2b.
Full Text Available Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews.1 The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2 Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer.This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the same individuals that investigates the effects of
Magnanou, Elodie; Attia, Joël; Fons, Roger; Boeuf, Gilles; Falcon, Jack
Laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. Thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. Senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. The time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have an anti-aging role. The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is an ideal study model to address questions related to aging and associated changes in biological functions: its lifespan is short and is substantially increased in captivity; daily and seasonal rhythms, while very marked the first year of life, are dramatically altered during the senescence process which starts during the second year. Here we report on an investigation of the effects of melatonin administration on locomotor activity of aging shrews. 1) The diel fluctuations of melatonin levels in young, adult and aging shrews were quantified in the pineal gland and plasma. In both, a marked diel rhythm (low diurnal concentration; high nocturnal concentration) was present in young animals but then decreased in adults, and, as a result of a loss in the nocturnal production, was absent in old animals. 2) Daily locomotor activity rhythm was monitored in pre-senescent animals that had received either a subcutaneous melatonin implant, an empty implant or no implant at all. In non-implanted and sham-implanted shrews, the rhythm was well marked in adults. A marked degradation in both period and amplitude, however, started after the age of 14-16 months. This pattern was considerably delayed in melatonin-implanted shrews who maintained the daily rhythm for significantly longer. This is the first long term study (>500 days observation of the same individuals) that investigates the effects of continuous melatonin
Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti
The aims were to examine the prevalence of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs in 2004 (n = 1,182) and to compare the results with those for the general working population in 2003. The second aim was to analyze which factors were associated with the prevalence of stress. A stratified random sample of farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability, were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. Health and extension services should pay special attention to encouraging farm entrepreneurs to maintain their social relationships. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.
Reed, K E; Parry, D A; Sandercock, G R H
Few studies have investigated whether relative age effects (RAEs) exist in school sport. None have sought to test the competing maturational and social-agent hypotheses proposed to explain the RAE. We aimed to determine the presence of RAEs in multiple school sports and examine the contribution of maturational and social factors in commonplace school sports. We analyzed birth dates of n=10645 competitors (11-18 years) in the 2013 London Youth Games annual inter-school multisport competition and calculated odds ratio (OR) for students competing based on their yearly birth quarter (Q1-Q4). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relative contribution of constituent year (Grade) and relative age in netball and football which used multiyear age groupings. In girls, RAEs were present in the team sports including hockey, netball, rugby union, cricket and volleyball but not football. In boys, RAEs were stronger in common team sports (football, basketball cricket) as well as athletics and rowing. In netball and football teams with players from two constituent years, birth quarter better-predicted selection than did constituent year. Relatively older players (Q1) from lower constituent years were overrepresented compared with players from Q3 and Q4 of the upper constituent years. RAEs are present in the many sports commonplace in English schools. Selection of relatively older players ahead of chronologically older students born later in the selection year suggests social agents contribute to RAEs in school sports. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Mastrorilli, Valentina; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano
The rapid lengthening of life expectancy has raised the problem of providing social programs to counteract the age-related cognitive decline in a growing number of older people. Physical activity stands among the most promising interventions aimed at brain wellbeing, because of its effective neuroprotective action and low social cost. The purpose of this review is to describe the neuroprotective role exerted by physical activity in different life stages. In particular, we focus on adult neurogenesis, a process which has proved being highly responsive to physical exercise and may represent a major factor of brain health over the lifespan. The most recent literature related to the subject has been reviewed. The text has been divided into three main sections, addressing the effects of physical exercise during childhood/ adolescence, adulthood and aging, respectively. For each one, the most relevant studies, carried out on both human participants and rodent models, have been described. The data reviewed converge in indicating that physical activity exerts a positive effect on brain functioning throughout the lifespan. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the effect and its biological underpinnings. Cellular and synaptic plasticity provided by adult neurogenesis are highly probable mediators, but the mechanism for their action has yet to be conclusively established. Despite alternative mechanisms of action are currently debated, age-appropriate physical activity programs may constitute a large-scale, relatively inexpensive and powerful approach to dampen the individual and social impact of age-related cognitive decline. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mishra, Jyoti; Zanto, Theodore; Nilakantan, Aneesha; Gazzaley, Adam
Intrasensory interference during visual working memory (WM) maintenance by object stimuli (such as faces and scenes), has been shown to negatively impact WM performance, with greater detrimental impacts of interference observed in aging. Here we assessed age-related impacts by intrasensory WM interference from lower-level stimulus features such as visual and auditory motion stimuli. We consistently found that interference in the form of ignored distractions and secondary task interruptions presented during a WM maintenance period, degraded memory accuracy in both the visual and auditory domain. However, in contrast to prior studies assessing WM for visual object stimuli, feature-based interference effects were not observed to be significantly greater in older adults. Analyses of neural oscillations in the alpha frequency band further revealed preserved mechanisms of interference processing in terms of post-stimulus alpha suppression, which was observed maximally for secondary task interruptions in visual and auditory modalities in both younger and older adults. These results suggest that age-related sensitivity of WM to interference may be limited to complex object stimuli, at least at low WM loads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernesniemi, Elina; Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati; Cheng, Xuejiao; Hong, Jianzhong; Kuittinen, Matti
In this study the levels of experienced burnout of Finnish and Chinese university students are compared using School Burnout Inventory (SBI). This study is motivated by earlier studies, which suggest that the level of student burnout is different in the culturally distinct Finnish and Chinese university systems, but which are based on different research instruments for the two groups. The sample studied consisted of 3,035 Finnish students and 2,309 Chinese students. Because of the cross-cultural nature of this study the level of structural equivalence of SBI between the cultural groups was examined and the effect of different response styles on the results was taken into account. Both standard and robust statistical methods were used for the analyses. The results showed that SBI with two extracted components is suitable for cross-cultural analysis between Finnish and Chinese university students. Virtually no difference was found in experienced overall burnout between the Finnish and Chinese students, which means that both university systems contain factors causing similar levels of student burnout. This study also verified that controlling for the response styles is important in cross-cultural studies as it was found to have a distinct effect on the results obtained from mean-level comparisons. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Primack, Brian A; Escobar-Viera, César G
For transitional age individuals, social media (SM) is an integral component of connecting with others. There are 2 billion SM users worldwide. SM users may experience an increase in perceived social support and life satisfaction. Use of SM may facilitate forming connections among people with potentially stigmatizing mental disorders. However, epidemiologic studies suggest that increased SM use is associated with conditions such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Future research should examine directionality of these associations and the role of contextual factors. It also will be useful to leverage SM to provide mental health care and surveillance of mental health concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to outline important themes, according to Finnish early childhood education researchers, that need to be addressed in researching and educating children under three years of age in Finland. To achieve this aim, the article divides into two parts. First, we present and discuss the results of a small-scale survey, conducted in Finland, on the views of key informants in the early childhood education units of Finnish universities. Second, the views presented in the survey are used as a starting point to introduce two ongoing qualitative case studies on the everyday life of toddlers in Finnish day care centres. In line with the survey findings, these case studies emphasize in particular the importance of the relational, social nature of children, the educational community, and the sensitivity of the adult for children’s wellbeing in day care groups.
Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Amara, Samiha; Jaric, Slobodan; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés
Change of direction ability is an essential pre-requisite in team sports athletes. The Illinois change of direction test has been routinely used for testing change of direction ability in soccer players. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Illinois change of direction test in young elite soccer players in terms of its reliability, usefulness and relationship with body size. A total of one hundred and ninety-four male, national-level soccer players were recruited. They were classified into four age groups (U-8, U-10, U-12 and U-14). Participants were tested using the Illinois change of direction test twice, and basic indices of body size were obtained. The Illinois change of direction scores showed high relative and absolute reliability in all age groups (all intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.91, and the standard error of measurement was direction test could detect small changes in performance in the U-10 and U-12 groups. However, it could only detect moderate changes in performance in the U-8 and U-14 groups. Although the Illinois change of direction test detected significant performance differences among groups, scores were not significantly related to body size (-0.30 0.05). Taking into account the test's high reliability and the appropriate level of usefulness, these results might support the use of the Illinois change of direction test as a standard measure for quantifying change of direction ability in young soccer players.
Full Text Available Change of direction ability is an essential pre-requisite in team sports athletes. The Illinois change of direction test has been routinely used for testing change of direction ability in soccer players. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Illinois change of direction test in young elite soccer players in terms of its reliability, usefulness and relationship with body size. A total of one hundred and ninety-four male, national-level soccer players were recruited. They were classified into four age groups (U-8, U-10, U-12 and U-14. Participants were tested using the Illinois change of direction test twice, and basic indices of body size were obtained. The Illinois change of direction scores showed high relative and absolute reliability in all age groups (all intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.91, and the standard error of measurement was 0.05. Taking into account the test’s high reliability and the appropriate level of usefulness, these results might support the use of the Illinois change of direction test as a standard measure for quantifying change of direction ability in young soccer players.
The objective of this thesis was to define South Korea as a tourism destination for Finnish travellers. South Korea seems not to be a very popular destination compared to other Asia country for Finnish travellers. This even though Finnair operates daily straight flight to Seoul and there are many business relationships going on between Finland and South Korea. Therefore, the main target respondent of the thesis is Finnish travellers. Research result from Finnish respondents can give evaluatio...
The subject of this thesis project is the integration of exchange students into Finnish social life; the aim is to clarify how foreign students can use their free time when they are in Finland. The author’s main focus in this research was on exchange students at Omnia vocational college. The thesis report includes information about Omnia vocational college and the reasons for students to come to Finland and the problems that they face in terms of time, age, money and integration. The the...
Schorer, Jörg; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph R.
In this manuscript we argue for a broader use of the term ‘relative age effect’ due to the influence of varying development policies on the development of sport expertise. Two studies are presented on basis of data from Schorer, et al. . The first showed clear ‘constant year effects’ in the German handball talent development system. A shift in year groupings for the female athletes resulted in a clear shift of birth year patterns. In the second study we investigated whether the constant year effect in the national talent development system carried over to professional handball. No patterns were observable. Together both studies show that a differentiation of varying effects that often happen simultaneously is necessary to understand the secondary mechanisms behind the development of sport expertise. PMID:23637745
difficult. Unemployment for youth ages 16-19 is historically much higher than unemployment for adults. Unemployment for both youth and adults...this time period. More recently, unemployment has dropped for both youth and adults. However, perceived difficulty has not yet dropped for Whites...report visiting a place at which they want to work. Did You KNOW? Unemployment among youth ages 16-19 is substantively higher for Blacks (28.9
Valimaa, Jussi, Ed.
This book discusses recent changes in Finnish higher education, pinpointing the changes and analyzing what they mean. The chapters are: (1) "GeoPolitical and Cultural Coordinates for Finnish History" (Jussi Valimaa); (2) "A Historical Introduction to Finnish Higher Education" (Jussi Valimaa); (3) "Analysing Massification…
Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu
Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…
Utriainen, Jukka; Marttunen, Miika; Kallio, Eeva; Tynjälä, Päivi
This study investigates the quality of the critical thinking skills of applicants (n = 77) seeking entry to the faculty of educational sciences in a Finnish university and how these skills are associated with the applicant's age, previous higher education experience, and matriculation and entrance examination scores. The data consist of the…
Rouhelo, Anne; Ruoholinna, Tarita
Research synthesized from three studies of the Finnish labor market indicates that a rapidly changing working life in Finland (and the rest of Europe) sets many different challenges for the workforce. In Finland, the population is even more aged than in the other European Union (EU) member states, and the transition of older workers to retirement…
Loukusa, Soile; Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva
This research explores, within the framework of Relevance Theory, how children's ability to answer questions and explain their answers develops between the ages of 3 and 9 years. Two hundred and ten normally developing Finnish-speaking children participated in this study. The children were asked questions requiring processing of inferential…
In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.
Ackard, Diann M; Richter, Sara; Egan, Amber; Cronemeyer, Catherine
Eating disorders (EDs) present across a broad age range, yet little is known about the characteristics and outcome of midlife patients compared to younger patients. Among patients seeking ED treatment who were stratified by age at initial assessment (IA), this study aimed to (1) discern sociodemographic and clinical differences, (2) determine outcome rates, and (3) identify predictors of poor outcome including death. Participants [219 females (12 years or older, 94.1% Caucasian) who completed outcome assessment and 31 known decedents] were stratified by age at IA (<18 as youth, 18-39 as young adult, and ≥40 years as midlife adult). Analyses of variance and chi-square tests identified group differences; ordered logistic regression with stepwise selection identified factors predicting outcome. Midlife adults were more significantly compromised at follow-up compared to youths and young adults, including psychological and physical quality of life, ineffectiveness, interpersonal concerns, and general psychological maladjustment. Midlife adults had the highest rates of poor outcome or death; good outcome was achieved by only 5.9% of midlife adult compared to 14.0% of young adult and 27.5% of youth patients. Older age at IA, alcohol and/or drug misuse, endocrine concerns, and absence of family ED history predicted poor outcome or death. Midlife adults seeking ED treatment have more complex medical and psychological concerns and poorer outcomes than youths and young adults; further exploration is needed to improve treatment outcome. Specialized treatment focusing on quality of life, comorbid medical concerns, interpersonal connection, and emotion regulation is encouraged. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Oberhoffer, Renate; Raschner, Christian
Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age. A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9-14 years) over 2 consecutive years. The exact training exposure (skiing and athletic) was recorded. Relative age and estimated biological maturity status were assessed. Relatively low injury incidence or prevalence (traumatic, 0.86/1,000 hours of training; overuse, 0.28/1,000 hours) and comparably high illness prevalence (2.4/athlete) were reported. The knee was the most commonly affected body part (traumatic injuries 36.5%, overuse injuries 82%). A high number of bone fractures were revealed (46%), while no stress fractures occurred; 66% of the illnesses were respiratory tract infections. No differences were found between males and females, the differing maturity groups, or relative age quartiles. Early-maturing athletes had comparably low traumatic and overuse-injury rates. Relatively younger athletes had low traumatic injury rates. The injury-prevention measures implemented in the training process of youth ski racers seem to contribute to a low incidence of injury. Biological maturity status should be considered in the training process to prevent injuries in late-maturing athletes.
Robič Pikel, Tatjana; Starc, Gregor; Strel, Janko; Kovač, Marjeta; Babnik, Janez; Golja, Petra
Preterm (PT) birth and low birth mass (LBW) can impair growth and development of children and may therefore affect their physical performance up to adulthood. Our aim was to evaluate long-term consequences of prematurity, especially (an)aerobic exercise capacity and agility up to adulthood, by comparing premature and full-term (FT) individuals. From 474 subjects born in 1987, who were enrolled into a longitudinal study, 396 (178 PT and 218 FT (with 127 of them LBW)) were followed-up into their early adulthood. Their mass, respiratory status at birth, and results of SLOfit monitoring system (i.e. results of exercise capacity and agility) were monitored on a yearly basis from their age of 8 to 18years. Data were compared statistically with Student t-test or ANOVA. PT (or LBW) individuals performed aerobic (time of 600-meter run of females) and the majority of anaerobic tests (sit-ups, standing broad jump, and time of 60-meter run, but not bent arm hang) worse (pagility and fine motor tests (arm plate tapping, polygon backwards, and standing reach touch) were performed better (pagility on the long-term scale, therefore, PT children should be encouraged towards more regular participation in physical activities from early childhood onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tyler, Kiley; MacDonald, Megan; Menear, Kristi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N = 17) in comparison to typically developing peers (N = 12). Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005). MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P = .03), while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P = .00), light (P = .00), moderate (P = .00), and total moderate-to-vigorous (P = .01) physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N=17 in comparison to typically developing peers (N=12. Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005. MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P=.03, while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P=.00, light (P=.00, moderate (P=.00, and total moderate-to-vigorous (P=.01 physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.
Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.
These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)
These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)
Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.
This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)
Laframboise, Michelle A; Degraauw, Chris
The role of aerobic physical activity as a standalone treatment in decreasing adiposity in school-aged children and youth has not been well established. To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the efficacy of aerobic physical activity to decrease adiposity in school-aged children and youth. An electronic search strategy was conducted in EBSCO databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL. Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using the Downs and Black checklist. 10 articles met the inclusion criteria in the form of RCTs. Results indicate that five articles had positive results in decreasing adiposity compared to controls and five articles had no change in adiposity compared to controls. There is a paucity of evidence to support aerobic physical activity as a successful standalone treatment for decreasing adiposity. Despite the heterogeneity of the methods there is some evidence to support that school-aged children and youth benefit from aerobic physical activity to decrease adiposity and to limit weight gain.
Racette, Susan B; Yu, Liyang; DuPont, Nicholas C; Clark, B Ruth
Severe obesity is an important and distinct weight status classification that is associated with disease risk and is increasing in prevalence among youth. The ability to graphically present population weight status data, ranging from underweight through severe obesity class 3, is novel and applicable to epidemiologic research, intervention studies, case reports, and clinical care. The aim was to create body mass index (BMI) graphing tools to generate sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs that include severe obesity percentile curves. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention youth reference data sets and weight status criteria to generate the percentile curves. The statistical software environments SAS and R were used to create two different graphing options. This article provides graphing tools for creating sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs for males and females ages 2 to obesity classes 2 and 3, the ability to plot individual data for thousands of children and adolescents on a single graph, and the ability to generate cross-sectional and longitudinal graphs. These new BMI graphing tools will enable investigators, public health professionals, and clinicians to view and present youth weight status data in novel and meaningful ways.
Wethington, H.; Maynard, L.M.; Blanck, H.M.
Background To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9–18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Results Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04–2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8). Conclusion Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs. PMID:23697388
Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L
Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wethington, H; Maynard, L M; Blanck, H M
To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9-18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04-2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8). Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Bernat, Debra H; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D
Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age children in Minnesota responded to telephone surveys in 2006-2007 (63% participation rate), including items regarding general sexuality education, 12 specific topics, the grade level at which each should be taught, and attitudes toward sexuality education. The large majority of parents supported teaching about both abstinence and contraception (comprehensive sexuality education [CSE]; 89.3%), and support was high across all demographic categories of parents. All specific sexuality education topics received majority support (63.4%-98.6%), even those often viewed as controversial. Parents believed most topics should first be taught during the middle school years. Parents held slightly more favorable views on the effectiveness of CSE compared to abstinence-only education, and these views were strongly associated with support for CSE (odds ratio [OR](CSE) = 14.3; OR(abstinence) = 0.11). This study highlights a mismatch between parents' expressed opinions and preferences, and actual sexuality education content as currently taught in the majority of public schools. In light of broad parental support for education that emphasizes multiple strategies for prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (including abstinence), parents should be encouraged to express their opinions on sexuality education to teachers, administrators, and school boards regarding the importance of including a variety of topics and beginning instruction during middle school years or earlier.
Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.
Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijärvi, Anssi R
Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults. Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83 years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen et al. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik et al. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik et al. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen et al. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.
Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina
To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y. N/A. Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Full Text Available BackgroundHeart rate variability (HRV is a non-invasive neurophysiological measure of autonomic nervous system regulation emerging in concussion research. To date, most concussion studies have focused on the university-aged athlete with no research examining healthy active youths. Corroborating changes in HRV alongside traditional subjective self-report measures (concussion symptoms in the non-concussed state provides a foundation for interpreting change following concussion. The objectives were to (1 explore the influence of age and sex on HRV and (2 examine the relationship between HRV and baseline/pre-injury concussion symptom domains (physical, cognitive, emotional, and fatigue in healthy youth athletes.MethodHealthy, youth athletes 13–18 years of age [N = 294, female = 166 (56.5%, male = 128 (43.5%] participated in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, and concussion-like symptoms were collected as part of a baseline/pre-injury assessment. The Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory-SR13 (PCSI-SR13 was used to collect domain scores for physical, cognitive, emotional, and fatigue symptoms. HRV was collected for 24 h. HRV measures included time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50 and frequency (HF, HFnu, LF, LFnu, and total power domain HRV measures. Variables were logarithmically transformed to increase robustness of linear regression models.ResultsOlder youth participants displayed significantly higher HRV compared to younger participants (p < 0.05. Females displayed significantly lower HRV compared to males (p < 0.05. A significant interaction effect between concussion-like symptoms and HRV indicated differential patterns as a function of sex (p < 0.05. Youth athletes who reported more cognitive symptoms had lower HRV (p < 0.05.ConclusionHRV was found to have a significant relationship with a traditional clinical measure (subjective self-report of concussion-like symptoms utilized in concussion assessment and management
The funding of Finnish Universities has been based on a "management by results" strategy since 1991. This paper analyses the effects of this strategy on university management and administration. Empirically the study is based on material collected from four multidisciplinary universities. Theoretically it is based on organization theory…
This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…
The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…
The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…
Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.
This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250
Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Suominen, Sakari; Lahelma, Eero; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri
Despite similar living conditions among the Finnish-speaking majority and the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, the latter is a more advantaged group e.g. in terms of socioeconomic status and health. This study investigated (1) the level of sense of coherence (SOC), (2) the structure of generalized resistance resources (GRRs), and (3) associations of GRRs with SOC among Finnish- and Swedish-speaking Finns. The data derived from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study. The sample comprised 22,937 Finnish men and women aged 20-54, including an additional sample from the Swedish-speaking population (n = 2,967). The response rate was 40%. Ordinary regression analysis was used. Swedish-speaking women scored 0.9 (p = 0.005) and men 0.6 (p = 0.05) points higher on SOC scale compared with Finnish-speaking respondents. The minor difference in the SOC level between the language groups was explained by Finnish speakers' worse psychosocial living conditions in childhood and working conditions in adulthood. Only one interaction was found: parents' divorce during childhood was associated with a significant decrease of SOC scores only for Finnish speakers. Otherwise the same GRRs had similar effects on both Finnish- and Swedish-speaking men's and women's SOC. The only key difference between Finnish- and Swedish-speaking Finns concerned the unequal distribution of GRRs. An increase in GRRs among Finnish speakers would probably strengthen their SOC. However, the slightly stronger level of SOC among Swedish-speaking compared with Finnish-speaking Finns is unlikely to explain the possible differences in well-being between the two language groups.
Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle
Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Peters, J F
Some of the functions and dysfunctions of youth employment in contemporary society are discussed. The focus then shifts to a third variable: family dynamics. The research indicates that youth unemployment prolongs residence with parents. The younger the youth, the more tolerant are the parents of the unemployment. It was also found that a daughter's lack of employment in the summer months is more acceptable than a son's; that debts are part of the lifestyle of youth after age 18; that males incur more debts than do females; and that parents are the major source of financial loans.
Full Text Available Lisa Müller,1 Carolin Hildebrandt,1,2 Erich Müller,3 Renate Oberhoffer,2 Christian Raschner1 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Department of Sport and Health Science, Preventative Pediatrics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria Background: Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age.Subjects and methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9–14 years over 2 consecutive years. The exact training exposure (skiing and athletic was recorded. Relative age and estimated biological maturity status were assessed.Results: Relatively low injury incidence or prevalence (traumatic, 0.86/1,000 hours of training; overuse, 0.28/1,000 hours and comparably high illness prevalence (2.4/athlete were reported. The knee was the most commonly affected body part (traumatic injuries 36.5%, overuse injuries 82%. A high number of bone fractures were revealed (46%, while no stress fractures occurred; 66% of the illnesses were respiratory tract infections. No differences were found between males and females, the differing maturity groups, or relative age quartiles. Early-maturing athletes had comparably low traumatic and overuse-injury rates. Relatively younger athletes had low traumatic injury rates.Conclusion: The injury-prevention measures implemented in the training process of youth ski racers seem to contribute to a low incidence of injury. Biological
Full Text Available AIM – The legal gambling age in Finland was raised from 15 to 18 years in 2010, but slot machines were given a transition period that ended with the full law coming into effect on 1 July 2011. The widespread accessibility of slot machines and their popularity among youth led us to consider how age limit was enforced in the Finnish gambling monopoly system and to analyse how underage gambling on slot machines changed after the raising of the minimum age.
Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.
governmentalization of Europe. Central questions are ‘who’ and ‘what’ the problematization of youth as political technology is about. Drawing on homologies in the coding of citizen, independent of age, the authors claim that problematization of youth is directed to all of us. We are all, in the name of youth...... Papers, scripts or memos concerning political arenas such as youth and education policies and the Bologna process. Theoretically the article draws on insights from post-Foucauldian traditions with a focus on mentalities, subject constructions, technologies and practices operating within the ongoing......, expected to constantly ‘adapt’ ourselves in compliance with the aim of the Lisbon process. Furthermore, as the Union itself is coded in a similar way, we may even claim that the EU, literally speaking, appears as a youth project in itself. Thus, the notion that youth can be seen as political rationality...
Korhonen, Kaarina; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka
There is inconsistent evidence for social differentials in the risk of depression in youth, and little is known about how education at this age influences the risk. We assess how parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and education predict depression from late adolescence to early adulthood, a time of major educational transitions. We followed a nationally representative 20 % sample of Finnish adolescents born in 1986-1990 (n = 60,829) over two educational transitory stages at the age of 17-19 and 20-23 covering the years 2003-2011. We identified incident depression using health care register data. We estimated the risk of depression by parental SEP and personal education using Cox regression, adjusting for family structure, parental depression and the individual's own psychiatric history. Lower parental income was associated with up to a twofold risk of depression. This effect was almost fully attributable to other parental characteristics or mediated by the individual's own education. Educational differences in risk were attenuated following adjustment for prior psychiatric history. Adjusted for all covariates, not being in education increased the risk up to 2.5-fold compared to being enrolled in general upper secondary school at the age of 17-19 and in tertiary education at the age of 20-23. Vocationally oriented women experienced a 20 % higher risk than their academically oriented counterparts in both age groups. Education constitutes a social pathway from parental SEP to the risk of depression in youth, whereby educational differences previously shown in adults are observed already before the establishment of adulthood SEP.
Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.
Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus
Leonard, Laurence B; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva
Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI.
Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Moreau, Julien; Hyttinen, Outi
and aeolian). They are all – except for the lowermost, deeply weathered till – interpreted to be of Mid- or Late Weichselian/Holocene age. Five OSL samples from fluvial sediments give ages ranging from 55 to 35 ka, indicating two MIS 3 ice-free intervals of unknown duration. The Mid-Weichselian interstadial......Finnish Lapland is known as an area where numerous sites with sediments from Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods occur. Recent sedimentological observations and dating call for reinterpretation of the record, which shows a complicated Mid-Weichselian ice-sheet evolution within the ice......-divide zone. Here, a large, previously unstudied section from a former Hannukainen iron mine was investigated sedimentologically and dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Ten sedimentary units were identified displaying a variety of depositional environments (glacial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial...
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
BACKGROUND Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. METHODS Using 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health data, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with excessive screen time among 6 to 11- and 12 to 17-year-olds on a typical weekday. For 12 to 17-year-olds only, we used logistic regression to examine the odds of obesity using the same variables as above, with the addition of screen time. RESULTS Overall, 20.8% of 6 to 11-year-olds and 26.1% of 12 to 17-year-olds had excessive screen time. For both age groups, having a bedroom TV was significantly associated with excessive screen time. For the older age group, the dual scenario of excessive screen time with a bedroom TV had the strongest association with obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.9, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS Given the similar risk factors for excess screen time and having a TV in the bedroom, a public health challenge exists to design interventions to reduce screen time among school-aged youth. PMID:23834609
Wethington, Holly; Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou
Among school-aged youth, we sought to identify characteristics associated with (1) exceeding screen time recommendations (ie, television/videos/video games more than 2 hours/weekday), and (2) exceeding screen time recommendations, the presence of a television in the bedroom, and obesity. Using 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with excessive screen time among 6 to 11- and 12 to 17-year-olds on a typical weekday. For 12 to 17-year-olds only, we used logistic regression to examine the odds of obesity using the same variables as above, with the addition of screen time. Overall, 20.8% of 6 to 11-year-olds and 26.1% of 12 to 17-year-olds had excessive screen time. For both age groups, having a bedroom TV was significantly associated with excessive screen time. For the older age group, the dual scenario of excessive screen time with a bedroom TV had the strongest association with obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.9, 3.2). Given the similar risk factors for excess screen time and having a TV in the bedroom, a public health challenge exists to design interventions to reduce screen time among school-aged youth. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S
Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).
The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…
Loeber, Rolf; Menting, Barbara; Lynam, Donald R.; Moffitt, Terri E.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Stallings, Rebecca; Farrington, David P.; Pardini, Dustin
Objective: This article first summarizes key research findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study from 1987 to the present, and focuses on delinquency in 1,517 young men who have been followed up from late childhood into their 20s. Second, the article addresses how indicators of self-control prospectively predict later offending, and whether the…
Herrick, Kirsten A.; Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Carlson, Susan A.; Fulton, Janet E.
Excessive screen-time behaviors, such as using a computer and watching TV, for more than 2 hours daily have been linked with elevated blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol, and being overweight or obese among youth. Additionally, screen-time behavior established in adolescence has been shown to track into adulthood. The National Heart, Lung,…
This paper draws on a case study of one youth activist, and explores connections between social media activism, identity development, and critical education. Justin Rodriguez, a 17-year-old high school student in Newark, New Jersey, leveraged social media and texting as organizing tools and garnered support for a school walkout to protest…
Giesen, J. Martin; Cavenaugh, Brenda S.
Introduction: Given the low rate of closure of cases for employment, the study presented here analyzed the characteristics of consumers and services that predict competitive employment for youths with visual impairments who are making the transition from secondary education to employment in the vocation rehabilitation program. Methods: Using data…
Hanna, Steven E.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Walter, Stephen D.; Avery, Lisa; Russell, Dianne J.
This paper reports the construction of gross motor development curves for children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to assess whether function is lost during adolescence. We followed children previously enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study for an additional 4 years, as they entered adolescence and young adulthood. The…
Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu
Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…
VanHeerwaarden, Nicole; Ferguson, Genevieve; Abi-Jaoude, Alexxa; Johnson, Andrew; Hollenberg, Elisa; Chaim, Gloria; Cleverley, Kristin; Eysenbach, Gunther; Henderson, Joanna; Levinson, Andrea; Robb, Janine; Sharpe, Sarah; Voineskos, Aristotle; Wiljer, David
Seventy percent of lifetime cases of mental illness emerge before the age of 24 years, but many youth are unable to access the support and services they require in a timely and appropriate way. With most youth using the internet, electronic health (eHealth) interventions are promising tools for reaching this population. Through participatory design research (PDR) engagement methods, Thought Spot, a Web- and mobile-based platform, was redeveloped to facilitate access to mental health services by transition-aged youth (aged 16-29 years) in postsecondary settings. The aim of this study was to describe the process of engaging with postsecondary students through the PDR approaches, with the ultimate goal of optimizing the Thought Spot platform. Consistent with the PDR approaches, five student-led workshops, attended by 41 individuals, were facilitated to obtain feedback regarding the platform's usability and functionality and its potential value in a postsecondary setting. Various creative engagement activities were delivered to gather experiences and opinions, including semistructured focus groups, questionnaires, personas, journey mapping, and a world café. Innovative technological features and refinements were also brainstormed during the workshops. By using PDR methods of engagement, participants knew that their ideas and recommendations would be applied. There was also an overall sense of respect and care integrated into each group, which facilitated an exchange of ideas and suggestions. The process of engaging with students to redesign the Thought Spot platform through PDR has been effective. Findings from these workshops will significantly inform new technological features within the app to enable positive help-seeking behaviors among students. These behaviors will be further explored in the second phase that involves a randomized controlled trial. ©Nicole VanHeerwaarden, Genevieve Ferguson, Alexxa Abi-Jaoude, Andrew Johnson, Elisa Hollenberg, Gloria Chaim
Kaukonen, Pälvi; Salmelin, Raili K; Luoma, Ilona; Puura, Kaija; Rutanen, Mervi; Pukuri, Tarja; Tamminen, Tuula
As a part of the Finnish National Health Care Project, to develop and validate nationwide standardised criteria for assessing the need for non-urgent child psychiatric specialised medical care (SMC). The Finnish criteria tool, a cutpoint measure indicating access to SMC, was developed on the basis of the Western Canada Waiting List Criteria Tool. The Finnish criteria were widely discussed at national level and finally confirmed by a national child psychiatric consensus meeting. The testing data included 949 new cases, aged 5-18 years, from SMC, family guidance clinics, primary health care and child protection. The Finnish Child Psychiatric Criteria Tool covers the entire case-mix of child psychiatric disorders. Danger to self or others and psychotic symptoms have been combined into a threshold item. This alone suffices to indicate access to SMC. Sensitivity of the tool was 82% and specificity 74% with cutoff point 16/75. Child psychiatric non-urgent SMC is provided in accordance with national criteria, publicly accessible in the Internet. The criteria development process evoked multisectoral discussion on organising child mental health services and, by determining the need of treatment requiring SMC, defined health policy. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection
Full Text Available During the last decades the idea of entrepreneurship in public institutions has been the subject of intense debates, activities and academic research. The scopes of our article are to briefly underline the importance of developing an entrepreneurial spirit by presenting a case study from a Finnish local public administration and making aware the proactive aspect in the process of managing public institutions in Romania. Our hypotheses have been mainly of an interrogative nature. Hypothesis testing was achieved through the analysis of statistical data and conducting a set of sociological interviews with key people from Finnish institutions which were used in the survey. The results of the research emphasize that where there is an entrepreneurial behaviour with the local administration management, the community undergoes a process of conservation and development. The way in which they relate to community partners (such as entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, citizens is essential to the entrepreneurial spirit within the local public institution.
The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...
Workforce diversity has been gaining popularity in the US since the 1960s. Giant companies worldwide have realized the benefits of workforce diversity despite having to deal with the challenges it brings. This study examines the workforce diversity situation in Finland through exploiting the perspectives of Finnish SMEs on workforce diversity. The focus will be on their experiences of a diverse workforce, benefits a diverse workforce brings and what challenges the SMEs are facing in relation ...
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
Kumpulainen, M; Anderson, H; Svevar, T; Kangasvuo, I; Donner, J; Pohjoismäki, J
Finnish Spitz is 130-year-old breed and has been highly popular in Finland throughout its history. Nordic Spitz is very similar to Finnish Spitz by origin and use, but is a relatively recent breed with much smaller population size. To see how breed age and breeding history have influenced the current population, we performed comprehensive population genetic analysis using pedigree data of 28,119 Finnish and 9,009 Nordic Spitzes combined with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 135 Finnish and 110 Nordic Spitzes. We found that the Finnish Spitz has undergone repeated male bottlenecks resulting in dramatic loss of genetic diversity, reflected by 20 effective founders (f a ) and mean heterozygosity (Hz) of 0.313. The realized effective population size in the breed based on pedigree analysis (N¯ec) is 168, whereas the genetic effective population size (N eg ) computed the decay of linkage disequilibrium (r 2 ) is only 57 individuals. Nordic Spitz, although once been near extinction, has not been exposed to similar repeated bottlenecks than Finnish Spitz and had f a of 27 individuals. However, due to the smaller total population size, the breed has also smaller effective population size than Finnish Spitz (N¯ec = 98 and N eg = 49). Interestingly, the r 2 data show that the effective population size has contracted dramatically since the establishment of the breed, emphasizing the role of breed standards as constrains for the breeding population. Despite the small population size, Nordic Spitz still maintains SNP heterozygosity levels similar to mixed breed dogs (mean Hz = 0.409). Our study demonstrates that although pedigree analyses cannot provide estimates of the present diversity within a breed, the effective population sizes inferred from them correlate with the genotyping results. The genetic relationships of the northern Spitz breeds and the benefits of the open breed registry are discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies has reported a positive impact of meditation on cerebral aging. However, the underlying mechanisms for these seemingly brain-protecting effects are not well-understood. This may be due to the fact, at least partly, that systematic empirical meditation research has emerged only recently as a field of scientific scrutiny. Thus, on the one hand, critical questions remain largely unanswered; and on the other hand, outcomes of existing research require better integration to build a more comprehensive and holistic picture. In this article, we first review theories and mechanisms pertaining to normal (brain aging, specifically focusing on telomeres, inflammation, stress regulation, and macroscopic brain anatomy. Then, we summarize existing research integrating the developing evidence suggesting that meditation exerts positive effects on (brain aging, while carefully discussing possible mechanisms through which these effects may be mediated.
Sally Dunlop; Becky Freeman; Sandra C. Jones
The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy ...
Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu
cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative......Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...
D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of
The Finnish EMU buffers consist of elements built into the unemployment insurance and employment pension systems, which aim to stabilise employer contributions and employment during economic fluctuations in the EMU age. The paper simulates the role of these buffers in a hypothetical recession caused by an adverse asymmetric shock. The results show that the buffers play only a modest role in stabilising employment, although their importance increases as the shocks to the economy become greater...
Lallukka Tea; Sares-Jäske Laura; Kronholm Erkki; Sääksjärvi Katri; Lundqvist Annamari; Partonen Timo; Rahkonen Ossi; Knekt Paul
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. METHODS: We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000-2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30-79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-rel...
Muthuri, Stella K.; Francis, Claire E.; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M.; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Sampson, Margaret; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts. Objective This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included. Results A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South) of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9%) studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status. Conclusions This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research
Stella K Muthuri
Full Text Available Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity has increased considerably in recent years. The transition to higher rates of overweight/obesity has been well documented in high income countries; however, consistent or representative data from lower income countries is scarce. It is therefore pertinent to assess if rates of overweight/obesity are also increasing in lower income countries, to inform public health efforts.This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence for an overweight/obesity transition occurring in school-aged children and youth in Sub Saharan Africa.Studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, Embase, Africa Index Medicus, Global Health, Geobase, and EPPI-Centre electronic databases. Studies that used subjective or objective metrics to assess body composition in apparently healthy or population-based samples of children and youth aged 5 to 17 years were included.A total of 283 articles met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 68 were used for quantitative synthesis. The four regions (West, Central, East, and South of Sub Saharan Africa were well represented, though only 11 (3.9% studies were nationally representative. Quantitative synthesis revealed a trend towards increasing proportions of overweight/obesity over time in school-aged children in this region, as well as a persistent problem of underweight. Weighted averages of overweight/obesity and obesity for the entire time period captured were 10.6% and 2.5% respectively. Body composition measures were found to be higher in girls than boys, and higher in urban living and higher socioeconomic status children compared to rural populations or those of lower socioeconomic status.This review provides evidence for an overweight/obesity transition in school-aged children in Sub Saharan Africa. The findings of this review serve to describe the region with respect to the growing concern of childhood overweight/obesity, highlight research gaps, and inform interventions
In 2007, World Development. Report, which focuses on 'the next generation', expands the definition of youth to ... to the age of 40 years to define youth as people from ages 19 to 40 years. Over the years, many .... categorised into three levels using their mean scores and standard deviation; based on the assumption that the ...
Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Lazarus, Melanie; Cullen, Karen; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom
Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions are specific plans to facilitate goal attainment. Redefining goal setting to include implementation intentions may be an effective way to increase effectiveness. Video games offer a controlled venue for conducting behavioral research and testing hypotheses to identify mechanisms of effect. This report describes the protocol that guided the design and evaluation of Squire's Quest! II, a video game aimed to increase child fruit and vegetable consumption. Squire's Quest! II is a 10-episode videogame promoting fruit and vegetable consumption to 4th and 5th grade children (approximately 9-11 year old youths). A four group randomized design (n=400 parent/child dyads) was used to systematically test the effect of two types of implementation intentions (action, coping) on fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption of 4th and 5th graders. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately post game-play, and 3 months later. Child was the unit of assignment. Three dietary recalls were collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2009). Psychosocial and process data were also collected. To our knowledge, this is the first research to explore the effect of implementation intentions on child fruit and vegetable goal attainment and consumption. This intervention will contribute valuable information regarding whether implementation intentions are effective with elementary age children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01004094.
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken
The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…
Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi
This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…
Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…
Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638
Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T
To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....
Kowalski, Robin M; Giumetti, Gary W; Schroeder, Amber N; Lattanner, Micah R
Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The near-ubiquitous use of social media among adolescents and young adults creates opportunities for both corporate brands and health promotion agencies to target and engage with young audiences in unprecedented ways. Traditional media is known to have both a positive and negative influence on youth health behaviours, but the impact of social media is less well understood. This paper first summarises current evidence around adolescents’ exposure to the promotion and marketing of unhealthy products such as energy dense and nutrient poor food and beverages, alcohol, and tobacco on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. We explore emerging evidence about the extent of exposure to marketing of these harmful products through social media platforms and potential impacts of exposure on adolescent health. Secondly, we present examples of health-promoting social media campaigns aimed at youth, with the purpose of describing innovative campaigns and highlighting lessons learned for creating effective social media interventions. Finally, we suggest implications for policy and practice, and identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research.
Silven, Maarit; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Voeten, Marinus
The course of language acquisition from infancy to public primary school was followed in a sample of 56 Finnish children to examine precursors to reading at first grade. Structural equation modeling of continuity suggested effects from growth in early vocabulary to mastery of inflectional forms at preschool age. The early language directly…
Yliherva, Anneli; Loukusa, Soile; Vaisanen, Raija; Pyper, Amanda; Moilanen, Irma
The communication skills of typically developing Finnish-speaking children between three and six years of age were examined using the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC). The differences between the boys and girls were also investigated. Results showed that the performance of the three-year-old children differed on the Speech subscale of the…
Mikkanen, P.; Haemeri, K.; Kauppinen, E.
The Fifth Finnish Aerosol Symposium was held June 1-3, 1993. Symposium is jointly organized by FAAR, Aerosol Technology Group of Technical Research Centre of Finland and Helsinki University, Department of Physics. Aerosols, the suspensions of solid and liquid particles and gases, are receiving increasing importance in many areas of science and technology. These include industrial hygiene, ambient and indoor air pollution, pollution control technologies, cloud physics, nuclear safety engineering, combustion science and engineering, clean manufacturing technologies and material processing. The importance of aerosol issues during the development of advanced fuel conversion and material processing technologies can be realized when looking at the numerous papers presented on these topics at the Symposium
The Finnish TRIGA reactor has been in operation since March 1962. There are still 57 original Al-clad fuel elements in the core. So far we have had only two fuel cladding failures in 1981 and 1988. The first one was an Al-clad element and the second one a SS-clad. The low rate of fuel cladding failures has made it possible to use continuously also the Al-clad fuel elements. Although some conventional irradiations of certain type have been repeated successfully tens of times, new and unexpected incidents can still take place. As an example an event of a leaking irradiation capsule is described
The main question of this study concerns the regulatory reform i.e. formation and design of new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy. The research question is divided into two parts: (1) How have the new policy instruments evolved and been designed (2) What are the political, administrative, historical and ideological factors underlying the processes of policy instrument formation and design? Three main approaches for analysis are introduced: the model of policy instrument choice by Linder and Peters, the model of policy explanation by Jaenicke, and the concept of governmentality developed by Foucault. Within the developed theoretical framework, the general societal background of regulatory reform is composed of the various features of 'environmental governmentality'. The research questions are divided into two empirical research tasks. (1) Analysis of the historical development of Finnish environmental governing and policy style provides background information about the national institutional settings and policy cultures in order to understand the role of the new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy during last two decades. Here, Finnish environmental policy divides into consensual pollution policies and adversial nature conservation. Four main periods of environmental governmentality in Finland is presented: the early nature conservation initiatives (1800-1939), the neglect of environmental issues (1945-1969), the environmental institutionalisation (1970-1986), and the regulatory reform (1987-). (2) The contextual case studies concerns: the drafting of the EIA Act in 1982-1994; the formation of the carbon tax policy in 1989-1996; and the implementation of voluntary environmental agreements in 1987-99. The study shows that regulatory reform has not been an easy policy process in Finland. There has been no common environmental governmentality behind the on-going regulatory reform. The new policy instruments have been
Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.
The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...
Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Leonard, Laurence B; Mäkinen, Leena; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) vary widely in their ability to use tense/agreement inflections depending on the type of language being acquired, a fact that current accounts of SLI have tried to explain. Finnish provides an important test case for these accounts because: (1) verbs in the first and second person permit null subjects whereas verbs in the third person do not; and (2) tense and agreement inflections are agglutinating and thus one type of inflection can appear without the other. Probes were used to compare the verb inflection use of Finnish-speaking children with SLI, and both age-matched and younger typically developing children. The children with SLI were less accurate, and the pattern of their errors did not match predictions based on current accounts of SLI. It appears that children with SLI have difficulty learning complex verb inflection paradigms apart from any problem specific to tense and agreement.
Kaarina S. Reini
Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.
Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.
Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.
Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.
O'Connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; McCartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age three. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age three and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes.
Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles
We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....
Psychological and sociomedical unemployment research have become an important feature of public concern in the industrialised world. This paper focuses on research into youth unemployment and health effects from an international perspective and investigates more closely the following areas: Unemployment and health: research and the political public Youth unemployment: extent and societal coping Young and unemployed--a special problem? a. Skill utilization and social support b. Psychiatric morbidity c. Vulnerability and age d. "Americanization" of youth The demand for a "social guarantee"
Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.
OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577
Bergman, Ulf Michael
measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU......This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...
This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto
Facial aging is a complex process individualized by interaction with exogenous and endogenous factors. The upper lip is one of the facial components by which facial attractiveness is defined. Upper lip aging is significantly influenced by maxillary bone and teeth. Aging of the cutaneous part can be aggravated by solar radiation and smoking. We provide a review about minimally invasive techniques for correction of aging signs of the upper lip with a tailored approach to patient's characteristics. The treatment is based upon use of fillers, laser, and minor surgery.
Matthews, Nicole L; Malligo, Amanda; Smith, Christopher J
Little is known about specific adaptive functioning impairments in intellectually-able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In adolescents (n = 22) and young adults (n = 22) matched on composite IQ scores, this study examined profiles of cognitive and adaptive functioning, and caregiver responses on individual Vineland-II items. Adaptive functioning standard scores were significantly lower than IQ scores, and the adult group had significantly lower adaptive functioning standard scores than the adolescent group. Examination of caregiver responses to individual Vineland-II items identified more than 100 potential intervention targets. Differences favoring the adult group were observed on only 16 items across all three adaptive functioning domains, suggesting that little skill development is occurring during the transition to adulthood. Future research will examine the relevance of identified intervention targets to optimal outcomes. Autism Res 2017, 10: 2023-2036. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability demonstrated impaired adaptive functioning skills (i.e., age appropriate skills necessary for independent living). Development of adaptive functioning skills appears to slow with age among individuals without intellectual disability. Findings clarify the specific adaptive functioning skills that transition-aged youth with ASD have difficulty completing independently and will inform the development of interventions to increase the likelihood of independent living in adulthood. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria
Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.
Zivicnjak, Miroslav; Smolej Narancić, Nina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Franke, Doris; Hrenović, Jasna; Bisof, Vesna; Tomas, Zeljka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana
In a cross-sectional study of growth, 5,260 healthy children of both sexes from Zagreb (Croatia) aged 2 to 18 years were measured. Six transversal body dimensions were studied: biacromial, transverse chest, antero-posterior chest, biiliocristal, bicondylar humerus and bicondylar femur diamters. A significant increase in body diameters has been observed until the age of 14 to 15 in girls and until the age of 16 in boys, showing that girls have a 1 to 2 years shorter period of growth. Compared to boys of the same age, they achieved larger amounts of final transversal bone size throughout the whole growth period. The most pronounced example was the knee diameter that in girls attained 95% of adult size as early as the age of 10. In both genders, the adult size is achieved earlier in widths of the extremities than in those of the trunk. The studied transversal body segments showed different growth dynamics, which is gender-specific. While sexual dimorphism in pelvic and shoulder diameters emerged with pubertal spurt, gender differences in chest and extremities' diameters started early in life. In all ages, boys had larger chest, elbow and knee diameters. In pubertal age boys gained a significantly larger biacromial diameter (from the age of 13 onwards), while girls exceeded them in biiliocristal diameter (from 10 to 14 years). The findings of gender differences were compared to those reported for other European populations and their growth patters were discussed comparing viewpoints.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;
The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these
Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu
Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.
Siponkoski, Sini-Tuuli; Wilson, Lindsay; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Koskinen, Sanna
To evaluate health-related quality of life of traumatic brain injury patients who have received intensive multidisciplinary residential rehabilitation. To examine the psychometric characteristics of the Finnish Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire. A total of 157 adults with TBI, up to 15 years post-injury, who had been treated in the Käpylä Rehabilitation Centre, Helsinki, Finland. Functional status was assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. Emotional state was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Health-related quality of life was measured using a generic measure (Short Form-36) and the QOLIBRI. Quality of life was related to depression, amount of help needed, anxiety, education level and age at injury. Quality of life was not associated with time since injury, but a paradoxical relationship was found with injury severity. Internal consistency (alpha = 0.79-0.95) and test-retest reliability (rtt = 0.75-0.87) of the Finnish QOLIBRI met standard psychometric criteria. Quality of life remained relatively stable in the long term. Milder injuries were associated with lower life satisfaction, and careful follow-up is recommended to target patients in special need. This study confirms the reliability and validity of the Finnish QOLIBRI.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
Kinnunen, Jaana Maarit; Ollila, Hanna; El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Pere, Lasse Antero; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele
A wide range of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now on the market. We studied e-cigarette awareness and use, determinants and sources of e-cigarettes, the e-liquids used in them and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements among adolescents in Finland. Among smokers, we studied the association of e-cigarette use and interest in smoking cessation. Data were obtained from a national survey of 12-18-year-old Finnish adolescents in 2013 (N=3535, response rate 38%). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Of the respondents, 85.3% knew what e-cigarettes were; 17.4% had tried them. E-liquids with nicotine were used most often (65.7%); also those who had never tried conventional cigarettes had used them. Of e-cigarette ever users, 8.3% had never tried smoking. Parents' high level of education, being in employment, and intact family protected against children's e-cigarette use. In the final model, daily smoking (OR 41.35; 95% CI 25.2 to 67.8), snus use (2.96; 2.4-4.0), waterpipe use (2.21; 1.6-3.0), children's vocational education (2.06; 1.4-3.1) and poor school performance (1.92; 1.4-3.0) were associated with e-cigarette experimentation. Those smokers with most experience of e-cigarettes were least likely to consider smoking cessation. Awareness and experimentation with e-cigarettes are high among adolescents, especially in older age groups and boys. Nicotine e-liquids are easy to acquire for youth. Having similar risk factors, e-cigarette use seems to follow the model of conventional smoking initiation. Among adolescent smokers, use of e-cigarettes does not clearly relate to interest in smoking cessation. Preventive policies are needed to protect the youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.
Jenifer K. McGuire
Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.
Rask, S; Sainio, P; Castaneda, A E; Härkänen, T; Stenholm, S; Koponen, P; Koskinen, S
Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29-64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing). The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 %) and Kurdish origin men (32 %) and women (57 %) compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5-12 %). In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7-17 %) was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish), were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07-6.29, Kurds OR 7.40; 95 % CI 4.65-11.77). This study demonstrates
Full Text Available As online media has become an increasingly important part of youths’ daily lives, it is critical for the field to explore questions related to youth online media use in order to support youth workers, youth development practice and programming. Using a national sample of youth age 13-22 (N = 585, the current study explored demographic differences in youth online media use, and examined associations between youth demographics, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, and likelihood of being a frequent user of online activities. Although youth reported being frequent users of online media, Internet use was not the same for all youth. Online media use differed significantly by youth age, gender, race, and family relationship quality. The findings remind the field to consider the young people we are working with and how they use online media in their daily lives.
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Turnstedt, Clara Johanna Anneli
administrable assessment tool is crucial for identifying youth suffering from anxiety disorders. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). A total of 667 youth from community schools......Early identification of anxiety among youth is required to prevent them from going unrecognised and untreated by mental health professionals. A precise identification of the young person's primary difficulty is also required to guide treatment programs. Availability of a valid and easily....... The study provides convincing evidence that the RCADS-(DAN) is a valid assessment tool for screening anxiety in Danish youth....
Tubić Tatjana; Đorđić Višnja
Considering that self-perception of competence in the relevant domains is important for understanding of individual’s behavior and achievement, the study analyzed the effects of age and gender on global self-worth and domain-specific selfperceptions. The cross-sectional study included 1130 participants of age range 8-23 (520 males and 610 females). The participants were tested by the equivalent forms of six subscales from ‘Self-Perception Profile for Childr...
Salonen, Anne H.; Alho, Hannu; Castr?n, Sari
Abstract Background Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15–74. Methods Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were me...
Full Text Available AIMS - Starting from the notion of the Finnish “non-medical approach” in the handling of alcohol and drug problems, this article analyses expressions of the medicalisation of drug problems and drug users in Finnish social work and specialised substance abuse treatment. The article focuses on the first drug wave, in the 1960s, and the second, at the end of the 1990s. DESIGN - The data consists of all texts on illegal drugs found in the years 1968-1972 and 1997-2001 in two leading journals of social work, one from the social care and social service field, the other issued by the key provider of specialist substance abuse treatment. The texts were systematically analysed (author(s, problem descriptions, suggested solutions, and words used for the problem and the drug user. RESULTS - In both periods, we found in the journals a social perspective on drugs and drug problems. There is more emphasis on prevention and more optimism on the possibilities of prevention in the first than in the second period. During the first period the call for medicine or medical solutions are few and the medical voices rare. Medical expertise gets more space in both journals in the second period. The predominant understanding of the problem changes from drugs as part of a new youth culture, possibly an epidemic in the first period, to a dependence/ addiction in the second. The description of the user shifts from a young person to a (marginalised dependent or addict. The proposed solutions in the 1960s are (youth focused social policy and social change, while the 1990s solutions highlight refined treatment and more specific interventions. The society seems difficult to change, and so do the established institutions. CONCLUSIONS - The medicalisation of the Finnish perspective on drugs in the 1990s is expressed through a narrowing of perspective on illegal drugs as social problems. While present, the social perspective is impotent.
In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...
Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out through separate tasks related to development of non-destructive measurement methods (NDA methods) for verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to a Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English. (editor)
Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out through separate tasks related to development of non-destructive measurement methods (NDA methods) for verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to a Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English. (editor)
The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...
Full Text Available Health behaviors such as an adequate amount of physical activity, psychological welfare, maintaining a proper diet and avoiding stimulants affects people’s health and allows for its proper maintenance. The aim was to evaluation of health behaviors tendencies amongst Polish youth and determination of the impact of social changes in Poland. Trends of selected health habits were presented on analysis data of ESPAD and HBSC research conducted amongst 13–15 years old teenagers. Between 1995–2003 there was a rapid increase of numbers of teenagers who began to smoke cigarettes under the age of 13 (36–40%, and a significantly large increase was observed amongst female teenagers (26–31%. Between 2003 and 2011 a decline in numbers of teenagers who smoke cigarettes over a factor of 14% for boys and 9% for girls was observed. Most commonly consumed alcohols amongst teenagers were beer, wine and then vodka. Numbers of teenagers becoming intoxicated with alcohol rose (35% for females, and 27% for males. Between 1995–2003 an upward trend was observed regarding the consumption of psychoactive substances amongst teenagers under the age of 13, usage of those substances amongst teenagers drops in the coming years, with the exception of marihuana. Level of physical activity amongst inhabitants of Poland declined; simultaneously number of people spending their time in front of the computer screen increased (over five times amongst females. Numbers of Polish teenagers becoming overweight and obese increased up to 10% for males.
Karvonen, Marjo; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Saari, Antti; Dunkel, Leo
In the evaluation of the growth of head circumference (HC), charts depicting normal growth are of paramount importance. Current Finnish HC growth charts are based on data from only 130 children born 1953-1964. As a secular trend in HC growth has been reported, we updated the HC charts using a large sample of contemporary HC data. Mixed cross-sectional HC data of 19,715 healthy subjects aged 0-7 years were collected from primary health care providers. References for HC for age and HC/height ratio for age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). Increased HC for age was seen particularly after 2 years of age in both genders compared to the 1953-1964 reference. The SD for HC was remarkably larger in the 1953-1964 reference. The proportion of 1986-2008 reference subjects exceeding the +2 SD limit of the 1953-1964 reference was much bigger than the proportion below -2 SD. Because of the secular change in HC growth, the HC reference has to be renewed periodically. The new Finnish reference for HC for age should be implemented for monitoring HC growth of children in Finland.
Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Tabak, Izabela
1. To examine the prevalence of selected risk factors for atherosclerosis: overweight, tobacco smoking, low physical activity, psychological distress and type A personality (characterized by tenseness, impatience, competitiveness, and aggressiveness) in adolescents and to assess the frequency the coexistence of risk factors (≥3) in relation to gender, age and school type. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of youth aged 16 and 18 years (N=2983) in 8 voivodeships in Poland. The frequency of five atherosclerosis risk factors and their coexistence (≥3) was examined using self-reported questionnaires, in relation to gender, age and school type. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the variables (gender, age and school type) on odds ratios of risk factor coexistence. Low physical activity was the most common risk factor, statistically more frequent in students from Basic Vocational Schools than in other school types (pSchools there was also the highest percentage of cigarette smokers (pSchools. The highest risk factor accumulation (≥3) was observed among students from Basic Vocational Schools (40%), significantly more frequent in girls than boys (47.5% and 37.5% respectively). Multivariable analyses show that students from Basic Vocational Schools had twice the odds (OR=2.25, pcoexistence of risk factors for atherosclerosis as compared with students from General Upper Secondary Schools, girls had almost twice as many occurrences (OR=1.83, pschool types requires precise definition of priority health promotion activities depending on school type. 2. Students from Basic Vocational Schools should be the target group for intervention aimed at reducing atherosclerosis risk factors.
Full Text Available Ndola Prata,1 Suzanne Bell,1 Karen Weidert,1 Benjamin Nieto-Andrade,2 Adelaide Carvalho,3 Isilda Neves3 1Bixby Center for Population, Health and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; 2Population Services International Angola, 3National Directorate of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Luanda, Angola Background: The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with current modern contraceptive use among Angolan women. By differentiating according to age groups (15–24 and 25–49 years, this study aimed to help family planning program planners better tailor interventions to improve utilization of modern contraception.Methods: A household survey was used to collect data from 1,545 women of reproductive age living in Luanda Province, Angola. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive behavior and intentions, contraceptive knowledge and use, and attitudes and beliefs regarding contraception and abortion were collected. The analyses were stratified based on age: 15–24 years (youth and 25–49 years (adult. Multivariate logistic regression models were built for each age group, adding different subsets of variables in groups to see how relationships changed across the models.Results: Common factors associated with modern contraceptive use among all ages include education level, perceived contraceptive accessibility, contraceptive knowledge, communication with partner about family planning in last year, and self-efficacy. Exposure to family planning information in the media in the last few months, perceived partner approval of family planning, and marital status were all positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 15–24 years. Meanwhile, receiving information about family planning from a pharmacy in the last year was uniquely associated with current modern contraceptive use among women aged 25–49 years.Conclusion: Young women in
Youths eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. Effective methods are needed to increase and maintain their fruit and vegetable consumption. Goal setting has been an effective behavior change procedure among adults, but has had limited effectiveness among youths. Implementation intentions a...
Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Duarte, J.; Pereira, J.; Rebelo-Goncalves, R.; Figueiredo, A.; Mazzuco, M. A.; Sherar, L. B.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.
This study evaluates the contributions of age, skeletal maturation, body size and composition, training and playing position to the development of agility and dribbling speed in young male soccer players (10-18 years) followed longitudinally. 83 players [defenders (n = 35), midfielders (n = 27),
Harris, Michelle A.; Wetzel, Eunike; Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.
The current study investigated the development of global and domain (academic, physical, same-sex peer relationship, opposite-sex peer relationship) self-esteem from age 10 to 16 in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents. Participants' (N = 674) responses on the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ; Marsh, 2005) II-S showed moderate rank-order…
De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne
Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.
Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John
Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.
Kathleen A. Linzmeier; Cynthia R. LaBella
Investigators from the University of Pittsburg, University of Arkansas, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Boston Children?s Hospital/Harvard Medical College researched the incidence of concussions in youth hockey in relation to age and activity setting.
Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia
In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.
Rubens, Sonia L; Evans, Spencer C; Becker, Stephen P; Fite, Paula J; Tountas, Andrea M
This study investigated the relationship between self-reported time in bed and sleep quality in association with self-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of 285 elementary school students (52 % female) recruited from a rural Midwestern elementary school. Path models were used to estimate proposed associations, controlling for grade level and gender. Curvilinear associations were found between time in bed and anxiety, depressive symptoms, and irritability. Marginal curvilinear trends were found between time in bed and emotion dysregulation, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Sleep quality was negatively associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, irritability, reactive aggression, and delinquency engagement. Gender and grade differences were found across models. Findings suggest that examining self-reported time in bed (both linear and quadratic) and sleep quality is important for understanding internalizing and externalizing symptoms associated with sleep in school-age youth. Incorporating self-reported sleep assessments into clinical practice and school-based evaluations may have implications for a child's adjustment.
Häkkinen, Arja; Rinne, Marjo; Vasankari, Tommi; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki
Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory. Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.
Vartti, Anne-Marie; Aro, Arja R; Jormanainen, Vesa; Henriksson, Markus; Nikkari, Simo
A large sample of Finnish military conscripts of the armored brigade were questioned on the extent to which they trusted the information given biopreparedness authorities (such as the police, military, health care, and public health institutions) and how confident they were in the authority's ability to protect the public during a potential infectious disease outbreak, from either natural or deliberate causes. Participants answered a written questionnaire during their initial health inspection in July 2007. From a total of 1,000 conscripts, 953 male conscripts returned the questionnaire. The mean sum scores for confidence in the information given to biopreparedness authorities and the media on natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range = 0-30) were 20.14 (SD = 7.79) and 20.12 (SD = 7.69), respectively. Mean sum scores for the respondents' confidence in the ability of the biopreparedness authorities to protect the public during natural and bioterrorism-related outbreaks (range 0-25) were 16.04 (SD = 5.78) and 16.17 (SD = 5.89). Most respondents indicated that during a natural outbreak, they would have confidence in information provided by a health care institution such as central hospitals and primary health care centers, whereas in the case of bioterrorism, the respondents indicated that they would have confidence in the defense forces and central hospitals.
Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma
The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future.
Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.
The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale
Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti
The prevalence of mental symptoms among Finnish farm entrepreneurs in 2004 and 1994 was examined in two cross-sectional studies. The aim was also to examine associations between symptoms and background factors. Two random samples for computer-assisted telephone interviews comprised 1,182 full-time farmers in 2004 and 928 farmers in 1992. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations in the 2004 sample. Symptoms of weakness or fatigue and insomnia or difficulties in falling asleep were the most common symptoms in the 2004 survey, and both of these symptoms increased statistically significantly when comparing with the 1992 and 2004 surveys. Strenuousness of life and agricultural work had an association with mental symptoms. Forestry as a production sector and over two weeks of pesticide usage during the previous growing season also elevated the risk of mental symptoms. Moreover, illness or injury as well a lack of support from social relationships was associated with mental symptoms. One in four farm entrepreneurs had symptoms of weakness or fatigue in 2004. This result and the possible association between mental symptoms and pesticide usage needs special attention and further actions by health care services and other agricultural networks.
Saari Seppo AM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice.
The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants
Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m 3 . Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m 3 . Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)
As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs
... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...
Calvert, Matthew; de Montmollin, John; Winnett, Tedi
The Kenosha County Youth in Governance program was created to build leadership skills and civic engagement opportunities for high school-aged students by placing two youth representatives on each of the Kenosha County Board of Supervisors standing committees. In reviewing data from 3 years of youth participants, the program was effective in…
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies exploring the magnitude of mental disorders amongst adolescents and youths in the Arab world. To our knowledge, this phase 2 survey in Oman is the first nationally representative school-based study to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders (lifetime and over the preceding 12 months, their age-of-onset distributions and determine their severity over the past 12 months using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the WMH-CIDI, used for international comparison. Methods A total of 1,682 (91.61% students out of 1836 students who formed the phase 2 random sub-sample of a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling design (phase 1, participated in the face-to-face structured interview using the Arabic-version of WMH-CIDI 3.0. Results The phase 1 results using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Child Depression Inventory (CDI showed depressive symptoms to be 17% prevalent in the larger sample of 5409 adolescents and youths. Amongst the phase 2 respondents from this sample, 13.9% had at least one DSM IV diagnostic label. The lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was 3.0%; Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD was 1%, Specific phobia 5.8% and Social phobia 1.6%. The female gender was a strong predictor of a lifetime risk of MDD (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.3, p = 0.000; Any Mood Disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3, p = 0.002 and Specific Phobia (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.047. The severity of illness for cases diagnosed with 12 month DSM IV disorders was found to be 80% lower in females (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.0-0.8. The estimates over the previous 12 month period when compared with the lifetime prevalence showed a 25% to 40% lower prevalence for MDD, Specific phobia, Social phobia, Any Anxiety Disorders (AAD and Any Mood disorders (AMD while the rate was 80% lower for Separation Anxiety Disorder/Adult Separation Anxiety (SAD/ASA. Mood disorders were significantly
Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise
Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service
Krishnamurthi, Rita V; deVeber, Gabrielle; Feigin, Valery L
research and the resulting evidence-based strategies for stroke prevention and management. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for ischemic stroke (IS), hemorrhagic stroke (HS) and all stroke types combined globally from 1990 to 2013. METHODOLOGY...... and consistent estimates of prevalence and mortality. Stroke-specific disability weights were used to estimate years lived with disability and DALYs. Means and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were calculated for prevalence, mortality and DALYs. The median of the percent change and 95% UI were determined...... increases in the global prevalence rates of childhood IS, as well as significant decreases in the global death rate and DALYs rate of all strokes in those of age 0-19 years. While prevalence rates for childhood IS and HS decreased significantly in developed countries, a decline was seen only in HS...
... releases report on 30-year low in youth homicide rates The homicide rate for youth aged 10 to 24 years ... also shows that the promising decline in youth homicide rates has slowed in recent years, particularly for ...
This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.
Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena; Silinskas, Gintautas; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The aim of this study was to examine the role of mothers' (language minority mothers, LM, n = 49, and Finnish-speaking mothers, MP, n = 368) parenting styles and maternal help with their children's homework in the children's (mean age 11.43 years) literacy skills at fourth grade in Finland. In addition, the moderating effect of a child's gender on…
M?nnikk?, Niko; Billieux, Jo?l; K??ri?inen, Maria
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify problematic gaming behavior among Finnish adolescents and young adults, and evaluate its connection to a variety of psychological, social, and physical health symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 293 respondents aged from 13 to 24 years. Participants completed an online survey. Problematic gaming behavior was measured with the Game Addiction Scale (GAS). Self-reports covered health measur...
David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt; Cecil Mlatsheni
The problem of high youth unemployment is a global phenomenon. According to an International Labour Office study in 2004, youth (15-24) make up nearly half (47%) of the world's unemployed, 88 million out of 186 million, even though youth are only 25% of the world's working age population. Of the world's 550 million working poor who cannot lift themselves above US $1 per day poverty measure, 150 million are youth. The ILO estimated in 2004 that halving global youth unemployment would increase ...
de Vries, L.A.
Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (N = 101) aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to NP and care as usual (CAU). New Perspectives proved not to be more effective than other existing youth care services. However, the time to re-...
Syväoja, Heidi J; Kantomaa, Marko T; Ahonen, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study aimed to determine the relationships between objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance in Finnish children. Two hundred and seventy-seven children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (58% of the 475 eligible students, mean age = 12.2 yr, 56% girls) participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Self-reported physical activity and screen time were evaluated with questions used in the WHO Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. Children's physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively by using an ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer for seven consecutive days. A cutoff value of 2296 counts per minute was used for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 100 counts per minute for sedentary time. Grade point averages were provided by the education services of the city of Jyväskylä. ANOVA and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationships among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and academic performance. Objectively measured MVPA (P = 0.955) and sedentary time (P = 0.285) were not associated with grade point average. However, self-reported MVPA had an inverse U-shaped curvilinear association with grade point average (P = 0.001), and screen time had a linear negative association with grade point average (P = 0.002), after adjusting for sex, children's learning difficulties, highest level of parental education, and amount of sleep. In this study, self-reported physical activity was directly, and screen time inversely, associated with academic achievement. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were not associated with academic achievement. Objective and subjective measures may reflect different constructs and contexts of physical activity and sedentary behavior in association with academic outcomes.
Tan, Y; Xin, X; Ming, Q
The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity by four different references and to explore the characteristics of adolescent overweight and obesity in Chinese secondary school students aged 12-18 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in this study. Using stratified random cluster sampling, 8999 secondary school students were enrolled. The references developed by Must and Dallal and Dietz, the Childhood Obesity Working Group of the International Obesity Task Force, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Group of China Obesity Task Force (GCOTF reference) were used to identify overweight and obese students. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity vary substantially based on the four references. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity based on GCOTF reference are 8.4% and 4.1%, respectively, which is significantly lower than the prevalence of overweight and obesity in their peers in 2000 (χ 2 = 24.03, P obesity in boys are 12.0% and 5.7%, which are higher than those in girls, 4.6% and 5.7% (χ 2 = 240.68, P obesity in singletons are higher than those in non-singletons (χ 2 = 40.25, P obesity in students with lower school community ladder of subjective social status are higher than those from higher ones (χ 2 = 21.61, P obesity in Chinese adolescents. The current prevalence rates of adolescent overweight and obesity decreased, and girls made a tremendous contribution to this decreasing trend. Singletons and adolescents in lower school community ladder of subjective socio-economic status may be at higher risk of getting overweight and obesity. More effective strategies with full consideration to the characteristics above should be developed to control and prevent adolescent overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lepp, Annika; Pantti, Mervi
abstractThis study is concerned with the memories of Estonians of watching Finnish television during the last decades of the Soviet occupation. We will look at the practices of watching Finnish television in Soviet Estonia and the meanings attributed to it. Finnish television took North-Estonians
Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina
The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…
Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena
This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…
Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA
Full Text Available The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four Nordic countries have wellorganised labour markets and universal types of welfare states. Priority is given to goals related to equal opportunities and social inclusion. At the same time, these countries have different models of IVET. While the study compares the Finnish model of organising IVET to those of other Nordic countries, it also examines the German and UK models, which represent differing societal approaches to IVET. The differences in the outcomes of the IVET systems are described and analysed through reviewing secondary data provided by Eurydice and Eurostat, along with country reports produced in a Nordic comparative project, Nord-VET.
Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Nieminen, Lea; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari
This study focuses on the development of narrative structure and the relationship between narrative productivity and event content. A total of 172 Finnish children aged between four and eight participated. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for productivity, syntactic complexity, referential cohesion and event content. Each measure…
Full Text Available Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%], and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST, but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3% delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks.
Natalya S. Grakhova
Full Text Available The article places the necessity to analyze youth position in Russian job market, considers current trends, such as youth job centres, youth labour and employment agencies, youth job centres and information centres.
Hakkarainen, P; Moilanen, L; Hänninen, V; Räsänen, K; Munir, F
To determine which self-management factors and psychosocial work factors were associated with disclosing diabetes to colleagues, line managers and occupational health personnel among workers with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 767 working-aged respondents with Type 1 diabetes completed a Finnish cross-sectional survey named 'People with Type 1 Diabetes in Worklife'. Factor analysis was carried out, followed by logistic regressions to estimate the associations between self-management factors, psychosocial work factors and the likelihood of disclosure separately to colleagues, line managers and occupational health personnel. The models were adjusted for sociodemographic, diabetes-related and work-related variables. A total of 52% of the respondents had disclosed their diabetes to their colleagues, 45% to occupational health personnel and 28% to their line manager. Receiving social support and having good psychosocial work ability were significantly associated with disclosure to colleagues, line managers and occupational health personnel. Relations at work were associated with disclosure to colleagues and the line manager. Furthermore, opportunity to self-manage diabetes at work was associated with disclosure to colleagues. Line managers and colleagues have a remarkable role to play in providing workplace support to workers with Type 1 diabetes. Disclosure of Type 1 diabetes should be encouraged as line managers can provide workers with the right support, implement work adaptations and facilitate job retention. As only half of respondents disclosed their Type 1 diabetes at work, further research is required into the reasons for and consequences of not disclosing a diagnosis. © 2016 Diabetes UK.
Lindfors, P M; Meretoja, O A; Töyry, S M; Luukkonen, R A; Elovainio, M J; Leino, T J
Organizational changes and relative growth of the ageing population together with related health problems seem to have increased stressfulness in the work of anaesthesiologists. However, little is known about their work-related well-being and the factors through which their situation could be improved. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the level and the determinants of job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction among female and male anaesthesiologists involved 258 Finnish anaesthesiologists working full time (53% men). The respondents had fairly high job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction. No gender differences appeared in these well-being indicators, but their determinants differed by gender. Job satisfaction was only associated with work-related factors in both genders: with job control in women and with job control and organizational justice in men. Work ability correlated with job control and health in both genders and with family life in women. Life satisfaction correlated with individual- and family related factors such as social support and family problems in both genders. Life satisfaction correlated with physical workload in men and health in women. Women had less job control, fewer permanent job contracts and more domestic workload than men. Job control and organizational justice were the most important determinants in work-related well-being. Work-related factors were slightly more important correlates of well-being in males, and family life seems to play a larger role in the well-being of female anaesthesiologists. Organizational and gender issues need to be addressed in order to maintain a high level of well-being among anaesthesiologists.
Renee A. Oscarson
Full Text Available Despite frequent concerns about youth and young adult migration from rural to urban areas, most measures used to assess youth in rural community research have been developed by adults. Accurate understanding of youth community perceptions necessitates youth input into the research process. The participatory research strategy described here, using photography to describe community, enables youth to define community and identify what they value about their communities. Photographs and explanations of the photographs indicated that youth value places (schools, churches, as well as locations unique to communities and people from those communities. Photovoice, photography-based participatory-action research, is a feasible and engaging method for obtaining youth perspectives on community issues. Further, Photovoice may be adapted to the needs of different age groups and situations.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Remarkably little is known about the significance of consensual unions for fertility. This is true everywhere, but the lacuna is more important in the Nordic countries where there is so much childbearing outside of marriage, mostly in consensual unions. The purpose of this paper is to help fill this hole in our knowledge for Finland. OBJECTIVE Unusually good register data enable us to study recent fertility trends by union status (married, cohabiting, neither using records for some 112,000 Finnish women, or 11Š of all women at fertile ages. METHODS Our description of fertility is based on group-specific duration-based TFRs, which is the number of children borne by a woman who remains in the group throughout her reproductive life, as computed from the fertility rates for a synthetic cohort. This is an intuitively appealing metric that has been taken into systematic use only recently. RESULTS We find substantial fertility differences between women who cohabit, women who marry directly (i.e., without pre-marital cohabitation, and women who marry their cohabitational partner. As one would also expect in Finland, cohabiting women have much lower fertility than married women. The marital TFR is highest among the directly-married and declines monotonically as the length of pre-marital cohabitation increases, even when premarital childbearing is included in the count. As far as we know the latter relationship has not been shown before, because extensive data for complete cohabitational unions have not been available for other populations. CONCLUSIONS The Finnish data are unique, even among the Nordic countries, in that they contain individual-level life histories of family dynamics that cover consensual unions from their very start. Fertility analysis would benefit if data similar to the Finnish were to become available, because analyses that rely on civil status as an indicator of union status barely add anything to what we already know
Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14%) than men (10%). Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted. PMID:22839359
Hasselbalch, Ann L; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko
Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.
Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet
The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.
Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti
We investigated the latent factor structure of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2-extended; short form) in samples of chronic pain patients (n=271) and controls (n=331) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data in the total sample supported the 18-factor structure as hypothesized by Young, J. E., Klosko, J., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. The diagonally weighted least squares estimation method gave repeatable parameter estimates in successive confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency of the YSQ-S2-extended was adequate to high in both samples and the groups showed equal goodness-of-fit statistics in CFA. This study consisted of the oldest population so far (mean age 47 years) and supported the use of the Finnish version of the YSQ-S2-extended in clinical practice.
Loukusa, Soile; Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva
This research explores, within the framework of Relevance Theory, how children's ability to answer questions and explain their answers develops between the ages of 3 and 9 years. Two hundred and ten normally developing Finnish-speaking children participated in this study. The children were asked questions requiring processing of inferential meanings and routines, and were asked to explain their correct answers to elicit understanding about their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results indicated that the number of correct answers increased rapidly between the ages of 3 years and 4-5 years. Familiarity of context had a significant effect on young children's ability to answer questions. Becoming aware of the information used in inferencing developed gradually over time between the ages of 3 and 9. Analysis of the children's incorrect answers and explanations showed that, as children develop, their unsophisticated answer strategies diminish and they increasingly utilize context even in incorrect answers and explanations.
Full Text Available A review of Ros Jennings and Abigail Gardner (eds, ‘Rock on’: Women, Ageing and Popular Music (Ashgate, 2012 and Andy Bennett and Paul Hodkinson (eds, Ageing and Youth Cultures: Music, Style and Identity (Berg, 2012.
Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996. Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%, eight of whom carried the 9346(-2 A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5 were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%, whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001. Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 dell, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations.
This article discusses global education in Finnish basic education with the help of two major publications in the field: the National Core Curriculum (2004) and the Global Education Programme (2007). The core values and goals of these documents are considered in the light of selected learning theories, and ongoing research is presented which…
Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.
Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…
Sun, J.W. [Turku School of Economics, P.O. Box 110, FIN-20521, Turku (Finland)
This paper analyzes dematerialization, particularity decarbonization and energy saving with regard to Finnish energy use. The results show that Finland has achieved good results in decarbonization and energy saving. However, the results are not as impressive when compared to other developed countries.
Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)
Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu
Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…
The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…
Harju, Lotta; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlates of job boredom in 87 Finnish workplaces (N = 11,468) and to examine the associations between job boredom, health outcomes, and job attitudes. METHODS: We applied the Dutch Boredom Scale to measure job boredom. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis and
Kolhinen, V.; Eskola, K.J.; Ruuskanen, V.; Tuominen, K.
The 35th Physics Days of the Finnish Physical Society will have the traditional structure with plenary lectures, short contributions of young researchers, poster sessions, and social events. The number of members of the society has exceeded 1000 and nearly half of them, more than 400, are expected to participate the Physics Days. The Finnish physicists and the Society can be proud of keeping up this tradition. The annual meeting of the Finnish Physical Society will take place during the Physics Days. I wish all the members of the Finnish Physical Society to attend the meeting and continue the discussions more informally at the conference dinner following the annual meeting. The fifth Magnus Ehrnrooth Price for Physics will be given during the opening ceremony of the Physics Days. Also the winners of the SOLIS competition for high school students will be announced. Traditionally, the Days will end by giving prices for the best poster and the best talk. The 35th Physics Days are held in the new congress center Jyvaeskylae Paviljonki and arranged by the University of Jyvaeskylae. The proceedings includes all the abstracts of the presentations given during the 35th Physics Days
The Finnish government determined the aims and schedule for nuclear waste management in 1983. Nearly three decades later spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management is approaching the construction licensing phase of the repository, on schedule. The parliamentary decision on the final disposal of SNF was taken almost unanimously in 2001. The location of the SNF facility was chosen at the same time. The smoothness of this raises questions about the main factors behind the progress in Finland. The aim of the paper is to analyse the Finnish nuclear waste policy from the point of view of policy style. In the paper policy style is defined as 'the interaction between (a) the government's approach to problem-solving and (b) the relationship between government and the other actors in policy process'. According to this definition by Richardson, Gustafsson and Jordan, the focus of style is both on policymaking and on implementation. The policy style approach is used to identify the standard operating procedures of Finnish nuclear waste policy. The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the formation of national nuclear waste policy and its institutions by analysing the Finnish case
Full Text Available Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (p<1x10-6 were replicated in 776 Finnish sciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981 at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08 and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively. The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04. Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6-7% than in other European populations (1-2%. Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109 were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB, which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.
Bell, David N. F.; Blanchflower, David G.
A historically high level of youth unemployment presents Greece with a huge social and economic challenge. This paper analyses various dimensions of this challenge. We argue that though the conventional definition of "youth" is the 16-24 age group, there is a strong case for considering 25 to 29-year-olds as sharing common problems with conventionally defined youth. There are also grounds for examining why females seem to fare worse than males in the Greek labour market. The negative effects ...
Afterschool Alliance, 2011
In order to ensure that middle school youth are on a path toward higher education and careers, an early introduction to the importance of continuing education past high school is necessary. The middle school years are a vital time to teach the importance of college and career readiness and the linkages to success in life. This issue brief…
Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…
Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.
Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39......-60) for birth cohorts 1979-81, 1982-83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189-272) million, 202 (170-240) and 165 (132-207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14-23) million, 15 (12-19) and 11 (8-15). Men aged 10-59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954-2008 were...
Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi M; Savela, Kirsti
Nitrite intake from the consumption of cured meat and tap water was estimated for Finnish children of 1, 3 and 6 years as well as Finnish adults of 25-74 years. Nitrite content in the foods was measured by capillary electrophoresis, and was then used together with individual food consumption data from the FINDIET 2007 and DIPP studies in a stochastic exposure assessment by a Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) program. Nitrite intake from additive sources and tap water was assessed, and more than every 10th child between the ages 3 and 6 years was estimated to have a nitrite intake exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrite. The high exposure levels were caused by frequent consumption of large portions of sausages, up to 350 g day(-1) or 750 g in 3 days, among the children. Median nitrite intake from cured meat was 0.016, 0.040, 0.033 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children of 1, 3 and 6 years and adults, respectively. Bayesian estimation was employed to determine safe consumption levels of sausages and cold cuts for children, and these results gave rise to new national food consumption advice.
Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of vocational expertise and school-to-work pathways among WorldSkills Competition (WSC achievers and their co-workers and employers within the Finnish context. At the biennial international WSC, young people (aged 18-to-23 years from over 60 countries demonstrate their skills in more than 40 trades. Individualized training for this competition is provided through the cooperation of vocational institutions (e.g., expert coaches, team leaders and competition panellists and industry (e.g., mentors, sponsors, materials, equipment. Semi-structured thematic interviews (N=51 were conducted in 2013 and 2014 with former Finnish WSC medal or diploma winners (n=18 who had since begun their working lives (1-to-15 years of work experience. Their employers (n=16 and colleagues (n=17 were also interviewed. Results showed that in addition to vocation-specific knowledge and skills, problem-solving skills, creativity, social skills and self-regulatory skills were acknowledged as the most significant elements of vocational expertise. The findings also indicated that formal vocational education combined with deliberate practice and training based on expert mentoring improved the long-term career progress and vocational expertise of the WSC achievers.
Full Text Available This article focuses on Sarajas-Korte’s definitions that proved to be so significant to Finnish art history. In spite of the fact that her research still represents the most extensive and profound work on Finnish Symbolism, the aim here is to question some of her definitions and categorizations. Most of her concepts are puzzling, since she tends to use them in several different ways. One example of her conceptualizations is the way she uses the word esotericism and its derivatives. First of all, she seems to associate esotericism with secrecy and things hidden—in other words she follows the definition created already by the ancient Greeks. Secondly, she fuses esotericism with Symbolism as she herself defines it; hence Symbolist art is grounded on the ‘esoteric conceptions of symbols’. She also uses the word esotericism as though it would reflect the spirit of an age, as she writes for example about ‘the esoteric youth’ of the time. In addition to these three meanings, Sarajas-Korte seems to understand esotericism also by means of tradition. Her view of the esoteric tradition, however, is quite inclusive, since it seems to contain everything from the secret societies of Joséphin Péladan to the stories of the Bible and the Ramayana.
Paes, Sabrina Mazzer; Zambon, Fabiana; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Simberg, Susanna; Behlau, Mara
To investigate the immediate effects of the Finnish resonance tube method for teachers with behavioral dysphonia. Twenty-five female teachers (m=39.9 years of age) with at least a 5-year history of dysphonia were included. Additional inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of chronic behavioral dysphonia with an indication for speech therapy and the absence of any prior speech therapy. Subjects produced three sets of 10 tokens of sustained phonation with a 1-minute rest interval between tokens into a 27-cm glass tube immersed in at least 2 cm of water. Voice samples were recorded before and after these sets. The effects of these exercises were evaluated by self-assessment, auditory perceptual analysis, and acoustic evaluation involving extraction of fundamental frequency and visual spectrographic analysis. Sixty-eight percent of the teachers reported increased phonatory comfort and 52% reported improved voice quality after performing the exercises. Perceptual analysis indicated improved voice quality in the samples of counting numbers, confirmed by decreased instability, subharmonics, noise in high frequencies, and the tendency for reduced low frequency noise on spectrographic evaluation. Additionally, mean fundamental frequency decreased. The Finnish resonance tube method increased phonatory comfort and vocal changes suggestive diminished hyperfunction. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa
FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.
de Goede, M; Spruijt, E; Maas, C; Duindam, V
This study attempted to determine the extent to which family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents. Data were drawn from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), which investigated, longitudinally, a national sample of Dutch youths aged 12 to 24 years in 1991. Specifically, two waves of a sample of 955 non-school-going respondents between 18 and 27 years old were analyzed. Parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment were not. For males, parental unemployment demonstrated the strongest correlation with youth unemployment. For females, only variables in the relational domain played a role in explaining unemployment; relationship variables were also important predictors of male unemployment. The results suggest that the family factors included in this study are better predictors of youth unemployment than are the classic individual (personal) variables.
D. A. Tsyunik
Full Text Available Young people as a special age category and social group are the object of studying the complex of humanities — political science, sociology, political philosophy, political psychology, cultural studies, conflict studies, etc. The need for youth research is conditioned by the formation of an actual strategy and tactics of the state youth policy, which can contribute to the increase Effectiveness of the activities of political institutions, authorities and government, to promote the dynamic development of the state Society and society. Youth policy is one of the most important factors in the modernization of the state, therefore it is important to develop tools for measuring the parameters of the systemic change of society under the influence, with the participation of emerging, developing youth organizations.The theme of the study of the problems of youth is important in connection with the activation of the use of technologies for the recruitment of youth into political organizations (party organizations, which strengthens the competitive struggle of various political forces for influencing the younger generation of citizens as potentially active citizens who are supporters or opponents of certain parties.The urgency of the study is also conditioned by the processes of building the rule of law and the development of civil society institutions. This process is impossible without overcoming the political passivity, the apolitical nature of the younger generation. Youth organizations can become an important element. The political participation of the youth of Russian society is non-systemic, moreover, a significant part of the youth is politically inactive, indifferent to political changes. Studying the mechanisms for overcoming this state, increasing the involvement of young people in the political life of society is an important not only research, but also a practical task.At the present stage of development, youth movements and organizations
Full Text Available The effect of different feeding levels on the performance of primiparous ewes was studied in 31 Finnish Landrace ewes bred to lamb at the age of one year. Ewe lambs, initially weighing on average 19.2 kg (SEM 0.63, were placed on a low (L, standard (S or high (H level of feeding from 2 months of age to the end of mating and from 2 months pre-partum to the end of 8-week lactation. Changes in live weight were affected by the diet. During rearing, the ewe lambs on L diet gained significantly less (18.0 vs. 24.1 kg/lamb, P
Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Sayner, Robyn; Thomas, Kathleen; Mann, Larry; Sage, Adam; Sulzer, Sandra H; Sandler, Adrian D
The purpose of this study was to examine youth perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) communication with their pediatric providers, their reported adherence to their ADHD medications, and their desired location for an ADHD educational program. Youth ages 7 through 17 with an ADHD diagnosis were recruited. A research associate interviewed the youth. Parents completed demographic questionnaires. Seventy families participated. One-third of the youth wanted more discussion about ADHD with their providers during visits. The average youth had over eight questions about ADHD and its treatment. Most youth wanted to learn about ADHD at their provider's office. Non-white and older youth were significantly more likely to be less adherent to their ADHD medications. Youth want their providers to engage them more during visits. Providers should take advantage of this interest to engage youth more in discussions regarding ADHD and its treatment during pediatric ADHD visits.
Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina
Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.
Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E
Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in
Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko
The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs
Adams, Arvil V.; And Others
The study is based on an analysis of recent trends in youth unemployment from published sources and on additional analysis of a national sample of young men and young women 16 to 18 years of age who were followed longitudinally over a seven year period in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The book establishes the dimensions of youth unemployment and…
Thomas, Megan; Nelson, Toben F.; Harwood, Eileen; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective: To examine parent perceptions of the food environment in youth sport. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were held with parents (n = 60) of youth aged 6-13 years participating in basketball programs in Minnesota. Key themes and concepts were identified via transcript-based analysis. Results: Parents reported that youth commonly…
CHAPMAN, JANE R.
A TRAINING CAMP FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH NEAR RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA IS DESCRIBED IN THIS SUMMARY OF A DETAILED REPORT, "AN EVALUATION OF THE CONCEPT OF TRAINEE CAMPS FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH," PREPARED BY THE STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SRI). YOUTH BETWEEN 16 AND 21 YEARS OF AGE, NOT IN SCHOOL, AND WITH LITTLE CHANCE OF EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF…
The sun is clearly the most important source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in environment. The UVR doses caused to the population by the sun have been estimated in several studies. However, the use of sunbeds and the UVR exposure caused by them have been assessed only by few surveys. Therefore, the main objective of this study was set to collect data about the use of sunbeds in Finland and to estimate the UVR doses caused to the population by sunbeds. The basic material for this research was collected during year 1998 by a questionnaire mailed to 4000 Finns older than 15 years. 28,7% of the respondents had visited sunbed sometime during their life, and 8,6% had used sunbed during the year 1997. Consequently it was estimated that in 1997 approximately 360 000 Finns aged over 15 years were using sunbeds. Young people, 20-34 years, were using sunbeds more than older people and two of three sunbed users were women. During the year 1997, an average sunbed user visited sunbeds 6,8 times. When UVR doses caused by sunbeds and sun were compared, it was estimated that by average use of sunbeds the annual UVR dose of outdoor and indoor workers might increase 2% and 30%, respectively. The annual UVR dose of an average sunbed user was assessed to increase by 13% because of sunbed use. Sunbeds were estimated to be responsible for 1% addition to the annual UVR dose of Finnish population. The sun is still the major source of VVR doses when the whole population is concerned, but enthusiastic sunbed users may even triple their annual UVR doses. The best tools for keeping the annual UVR doses reasonably low are to deliver information of the hazards of W-radiation to the groups at risk and to monitor the radiation safety of sunbeds. It is worthwhile to aim information campaigns for the biggest user groups found by this study. Attention should be drawn to the attitudes and ideals towards tanned skin. (orig.)
Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.
The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)
In response to a request from Finland in November 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set up a Team of four experts (representatives from Belgium, Canada, Germany and Switzerland) to review the Finnish nuclear waste management programme within the auspices of IAEA's Waste Management programme (WATRP). During the early summer of 1993, the Team reviewed a large amount of documentation supplied by the Finnish industry, government and research organizations. The radioactive waste management programme areas within the Team's terms of reference included: (1) work being done in siting and building a conditional facility for spent nuclear fuel and siting and constructing a co-located repository, (2) the plans and activities for conditioning and disposing of the low and intermediate level waste from Finland's NPPs and (3) the plans for decommissioning Finland's reactors when that becomes necessary. The evaluation work and the recommendations of the Team are detailed in the report
Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.
Visual communication is an essential part of branding. Visual elements like logo, brand colours, and typography create associations with a brand and make it distinctive. Graphic design is a tool for visual communication that allows creating aesthetic and functional visual elements that convey some messages. The client of this thesis is a Finnish fashion company that does not have clear and consistent visual image, and the goal is to create it based on company’s values and desired image...
The increasing recognition of eco-friendly packaging in the packaging industry makes paperboard one of the most promising green packaging materials. The global demand for paperboard has increased rapidly in the past two decades. The purposes of the study are: firstly, to provide an overview of the consumption, production, imports and exports of paperboard products in different regions worldwide between 1992 and 2010. Secondly, as the Finnish paperboard industry has been highly export-oriented...
Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.
Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)
Jalkanen, Juha; Vaarala, Heidi
Recent studies in the field of new literacies have indicated that a remarkable change in the way we access, consume, and produce information has taken place. The boundaries between concepts such as authorship and ownership have become blurred. This paper will deal with using digital texts in teaching reading comprehension on a university-level course with a special focus on Finnish as a second language. Furthermore, the benefits and challenges of teaching L2 reading comprehension in a multimo...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This research focused on providing the required information about business coaching in terms of concept, market potential and focuses areas, for establishing a company offering business coaching services on the Finnish market. The reason why this par-ticular topic was chosen was my passion for business coaching and the belief that it is a very efficient method of development and something that will be increasingly used in the future. This research was a qualitative r...
The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...
Seeking to challenge the belief that within-West cultural differences should be seen as insignificant in organisations, this paper seeks to demonstrate how two given Western European ‘organising cultures’ (i.e. Finnish culture and French culture, as they are expressed in the process of organising) can contrast, if not conflict, with each other. Further, it aims to help the reader realise what kinds of fundamental ‘cultural antagonisms’ these contrasting organising behaviours may come from, to...
Nuutila, Jaakko; Kurppa, Sirpa
This article tries to find a reason why the Finnish organic food chain has not developed to reach the goals the authorities has set for the production volume and consumption. The reason is not that the organic products would not meet the needs of the consumers, but that the consumers have been left outside the food chain development and the decisions for to the food selection. The criteria to evaluate the stakeholders’ objects and results are only quantitative and financial instead of qualita...
This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...
Pohja-Mykrä, Mari; Kurki, Sami
This evaluation of the Finnish national policy on large carnivores focuses on the success in accomplishing ecological, economic and social sustainability in population management during the period from 2007 to 2012, through objectives and actions in the implemented population management plans. The conclusions drawn in the evaluation are based on a logical framework which must in practice be seen as the logic behind the policy on large carnivores and associated development actions. Based on th...
Ruokolainen, L; Paalanen, L; Karkman, A; Laatikainen, T; von Hertzen, L; Vlasoff, T; Markelova, O; Masyuk, V; Auvinen, P; Paulin, L; Alenius, H; Fyhrquist, N; Hanski, I; Mäkelä, M J; Zilber, E; Jousilahti, P; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T
Atopic allergy has been more common among schoolchildren in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. These adjacent regions show one of the most contrasting socio-economical differences in the world. We explored changes in allergy from school age to young adulthood from 2003 to 2010/2012 in these two areas. The skin and nasal microbiota were also compared. Randomly selected children from Finnish (n = 98) and Russian Karelia (n = 82) were examined in 2003, when the children were 7-11 years of age, and again in 2010 (Finnish Karelia) and 2012 (Russian Karelia). We analysed self-reported allergy symptoms and sensitization to common allergens by serum sIgE values. The skin (volar forearm) and nasal mucosa microbiota, collected in 2012 (aged 15-20 years), identified from DNA samples, were compared with multivariate methods. Asthma, hay fever, atopic eczema, self-reported rhinitis, as well as atopic sensitization, were threefold to 10-fold more common in Finland, as compared to Russian Karelia. Hay fever and peanut sensitization were almost non-existent in Russia. These patterns remained throughout the 10-year follow-up. Skin microbiota, as well as bacterial and fungal communities in nasal mucosa, was contrastingly different between the populations, best characterized by the diversity and abundance of genus Acinetobacter; more abundant and diverse in Russia. Overall, diversity was significantly higher among Russian subjects (P skin microbiota suggests a potential underlying mechanism. Our results also suggest that high abundance and diversity of Acinetobacter might contribute to the low allergy prevalence in Russia. Implications of early-life exposure to Acinetobacter should be further investigated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Roos, J. [ed.
This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions
Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) studies Finnish bedrock for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study is in accordance with the decision in principle by Finnish government in 1983. The report is the summary of the preliminary site investigations carried out during the years 1987-1992. On the basis of these investigations a few areas will be selected for detailed site investigation. The characterization comprises five areas selected from the shortlist of potential candidate areas resulted in the earlier study during 1983-1985. Areas are located in different parts of Finland and they represent the main formations of the Finnish bedrock. Romuvaara area in Kuhmo and Veitsivaara area in Hyrynsalmi represent the Archean basement. Kivetty area in Konginkangas consists of mainly younger granitic rocks. Syyry in Sievi is located in transition area of Svecofennidic rocks and granitic rocks. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki represents migmatites in southern Finland. For the field investigations area-specific programs were planned and executed. The field investigations have comprised airborne survey by helicopter, geophysical surveys, geological mappings and samplings, deep and shallow core drillings, geophysical and hydrological borehole measurements and groundwater samplings
Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.
Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)
Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko
Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability
Enhancing Self-Efficacy for Help-Seeking Among Transition-Aged Youth in Postsecondary Settings With Mental Health and/or Substance Use Concerns, Using Crowd-Sourced Online and Mobile Technologies: The Thought Spot Protocol.
Wiljer, David; Abi-Jaoude, Alexxa; Johnson, Andrew; Ferguson, Genevieve; Sanches, Marcos; Levinson, Andrea; Robb, Janine; Heffernan, Olivia; Herzog, Tyson; Chaim, Gloria; Cleverley, Kristin; Eysenbach, Gunther; Henderson, Joanna; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hollenberg, Elisa; Jiang, Huan; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Law, Marcus; Sharpe, Sarah; Tripp, Tim; Voineskos, Aristotle
Seventy percent of lifetime cases of mental illness emerge prior to age 24. While early detection and intervention can address approximately 70% of child and youth cases of mental health concerns, the majority of youth with mental health concerns do not receive the services they need. The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for optimizing and evaluating Thought Spot, a Web- and mobile-based platform cocreated with end users that is designed to improve the ability of students to access mental health and substance use services. This project will be conducted in 2 distinct phases, which will aim to (1) optimize the existing Thought Spot electronic health/mobile health intervention through youth engagement, and (2) evaluate the impact of Thought Spot on self-efficacy for mental health help-seeking and health literacy among university and college students. Phase 1 will utilize participatory action research and participatory design research to cocreate and coproduce solutions with members of our target audience. Phase 2 will consist of a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that the Thought Spot intervention will show improvements in intentions for, and self-efficacy in, help-seeking for mental health concerns. We anticipate that enhancements will include (1) user analytics and feedback mechanisms, (2) peer mentorship and/or coaching functionality, (3) crowd-sourcing and data hygiene, and (4) integration of evidence-based consumer health and research information. This protocol outlines the important next steps in understanding the impact of the Thought Spot platform on the behavior of postsecondary, transition-aged youth students when they seek information and services related to mental health and substance use. ©David Wiljer, Alexxa Abi-Jaoude, Andrew Johnson, Genevieve Ferguson, Marcos Sanches, Andrea Levinson, Janine Robb, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Gloria Chaim, Kristin Cleverley, Gunther Eysenbach, Joanna Henderson, Jeffrey Hoch
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…
Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…
to earn lower wages than are White youth . Did You KNOW? Unemployment among youth ages 16-19 is substantively higher for Blacks...observed across race/ethnicity, White and other youth were the most optimistic. This could be the result of current unemployment ... Youth
Nilsen, Sigurd R.
Data from the March 1976 Current Population Survey indicate that both metro and nonmetro areas face severe youth employment problems. Although 25% of the total United States labor force is comprised of youth aged 16-24, youth account for 50% of the total number of persons unemployed. Unemployment rates for metro and nonmetro youth are equal;…
The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.
Niemi, Jussi; And Others
Analysis of the phonological patterns of two physically normal boys, aged 5 and 8 years, with fragile X syndrome, an X-chromosomal abnormality usually connected with severe to moderate mental retardation, found language features similar to those found in other studies of fragile X speech. Some of these language features are: repetition of initial…
Kronholm, Erkki; Puusniekka, Riikka; Jokela, Jukka; Villberg, Jari; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Paunio, Tiina; Välimaa, Raili; Tynjälä, Jorma
The aim of this study was to investigate long-term trends in insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance among Finnish adolescents. A time-series from 1984 to 2011 was analysed from two large-scale survey studies, the Finnish School Health Promotion Study and the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. A total of 1,136,583 adolescents aged 11-18 years answered a standardized questionnaire assessing frequency of insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance. A clear approximately twofold increasing trend in insomnia symptoms and tiredness was found from the mid-1990s to the end of the 2000s. The increase was evident in all participating age groups and in both genders. After 2008, the increase seems to have stopped. Insomnia symptoms and tiredness were associated with lower school performance and they were more prevalent among girls (11.9 and 18.4%) compared to boys (6.9 and 9.0%, respectively). Unexpectedly, we also observed an increasingly widening gap in school performance between normally vigilant and chronically tired pupils. The underlying causes of these phenomena are unknown, but may concern changes in the broader society. The observed recent increasing trend in adolescents' sleep problems is worrisome: poor sleep quality has also been suggested to associate with clinical or subclinical mood or anxiety disorders and behavioural problems and predispose to sleep and psychiatric disorders later in life. Our results justify further studies and call for serious attention to be paid to adolescent's sleep in the Finnish educational system and society at large. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...
prevalence of maltreatment among YHH after a two year follow-up by age and gender; (b) assess the association between ... treatment or maltreatment of YHH. ..... even if he is small those people do not disturb them. [Youth female age 22]. There are times when boys come to our house and refuse to go. [Youth girl age 18].
Tobin, Erin T; Kane, Heidi S; Saleh, Daniel J; Naar-King, Sylvie; Poowuttikul, Pavadee; Secord, Elizabeth; Pierantoni, Wayne; Simon, Valerie A; Slatcher, Richard B
To investigate the links between naturalistically observed conflict, self-reported caregiver-youth conflict, and youth asthma symptoms. Fifty-four youth with asthma (age range: 10-17 years) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for a 4-day period to assess interpersonal conflict and caregiver-youth conflict as they occur in daily life. Conflict also was assessed with baseline self-report questionnaires and daily diaries completed by youth participants and their caregivers. Asthma symptoms were assessed using daily diaries, baseline self-reports, and wheezing, as coded from the EAR. EAR-observed measures of conflict were strongly associated with self-reported asthma symptoms (both baseline and daily diaries) and wheezing coded from the EAR. Further, when entered together in regression analyses, youth daily reports of negative caregiver-youth interactions and EAR-observed conflict uniquely predicted asthma symptoms; only EAR-observed conflict was associated with EAR-observed wheezing. These findings demonstrate the potential impact of daily conflict on youth asthma symptoms and the importance of assessing conflict as it occurs in everyday life. More broadly, they point to the importance of formulating a clear picture of family interactions outside of the lab, which is essential for understanding how family relationships "get under the skin" to affect youth health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overea...
Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie
Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…
Kathleen A. Linzmeier
Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Pittsburg, University of Arkansas, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, and Boston Children’s Hospital/Harvard Medical College researched the incidence of concussions in youth hockey in relation to age and activity setting.
Krupinski, J; Tiller, J W; Burrows, G D; Hallenstein, H
To determine the trends in youth suicide in Victoria and Australia as a whole, and their relation to youth unemployment. We used Australian Bureau of Statistics data to analyse suicide trends between 1907 and 1990 in young people aged 15-24 years and made an in-depth study of youth suicides between 1980 and 1990, for which computerised data are available. There has been a steady increase in youth suicide both in Victoria and Australia as a whole since 1960 in males but not females. There were significant differences in age, sex and area of residence in both the rate and the method of suicide. The increase in youth suicide was not associated with the rise in unemployment. Male (not female) suicide rates were higher in non-metropolitan areas and areas of high youth unemployment. The reasons for the increase in youth suicide remain obscure. There is a need for a prospective in-depth study to determine factors in the aetiology of youth suicide, with particular reference to possible areas for prevention.
Forrest, C B; Tambor, E; Riley, A W; Ensminger, M E; Starfield, B
To identify the health needs of adolescent males incarcerated in a juvenile justice facility and to compare their health profiles with those of male adolescents in the community. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted of incarcerated (N = 202) and school (N = 379) samples of male youths. Questionnaires were self-administered and completed before admission health screens (incarcerated youth) or in classrooms (school sample). Health status was assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile, Adolescent Edition, using scale and item means and by categorizing each youth's pattern of health into 1 of 13 mutually exclusive health profile types. Compared with school counterparts, incarcerated male youths had significantly worse health status as demonstrated by poorer health and functioning scores in perceived well being, self-esteem, physical discomfort, acute, chronic, and psychosocial disorders, family involvement, physical activity, interpersonal problem-solving, risk behaviors, and academic performance. Three profile types-High Risks, High Risks/Low Resilience, and Worst Health-accounted for patterns of health for 69.8% of incarcerated youth versus 37.3% of an age-matched school sample. Just 6.4% of incarcerated males were in the Excellent/Good Health profile types, which contrasted with 34.2% of the age-matched school sample. The health profiles of incarcerated male youths were worse than those of male youths in school. Our results indicate that rehabilitation programs will need to address incarcerated youth's basic health needs as well as modifying their risk and antisocial behaviors.
Full Text Available The problem of moral development is actual for modern psychology. Modern conception of moral development defines two main principles in the basis of moral orientation: care principle and justice principle. Adolescence and youth are sensitive period to develop moral orientation. 139 subjects from three age groups: young adolescents, older adolescents and youth took part in the investigation. Results shows age dynamic of moral judgments preferences, moral dilemma solving with different levels of motivation to achieve and be approved.
Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda
Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.
Lemmelä, Susanna; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Benner, Christian; Heliövaara, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti
Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (psciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981) at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08) and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively). The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04). Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6-7%) than in other European populations (1-2%). Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109) were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB), which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate.
Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine
How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…
This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…
Frawley, Robert; Zafonte, Suzanne M.
This report examines the unique aspects of homelessness among youth ages 16 to 21. Section I reviews existing literature and data on the size, characteristics, and needs of homeless youth. Section II summarizes New York State's current efforts on their behalf. Section III analyzes obstacles to serving this population. Section IV outlines an action…
Decker, Martha; Montagu, Dominic
This paper evaluates the ability of social franchise programs, which use private providers to offer reproductive health services, to provide services to youth in western Kenya. Although franchise clinics have rarely targeted youth, they appear to offer a viable alternative for providing reproductive health services to this age group.
Digital Passages considers how the relations between gender, diaspora and youth culture are digitally articulated by Moroccan-Dutch youths between the age of 12 and 18 years old. Combining new media, gender and postcolonial theory, a transdisciplinary analysis is carried out of a young
Ruokonen, Inkeri; Sepp, Anu; Moilanen, Venla; Autio, Ossi; Ruismaki, Heikki
This article discusses the five-string kantele as an example of the Finnish national heritage, a school instrument and an example of sustainable design. A qualitative case study was made by collecting the data from the Finnish students--prospective teachers--and the sixth form pupils, who had designed and carved their own five-string kanteles. The…
abstractResearch on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace
Laine, J.; Velde, B.M.R. van der
Based on an analysis of the leading Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, this paper explores Finnish attitudes towards and understandings of Russia. It pays special attention to the so-called Karelia Question and the way it has shaped public discussion in Finland. The article seeks to investigate
In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…
Siitonen, Piia; Vainio, Kirsti; Keinonen, Tuula; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri
Objective: To describe the association between teachers' beliefs about medicines and teaching about illnesses and medicines-related topics by Finnish comprehensive school teachers. Design: A nationwide postal survey. Setting: Finnish primary and lower secondary school teachers. Method: Data were collected using a nationwide postal survey from a…
Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre
We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…
Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa
Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…
Apter, Dan; Molina Cartes, Ramiro
All children and young people have the right to age-appropriate sexuality education regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ability or faith. Sexuality education provides knowledge, skills and positive values to determine and enjoy their sexuality, have safe, fulfilling relationships if one so wishes and decides, and to take responsibility for their own and for a possible partner's sexual health and well-being. Several international programs have been developed and recently published by the Population Council, IPPF and other coworkers, by UNICEF, and by WHO Europe. This chapter will briefly describe recent global development in sexuality education, and then, as examples, experience from two countries, Finland and Chile. The experiences from these school based programs suggest an important role of sexuality education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu
Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…
Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225.
Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Raivisto, Teija; Kettunen, Kaisa; Kovanen, Leena; Haukka, Jari; Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Elg, Jessica; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo
In periodontitis, genetics and smoking play important roles in host immune system response. The aim of this study is to determine whether the genetic background of initial periodontitis and caries could be detected using an active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 chairside test in Finnish adolescents. Forty-seven participants gave approval for analysis of both oral fluid collection and DNA. An aMMP-8 chairside test was performed on participants (adolescents aged 15 to 17 years), and full-mouth clinical parameters of oral health were assessed including periodontal, oral mucosal, and caries status in Eastern Finland from 2014 to 2015. DNA was extracted from oral fluid samples and genotyped for 71 polymorphisms in 29 candidate genes for periodontitis. Results were analyzed using a logistic regression model. P values were corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate (<0.05). aMMP-8 chairside test positivity and three or more ≥4 mm pockets were associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs2228570, P = 0.002, q = 0.04) and MMP3 (rs520540, rs639752, rs679620, P = 0.0009, 0.003, 0.003, q = 0.04, respectively). None of the other single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied showed a significant association with the aMMP-8 chairside test and at least one caries lesion positivity. Genetic polymorphisms of MMP3 and VDR are linked to initial periodontitis in Finnish adolescents, and the aMMP-8 chairside test can eventually detect initial periodontitis in young patients with predisposing genetic background.
Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo; Kokko, Sami; Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Koski, Pasi; Tynjälä, Jorma; Soini, Anne; Ståhl, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija
The Finnish 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first assessment of Finland's efforts in promoting and facilitating PA opportunities for children and youth using the Active Healthy Kids Canada grading system. The Report Card relies primarily on research findings from 6 Research Institutes, coordinated by the University of Jyväskylä. The Research Work Group convened to evaluate the aggregated evidence and assign grades for each of the 9 PA indicators, following the Canadian Report Card protocol. Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Finland as follows: 1) Overall physical activity-fulfillment of recommendations (D), 2) Organized sport participation (C), 3) Active play (D), 4) Active transportation (B), 5) Sedentary behaviors (D), 6) Family and peers (C), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the built environment (B), and 9) Government (B). This comprehensive summary and assessment of indicators related to PA in Finnish children and youth indicates that Finland still has many challenges to promote a physically active life style for youth.
Puska, E. K.
The current Finnish national research programme on nuclear power plant safety SAFIR2010 for the years 2007-2010 as well as the coming SAFIR2014 programme for the years 2011-2014 are based on the chapter 7a, 'Ensuring expertise', of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The objective of this chapter is realised in the research work and education of experts in the projects of these research programmes. SAFIR2010 research programme is divided in eight research areas that are Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). All the research areas include both projects in their own area and interdisciplinary co-operational projects. Research projects of the programme are chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. In 2010 research is carried out in 33 projects in SAFIR2010. VTT is the responsible research organisation in 26 of these projects and VTT is also the coordination unit of SAFIR2010 and SAFIR2014. In 2007-2009 SAFIR2010 produced 497 Specified research results (Deliverables), 618 Publications, and 33 Academic degrees. SAFIR2010 programme covers approximately half of the reactor safety research volume in Finland currently. In 2010 the programme volume is EUR 7.1 million and 47 person years. The major funding partners are VYR with EUR 2.96 million, VTT with EUR 2.66 million, Fortum with EUR 0.28 million, TVO with EUR 0.19 million, NKS with EUR 0.15 million, EU with only EUR 0.03 million and other partners with EUR 0.85 million. The new decisions-in-principle on Olkiluoto unit 4 for Teollisuuden Voima and new nuclear power plant for Fennovoima ratified by the Finnish Parliament on 1 July 2010 increase the annual funding collected according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act from Fennovoima, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima for the SAFIR2014 programme to EUR 5.2 million from the current level of EUR 3
This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr
This thesis focuses on one of current trends: merchandising. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences and opinions of leisure travellers and leisure travel agents in terms of booking ancillaries for flights. Based on those findings, the aim is to find out alternative ways to boost the sales of ancillaries. The commis-sioner for this thesis is Amadeus Finland Oy and the target group is the Finnish leisure travel market. The research was conducted by creating two online su...
Dahlberg, Tomi; Öörni, Anssi
The Bank of Finland’s Finnish Payment Habits 2010 project predicts that Finnish payment habits will face substantial changes. The causes for these changes include: the standardisation and integration of European payment systems, development of payment services-related legislation and regulation at EU level, changes in payment services-related cost factors and pricing, and new opportunities offered by technological advances. The last few years have seen a surge in new payment instruments and s...
Fursov, K.; Nefedova, A.; Thurner, T
As a response to the proliferation of student-led protests and movements across the globe, we, as part of an international platform for young planning professionals- Urbego-, have developed the Youth Engagement Index (YEI) that assesses the involvement of young generations (ages 18-34) in urban governance. Designed to include, and be improved upon by, a collaboration with relevant actors such as local municipal governments, academia, nongovernmental youth organizations and the youth themselves, the YEI presents a unique opportunity to unveil weaknesses and opportunities for cities in terms of engaging their youth. Furthermore, the collaborative process highlights the value of having a recognized and engaged youth for future urban development and city life in general. (Author)
Woodgate, Roberta L; Leach, Jennifer
In this article, we discuss findings of an ethnographic exploring how Canadian youth frame health within the context of their life situations. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) from diverse ethnic backgrounds and residing in a major city in western Canada took part in the study.We used traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and fieldwork, as well as photovoice. Sociocultural themes emerging from the study indicate that even though youth have a broad understanding of health that includes acknowledging the many different types of health beyond physical health, lifestyle factors such as healthy eating and exercise nonetheless dominate the talk of health by youth. The results highlight that the concept of health normalized by academics and public policy experts-as being inclusive of the broader determinants of health-might not be congruent with how youth regard health.
Sznajder-Murray, Brittany; Jang, Joy Bohyun; Slesnick, Natasha; Snyder, Anastasia
Homeless youth represent a vulnerable and understudied population. Little research has prospectively identified factors that may place youth at risk for experiencing homelessness. The current study utilizes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-97 (NLSY-97) to examine predictors of experiencing homelessness as a young adult (before age 25). The NLSY-97 includes a nationally representative sample of 8,984 youth. Data were first collected from these youth when they were between th...
Risks and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling patterns of attachment at age three years in the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.
O'connor, Erin; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Mccartney, Kathleen; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Disorganized/controlling attachment in preschool has been found to be associated with maternal and child maladjustment, making it of keen interest in the study of psychopathology. Additional work is needed, however, to better understand disorganized/controlling attachment occurring as early as age 3 years. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with disorganized/controlling behavior at age 3 years and to evaluate the risk factors and outcomes differentiating the four subtypes of disorganized/controlling attachment. Analyses were conducted with the first two phases of the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth. At 36 months of age, across the attachment-relevant domains of maternal well-being, mother-child interactions, and child social adaptation, the disorganized/controlling group evidenced the most maladaptive patterns in comparison to both secure and insecure-organized groups. At 54 months of age, the disorganized/controlling group displayed the highest levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, as rated by mothers and teachers, and the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Significant differences found among the disorganized/controlling subtypes indicated that the behaviorally disorganized and controlling-punitive subtypes had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the controlling-caregiving and controlling-mixed subtypes. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Murtomaa, H; Haavio-Mannila, E; Kandolin, I
In the spring of 1986 burnout and its relation to social and physical environments and the nature of work were studied using a questionnaire sent to a sample of 232 dentists aged under 62 living in the province of Uusimaa, Finland. Most male and female dentists (71 and 67%, respectively) were working in group practices and most (88%) employed an assistant. Professional problems were generally (71%) solved by consulting colleagues. Half of those responding were very satisfied with their relationship to other dental staff. All but 9% of dentists experienced problems in their physical working environments and 22% felt that their uncomfortable working posture interfered significantly with job satisfaction. Women reported chronic work-related conditions diagnosed by a physician more often than men (21 vs. 10%, respectively). At the time of the study, most dentists were experiencing pain in connection with work on patients and 41% of women and 59% of men were experiencing occupational stress. Most dentists experienced at least temporary psychological fatigue as a result of their work and almost half were exhausted at the end of each day. Despite this, most enjoyed working with patients and were enthusiastic about their work. Three aspects of burnout emerged on factor analysis: psychological fatigue, loss of enjoyment of work, and hardening. One third of dentists experienced some hardening and ceased to care greatly what happened to some of their patients. Of the factors associated with working environments, only dissatisfaction with relationships with patients, problems relating to the physical environment and poor working posture significantly increased burnout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)