WorldWideScience

Sample records for finnish concept-to-speech system

  1. Contrast in concept-to-speech generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; Walker, M.; Rambow, O.

    2002-01-01

    In concept-to-speech systems, spoken output is generated on the basis of a text that has been produced by the system itself. In such systems, linguistic information from the text generation component may be exploited to achieve a higher prosodic quality of the speech output than can be obtained in a

  2. Examining the Differences of Linear Systems between Finnish and Taiwanese Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between Finnish and Taiwanese textbooks for grades 7 to 9 on the topic of solving systems of linear equations (simultaneous equations). The specific textbooks examined were TK in Taiwan and FL in Finland. The content analysis method was used to examine (a) the teaching sequence, (b)…

  3. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  4. The prediction and prevention of voltage collapse in the Finnish power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastman, J; Lakervi, E [Tampere Univ. of Tech. (Finland); Hirvonen, R; Kuronen, P; Hagman, E [IVO Group (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    The Finnish power system is a part of the Nordic power system (NORDEL), which includes Finland, Sweden, Norway and the eastern part of Denmark. In NORDEL the transmission distances are long, which implies that the power transmission capacities are determined by stability criteria . The methods to prevent and predict the voltage collapse during severe disturbances are studied using advances simulation program. Results are presented. (author) 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Explaining technical change in a small country the Finnish national innovation system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Pentti

    1994-01-01

    Technical change is produced by the interaction of a large number of technical, economic, social and institutional factors. One of the starting points is the concept of national innovation systems. The aim of this book is to take Finland as an example illustrating the challenges faced by small countries. The characteristics and performance of the Finnish national innovation system of the last couple of decades are analyzed. The Finnish experience is put in a broader context by comparing it with a few other countries. The development paths possible in the near future are assessed. According to the results, many problems remain despite favourable developments in several technology indicators. The rigidities of the social institutions created during the 1970s and 1980s seem to have become obstacles for economic and technological development. There are fairly large differences between the countries studied, and even between the culturally and historically close Nordic countries. However,Finland and Sweden seem to...

  6. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Finnish experiences on licensing and using of programmable digital systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.; Heimburger, H.; Hall, L.E.; Manninen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Finnish utility companies, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima (TVO), and the licensing authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), are preparing for a new nuclear power plant in Finland. Plant vendors are proposing programmable digital automation systems for both the safety-related and the operational I and C (instrumentation and control) systems in this new unit. Also in existing plant units the replacement of certain old analog systems with state-of-the-art digital ones will become necessary in the years to come. Licensing of programmable systems for safety critical applications requires a new approach due to the special properties and failure modes of these systems. The major difficulties seem to be in the assessment and quantification of software reliability. The Technical Research Centre of Finland has in co-operation with the authority and the utilities conducted a project (AJA) to develop domestically applicable licensing requirements, guidelines and practices. International standards, guidelines and licensing practices have been analyzed in order to specify national licensing requirements. The paper describes and discusses the findings and experiences of the AJA project so far. The experience in introducing advanced programmable digital control and computer systems in the operating nuclear power plants will be covered briefly. Although these systems are not safety-related but systems of more general interest regarding nuclear safety, some routines regarding the licensing of safety- related systems have been followed. In these backfitting and replacement projects some experience have been gained in how to license safety-related programmable systems. (Author) 31 refs., 2 figs

  8. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland.

  9. Finnish physicians' stress related to information systems keeps increasing: a longitudinal three-wave survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-10-17

    Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability

  10. Comparison of different reliability improving investment strategies of Finnish medium-voltage distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laagland, H.

    2012-07-01

    The electricity distribution sector in Finland is highly regulated and the return on investments in distribution networks is low. Low profits don't make the electricity distribution sector attractive to outside investors. During the second regulatory period of 2008-2011 incentives are included into the Finnish regulation model which allows higher profits for the network owners for right allocated network investments leading to lower operation and interruption costs. The goal of the thesis is to find cost-effective medium-voltage distribution system investment strategies for the Finnish power distribution companies with respect to the incentives of the second regulatory period. In this work the sectionalisation concept is further developed by deriving equations for a homogeneous electricity distribution system for the economical and reliability indices as a function of the number of sectionalisation zones. The cost-effective medium-voltage distribution system investment strategies are found by studying the technical and economic interaction of feeder automation on different network structures. Ten feeder automation schemes have been applied to six urban/rural area generic feeders and two real rural area feeders of a distribution company in western Finland. The analytical approach includes modelling of the feeders and feeder functions and calculation of the economical and reliability indices. The following investment areas are included: different electricity distribution systems, new substation, new switching station, central earth-fault current compensation, cabling and feeder automation. The value of the results of this work is that they reveal the influence that feeder automation has on the reliability and economy of different distribution structures. This created transparency enables a national and/or distribution company network investment strategy to optimise the economic benefits of investments. (orig.)

  11. Finnish early warning system for nuclear emergencies: Experiences during 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, K.; Lahtinen, J.; Ilander, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The Finnish early warning system for nuclear emergencies consists of the nation-wide automatic external dose-rate monitoring network and the control system, which is known as USVA. The monitoring network comprises of approx. 300 AAM95 central stations and substations equipped with RD-02 or RD-02L GM tubes. Stations are thoroughly inspected on a routine basis every 4-5 years. During the inspection the GM tube, battery and power adapters of the station are replaced with new ones, as is also the modem if necessary, and the alarm connections to USVA are tested. The USVA system utilizes advanced www technology (including a browser-based, easy-to-use user interface) and a network of PCs with dedicated tasks. USVA's central hardware is located at STUK. USVA began its operation in the beginning of the year 2000, replacing the older y2k incompatible system. In a routine situation, USVA collects the monitoring data once a day. The USVA is capable of connecting (via telephone lines) to eight AAM stations concurrently, and the results from the whole country are obtained in about 15 minutes. When the system receives an alarm message from the network, it sends a text message to the mobile phones defined in a separate list and starts an automatic data collection procedure at all the stations situated within a certain distance (100 km) from the alarm-causing station. (orig.)

  12. The occurrence of legionalla in hot water distribution systems of some Finnish apartment and office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacheus, O M; Kuittinen, M H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Institute, Dept. Environ. Hyg. and Toxicol., Kuopio (FI)

    1991-01-01

    A project concerning the effect of water temperature and water quality on the microbiology of hot water distribution systems in Finnish apartment and office buildings was started in 1989. Here we report preliminary results on the occurrence of legionella. Samples were taken from showerpipes and from hot water mains before and after calorifiers of 17 buildings. Water temperature in the showerpipes ranged from 39 to 55 deg. C. Water temperature before calorifiers ranged from 40 to 52 deg. C and after them from 39 to 59 deg. C. Water temperature did not explain well the occurrence of legionalla. Legionalla pneumophila was isolated from six systems. The isolates were serogroups 1, 5 and 6. Legionella concentrations in positive samples ranged from 100 to 350 000 CFU/l. Highest concentrations of legionalla were obtained from showerpipes and hot water mains before calorifiers. Four legionella positive distribution systems were decontaminated by raising the water temperature to 60-70 deg. C and cleaning taps and showerheads, and flushing them twice a day. The numbers of legionellas in the hot water mains fell below detection limit (50 CFU/l) and their numbers also decreased in showerpipes. Decontamination failed in some parts of the distribution systems where water temperature remained below 60 deg. C. (author) 26 refs.

  13. On geomagnetically-induced currents in the Finnish 400 kV power system by an auroral electrojet current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirjola, R.; Viljanen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The auroral electrojet current flowing in the ionosphere is modeled by a horizontal east-west line current of infinite length. The earth is described by a simple two-layer model. An expression for the earth-surface electric field, which is thus connected with a geomagnetic disturbance in and near the auroral zone, is given. This electric field is considered as external from the viewpoint of the Finnish 400 kV power system, and the resulting geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) in the system are computed. In the north, i.e. near the electrojet, GICs may have values even in the order of hundreds of amperes. A comparison to GICs produced by an equivalent spatially-constant external electric field is demonstrated. Sometimes the location of the electrojet is further south. This possibility is studied by letting the line current have several different locations above the Finnish power grid

  14. Socially optimal drainage system and agricultural biodiversity: a case study for Finnish landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Herzon, Irina; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-12-15

    This paper examines the socially optimal drainage choice (surface/subsurface) for agricultural crop cultivation in a landscape with different land qualities (fertilities) when private profits and nutrient runoff damages are taken into account. We also study the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage when the locations of the surface-drained areas in a landscape affect the provided biodiversity. We develop a general theoretical model and apply it to empirical data from Finnish agriculture. We find that for low land qualities the measurable social returns are higher to surface drainage than to subsurface drainage, and that the profitability of subsurface drainage increases along with land quality. The measurable social costs to increase biodiversity by surface drainage under low land qualities are negative. For higher land qualities, these costs depend on the land quality and on the biodiversity impacts. Biodiversity conservation plans for agricultural landscapes should focus on supporting surface drainage systems in areas where the measurable social costs to increase biodiversity are negative or lowest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of a numerical release model (REPCOM) for the Finnish reactor waste disposal systems: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1987-05-01

    The aim of the work is to model experimentally the inner structures and materials of two reactor waste repositories and to use the results for the validation work of a numerical near field release model, REPCOM. The experimental modelling of the multibarrier systems is conducted on a laboratory scale by using the same principal materials as are employed in the Finnish reactor waste disposal concepts. The migration of radionuclides is studied in two or more consecutive material layers. The laboratory arrangements include the following test materials: bituminized resin, cemented resin, concrete, crushed rock, and water. The materials correspond to the local materials in the planned disposal systems. Cs-137, Co-60, Sr-85, and Sr-90 are used as tracers, with which the resin, water, and crushed rock are labeled depending on the specimen type. The basic specimen geometries are cylindrical and cubic. In the cylindrical geometry the test materials were placed into PVC-tubes. The corresponding numerical model is one-dimensional. In the cubic geometry the materials were placed inside each other. The boundaries form cubes, and the numerical model is three-dimensional. Altogether 12 test system types were produced. The gamma active nuclides in the cylindrical samples were measured nondestructively with a scanner in order to determine the activity profiles in the specimens. The gamma active nuclides in the cubic samples and the beta emeitting Sr-90 in separate samples will be measured after splitting the samples. One to five activity profiles were determined for each cylindrical gamma-active sample. There are already clear diffusion profiles to be had for strontium in crushed rock, and for cesium in crushed rock and in concrete. Cobalt indicated no diffusion. No activity profiles were measured for the cubic samples or for the beta active, Sr-90-doped samples

  16. Role of the energy use of peat in the Finnish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to combine the current knowledge of the production and use of energy peat and of the significance of peat in the Finnish energy system. The study deals with the development, current state and future prospects of the production and use of energy peat, as well as the factors that have influenced or are influencing them. The use of peat has established its position in the Finnish energy system. Peat has traditionally been well available and thus its security of supply has been considered good. It has also been regarded as a high-quality indigenous fuel. In recent years many investments have been made in power plants using indigeneous fuels and in co-use of peat and wood. In fact, the use of the peat and wood of indigeneous fuels is very closely inter-linked and their use support one another. Regionally speaking, peat consumption is highest in North Ostrobothnia and inland. The negative effects of peat use are considered to be the high carbon dioxide factor of peat combustion and in some cases the possible effects of production on the local environment. Emissions trading, which was started at the beginning of 2005, weakens the competitiveness of peat in relation to other fuels. When the value of an emission allowance rises enough, also the use of coal may become cheaper than that of peat in installations in which peat has earlier been the main fuel. As the role of peat decreases, the effects are also reflected in the production and use of peat, and in the use of wood fuels, if the supply conditions of peat, which is used as the support and mixed fuel for wood, weaken. The low production of the rainy summer of 2004, combined with the low peat storage levels, led to difficulties in peat deliveries during the winter 2004-2005, and without the milder winter and good water situation in the Nordic countries the supply of peat would not necessarily have been sufficient to cover all demand. If the current role of peat is to be maintained, the

  17. Occupational Health and Safety of Finnish Dairy Farmers Using Automatic Milking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Lunner-Kolstrup, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pipeline and parlor milking expose dairy farmers and workers to adverse health outcomes. In recent years, automatic milking systems (AMS) have gained much popularity in Finland, but the changes in working conditions when changing to AMS are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational health and safety risks in using AMS, compared to conventional milking systems (CMS). An anonymous online survey was sent to each Finnish dairy farm with an AMS in 2014. Only those dairy farmers with prior work experience in CMS were included in the final analysis consisting of frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. We received 228 usable responses (131 male and 97 female; 25.2% response rate). The majority of the participants found that AMS had brought flexibility to the organization of farm work, and it had increased leisure time, quality of life, productivity of dairy work, and the attractiveness of dairy farming among the younger generation. In addition, AMS reduced the perceived physical strain on the musculoskeletal system as well as the risk of occupational injuries and diseases, compared to CMS. However, working in close proximity to the cattle, particularly training of heifers to use the AMS, was regarded as a high-risk work task. In addition, the daily cleaning of the AMS and manual handling of rejected milk were regarded as physically demanding. The majority of the participants stated that mental stress caused by the monotonous, repetitive, paced, and hurried work had declined after changing to AMS. However, many indicated increased mental stress because of the demanding management of the AMS. Nightly alarms caused by the AMS, lack of adequately skilled hired labor or farm relief workers, and the 24/7 standby for the AMS were issues that also caused mental stress. Based on this study, AMS may have significant potential in the prevention of adverse health outcomes in milking of dairy cows. In addition, AMS may improve

  18. Co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems in the Finnish social and health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuussaari, Kristiina; Hirschovits-Gerz, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have noted that substance abuse and mental health problems often occur simultaneously. The aim of the work reported here was to study the co-occurrence of mental health problems and problems related to substance use in a sample of clients visiting the Finnish social and health care services for issues related to substance use. We collected background information on the clients and considered the parts of the treatment system in which these clients were treated. Survey data on intoxicant-related cases in the Finnish health care and social services were gathered on a single day in 2011. During the 24 hours of data collection, all intoxicant-related cases were reported and data were obtained for 11,738 intoxicant-related cases. In this analysis we took into account the clients' background variables, mental health variables, information on the treatment type and the main reasons for the client being in treatment. The χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Half of the visiting clients had both substance use related and mental health problems. The strongest factors associated with the co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems were female sex, younger age and single marital status. Clients with co-occurring problems were more often treated in the health care services, whereas clients with only substance use related problems were primarily treated in specialized services for the treatment of substance abuse. It is important to identify clients with co-occurring substance use related and mental health problems. In this study, half of the clients presenting to the Finnish social and health care treatment system had both these problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  20. The Finnish "social wilderness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville Hallikainen

    2000-01-01

    The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...

  1. Status on the Finnish activities regarding qualification of programmable automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juslin, K.

    1995-01-01

    The research work on qualification of programmable automation system is described which describe the development of methods, tools and practices for the evaluation and licensing of safety critical programmable automation systems. 26 refs

  2. How to motivate salespeople to use CRM system efficiently through gamification elements : case Finnish media company

    OpenAIRE

    Petäsnoro, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Consumers buying behavior has changed dramatically due to the development of digital sales. This has led companies to change their marketing strategy to become more cus-tomer-oriented. Nowadays companies are increasingly investing to different kind of in-formation system technologies. However, there are major shortcomings in the use of these systems. Many executives feel that systems are conducive to effective work and help in resource allocation. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to un...

  3. Use of email in communication between the Finnish primary healthcare system and general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Karhula

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion Especially during periods of change in the workplace, it is very important that management is conducted personally. Care must be taken so that disinformation does not spoil the informative value of email in the administration of primary health care. The needed technical assistance should be given to everyone in order to get the best advantage from the use of the email system.

  4. Characterization of Sphingomonas isolates from Finnish and Swedish drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, R; Ali-Vehmas, T; Kämpfer, P; Laurikkala, M; Tsitko, I; Kostyal, E; Atroshi, F; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

    2000-10-01

    Sphingomonas species were commonly isolated from biofilms in drinking water distribution systems in Finland (three water meters) and Sweden (five water taps in different buildings). The Sphingomonas isolates (n = 38) were characterized by chemotaxonomic, physiological and phylogenetic methods. Fifteen isolates were designated to species Sphingomonas aromaticivorans, seven isolates to S. subterranea, two isolates to S. xenophaga and one isolate to S. stygia. Thirteen isolates represented one or more new species of Sphingomonas. Thirty-three isolates out of 38 grew at 5 degrees C on trypticase soy broth agar (TSBA) and may therefore proliferate in the Nordic drinking water pipeline where the temperature typically ranges from 2 to 12 degrees C. Thirty-three isolates out of 38 grew at 37 degrees C on TSBA and 15 isolates also grew on blood agar at 37 degrees C. Considering the potentially pathogenic features of sphingomonas, their presence in drinking water distribution systems may not be desirable.

  5. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors. which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these. the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  6. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M; Kaerkkaeinen, S [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors, which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these, the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  7. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M; Kaerkkaeinen, S [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors. which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these. the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  8. Developing a computerized aging management system for concrete structures in finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-01-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures. (authors)

  9. DIGITALISATION IN FINNISH MUSEUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laine-Zamojska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono generalny obraz digitalizacji w fińskim sektorze muzealnym. Przedstawiono szacunkowe liczby dotyczące digitalizacji dziedzictwa kulturowego na podstawie przeprowadzonych statystycznych badań, oraz zaprezentowano wiele projektów związanych z ucyfrowieniem fińskich muzeów.\tFiński sektor muzealny jest niezwykle zróżnicowany, podobnie jak stopień skatalogowania i zdigitalizowania kolekcji. W projektach rozwojowych aktywnie uczestniczy cały sektor muzealny. W ostatnich latach, dzięki wielu inicjatywom i badaniom udało się uzyskać szczegółowy obraz fińskiego sektora muzealnego. Największą inicjatywą jest projekt utworzenia Narodowej Biblioteki Cyfrowej, podlegający Ministerstwu Edukacji i Kultury. Celem projektu jest połączenie i udostępnienie zasobów z instytucji pamięci (bibliotek, archiwów i muzeów. Towarzyszą mu rozległe projekty digitalizacji.\tW związku z ogromną różnorodnością systemów do zarządzania kolekcją i praktykami katalogowymi w muzeach, w 2011 r. Państwowy Urząd Muzealny (Museovirasto / National Board of Antiquities, Fiński Związek Muzeów (Suomen museoliitto / Finnish Museums Association i Państwowa Galeria Sztuki (Valtion taidemuseo / Finnish National Gallery zainicjowały projekt Muzeum2015 (Museo2015 / Museum2015. Jego głównymi celami są: unifikacja procesów związanych z zarządzaniem kolekcją, stworzenie architektury korporacyjnej dla zarządzania muzealną kolekcją, stworzenie modelu zarządzania dla architektury korporacyjnej, oraz określenie i stworzenie warunków do zakupu i implementacji ogólnofińskiego systemu zarządzania kolekcją.\tRozwój cyfrowych narzędzi dla najmniejszych, prowadzonych przez wolontariuszy, muzeów lokalnych jest jednym z celów projektu badawczego ViMuseo, prowadzonego na Uniwersytecie w Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopisto / University of Jyväskylä.

  10. Acute effects of Finnish sauna and cold-water immersion on haemodynamic variables and autonomic nervous system activity in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Poerschke, Daniel; Wilhelm, Matthias; Trachsel, Lukas D; Tschanz, Hansueli; Matter, Friederike; Jauslin, Daniel; Saner, Hugo; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    The haemodynamic response to Finnish sauna and subsequent cold-water immersion in heart failure patients is unknown. Haemodynamic response to two consecutive Finnish sauna (80℃) exposures, followed by a final head-out cold-water immersion (12℃) was measured in 37 male participants: chronic heart failure (n = 12, 61.8 ± 9.2 years), coronary artery disease (n = 13, 61.2 ± 10.6 years) and control subjects (n = 12, 60.9 ± 8.9 years). Cardiac output was measured non-invasively with an inert gas rebreathing method prior to and immediately after the first sauna exposure and after cold-water immersion, respectively. Blood pressure was measured before, twice during and after sauna. The autonomic nervous system was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Total power, low-frequency and high-frequency components were evaluated. The low frequency/high frequency ratio was used as a marker of sympathovagal balance. Sauna and cold-water immersion were well tolerated by all subjects. Cardiac output and heart rate significantly increased in all groups after sauna and cold-water immersion (p heart failure patients. In coronary artery disease patients and controls a prolonged increase in low frequency/high frequency ratio was observed after the first sauna exposure. Acute exposure to Finnish sauna and cold-water immersion causes haemodynamic alterations in chronic heart failure patients similarly to control subjects and in particular did not provoke an excessive increase in adrenergic activity or complex arrhythmias. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  12. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  13. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  14. Burnout among Finnish and Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernesniemi, Elina; Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati; Cheng, Xuejiao; Hong, Jianzhong; Kuittinen, Matti

    2017-10-01

    In this study the levels of experienced burnout of Finnish and Chinese university students are compared using School Burnout Inventory (SBI). This study is motivated by earlier studies, which suggest that the level of student burnout is different in the culturally distinct Finnish and Chinese university systems, but which are based on different research instruments for the two groups. The sample studied consisted of 3,035 Finnish students and 2,309 Chinese students. Because of the cross-cultural nature of this study the level of structural equivalence of SBI between the cultural groups was examined and the effect of different response styles on the results was taken into account. Both standard and robust statistical methods were used for the analyses. The results showed that SBI with two extracted components is suitable for cross-cultural analysis between Finnish and Chinese university students. Virtually no difference was found in experienced overall burnout between the Finnish and Chinese students, which means that both university systems contain factors causing similar levels of student burnout. This study also verified that controlling for the response styles is important in cross-cultural studies as it was found to have a distinct effect on the results obtained from mean-level comparisons. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new Finnish nuclear power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, nuclear power is considered a natural part of a sustainable energy system. The Finnish Parliament has decided that development of nuclear power is consistent with the overall interests of society when climate issues, environmental targets, supply security and stable and competitive prices of electric power are considered as a whole. In 2002, the Finnish Parliament approved the Government's decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant. The new project is the most advanced energy project in the Nordic countries with respect to the availability of energy free of carbon dioxide. The decision is also welcomed by the EU. The new reactor will be of the EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) type. In addition to supplying power to the Finnish industries, the plant is considered necessary if Finland is to comply with international conventions on CO 2 emissions

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  17. Finnish Bioenergy Association - Finbio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopo, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Finnish Bioenergy Association, was founded in November 1991 in the city of Jyvaeskylae. In November 1996, the membership of FINBIO consisted of 17 contributing collective members and 75 individual members. Members of the organization include e.g. the Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Wood Energy Association and Finnish Biogas Centre, all of which represent specific bioenergy fields in Finland. The Finnish Bioenergy Association is a private, non-profit organization the objectives of which are to promote and develop harvesting, transportation and processing of biofuels and other biomass (wood-based biofuels, non-food crops, peat, biowaste); to promote the use of biomass in energy production and in other applications, in accordance with environmentally sound and sustainable development. The objectives of FINBIO is to promote the production and application of all forms of bioenergy in Finland. FINBIO acts as a coordinator for AEBIOM (the European Biomass Association) and its member associations, as well as for other international bioenergy-related organizations

  18. New Finnish radiation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  19. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  20. Exporting Finnish teacher education: Transnational pressures on national models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses empirical data to assess the possible transfer of Finnish teacher education policy, and more specifically, the university training school, into another context. Transnational organisations increasingly pressure nation-states to carry out education policy change, especially due to dissatisfaction with international assessment outcomes. As a high performer in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, administered by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, Finland has been at the centre of international attention. PISA revealed that the high quality of Finnish teachers contributes to the overall calibre of the country’s education system. Thus, Finnish teacher education has become a model for other education systems. This article uses empirical research to explore the export possibilities of the Finnish normaalikoulu, or university training school. It implements qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with Finnish educationalists to explore the possible export of Finnish education, the implications in terms of policy transfer, and the migration of ideas, specifically the university-affiliated, teacher training school. The export and migration of Finnish education and its impact on education policy are discussed in this article, along with educational export’s position in transnational policy formation.

  1. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapmen

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  2. Finnish industry's energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Industry uses around half of the electricity consumed in Finland. In 1999, this amounted to 42.3 TWh and 420 PJ of fuel. Despite the continual improvements that have been made in energy efficiency, energy needs look set to continue growing at nearly 2% a year. Finnish industrial output rose by some 5.5% in 1999. In energy-intensive sectors such as pulp and paper, output rose by 3.4%, in the metal industry by 4%, and in the chemical industry by 3.1%. Growth across Finnish industry is largely focused on the electrical and electronics industries, however, where growth last year was 24.3% The Finnish forest products industry used a total of 26.1 TWh of electricity last year, up 1% on 1998. This small increase was the result of the industry's lower-than-average operating rate in the early part of the year The metal industry used 7.2 TWh of electricity, an increase of 5.8% on 1998. Usage in the chemical industry rose by 2% to 5.2 TWh. Usage by the rest of industry totalled 3.8 TWh, up 2.3% on 1998. All in all, industry's use of electricity rose by 2% in 1999 to 42,3 TWh. Increased demand on industry's main markets in Europe will serve to boost industrial output and export growth this year. This increased demand will be particularly felt in energy-intensive industries in the shape of an increased demand for electricity. Overall, electricity demand is expected to grow by 3% this year, 1% more than industry's longterm projected electricity usage growth figure of 2%. The structure of industry's fuel use in Finland has changed significantly over the last 25 years. Oil, for example, now accounts for only some 10% of fuel use compared to the 40% typical around the time of the first oil crisis. Oil has been replaced by biofuels, peat, and natural gas. The pulp and paper industry is the largest industrial user of renewable energy sources in Finland, and uses wood-related fuels to cover nearly 70% of its fuel needs

  3. Market competition, ownership, payment systems and the performance of health care providers - a panel study among Finnish occupational health services providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2013-10-01

    Many health care reforms rely on competition although health care differs in many respects from the assumptions of perfect competition. Finnish occupational health services provide an opportunity to study empirically competition, ownership and payment systems and the performance of providers. In these markets employers (purchasers) choose the provider and prices are market determined. The price regulation of public providers was abolished in 1995. We had data on providers from 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004. The unbalanced panel consisted of 1145 providers and 4059 observations. Our results show that in more competitive markets providers in general offered a higher share of medical care compared to preventive services. The association between unit prices and revenues and market environment varied according to the provider type. For-profit providers had lower prices and revenues in markets with numerous providers. The public providers in more competitive regions were more sensitive to react to the abolishment of their price regulation by raising their prices. Employer governed providers had weaker association between unit prices or revenues and competition. The market share of for-profit providers was negatively associated with productivity, which was the only sign of market spillovers we found in our study.

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  6. Bibliometric evaluation of Finnish astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of ref...

  7. Finnish perspectives of wireless in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaarela, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Wireless solutions are a good choice for healthcare development in Finland. A survey of 135 experts in Finland show that (1) the competences needed for developing wireless solutions exist (2) the Finnish healthcare system is integrated enough and (3) the technology industry in this area is too weak for global marketing. The following recommendations can be concluded: (1) Cooperate internationally (2) Develop integrated solutions and health managing concepts for the important health problems (such as diabetes), (3) Harness the healthcare system to act as a test bed for new solutions and (4) Help companies to grow and take global roles.

  8. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,…

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  10. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  11. Coulombic Interaction in Finnish Middle School Chemistry: A Systemic Perspective on Students' Conceptual Structure of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, Jarkko; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Aksela, Maija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a novel and holistic way to teach chemical bonding at the middle school level according to research on the teaching and learning of bonding. A further aim was to investigate high achieving middle school students' conceptual structures concerning chemical bonding by using a systemic perspective. Students in one…

  12. Rational use of energy. Finnish technology cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This publication has been produced within the THERMIE B project `Interactive Promotion of Energy Technologies between Finland and Other EUCountries and to Estonia` (STR-0622-95-FI) as carried out for DG XVII of the European Commission. MOTIVA of Finntech Finnish Technology Ltd Oy has acted as the project co-ordinating body, with Ekono B.E., Ekono Energy Ltd and Friedemann and Johnson Consultants GmbH as partners. The main aim of the second phase of the project, as documented here, was to produce a publication in English on Finnish energy technologies, primarily in the building, industry and traffic sectors. The target distribution for this publication is primarily the EU countries through public and commercial information networks. During the work, the latest information on Finnish energy technologies has been collected, reviewed, screened and analysed in relation to the THERMIE programme. The following presentation consists of descriptions of case technologies; their background, technical aspects and energy saving potentials where applicable. The three RUE sectors; buildings, industry and traffic, are put forward in separate chapters. The building sector concentrates mostly in different control systems. New lighting and heating systems increase energy savings both in the large industrial sites and in private homes. In the industry sector new enhanced processes are introduced along with new products to increase energy efficiency. Traffic sector concentrates in traffic control and reducing exhaust gas emissions by new systems and programmes. The aim in Finland is to reduce exhaust gas emissions both by controlling the traffic efficiently and by developing fuels with lower emission levels. A lot is being done by educating the drivers and the public in efficient driving methods

  13. Finnish vocational education and training in comparison: Strengths and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Virolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four Nordic countries have wellorganised labour markets and universal types of welfare states. Priority is given to goals related to equal opportunities and social inclusion. At the same time, these countries have different models of IVET. While the study compares the Finnish model of organising IVET to those of other Nordic countries, it also examines the German and UK models, which represent differing societal approaches to IVET. The differences in the outcomes of the IVET systems are described and analysed through reviewing secondary data provided by Eurydice and Eurostat, along with country reports produced in a Nordic comparative project, Nord-VET.

  14. Exports of Finnish wind power technology gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, Finnish companies in the wind power sector focused on supplying advanced components and materials. This capability has now extended to cover entire turbines and wind farms. Winwind Oy, based in northern Finland, has developed a new type of solution for the export market, combining the advantages of modem direct drives with those of traditional high-speed gear systems

  15. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  17. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published.

  18. Big data in Finnish financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, M. (Mikko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims to explore the concept of big data, and create understanding of big data maturity in the Finnish financial services industry. The research questions of this thesis are “What kind of big data solutions are being implemented in the Finnish financial services sector?” and “Which factors impede faster implementation of big data solutions in the Finnish financial services sector?”. ...

  19. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  20. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  1. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  2. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  3. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  4. Towards automated processing of clinical Finnish: sublanguage analysis and a rule-based parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laippala, Veronika; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Salakoski, Tapio

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present steps taken towards more efficient automated processing of clinical Finnish, focusing on daily nursing notes in a Finnish Intensive Care Unit (ICU). First, we analyze ICU Finnish as a sublanguage, identifying its specific features facilitating, for example, the development of a specialized syntactic analyser. The identified features include frequent omission of finite verbs, limitations in allowed syntactic structures, and domain-specific vocabulary. Second, we develop a formal grammar and a parser for ICU Finnish, thus providing better tools for the development of further applications in the clinical domain. The grammar is implemented in the LKB system in a typed feature structure formalism. The lexicon is automatically generated based on the output of the FinTWOL morphological analyzer adapted to the clinical domain. As an additional experiment, we study the effect of using Finnish constraint grammar to reduce the size of the lexicon. The parser construction thus makes efficient use of existing resources for Finnish. The grammar currently covers 76.6% of ICU Finnish sentences, producing highly accurate best-parse analyzes with F-score of 91.1%. We find that building a parser for the highly specialized domain sublanguage is not only feasible, but also surprisingly efficient, given an existing morphological analyzer with broad vocabulary coverage. The resulting parser enables a deeper analysis of the text than was previously possible.

  5. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…

  6. Energy potential of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Valpola, S. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), e-mail: kimmo.virtanen@gtk.fi, e-mail: samu.valpola@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    One-third of the Finnish land area is covered by mires and peat. GTK has investigated 2.0 million ha of the 9.3 million ha area covered by mires in Finland. According to the EU Commission, the broadly-based Finnish energy economy, with various energy sources, is the best in the EU. As a fuel, peat fulfils the goals of the EU energy policy in Finland well: it is local, its availability is good and the price is stable. The use of peat also enhances national security. At present, peat is used in around one hundred larger applications that co-generate electricity and heat. In Finland, the development of mires has led to several mire complex types and three main types: raised bogs in Southern Finland, aapa mires in Ostrobothnia and Lapland, and palsa mires in Northern Lapland. Peat layers are deepest in southern Finland and partly in the southern Finnish Lake area, the Region of North Karelia and in the area of central Lapland. The mean depth of geological mires is 1.41 m and the thickest drilled peat is 12.3 m. According to peat investigations, the national peat reserve totals 69.3 billion m3 in situ (peatlands larger than 20 hectares). The dry solids of peat are estimated at 6.3 billion tones. Sphagnum peat accounts for 54% and Carex peat for 45% of feasible peat reserves. Peatlands that are technically suitable for the peat industry cover a total area of 1.2 million ha and contain 29.6 billion m3 of peat in situ. Slightly humified peat suitable for horticultural and environmental use totals 5.9 billion m3 in situ. The energy peat reserve is 23.7 billion m3 in situ and its energy content is 12 800 TWh. (orig.)

  7. Romance Tourism and Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...

  8. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well.

  9. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Lehtinen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in

  10. Airborne fallout mapping of 137Cs Finnish defence forces team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)

  11. Finnish Kalevala and Estonian Kalevipoeg / Jaan Puhvel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puhvel, Jaan, 1932-

    2003-01-01

    Tõlgitud kogumikust: The world of the Kalevala : essays in celebration of the 150 year jubilee of the publication of the Finnish national epic / ed. Kai Laitinen. Los Angeles : UCLA Centre for the Study of Folklore & Mythology, 1987

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  13. Marketing communication in Finnish industrial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communication has a significant role for profitable businesses in industrial markets, and its role is only expected to rise in the future. Especially, integrated marketing communication (IMC) and customer-oriented approach are universally regarded fundamental developments in the field of marketing. Secondly, Finnish companies’ marketing competences are commonly considered insufficient in general. The purpose of this study was to describe how Finnish industrial companies execute t...

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  15. Piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces. The goals for the thesis are to find out how Snapchat can be used as part of Finnish Defence Forces’ social media communication and strategy. Conscripts are the most important target group for social media communication in the Defence Forces. Young conscripts are the main target group for Snapchat. This thesis is theoretically based on organizational communication, stakeholder communication and social media communicati...

  16. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. Cross-cultural differences of self-reported oral health behaviour in Japanese and Finnish dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Honkala, E; Widström, E; Komabayashi, T

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether any differences existed in dental health behaviour between Japanese and Finnish dental students. Hiroshima University School of Dentistry and the University of Helsinki. Comparison of cross-cultural differences of self-reported oral health behaviour. Dental students, 337 in Japan and 113 in Finland. Subjects were surveyed using the Japanese and Finnish versions of a 20-item questionnaire entitled Hiroshima University--Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI). Only 2 per cent of Finnish students reported that they put off going to the dentist until they had toothache, compared to 56 per cent of Japanese students. Similarly, significantly more Japanese students thought that their teeth were getting worse despite their daily brushing, compared to their Finnish peers. The mean HU-DBI score of Year 1 Finnish students was higher than that of their Japanese peers, which suggested a higher level of dental health awareness in Finnish students upon entry into dental school. The mean scores of the Japanese students were lower than those of their Finnish peers until Year 3. The mean scores of Year 5 and Year 6 Japanese students were higher than that of Year 1 students, indicating raised self-care levels influenced by the course in preventive dentistry. The gender difference of the HU-DBI score was not a major feature in either country. Self-reported oral health behaviours seemed to be very different between the two countries, which reflected different culture and/or health education systems of the students.

  18. Americium in the Finnish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews studies on environmental americium,241 Am, in Finland. There are two sources of americium in the Finnish environment: fallouts from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the former constituting around 98% of the total environmental load. The weapons test fallout was distributed more or less uniformly over Finland, while the Chernobyl fallout was deposited on a sector from southwestern coast to northeast. The total deposition of 241 Am in Finland is approximately 20 Bq m-2 and the amount is still somewhat increasing due to decay of 241 Pu. In this paper, the distribution and migration of americium in forest and aquatic environments is described. Americium concentrations in natural waters, sediments, soils, vegetation and fishes are given. In addition, the behaviour of americium in the food chain from lichen via reindeer into man is discussed. Radiation doses to humans due to the environmental americium in Finland are of no practical importance (orig.)

  19. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  20. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA

  1. Finnish nurses' views on their research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to describe Finnish nurses' research and publication activities, as well as their views on the availability and utilization of research results in nursing practice. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire in which obstacles to the utilization of research results were measured with a previously developed instrument. A total of 400 nurses from community health centres, a central hospital and a central university hospital took part. Most of the nurses had carried out research on their own. Age, experience, training in research and development and other further training, as well as reading the nursing literature, were associated with doing research. Some of the reasons why the nurses had not carried out research were revealed. Publication of results was very rare. There were problems with the availability of research results. The most common obstacles to research utilization had to do with the presentation of results and the setting. In research utilization, respondents received most support from the ward manager and least support from doctors. If we want to encourage nurses to do research and increase the utilization of research results, greater effort should be invested in teaching research methodology, in introducing more flexible working hours and in developing other support systems.

  2. Electricity prices in the Finnish retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Eero

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. - Research highlights: → Ownership has a strong impact on retail prices in the Finnish electricity market. → Locally owned companies' rates are 5-15 per cent lower than investor owned companies' rates. → Own low cost acquisition of electricity helps local firms to keep prices at low levels.

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  13. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Management by Results at Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppala, Kari

    2005-01-01

    The funding of Finnish Universities has been based on a "management by results" strategy since 1991. This paper analyses the effects of this strategy on university management and administration. Empirically the study is based on material collected from four multidisciplinary universities. Theoretically it is based on organization theory…

  15. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  16. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  17. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  18. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  19. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  20. Procurement of timber for the Finnish forest industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    1995-01-01

    The procurement of timber to the forest industries in the Nordic countries is based on the log-length or shortwood system, and employs load-carrying forwarders and chainsaw of single-grip harvesters. This technology is characterized by high productivity, safety, suitability for small-sized trees, high recovery of timber, and environmental friendliness. About one fourth of the industrial timber in the whole world is harvested using the log-length system. The challenge of ecological sustainability, multiple use of forests, adoption of thinnings as a tool of management, trend toward improved utilization of forest biomass, and shift from natural forests to plantations all increase the global interest in the log-length system. The paper presents a review of the Finnish forest sector, the technology of timber harvesting and transport, productivity of logging work, and costs of timber at the mill. The highly mechanized logging systems of the forest industries and the lighter technology of self-employed forest owners are discussed separately. Furthermore, the use of residual biomass as a source of clean and renewable energy, the Finnish logging machine industry, and forest operations research in Finland are also reviewed. (46 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.)

  1. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  2. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education –How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  3. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  4. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  5. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  6. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  7. Regional Growth and Unemployment: The Validity of Okun's Law for the Finnish Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangasharju, A.; Tavera, C.; Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a concise critical overview of Okun's Law, with particular attention for its relevance in open economic systems of regions. Based on an extensive set of economic data for Finnish regions, the existence of cointegration is tested using alternative statistical methods, viz. the

  8. Sustainable Leadership and Future-Oriented Decision Making in the Educational Governance--A Finnish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsamuuronen, Jari; Kuosa, Tuomo; Laukkanen, Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: During the new millennium the Finnish educational system has faced a new challenge: how to explain glorious PISA results produced with only a small variance between schools, average national costs and, as regards the average duration of studies, relatively efficiently. Explanations for this issue can be searched for in many different…

  9. Sixth Finnish research seminar on solid waste management. Proceedings; Kuudes jaetehuollon tutkimusseminaari 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkonen, M. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    The sixth Finnish seminar on solid waste management includes mostly question regarding landfills. The focus has been on the quality of waste and the pre-treatment before disposal as well as on the control of landfill emissions. Other questions discussed at the seminar included organic waste treatment and waste management systems.

  10. Organization and Management of Continuing Education in German and Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Knust, Michaela; Hanft, Anke

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, an international comparison study investigated the organization and management of university continuing education (UCE). The Finnish continuing education system proved to be especially advanced in this study. On the other hand, it became clear that Germany was still lagging behind in continuing education. In this article, German and…

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  13. Entrepreneurship in a Finnish public institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Burcea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the idea of entrepreneurship in public institutions has been the subject of intense debates, activities and academic research. The scopes of our article are to briefly underline the importance of developing an entrepreneurial spirit by presenting a case study from a Finnish local public administration and making aware the proactive aspect in the process of managing public institutions in Romania. Our hypotheses have been mainly of an interrogative nature. Hypothesis testing was achieved through the analysis of statistical data and conducting a set of sociological interviews with key people from Finnish institutions which were used in the survey. The results of the research emphasize that where there is an entrepreneurial behaviour with the local administration management, the community undergoes a process of conservation and development. The way in which they relate to community partners (such as entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, citizens is essential to the entrepreneurial spirit within the local public institution.

  14. Indoor climate and the performance of ventilation in Finnish residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, R.; Roennberg, R.; Saeteri, J.; Majanen, A.; Seppaenen, O.; Jaakkola, J.J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the actual ventilation and indoor air quality and to evaluate the differences between houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. A sample of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area was studied over periods of two weeks during the 1988-1989 heating season. The mean air-exchange rates had a high variation (average 0.52 l/h, range 0.07-1.55 l/h). The ASHRAE minimum value of 0.35 l/h was not achieved in 28% of the dwellings. The air-exchange rates were significantly lower in the houses than in the apartments (averages 0.45/0.64 l/h, p 3 (range 5-866 Bq/m 3 ); the Finnish target value of 200 Bq/m 3 was exceeded in 17% of the houses but in none of the apartments. The measurements indicate that the indoor air quality in Finnish dwellings is not always satisfactory with reference to human health and comfort. (au)

  15. Open source in Finnish software companies

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, Arto

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores survey data focusing on open source software supply collected from 170 Finnish software firms using descriptive statistical analysis. The first half of the report contains general data about software companies and the differences between proprietary and open source firms. The second half focuses on open source firms. A subject of analysis are copyrights, products and services supply, the firms’ relationships with the open source community, and their views on opportunities ...

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-03-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such incidents and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, considers safety-related. During the third quarter of 1989 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 39.0% of the total Finnish electricity production in this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 78.9%. At Loviisa 1, two holes were found in the feedwater distributor of one steam generator. Corresponding wall thinning corrosion was also detected in the walls of two other distributors. The holes were found on the feedwater distributor upper surface in the joint of the secondary circuit feedwater pipe. One hole was about 20 mm x 50 mm in size and the other was a pit hole ca 5 mm in diameter. Metal power had entered the primary circuit at TVO I. This was observed during a post-scram plant start-up. Several control rod drive units had become jammed so tight that control rod withdrawal failed. Metal powder did not hamper reactor scram under the prevailing circumstances because the drive units are prone to jamming only after a control rod is almost fully inserted and because the forces which insert a control rod by various means (electrical, hydraulic) are 6-8 fold compared with the withdrawing force

  17. Why low doses at Finnish NPPs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Vaehaemaa, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear power units - two BWRs (ABB Atom) and two PWRs (VVER) -are known for their high load factors. Finland's reactors have topped the world ranking list for more than ten years. This explains why their collective radiation doses are among the lowest in the world. During normal operation a collective dose of less than ten millisieverts per month is received at one site

  18. Distributed leadership in Finnish and Shanghai schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present research employed mixed-methods approach to further theorise distributed leadership and to investigate its manifestations in Finnish and Shanghai schools. The whole research comprised two phases. The first phase contained a meta-analysis (Sub-study I), which systematically reviewed 85 key distributed leadership articles published between 2002 and 2013. The meta-analysis identified two main research paradigms: the descriptive-analytical paradigm and the prescrip...

  19. The Finnish EPR dependent on a bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    A new conflict has emerged between the main contractor Areva and its client TVO, the Finnish energy group. The qualification of a handling bridge has delayed the OL3 project of third EPR reactor at Olkiluoto, Finland. The disagreement concerns the testing procedure and may induce a two year delay in the completion of the project which is now planned for 2012 instead of 2010 initially. (J.S.)

  20. Chinese and Finnish Undergraduates’ Online Shopping Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...

  1. Background information for NDT qualification of Finnish disposal canisters of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-15

    This report presents a review to basic concepts, which are applied in the qualification of non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. The qualification systems developed and used in some countries are briefly described in the beginning of the report. Anyway the report mainly discusses the qualification practices applied in the Finnish nuclear industry. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in the YVL Guide 3.8 define the Finnish qualification approach applied for the in-service inspections. The principles presented in this document follow the views of the international organisations: Nuclear Regulator Working Group (NRWG) and European Network for Inspection and Qualification (ENIQ). For the practical qualification work a national guideline is established using so called SP-documents that include specific rules and instructions for execution of qualifications in accordance with YVL Guide 3.8 principles. Altogether the Finnish qualification system can be seen very well to follow the European (ENIQ) methodology. The report discusses several qualification terms and documents. Thus the normally necessary tasks and parts of a qualification are described. The qualification can be seen as a project that includes several tasks, which will be performed by different parties. Enough resources and time should be reserved for the planning and control of a qualification project to ensure its fluent progress. Some tasks are discussed in the report taking into account the situation in the qualification cases that are seen to be linked to the inspections of disposal canisters of spent fuel. (orig.)

  2. Background information for NDT qualification of Finnish disposal canisters of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkimo, M.; Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents a review to basic concepts, which are applied in the qualification of non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. The qualification systems developed and used in some countries are briefly described in the beginning of the report. Anyway the report mainly discusses the qualification practices applied in the Finnish nuclear industry. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in the YVL Guide 3.8 define the Finnish qualification approach applied for the in-service inspections. The principles presented in this document follow the views of the international organisations: Nuclear Regulator Working Group (NRWG) and European Network for Inspection and Qualification (ENIQ). For the practical qualification work a national guideline is established using so called SP-documents that include specific rules and instructions for execution of qualifications in accordance with YVL Guide 3.8 principles. Altogether the Finnish qualification system can be seen very well to follow the European (ENIQ) methodology. The report discusses several qualification terms and documents. Thus the normally necessary tasks and parts of a qualification are described. The qualification can be seen as a project that includes several tasks, which will be performed by different parties. Enough resources and time should be reserved for the planning and control of a qualification project to ensure its fluent progress. Some tasks are discussed in the report taking into account the situation in the qualification cases that are seen to be linked to the inspections of disposal canisters of spent fuel. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of the Finnish CERN activities panel report

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Peter; Juuti, Pauli; Kullander, Sven; Ikonen, Eeva; Maalampi, Jukka

    2001-01-01

    The Academy of Finland decided in November 2000 that Finnish CERN-activities should be evaluated. The first ten years of the Finnish membership in CERN have been successful. Also in the future, Finland has great opportunities and benefits of the collaboration with CERN. The Finnish presentations clearly show the rapid development in experimental physics since the joining of CERN. Still, Finland can be considered as a relatively young Member State in CERN, but one of the most dynamic new partners for CERN.

  4. Finnish Government contribution in Haiphong Water Supply, Drainage, Sewerage and Sanitation Management Programs in Hai Phong city, Vietnam : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Hoang, Duy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to bring out a general point of view in the contribution of the Finnish aid of Finnish Government, targeted in the development of urban area as well as water supply and sanitation of Hai Phong city, the most Northern port city of Vietnam, which holds an important role in the economy system of Vietnam. Moreover, Hai Phong is one of three targeted cities that get Foreign Direct Investment as well as support from Finnish government for the development of local wate...

  5. Decarbonising the Finnish Transport Sector by 2050: Electricity or Biofuels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bramstoft Pedersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    for the transport sector by 2050—one with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) and another with a high percentage of biofuels (BIO), and compares the scenario results with a known Carbon-Neutral Scenario (CNS) which is adopted from the Nordic Energy Technology Perspective (IEA in Nordic energy technology...... perspective—pathways to a carbon-neutral energy future, 2013a). The socio-economic value of the total system cost is computed and the system integration of the transport sector with the electricity and heating sectors is simulated with an hourly time resolution. This study finds that a Finnish transport...... of the results is tested through a sensitivity analysis which shows that the costs (investment and maintenance) of biodiesel cars and EV are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios....

  6. Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas--Finnish University Employees' Experiences on the Governance of University Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne; Lehto, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the university workers of two Finnish universities experienced the range of neoliberal policymaking and governance reforms implemented in the 2000s. These reforms include quality assurance, system of defined annual working hours, outcome-based salary system and work time allocation system. Our point of view regarding…

  7. Communications highlights of the Finnish nuclear industry in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininen-Ojanperae, Marke

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Poster will contain two major issues i.e. description of the information Centre Renovation Project at Loviisa Power Plant and a presentation with material of the Sunray III Project. The Sunray Project: The Sunray Project is a national radiation project intended for all ninth graders in the Finnish school system. The project started two years ago. Attention has been focused on the topic of radiation. The topic has been dealt with in connection with different subject as history, English, Swedish, French, Finnish, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, health and home economics, as well as vocational counselling. The aim of the project is to provide extensive information on the subject of radiation and radioactivity, to investigate benefits and disadvantages and to help pupils understand units and see things in correct proportions. Sunray I focused on radon, Sunray II on light. Sunray III will start this autumn and its main theme will be risk perception. The programme of the Sunray III is structured as follows: Part One: Articles on risk provided by experts from different fields. Part Two: A risk management game Part Three: A special view on natural radiation. The project is coordinated by Economic Information Bureau in cooperation with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and two major power companies Imatran Voima and Teollisuuden Voima. The coordinator of the Sunray III Project is Mr. Matti Lattu. The Information Centre Renovation Project (ICRP) The ICRP has been a two-year project which was completed for the 20th anniversary celebration of Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant in February 1997. The main emphasis was to harness the local natural environment as much as possible. The focal point of the project was presented by a new, large-sized map as a water-colour painting (a printed version), a bird-eye view of the Haestholinen Island environment. The information signs system was completely renewed. A large sea-water aquarium containing

  8. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  9. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  10. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  11. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  12. Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, M.

    1995-05-01

    Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out trough separate tasks concentrating on verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to the Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English

  13. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  14. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Sankila, E.M.; Tuppurainen, K.; Kleemola, L.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Deutman, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients.

  15. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  16. Occupational injuries in the Finnish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, M V

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the types of occupational injuries that occur in the Finnish furniture industry and to see whether they differ as regards production type and company size. During a one-year registration period accident events, the actual and potential severity of the injuries, the causes of the accidents, and the measures needed to prevent such accidents were examined in 18 Finnish furniture factories of different types. An analysis of covariance determined the variables affecting the actual and potential severity of the injuries. The 214 accidents registered were lost-time injuries; two of them resulted in slight partial loss of fingertips. The disabling injury rate was 14.4 per 100 workers per year. Wooden furniture production and kitchen cupboard production in large companies had the highest rate. Accidents involving machines comprised half of the material. Saws were the most common machine type. Forty-two percent of the injuries could have been more severe; one injury could have been fatal. The injured persons and their foremen identified the causal factors of the accidents and the needed safety countermeasures well. Sixty-six percent of the causes and 65% of the safety countermeasures were associated with the actions of the workers and the workplace procedures. Nevertheless, only 6% of the identified safety countermeasures were put into force. It was estimated that, in 1987, 2000 on-site accidents leading to at least first-aid at some health care center occurred in the Finnish furniture industry. Special efforts should be taken to improve safety in furniture production in Finland.

  17. Peptides in fermented Finnish milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Kahala

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the rate of proteolysis and peptide profiles of different Finnish fermented milk products. The highest rate of proteolysis was observed in Biokefir, while the greatest change in the rate of proteolysis was observed in Gefilus®. Differences in starters and manufacturing processes reflected on the peptide profiles of the products. Most of the identified peptides originated from either the N- or C-terminal region of β-casein or from the N-terminal region of αs1-casein.

  18. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  20. The fifth Finnish national aerosol symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkanen, P.; Haemeri, K.; Kauppinen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Finnish Aerosol Symposium was held June 1-3, 1993. Symposium is jointly organized by FAAR, Aerosol Technology Group of Technical Research Centre of Finland and Helsinki University, Department of Physics. Aerosols, the suspensions of solid and liquid particles and gases, are receiving increasing importance in many areas of science and technology. These include industrial hygiene, ambient and indoor air pollution, pollution control technologies, cloud physics, nuclear safety engineering, combustion science and engineering, clean manufacturing technologies and material processing. The importance of aerosol issues during the development of advanced fuel conversion and material processing technologies can be realized when looking at the numerous papers presented on these topics at the Symposium

  1. Project Management in the Finnish Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hypén, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The term project is a widely used phrase in today’s working life. This thesis explains what project management theory is, how it has evolved through history and how it is applied in managing modern business projects in the contexts of the Finnish music business sector. The literature review contains a description of the key phases a project is typically organised in as well as the terms and tools used to plan and run a successful project. Through qualitative research means the thesis inves...

  2. Operating experiences at the Finnish TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenhaara, Seppo

    1988-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA reactor has been in operation since March 1962. There are still 57 original Al-clad fuel elements in the core. So far we have had only two fuel cladding failures in 1981 and 1988. The first one was an Al-clad element and the second one a SS-clad. The low rate of fuel cladding failures has made it possible to use continuously also the Al-clad fuel elements. Although some conventional irradiations of certain type have been repeated successfully tens of times, new and unexpected incidents can still take place. As an example an event of a leaking irradiation capsule is described

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  4. Finnish Play Becomes Chinese Local Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the fall of 1992 an unusualpremiere took place in Xi′an:Totisesti totisesti,adapted from aFinnish stage play,was performed asan opera in Chinese by the HuaOpera Troupe,a part of the ShaanxiOpera Research Institute.Ms.InkeriKilpinen,the playwright,and Ms.Leena Laulajainen,vice-chairman ofFinland Writers′Association,cameto see the performance.Hua opera,also known as“Wanwan Opera,”is one of the localforms of opera in Shaanxi Province.It was originally performed in theform of shadow play,and was for-

  5. Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

  6. Finnish Students’ Engagement in Science Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Linnansaari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing number of students who are engaged in science learning has been recognised as a problem. The pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement were examined using a novel research method to obtain detailed information on Finnish students’ engagement in different situations and to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. The study’s participants consisted of 68 students (31 girls, 37 boys from 9th grade and 67 students (46 girls, 21 boys from 1st grade in upper secondary school. The research aimed to answer the following question: How does Finnish students’ engagement occur in exact and life science lessons? Participants received smartphones equipped with a smartphone application that included an experience sampling method questionnaire. The smartphones were programmed to emit a signal during every science lesson and otherwise randomly during the day (from 8 am to 8 pm. The results reveal that situation and grade had significant effects on students’ pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement. Our results also show that girls had the highest interest in life science lessons and boys in exact science lessons.

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  8. Email medication counseling services provided by Finnish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2008-12-01

    The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.

  9. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  10. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  11. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M; Heininen, T [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  12. Service Design Outcomes in Finnish Book Industry : From Transition to Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Nousiainen, Anu K.

    2013-01-01

    Service Design Outcomes in Finnish Book Industry - From Transition to Transformation Book industry is in transition especially due to technology advancements, converging operational environment and evolving consumer values and practices in the digital context. Simultaneously, the post-industrial paradigm shift from products to services, systems and experiences highlights the intangibles-driven economy, where existing value chain members need to find new directions and new business oppo...

  13. The Finnish EMU Buffers and the Labour Market under Asymmetric Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Alho, Kari

    2004-01-01

    The Finnish EMU buffers consist of elements built into the unemployment insurance and employment pension systems, which aim to stabilise employer contributions and employment during economic fluctuations in the EMU age. The paper simulates the role of these buffers in a hypothetical recession caused by an adverse asymmetric shock. The results show that the buffers play only a modest role in stabilising employment, although their importance increases as the shocks to the economy become greater...

  14. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STUK-B-YTO 7), which is supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  15. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitasaari, O.; Rantavaara, A.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STL-B-RTO-83/7), which is supplemented by this report intended principally for experts. (author)

  16. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  17. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  18. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  19. Finnish energy technologies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these

  20. Production of the Finnish Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammelin, Bengt; Vihma, Timo; Atlaskin, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    ) the parameterization method for gust factor was extended to be applicable at higher altitudes; and (vii) the dissemination of the Wind Atlas was based on new technical solutions. The AROME results were calculated for the heights of 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 300 and 400 m, and the WAsP results for the heights of 50......, 75, 100, 125 and 150 m. In addition to the wind speed, the results included the values of the Weibull distribution parameters, the gust factor, wind power content and the potential power production, which was calculated for three turbine sizes. The Wind Atlas data are available for each grid point......The Finnish Wind Atlas was prepared applying the mesoscale model AROME with 2.5 km horizontal resolution and the diagnostic downscaling method Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme (WAsP) with 250 m resolution. The latter was applied for areas most favourable for wind power production: a 30...

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  2. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  3. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  4. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. The role of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, A.L.; Valkama, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for the dispersion forecasts for the radiation control in Finland. In addition to the normal weather forecasts the duty forecaster has the work station based three dimensional trajectory model and the short range dispersion model YDINO at his disposal. For expert use, dispersion and dose model TRADOS is available. The TRADOS, developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, includes a meteorological data base that utilizes the numerical forecasts of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) weather prediction model. The transport is described by three-dimensional air-parcel trajectories. For each time step the integrated air concentrations as well as dry and wet deposition for selected groups of radionuclides are computed. In the operational emergency application only external dose rates are computed. In the statistical version also individual and population dose estimates via several external and internal pathways can be made. The TRADOS is currently run under two separate user interfaces. The trajectory and dispersion model interface includes ready-made lists of the nuclear power plants and other installations. The dose model has a set of release terms for several groups of radionuclides. There is also a graphical module that enables the computed results to be presented in grid or also isolines. A new graphical user interface and presentation lay-outs redesigned as visual and end-user friendly as possible and with the aim of possible and with the aim of possible adoption as a Nordic standard will be installed in the near future. (orig.)

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  7. A Comparison of Physical Activity Levels in Childcare Contexts among Finnish and Dutch Three-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Anne; Gubbels, Jessica; Sääkslahti, Arja; Villberg, Jari; Kremers, Stef; Van Kann, Dave; Mehtälä, Anette; De Vries, Nanne; Poskiparta, Marita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine Finnish and Dutch three-year-old preschool children's physical activity (PA) levels and how levels vary across gender, location, time of day and social contexts in both countries. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  8. Speech perception and vocabulary growth: A longitudinal study of Finnish-Russian bilinguals and Finnish monolinguals from infancy to three years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvén, M.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Kouvo, A.M.; Lundén, M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level,

  9. Awareness of child sex tourism among young Finnish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon Nurmi, Sara Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about one of the dark sides of tourism: child sex tourism. It is commisioned by a Finnish NGO, Reilun Matkailun Yhdistys and the aim was to conduct a research in order to find out about the awareness and attitudes of young Finnish travelers about child sex tourism. The theoretical framework consists of theory about child sex tourism and abot the much wider problem from which child sex tourism is origined: commercial sexual exploitation of children. Furth...

  10. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  11. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  12. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  13. Shaping professional identity for sustainability. Evidence in Finnish public catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Minna

    2009-08-01

    Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability.

  14. Electricity and emission allowance markets from Finnish viewpoint. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, M.

    2006-05-01

    During 1995.2005 the Nordic energy system has experienced two major changes, the opening of the electricity market for competition and emissions trading within the EU. The European Union's emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) that began operating at the beginning of 2005 has weakened the competitiveness of Finnish electricity production and raised electricity prices. Most electricity producers have accumulated large profits thanks to higher prices. The payers have been nearly all electricity users. This report studies the effects of emissions trading on the electricity market and the functionality of the power market. Very little investment has been made in power production capacity in the Nordic countries over the past ten years. Considerable increases have mainly been made in Danish wind power capacity. Simultaneously, the total consumption of electricity and maximum system load have increased more than installed capacity has grown. In the next few years the power and energy balances may be threatened. In previous years, Finland has often been separated as its own market price area on the Nordic power exchange. The formation of price areas has been affected by the limited capacity in transmission interconnectors, network reparation work and the operating method of the Swedish national system operator, Svenska Kraftnaet (transferring domestic bottlenecks to the borders). This study reviews the scale of price differences and the effect on market activities. On the common Nordic electricity market, Finnish coal and peat condensing power capacity is mainly used during poor precipitation years. These plants were once built for base load production. Carbon dioxide emissions trading has further weakened the competitiveness of these plants. The biggest problem for the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool, is regarded to be that market concentration in electricity production is high. Market concentration decreases the investment willingness of existing players as new power

  15. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  16. International risk factors affecting Finnish energy supplies. Suomen energiahuollon kansainvaeliset uhkatekijaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanen, P.; Koponen, M.; Kaekoenen, J. (Oulu Univ., Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the structure and development of Finnish fuel imports, world fuel market trends and prospects, and the impact of global environmental concerns on Finnish energy supplies. Attention is focused on the political and economic developments to be expected in the major fuel producing or consuming countries. The aim is to look for factors that could treaten the functioning of Finnish fuel supplies and to suggest ways to avoid or overcome these threats. The research is based on Finnish and international energy statistics, published forecasts for the development of the fuel trade and fuel resources and the latest literature on energy economics and political science. Finland is heavily dependent on foreign fuels, over two thirds of her fuels supply being imported. By far the most important source of imports is the Soviet Union, although Poland is a major supplier of coal. The increase in domestic demands for fuels in these countries, will make it necessary for Finland to diversify the sources of her fuel imports. The suggestions made here include the following: Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait should be considered as possible new sources of oil. Coal could be imported from South Africa, provided that the apartheid policy is discontinued. Norway could provide some natural gas, although a Nordic pipeline system would be needed for this to be possible. Finland should invest in fuel resource exploration and development and in building the necessary infrastructure in the producing countries in order to improve the possibilities for reaching long-term agreements on fuel imports. Imporovements in the effiency of the end users of energy and an increase in the proportion of renewable sources of energy would not only be steps towards a sustainable fuel economy, but would also reduce the country's dependence on imported fuels.

  17. How magnetic are Finnish hospitals measured by transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Tarja; Mäntynen, Raija; Turunen, Hannele; Partanen, Pirjo; Miettinen, Merja; Wolf, Gail A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-01-01

      The overall aim of this study was to examine nurses' and patients' perceptions of the Magnet model components of transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes in four Finnish hospitals and to determine if the evidence for transformational leadership and empirical quality outcomes is the same or different in the four hospitals.   This report presents baseline measurements for a longitudinal study of the adaptation of the Magnet model in Finnish hospitals.   Web-based surveys and mailed questionnaires were used in 2008-2009 to collect data from patients (n = 2566) about their satisfaction with care, and from nursing staff about transformational leadership (n = 1151), job satisfaction (n = 2707) and patient safety culture (n = 925) in the selected hospitals.   Awareness of the work of nursing leaders was low. Nurses reported a high level of job satisfaction. Patient safety culture varied considerably between the four hospitals. Patients believed they generally received excellent quality care.   Leadership systems are in transition at the hospitals. Patient safety culture is a complex phenomenon that may be unfamiliar to respondents. The results of the study provide a baseline description to guide the journey toward development of Magnet standards.   Finnish nursing leaders, especially nursing directors, should increase their visibility by working more closely with their staff. They should also pay attention to giving direct feedback about work generally and patient safety issues in particular. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 4th quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-05-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants's production and load factors. In the fourth quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 2 and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to repair a condensate system stop valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 96.5%. Events in the fourth quarter of 1996 were level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  19. Finnish economy and alternatives available to the forest sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Maennistoe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the development of the forest sector on the development trends of Finnish national economy are analysed in this report. The analysis extends to the year 2005. Factors taken as indicators of the economic development are gross national product, total exports, employment, energy and carbon dioxide emissions. The impact analyses were performed using the FMS model system which contains a multi-branch econometric simulation model which can be used to provide a long-term analysis of the national economy. A disaggregated forest economy sector was developed for use in the system. The most significant outcome of the forest economy sensitivity analyses was that any expansion in highly refined timber products will contribute more profoundly to the expansion of the entire economy than chemical wood processing could, as the capital investments required by the latter tend to absorb and replace other economic activities. As far as comprehensive development scenarios are concerned, only small-scale effects were observed in the case of the gross national product, due to the replacement effect. On the other hand, expansion was predicted to have a profound effect on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the country's total economy, particularly as regards the extreme scenarios (12 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.)

  20. Problem gambling and drinking among Finnish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvinen-Tassopoulos Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.

  1. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future.

  2. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanterä, Sari; Pölkki, Tarja; Ekström, Anette; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2010-12-02

    Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  3. Management of investment processes on Finnish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural change in agriculture means a continuous need for investing in farm production. It is essential for the sustainable operations and the economy of the farm that such investments are successful. In this research, different stages of the investment process of farms were studied as well as the use of information and the success perceived during the investment process. The study was carried out with mail surveys and telephone interviews on the Finnish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farms. The most challenging investments were in animal husbandry buildings and, as to these investments, the comparison of alternatives was the most challenging stage. For most investments, the planning phase was considered more challenging than the implementation. Before making the decision, farmers acquired information from many sources, of which the opinion of the main customer and the experiences of fellow farmers were the most valued. Some of the products considered were so new on the market that it was not easy to get adequate information and, furthermore, the information given by suppliers was not always accurate. Decision-making was supported by calculations, but qualitative factors had a dominating role. Large basic decisions were made relatively quickly, while details needed a longer time to process. In general, farm managers were satisfied with their investments. Improvements in work quality and quantity were especially mentioned and generally qualitative factors were the ones first in mind when evaluating the successfulness of the investment.;

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  6. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  7. Control of radon in Finnish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m 3 . Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m 3 . Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)

  8. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  9. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  10. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  11. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietilä Anna-Maija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  12. Finnish participation in the European utility requirements work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish participation in the EUR process started already in April 1994 when IVO (Imatran Voima Oy presently Fortum Oyj) and TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) were asked to comment EUR Volume 1 and 2 Revision A in April 1994. A formal application for the Finnish membership in the EUR organisation was sent on 20 November 1995, and Finland was accepted as an associated member on the next day. The Finnish representatives in the various EUR bodies were appointed in March 1996, at which time the formal participation in these bodies commenced. On 7 November 1996, EUR Steering Committee approved a full membership of IVO and TVO that are joint EUR members representing Finland together. A major Finnish contribution was made in 1997 when IVO and TVO performed a comparison between the EUR document and YVL guides. The period of the Finnish membership has been characterised by the compilation of EUR Volume 3 subsets, in which process IVO/Fortum and TVO have been actively participating. From the Finnish point of view, the EUR work can also be seen as a part of getting prepared to proceed with a possible new NPP project. The EUR document is a substantial aid when preparing the technical specifications for a NPP bid inquiry. The information received in connection with the detailed assessment work for Volume 3 subsets is very valuable when considering the feasibility of NPP concepts. In addition. the experiences gained in the Volume 3 activities enable to develop even better requirements that are manifested by Revision C of Volumes 1 and 2. (author)

  13. Digital control in Finnish power industry applications and some research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Winter, M.

    1986-01-01

    First applications of digital control systems in Finnish power plants stem from a few years time. There are at present in operation two conventional peat fuelled district heating power plants and two others are under construction. In existing nuclear power plants digital control systems are not used. Feasibility studies of a new fifth nuclear power plant have been carried out and also preliminary design exercises on its control systems has been done. It seems that the use of a digital control system in this plant is an alternative worthy of consideration. The existing digital control applications and future plans for their use in the Finnish power industry are described. The rest of the paper is devoted to the reliability questions. Software reliability is a new problem area emanating from the use of programmable digital systems. A description of a cooperative project on these questions between VTT and OECD Halden Project is given. VTT has also developed an interactive computer program, RELVEC, for plant and control system reliability analysis. The structure and use of this system is described

  14. 'From Start to Finnish': Handbook For Exporting A Theatre Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen, Milka; Mäkinen, Annemari

    2014-01-01

    Exporting Finnish culture is one of the themes the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture has carried out over the last few years. ‘From Start to Finnish’ project was a mission to strenghten the state of theatre export in Finland. In the project, government subsidised theatres in Finland export their plays to the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the largest arts festival in the world. The thesis is product-based as the authors created a handbook to combine all the steps to be taken when expo...

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  16. Estimates of genetic parameters and environmental effects for measures of hunting performance in Finnish hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liinamo, A E; Karjalainen, L; Ojala, M; Vilva, V

    1997-03-01

    Data from field trials of Finnish Hounds between 1988 and 1992 in Finland were used to estimate genetic parameters and environmental effects for measures of hunting performance using REML procedures and an animal model. The original data set included 28,791 field trial records from 5,666 dogs. Males and females had equal hunting performance, whereas experience acquired by age improved trial results compared with results for young dogs (P Hounds with respect to their hunting ability should be based on animal model BLUP methods instead of mere performance testing. The evaluation system of field trials should also be revised for more reliability.

  17. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    extracted by 0.03 N NH4F-0.025 N HCI, distinctly indicated the addition of superphosphate, and also to some extent the presence of hyperphosphate phosphorus. Thus, even these results furnish a supplement to the data (11, 19 which prove that acids are not recommendable for the estimation of »available» phosphorus in Finnish soils. Probably, the use of ammonium fluoride would give a more reliable picture, provided, it is on the whole possible to characterize the phosphorus condition of soil with this kind of test values.

  18. Use of sunbeds by Finnish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalarvo, V.

    2000-10-01

    The sun is clearly the most important source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in environment. The UVR doses caused to the population by the sun have been estimated in several studies. However, the use of sunbeds and the UVR exposure caused by them have been assessed only by few surveys. Therefore, the main objective of this study was set to collect data about the use of sunbeds in Finland and to estimate the UVR doses caused to the population by sunbeds. The basic material for this research was collected during year 1998 by a questionnaire mailed to 4000 Finns older than 15 years. 28,7% of the respondents had visited sunbed sometime during their life, and 8,6% had used sunbed during the year 1997. Consequently it was estimated that in 1997 approximately 360 000 Finns aged over 15 years were using sunbeds. Young people, 20-34 years, were using sunbeds more than older people and two of three sunbed users were women. During the year 1997, an average sunbed user visited sunbeds 6,8 times. When UVR doses caused by sunbeds and sun were compared, it was estimated that by average use of sunbeds the annual UVR dose of outdoor and indoor workers might increase 2% and 30%, respectively. The annual UVR dose of an average sunbed user was assessed to increase by 13% because of sunbed use. Sunbeds were estimated to be responsible for 1% addition to the annual UVR dose of Finnish population. The sun is still the major source of VVR doses when the whole population is concerned, but enthusiastic sunbed users may even triple their annual UVR doses. The best tools for keeping the annual UVR doses reasonably low are to deliver information of the hazards of W-radiation to the groups at risk and to monitor the radiation safety of sunbeds. It is worthwhile to aim information campaigns for the biggest user groups found by this study. Attention should be drawn to the attitudes and ideals towards tanned skin. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear waste management plan of the Finnish TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author

    2004-01-01

    The FiR 1 - reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor. The weekly schedule allows still one or two days for other purposes such as isotope production and neutron activation analysis. According to the Finnish legislation the research reactor must have a nuclear waste management plan. The plan describes the methods, the schedule and the cost estimate of the whole decommissioning waste and spent fuel management procedure starting from the removal of the spent fuel, the dismantling of the reactor and ending to the final disposal of the nuclear wastes. The cost estimate of the nuclear waste management plan has to be updated annually and every fifth year the plan will be updated completely. According to the current operating license of our reactor we have to achieve a binding agreement, in 2005 at the latest, between our Research Centre and the domestic nuclear power companies about the possibility to use the Olkiluoto final disposal facility for our spent fuel. There is also the possibility to make the agreement with USDOE about the return of our spent fuel back to USA. If we want, however, to continue the reactor operation beyond the year 2006, the domestic final disposal is the only possibility. In Finland the producer of nuclear waste is fully responsible for its nuclear waste management. The financial provisions for all nuclear waste management have been arranged through the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund. The main objective of the system is that at any time there shall be sufficient funds available to take care of the nuclear waste management measures caused by the waste produced up to that time. The system is applied also to the government institutions like FiR 1 research reactor. (author)

  20. The styles of the Finnish nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish government determined the aims and schedule for nuclear waste management in 1983. Nearly three decades later spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management is approaching the construction licensing phase of the repository, on schedule. The parliamentary decision on the final disposal of SNF was taken almost unanimously in 2001. The location of the SNF facility was chosen at the same time. The smoothness of this raises questions about the main factors behind the progress in Finland. The aim of the paper is to analyse the Finnish nuclear waste policy from the point of view of policy style. In the paper policy style is defined as 'the interaction between (a) the government's approach to problem-solving and (b) the relationship between government and the other actors in policy process'. According to this definition by Richardson, Gustafsson and Jordan, the focus of style is both on policymaking and on implementation. The policy style approach is used to identify the standard operating procedures of Finnish nuclear waste policy. The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the formation of national nuclear waste policy and its institutions by analysing the Finnish case

  1. Primers As Socializing Agents in American and Finnish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyona, Jukka; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Content analysis of 12 Finnish and 18 American primers for grades 3 through 6 published primarily during the 1980s examined story type, plot setting, protagonist's characteristics, dramatic tasks, portrayals of family structure and parental responsibility, and extrafamilial peer and adult relationships. Results suggest that a nation's cultural…

  2. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  3. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs

  4. Dematerialization in Finnish energy use, 1972-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W. [Turku School of Economics, P.O. Box 110, FIN-20521, Turku (Finland)

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes dematerialization, particularity decarbonization and energy saving with regard to Finnish energy use. The results show that Finland has achieved good results in decarbonization and energy saving. However, the results are not as impressive when compared to other developed countries.

  5. The XXXV annual conference of the Finnish physical society. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhinen, V.; Eskola, K.J.; Ruuskanen, V.; Tuominen, K.

    2001-01-01

    The 35th Physics Days of the Finnish Physical Society will have the traditional structure with plenary lectures, short contributions of young researchers, poster sessions, and social events. The number of members of the society has exceeded 1000 and nearly half of them, more than 400, are expected to participate the Physics Days. The Finnish physicists and the Society can be proud of keeping up this tradition. The annual meeting of the Finnish Physical Society will take place during the Physics Days. I wish all the members of the Finnish Physical Society to attend the meeting and continue the discussions more informally at the conference dinner following the annual meeting. The fifth Magnus Ehrnrooth Price for Physics will be given during the opening ceremony of the Physics Days. Also the winners of the SOLIS competition for high school students will be announced. Traditionally, the Days will end by giving prices for the best poster and the best talk. The 35th Physics Days are held in the new congress center Jyvaeskylae Paviljonki and arranged by the University of Jyvaeskylae. The proceedings includes all the abstracts of the presentations given during the 35th Physics Days

  6. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  8. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  9. Exploring Finnish university students' perceived level of critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is believed to be a 21 st century skill that many employers consider crucial when hiring recent graduates. However, it is debated whether critical thinking should be taught in academic foreign language courses at the tertiary level, which primarily aim to develop students’ language and communication skills. This localized, exploratory research examines Finnish university students’ self-reported critical thinking skills a...

  10. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  11. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  12. Outsourcing Equality: Migrant Care Worker Imaginary in Finnish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nordberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implications from the restructuring of Nordic eldercare include the incorporation of new categories of care workers and a redefinition of the terms of citizenship and participation in working life. Drawing on the idea that policy actors script care worker subjectivities, this article examines print media as a key arena where the cultural imaginary of care work is played out. The media has the potential to accommodate ideological complexity through the possible range of participatory actors. From the scripts promoted through the mediascape, we can learn about the positions understood as being (inappropriate for migrant care workers. This study draws on the analysis of news and feature stories from 2003 to 2013 in the largest Finnish daily, Helsingin Sanomat, and in the periodical Kuntalehti, published by the Finnish Association of Local and Regional Authorities. The article points to tensions in Finnish media discourse, identifying ambiguous occupational scripts for migrant care workers—rooted in neoliberal repertoires of self-sufficiency and normative individualism on the one hand and helplessness and naivety on the other hand. It draws attention to an unsettling construction whereby migrant care workers are excluded from a long-term contract with the Finnish care labor market, and where social equality is conditioned to global redistribution.

  13. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  14. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  15. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  16. Job boredom and its correlates in 87 Finnish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harju, Lotta; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlates of job boredom in 87 Finnish workplaces (N = 11,468) and to examine the associations between job boredom, health outcomes, and job attitudes. METHODS: We applied the Dutch Boredom Scale to measure job boredom. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis and

  17. BRCA2 Mutations in 154 Finnish Male Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Syrjäkoski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996. Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%, eight of whom carried the 9346(-2 A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5 were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%, whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001. Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 dell, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations.

  18. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  19. Learning Patient Safety in Academic Settings: A Comparative Study of Finnish and British Nursing Students' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2015-06-01

    Globalization of health care demands nursing education programs that equip students with evidence-based patient safety competences in the global context. Nursing students' entrance into clinical placements requires professional readiness. Thus, evidence-based learning activities about patient safety must be provided in academic settings prior to students' clinical placements. To explore and compare Finnish and British nursing students' perceptions of learning about patient safety in academic settings to inform nursing educators about designing future education curriculum. A purpose-designed instrument, Patient Safety in Nursing Education Questionnaire (PaSNEQ) was used to examine the perceptions of Finnish (n = 195) and British (n = 158) nursing students prior to their final year of registration. Data were collected in two Finnish and two English nursing schools in 2012. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the differences. British students reported more inclusion (p motivation" related to patient safety in their programs. Both student groups considered patient safety education to be more valuable for their own learning than what their programs had provided. Training patient safety skills in the academic settings were the strongest predictors for differences (odds ratio [OR] = 34.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.39-162.83), along with work experience in the healthcare sector (OR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.39-6.58). To prepare nursing students for practical work, training related to clear communication, reporting errors, systems-based approaches, interprofessional teamwork, and use of simulation in academic settings requires comprehensive attention, especially in Finland. Overall, designing patient safety-affirming nursing curricula in collaboration with students may enhance their positive experiences on teaching and learning about patient safety. An international collaboration between educators could help to develop and harmonize patient safety education and to better

  20. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvinen, M; Pukkala, E

    2016-04-01

    Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  1. Recurring Events in the Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksi, Seija; Olander, Ronnie; Tiippana, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), and the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VIT) on an assignment from STUK. The study aimed at providing a broad overview of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The study was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Investigation of Methodologies for Incident Analysis'. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. In general, the direct causes of identified events could be detected and eliminated, but more emphasis should be given to the prevention of recurrence of events and identification of common causes and latent failures. The study showed that the evaluated organisations had rather comprehensive incident analysis arrangements. The study also showed that more focus and prioritisation are needed. Deficiencies were identified mostly in the areas of recording, assessment and classification of new events, use of existing operating experience data, utilisation of information technology tools, and allocation of work and resources. Also the indicators or measures for the effectiveness of event investigation and operating experience feedback were missing. All organisations should maintain adequate resources in this area. The researchers suggested a more effective operating experience feedback loop. Especially more attention should be paid to root cause analysis of significant events, tasks and activities where the initial errors have occurred, and weaknesses of defensive barriers. It was also recommended that implementing periodic operational experience

  2. The Conceivable Benefits of Being Comprehensive--Finnish Local Education Authorities on Recognising and Controlling the Social Costs of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, numerous education reforms have sought to dismantle centralised bureaucracies and replace them with devolved systems of schooling that emphasise parental choice and competition between increasingly diversified types of schools. Nevertheless, the "Finnish variety of "post-comprehensivism" continues to emphasise…

  3. A national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, A; Korhonen-Yrjänheikki, K

    2013-12-01

    The key stakeholders of the Finnish engineering education collaborated during 2006-09 to reform the system of education, to face the challenges of the changing business environment and to create a national strategy for the Finnish engineering education. The work process was carried out using participatory work methods. Impacts of sustainable development (SD) on engineering education were analysed in one of the subprojects. In addition to participatory workshops, the core part of the work on SD consisted of a research with more than 60 interviews and an extensive literature survey. This paper discusses the results of the research and the work process of the Collaboration Group in the subproject of SD. It is suggested that enhancing systematic dialogue among key stakeholders using participatory work methods is crucial in increasing motivation and commitment in incorporating SD in engineering education. Development of the context of learning is essential for improving skills of engineering graduates in some of the key abilities related to SD: systemic- and life-cycle thinking, ethical understanding, collaborative learning and critical reflection skills. This requires changing of the educational paradigm from teacher-centred to learner-centred applying problem- and project-oriented active learning methods.

  4. Evaluation of the Finnish nuclear waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In response to a request from Finland in November 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set up a Team of four experts (representatives from Belgium, Canada, Germany and Switzerland) to review the Finnish nuclear waste management programme within the auspices of IAEA's Waste Management programme (WATRP). During the early summer of 1993, the Team reviewed a large amount of documentation supplied by the Finnish industry, government and research organizations. The radioactive waste management programme areas within the Team's terms of reference included: (1) work being done in siting and building a conditional facility for spent nuclear fuel and siting and constructing a co-located repository, (2) the plans and activities for conditioning and disposing of the low and intermediate level waste from Finland's NPPs and (3) the plans for decommissioning Finland's reactors when that becomes necessary. The evaluation work and the recommendations of the Team are detailed in the report

  5. Mutational analysis of the HGO gene in Finnish alkaptonuria patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabe, D. B.-V.; Peterson, P.; Luopajarvi, K.; Matintalo, P.; Alho, A.; Konttinen, Y.; Krohn, K.; de Cordoba, S. R.; Ranki, A.

    1999-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), the prototypic inborn error of metabolism, has recently been shown to be caused by loss of function mutations in the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGO). So far 17 mutations have been characterised in AKU patients of different ethnic origin. We describe three novel mutations (R58fs, R330S, and H371R) and one common AKU mutation (M368V), detected by mutational and polymorphism analysis of the HGO gene in five Finnish AKU pedigrees. The three novel AKU mutations are most likely specific for the Finnish population and have originated recently.


Keywords: alkaptonuria; homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase; Finland PMID:10594001

  6. Public health care providers and market competition: the case of Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Valtonen, Hannu

    2011-02-01

    As reforms in publicly funded health systems rely heavily on competition, it is important to know if and how public providers react to competition. In many European countries, it is empirically difficult to study public providers in different markets, but in Finnish occupational health services, both public and private for-profit and non-profit providers co-exist. We studied possible differences in public providers' performance (price, intensity of services, service mix-curative medical services/prevention, productivity and revenues) according to the competitiveness of the market. The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) collected data on clients, services and personnel for 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000 and 2004 from occupational health services (OHS) providers. Employers defray the costs of OHS and apply for reimbursement from the Social Insurance Institution (SII). The SII data was merged with FIOH's questionnaire. The unbalanced panel consisted of about 230 public providers, totalling 1,164 observations. Local markets were constructed from several municipalities based on commuting practices and regional collaboration. Competitiveness of the market was measured by the number of providers and by the Herfindahl index. The effect of competition was studied by ordinary least square regression analysis and panel models. The more competitive the environment was for a public provider the higher were intensity, productivity and the share of medical care. Fixed panel models showed that these differences were not due to differences and changes in the competitiveness of the market. Instead, in more competitive markets public providers had higher unit prices and higher revenues.

  7. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  9. HOLIDAY FROM HELL : Bad travel experiences of Finnish people

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Milja

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the bad travel experiences of Finnish people. This thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical framework consists of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, tourism consumer behaviour, experience and experience economy. In the empirical part, a survey was used and answers were collected by a questionnaire on the Internet. The link to the questionnaire was published in Facebook and also on Suomi24 forum’s travel section. It was possible to answer to the questionnai...

  10. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  11. Cyber risk management in the Finnish healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstén, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    Advances in technology and digitalization have been widely adopted by Finnish healthcare organizations. This development has led to improvements in the efficiency and outcomes of patient care, but has also exposed healthcare providers to new kinds of risks. Cyber risks are becoming an increasingly common occurrence in the healthcare sector, and can lead to serious consequences for patients and organizations alike. The significance of cyber risks within healthcare has been projected to grow...

  12. Internationalization of Finnish Technology Startups : Case: Goodwille Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom is a large European market that offers vast market potential for companies that enter it. Finnish start-up companies are especially drawn to this market by the venture capital opportunities. A presence in the United Kingdom is necessary for companies that want to become truly international. The sponsor of the thesis is Goodwille Ltd., a British company that provides services to foreign companies who want to start or expand their business in the UK. Goodwille’s newly se...

  13. The Finnish research programme on climate change SILMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikinheimo, P.; Kanninen, M.

    1995-01-01

    SILMU, which runs from 1990 to 1995, aims at studying climate change and its impacts. It also seeks to provide information to Finnish policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The topics range from air chemistry to sociology, and the total number of projects is 74. Interim evaluation of the programme was carried out in 1992. During the second half of SILMU, 10% of the total budget (total: 14 Million ECU) has been devoted to programme integration. 8 refs

  14. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  15. Biotechnology as a competitive edge for the Finnish forest cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  16. Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi; Haltia, Olli; Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti; Nikinmaa, Hanna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Pursula, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  17. Creating visual guidelines for a Finnish fashion brand

    OpenAIRE

    Morozova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    Visual communication is an essential part of branding. Visual elements like logo, brand colours, and typography create associations with a brand and make it distinctive. Graphic design is a tool for visual communication that allows creating aesthetic and functional visual elements that convey some messages. The client of this thesis is a Finnish fashion company that does not have clear and consistent visual image, and the goal is to create it based on company’s values and desired image...

  18. Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...

  19. Green economy in Finnish society; Vihreae talous suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antikainen, R.; Laehtinen, K.; Leppaenen, M.; Furman, E.

    2013-02-15

    The concept of a green economy is commonly used in public discussion, but no unanimity exists as to its definition. The objective of this report was to increase understanding of the concept of green economy and the changes required by the transition to a green economy. The report is part of the 'Green economy - analysis of the concept and its consequences for various parties' project, implemented by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) in 2012. The research material comprised literature, web-based background surveys, results of a multidisciplinary workshop for scientists and a workshop for relevant actors, opening presentations for the workshops, expert opinions voiced in the workshops, and discussions of the project steering group. Examples of the elements of a green economy are resource - i.e. energy and material - efficiency, the reduction of resource use, the improvement of resource use efficiency and recycling of resources, the move from tangible to intangible value creation, and the revising of corporate business models, such as models of industrial symbiosis and increased service orientation. Of key importance in this transformation are new models for production and communities, the preservation of natural capital and taking account of challenges presented by the global operating environment, as well as the implementation of sustainability principles. A green economy is seen to contribute to domestic well-being, employment and the economy, while enabling the internationalisation of companies and international business. Finland's strengths lie in expertise related to areas such as bioeconomy, cleantech, water and water supply, and recycling. A further strength is the traditionally close cooperative relationships between various actors. However, silo thinking should be further reduced, as it slows down reform, and collaboration initiatives and experiments between actors and on the level of policies should be supported. In the future, it

  20. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) studies Finnish bedrock for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study is in accordance with the decision in principle by Finnish government in 1983. The report is the summary of the preliminary site investigations carried out during the years 1987-1992. On the basis of these investigations a few areas will be selected for detailed site investigation. The characterization comprises five areas selected from the shortlist of potential candidate areas resulted in the earlier study during 1983-1985. Areas are located in different parts of Finland and they represent the main formations of the Finnish bedrock. Romuvaara area in Kuhmo and Veitsivaara area in Hyrynsalmi represent the Archean basement. Kivetty area in Konginkangas consists of mainly younger granitic rocks. Syyry in Sievi is located in transition area of Svecofennidic rocks and granitic rocks. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki represents migmatites in southern Finland. For the field investigations area-specific programs were planned and executed. The field investigations have comprised airborne survey by helicopter, geophysical surveys, geological mappings and samplings, deep and shallow core drillings, geophysical and hydrological borehole measurements and groundwater samplings

  1. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  2. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  3. Ensuring the operational safety of finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear energy programme has been successful both from the safety and economical point of view. These achievements are based on different factors which are discussed in the paper. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has specified the technical requirements and procedures to be followed in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs in a series of guides. The guides are quite demanding and latest results of safety research and technical development are taken into account. Regulatory supervision of Finnish NPPs is comprehensive. As an example of this the regulatory inspection program for operational phase is presented. An important way to ensure operational safety of a NPP is to define a set of limits and conditions to identify limiting safety envelope for plant operation. Practices in Finland are reviewed in the paper. The strategy of Defence in Depth is amongst the fundamental principles of nuclear safety. Two corollary principles of defence of depth are accident prevention and accident mitigation. Means used in following these principles are discussed. (author)

  4. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Tuppurainen, Kaija; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Cremers, Cor W R J; Deutman, August F

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients. Cross-sectional regression analyses of the functional acuity score (FAS), functional field score (FFS*) and functional vision score (FVS*) related to age were performed for all patients. The FFS* and FVS* were calculated using the isoptre V-4 test target instead of the usual III-4 target. Statistical tests relating to regression lines and Student's t-test were used to compare between USH3 patients and the other genetic subtypes of Usher syndrome. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant deterioration in the FAS (1.3% per year), FFS* (1.4% per year) and FVS* (1.8% per year) with advancing age in the USH3 patient group. At a given age the USH3 patients showed significantly poorer visual field function than the USH2a patients. The rate of deterioration in visual function in Finnish USH3 patients was fairly similar to that in Dutch USH1b or USH2a patients. At a given age, visual field impairment in USH3 patients was similar to that in USH1b patients but poorer than in USH2a patients.

  5. Plans for an on-line computer at the Finnish TRIGA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junttila, J.; Tamminen, A.; Palmgren, A.

    1970-01-01

    Full text: The future plans at the Helsinki Triga reactor include an on-line computer system. The project is in its pre-planning stage, and if the financing can be arranged, the instancing is preliminarily scheduled to start in 1972. We estimate the probability of getting a computer to be 90%. The tasks of the system would be the monitoring and control of reactor power level and other operating conditions, and, on the other hand, data acquisition, analysis and apparatus control in different reactor laboratory experiments. These include the neutron diffractometer, the cold neutron facility and neutron TOF-measurements, gamma-spectroscopy, reactor noise measurements, and neutron activation analysis. It is our intention to purchase a medium-sized computer which is presently being developed by the Finnish company Oy Stroemberg Ab. This computer has been constructed by using the time sharing principle. Consequently, background jobs like testing of new programs, off-line calculations etc., can be executed simultaneously with the actual data taking and control operations. The interfering of programs with each other is prevented by dividing the programs in protected segments. Different kinds of devices and functions can be added to the basic control processing unit, e.g. an automatic interrupt unit with up to 128 priority levels, a fast floating point arithmetic unit, and the control of a direct memory access channel. An additional fact, which makes this particular computer attractive to us, is that we wish to have the manufacturer's support in designing our special applications. The initial system cost of about 120.000 US$ is considered justified for three reasons of about equal importance: 1. The operation and utilization of our reactor will become more efficient. 2. All people involved in the project will learn how to handle a rather complicated-computerization project. 3. The Finnish Government can support the development of this computer by ordering one or two

  6. Carbon footprint calculation of Finnish greenhouse products; Kasvihuonetuotteiden ilmastovaikutuslaskenta. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjaenaeinen, H.; Silvenius, F.; Kaukoranta, T.; Naekkilae, J.; Saerkkae, L.; Tuhkanen, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    This report presents the results of climate impact calculations for five products produced in Finnish greenhouses: tomatoes, cucumbers, salad crops, tulips and Elatior begonias. The study employed 16 greenhouses for the investigation; two greenhouses each for the tulips and the begonias and four each for the tomatoes, cucumbers and salad crops. Based on these calculations a greenhouse gas calculator was developed for greenhouse cultivators. The calculator is available at internet in www.kauppapuutarhaliitto.fi {yields} hiilijalanjaelki. In terms of environmental impacts this study concentrated on the climate impacts of the investigated products, and the calculations were made for the most significant greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The following processes were included in the system boundaries: plant growing, manufacturing of lime, fertilizers and pesticides, manufacturing and disposal of pots, carbon dioxide production, irrigation, lighting, thermal curtains and cooling systems, the production and use of electricity and heat energy, distribution of products by the growers, other transportation, end-of-life and recycling. Processes excluded from the study were: distribution by other actors, retail functions, the consumer stage, and maintenance and manufacturing of infrastructure. The study used MTT's calculation model for the climate impact of food products excluding distribution and retail processes. The greenhouses selected for the study had some variation in their energy profiles and growing seasons. In addition, scenarios were created for different energy sources by using the average figures from this study. Monthly energy consumption values were also obtained from a number of the greenhouses and these were used to assess the variations in climate impact for different seasons. According to the results of the study the use of energy is the most significant source of climate impact of greenhouse products. In the tomato farms the

  7. The role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it: A case study at the Finnish NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyttinen, L.; Rintala, N.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organisations which recognise the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organisations has arisen. What kind of role does this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired throughout their careers, play in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  9. Spiritually Ours, Factually Yours: Karelia and Russia in Finnish Public Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, J.; Velde, B.M.R. van der

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the leading Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, this paper explores Finnish attitudes towards and understandings of Russia. It pays special attention to the so-called Karelia Question and the way it has shaped public discussion in Finland. The article seeks to investigate

  10. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  11. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K

    2015-01-01

    quantity categorization was conducted with 22 Finnish and 20 Japanese listeners, using natural speech stimuli with systematically manipulated closure durations. Stimuli were created from Finnish and Japanese productions of both long and short plosives. In the naturally produced stimuli, the duration...... to be language specific, and such durational differences may interfere with categorization in an unfamiliar language....

  12. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2014-01-01

    abstractResearch on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace

  13. Finnish and English Children's Color Use to Depict Affectively Characterized Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Tala, Katri; Low, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children use colors systematically in relation to how they feel about certain colors and the figures that they draw. This study explored cultural differences between Finnish and English children's use of color to represent figures with contrasting emotional characters. One hundred and eight children (54 Finnish, 54…

  14. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  15. Reference values of inspiratory spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijärvi, Anssi R

    2018-03-07

    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults. Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83 years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen et al. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik et al. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik et al. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen et al. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.

  16. Awareness and use of the Heart Symbol by Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Helakorpi, Satu; Olli, Mari; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-03-01

    To study the awareness of the Heart Symbol in different age and educational groups, and changes in the awareness over a 9-year period. In addition, the reported use of products with the symbol was examined. A series of annual cross-sectional postal surveys on Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population. A random sample (n 5000 per annum) from the Finnish population aged 15-64 years, drawn from the National Population Register, received a questionnaire. Men and women (n 29 378) participating in the surveys in 2000-2009. At the early 2000s, 48 % of men and 73 % of women reported to be familiar with the symbol. The corresponding rates were 66 % for men and 91 % for women in 2009. The reported use of products with the symbol increased from 29 % to 52 % in men and from 40 % to 72 % in women. In men, the awareness did not vary by age, whereas older women (45-64 years) were less likely to be aware of the symbol compared with younger women (25-34 years). Men and women with the highest education were best aware of the symbol and more likely to use the products in the early 2000s. The educational differences diminished or disappeared during the study period. The majority of Finnish adults are familiar with the Heart Symbol, and the reported use of such products increased in all age and educational groups, especially among the less educated. The symbol may work as an effective measure to diminish nutrition-related health inequalities.

  17. Finnish research programmes on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puska, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    The current Finnish national research programme on nuclear power plant safety SAFIR2010 for the years 2007-2010 as well as the coming SAFIR2014 programme for the years 2011-2014 are based on the chapter 7a, 'Ensuring expertise', of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The objective of this chapter is realised in the research work and education of experts in the projects of these research programmes. SAFIR2010 research programme is divided in eight research areas that are Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). All the research areas include both projects in their own area and interdisciplinary co-operational projects. Research projects of the programme are chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. In 2010 research is carried out in 33 projects in SAFIR2010. VTT is the responsible research organisation in 26 of these projects and VTT is also the coordination unit of SAFIR2010 and SAFIR2014. In 2007-2009 SAFIR2010 produced 497 Specified research results (Deliverables), 618 Publications, and 33 Academic degrees. SAFIR2010 programme covers approximately half of the reactor safety research volume in Finland currently. In 2010 the programme volume is EUR 7.1 million and 47 person years. The major funding partners are VYR with EUR 2.96 million, VTT with EUR 2.66 million, Fortum with EUR 0.28 million, TVO with EUR 0.19 million, NKS with EUR 0.15 million, EU with only EUR 0.03 million and other partners with EUR 0.85 million. The new decisions-in-principle on Olkiluoto unit 4 for Teollisuuden Voima and new nuclear power plant for Fennovoima ratified by the Finnish Parliament on 1 July 2010 increase the annual funding collected according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act from Fennovoima, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima for the SAFIR2014 programme to EUR 5.2 million from the current level of EUR 3

  18. Topical review of the Finnish forest sector 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuluvainen, K.

    1996-01-01

    The present report is e review of the Finnish forest sector, made by several authors. The topics reviewed are: Economic trends of forest sector; The operational conditions of the forest sector; Development of the forest sector; Conjuncture reviews; Special topics including the certification of the forests, the forest reserves in Finland, the financial support forest economy, export prices of sawn timber and cellulose, raw-wood markets, forests and forest industry shares as targets for investments, recreational use of the state owned areas. (8 refs.)

  19. Ordinance on the Finnish Centre of Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr

  20. MAURITIUS: A SUNNY HOLIDAY DESTINATION FOR FINNISH PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Goburdhun Bhurtun, Ishina

    2016-01-01

    The tourism market of Mauritius is booming as tourists are nowadays coming from many countries, thus improving the economy of the island. However, few Finnish tourists travel to Mauritius as it is still not well-known among Finns. The aim of this study is to find out how Mauritius can be promoted as a holiday destination in Finland. This study was conducted via an analysis of the tourism business environment and interviews. The analytical tools used were a SWOT analysis and Porter’s five ...

  1. Airline Merchandising: Focus on leisure travel on the Finnish market

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one of current trends: merchandising. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences and opinions of leisure travellers and leisure travel agents in terms of booking ancillaries for flights. Based on those findings, the aim is to find out alternative ways to boost the sales of ancillaries. The commis-sioner for this thesis is Amadeus Finland Oy and the target group is the Finnish leisure travel market. The research was conducted by creating two online su...

  2. Observing relationships in Finnish adoptive families: Oulu Family Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienari, Pekka; Wynne, Lyman C; Sorri, Anneli; Lahti, Ilpo; Moring, Juha; Nieminen, Pentti; Joukamaa, Matti; Naarala, Mikko; Seitamaa, Markku; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Miettunen, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    Adoption studies were intended to separate genetic from environmental "causal" factors. In earlier adoption studies, psychiatric diagnostic labels for the adoptive parents were used as a proxy for the multiple dimensions of the family rearing environment. In the Finnish Adoption Study, research design provided the opportunity to study directly the adoptive family rearing environment. For this purpose 33 sub-scales were selected creating what we call Oulu Family Rating Scale (OPAS, Oulun PerheArviointiSkaala). In this paper, the manual for scoring of these sub-scales is presented.

  3. Reliability of diesel generators in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.; Norros, L.; Vanhala, J.

    1989-10-01

    Diesel generators are used as emergency AC-power sources in nuclear power plants and they produce electric power for other emergency systems during accidents in which offsite power is lost. The reliability of diesel generators is thus of major concern for overall safety of nuclear power plants. In this study we consider the reliability of diesel generators in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants on the basis of collected operational experience. We classify the occurred failures according to their functional criticality, type and cause. The failures caused by human errors in maintenance and testing are analysed in detail. We analyse also the reliability of the diesel generator subsystems. Further, we study the effect of surveillance test and the type of test on the reliability. Finally we construct an unavailability model for single diesel generator unit and discuss the findings of the study giving some practical recommendations

  4. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Leveraging Digital Asset Management (DAM) in a Finnish retail corporation : A case study on the current state and future vision of Kesko Corporations’ marketing and content production.

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This case study analyses how rich media content (digital assets) is created, stored, shared and managed at a Finnish retail company – Kesko Corporation. The study aims to identify the benefits and possible disadvantages of centralizing management and production of these digital assets into a Digital Asset Management (DAM) system. My main research question is: Are there achievable content enhancements that the introduction of a centralized DAM system might bring to Kesko Corporation's marketin...

  6. Construct validity and reliability of the Finnish version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multanen, Juhani; Honkanen, Mikko; Häkkinen, Arja; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2018-05-22

    The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a commonly used knee assessment and outcome tool in both clinical work and research. However, it has not been formally translated and validated in Finnish. The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the KOOS questionnaire into Finnish and to determine its validity and reliability among Finnish middle-aged patients with knee injuries. KOOS was translated and culturally adapted from English into Finnish. Subsequently, 59 patients with knee injuries completed the Finnish version of KOOS, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (Pain-NRS). The same KOOS questionnaire was re-administered 2 weeks later. Psychometric assessment of the Finnish KOOS was performed by testing its construct validity and reliability by using internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error. The floor and ceiling effects were also examined. The cross-cultural adaptation revealed only minor cultural differences and was well received by the patients. For construct validity, high to moderate Spearman's Correlation Coefficients were found between the KOOS subscales and the WOMAC, SF-36, and Pain-NRS subscales. The Cronbach's alpha was from 0.79 to 0.96 for all subscales indicating acceptable internal consistency. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.86 for all KOOS subscales. The minimal detectable change ranged from 17 to 34 on an individual level and from 2 to 4 on a group level. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. This study yielded an appropriately translated and culturally adapted Finnish version of KOOS which demonstrated good validity and reliability. Our data indicate that the Finnish version of KOOS is suitable for assessment of the knee status of Finnish patients with different knee complaints. Further studies are needed to

  7. The finnish guide to radon-resistant homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Building statistics show that the prevalent practices in foundation construction promote the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. In wide areas more than 50% of houses exceed the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 given for new buildings. The new guide published in 2003 requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. A protective sheet of durable reinforced bitumen felt with a width of 50 - 100 cm should be installed in the slab-foundation wall joint. Careful sealing of lead-troughs plays also an important role. In the case the sealing work does not result in low indoor radon concentration, the radon piping should be activated through radon-fan installation. Careful implementation of the sealing work reduces indoor radon concentration to a level of less than 50 Bq/m 3 , also in areas where the normal building practices result in indoor radon concentrations exceeding the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 in more than 50% of new houses. Recent experiences from the implementation of the guide will be considered. (author)

  8. Moyamoya vasculopathy - Patient demographics and characteristics in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Marika; Mustanoja, Satu; Pekkola, Johanna; Tyni, Tiina; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kivipelto, Leena; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Moyamoya vasculopathy, a rare steno-occlusive progressive cerebrovascular disorder, has not been thoroughly studied in Caucasian populations. We established a registry of Finnish patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, to collect and report demographic and clinical data. Methods We collected data both retrospectively and prospectively from all the patients with a moyamoya vasculopathy referred to our hospital between January 1987 and December 2014. All patients underwent a neurological outpatient clinic visit. Results We diagnosed 61 patients (50 females, 10 children) with moyamoya vasculopathy. The mean age at the disease-onset was 31.5 ± 17.9 years. The two most common presenting symptoms were ischemic stroke (n = 31) and hemorrhage (n = 8). Forty-four percent underwent revascularization surgery, and 70% were prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The results support in part the Western phenotype of the disease considering the later presentation and larger female predominance compared to the Asian moyamoya vasculopathy reports. However, the proportion of ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes is closer to Japanese population than German population. The absence of familial cases points to a different genetic profile in the Finnish patients.

  9. Leadership styles of Finnish nurse managers and factors influencing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of their leadership styles and factors influencing it. It is a challenge for nurse managers to retain nurses in hospitals and to ensure a high quality of care in nursing practice. Leadership style is an important part of leadership. Knowledge concerning nurse managers' resonant and non-resonant leadership styles provides nurse managers with tools to reflect on their own leadership style. Open-ended, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers from five Finnish hospitals and two long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories of leadership style were discerned: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding. Factors that influence leadership style were identified: earlier superiors, values, information, cooperation, employees and education. The results of this study show that Finnish nurse managers use both resonant and non-resonant leadership styles. The findings of this study show that nurse managers use a variety of leadership styles. The study demonstrates the importance of knowledge about leadership styles and factors influencing it among nurse managers providing future leadership and management education.

  10. A Finnish validation study of the SCL-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1998-01-01

    The Symptom Check-List-90 (SCL-90) is a widely used psychiatric questionnaire which has not yet been validated in Finland. We investigated the utility of the translated version of the SCL-90 in the Finnish population, and set community norms for it. The internal consistency of the original subscales was checked and found to be good. Discriminant function analysis, based on the nine original subscales, showed that the power of the SCL-90 to discriminate between patients and the community is good. Factor analysis of the items of the questionnaire yielded a very strong unrotated first factor, suggesting that a general factor may be present. This together with the fact that high intercorrelations were found between the nine original subscales suggests that the instrument is not multidimensional. The SCL-90 may be useful in a research setting as an instrument for measuring the change in symptomatic distress, or as a screening instrument. The American community norms should be used with caution, as the Finnish community sample scored consistently higher on all subscales.

  11. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young Finnish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Rimpelä, A; Jormanainen, V; Sahi, T; Pihlajamäki, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lifetime occurrence and associated factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among young Finnish males. Of the 10 829 male conscripts (median age 19), 10 396 (96%) answered a questionnaire during the first days of their conscription in the years 2001-2007. The main outcome was lifetime AAS use. We also studied associations between 13 socioeconomic, health, and health behavioral background variables and AAS use by logistic regression. Eighty-nine (0.9%) respondents reported having used AAS. In addition, 26 (0.3%) respondents reported that they would use AAS if they could obtain them. In multivariate analysis, which included all significant variables and age, the strongest associated factors were weight training at fitness centers more than three times a week [odds ratio (OR) 11.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-19.6], low educational status (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-7.0), and weekly drunkenness as drinking style (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Sports other than weight training were not associated with AAS in our sample. The use of AAS is relatively uncommon among Finnish males. It is strongly associated with weight training at fitness centers but also with lower educational status and a drunkenness-oriented lifestyle. Prevention should be targeted at those males participating in weight training.

  12. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae diversity in Finnish arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. HELENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabid data compiled from six independent studies, consisting of 97 799 individuals trapped by pitfalls from Finnish agricultural fields and identified to 111 species were analyzed. Shannon-Wiener H' diversity index was typically around 2.5 and expected species number rarefied to 600 trapped individuals was typically around 30 species. The five most abundant species accounted for 42% of the total catch, and the thirty most abundant species made up 98% of the total catch. Percentage similarities among the assemblages by PS-index were from 16% to 48%. In comparison to published data about carabid diversity in boreal forests, which form the dominating habitat matrix in which Finnish farmland is embedded as relatively small patches, arable fields harbor more species rich assemblages, with more even rank-abundance distributions but variable species composition. Importance of landscape (regional level, instead of spatial level of crop fields, in understanding carabid diversity in farmland is discussed. Inclusion of carabids into monitoring schemes of agro-biodiversity at landscape level is suggested.

  13. Finnish Baby Boomers and the Emergence of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Karisto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the lives of baby boomers in Finland, and is based on several studies previously published in Finnish. The article considers the particular characteristics of this group of baby boomers. It then discusses whether the baby boom cohorts can also be called a generation. Following this, the life course of the boomer generation is contrasted with various images that have appeared in the media and elsewhere about their lives. Boomers have been presented as a radical’ or ‘selfish’ generation. This article proposes two new themes: boomers as a crossroads generation and boomers as a bridging generation. The paper also considers the emergence of the third age as approached from a generational perspective. The third age has been defined as a generational field underpinned by agency and consumption, with its roots in the youth culture of the post-war decades. This characterization is also highly relevant to the Finnish case, but needs to be elaborated by taking into account socio-historical knowledge of the distinctive life course of the boomer generation.

  14. Healthcare professionals' work engagement in Finnish university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Alanen, Seija; Aalto, Pirjo; Järvinen, Päivi; Leino, Kaija; Mattila, Elina; Kaunonen, Marja

    2017-10-10

    Concerns about the sufficiency and dedication of the healthcare workforce have arisen as the baby boomer generation is retiring and the generation Y might have different working environment demands. To describe the association between work engagement of healthcare professionals' and its background factors at five Finnish university hospitals. Survey data were collected from nurses, physicians and administrative staff (n = 561) at all five university hospitals in Finland. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire that comprised the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9 items) and 13 questions regarding the respondents' backgrounds. Descriptive and correlational analyses were used to examine the data. Most respondents were female (85%) and nursing staff (72%). Baby boomers (49%) were the largest generational cohort. The work engagement composite mean for the total sample was 5.0, indicating high work engagement. Significant differences in work engagement existed only among sex and age groups. The highest work engagement scores were among administrative staff. Work engagement among healthcare professionals in Finnish university hospitals is high. High work engagement might be explained by suitable job resources and challenges, as well as opportunities provided by a frontline care environment. Attention should especially be paid to meeting the needs of young people entering the workforce to strengthen their dedication and absorption. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  16. Information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two Finnish firms: an exploration using activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Widén-Wulff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations - a company that handles insurance claims and a small entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a number of recent papers (e.g. Wilson, 2005; Bartlett and Toms, 2005 have proposed that human information behaviour research should appropriate methods from workplace studies and CSCW to provide a richer account of organizational information and knowledge work. Method. Two case studies of sharing practices in Finnish firms were carried out. Analysis. The version of activity theory that has been developed by Engeström (1999 and other Finnish researchers (Kuutti, 1996 was used to analyse the data. This has provided highly specific accounts of information sharing as a constituent of the varied processes that contribute to the development of organizational knowledge. Results. The overall analysis has allowed us to explain how and why organizational information sharing happens in terms that go beyond the cognitive and descriptive accounts (e.g. Widen-Wulff and Ginman, 2004; Widen-Wulff and Davenport, 2005; ; Widen-Wulff, 2006 of our earlier studies. Conclusion. . Information behaviour is a repertoire of actions and operations and judgements about timing and ethics that are brought into play across work cycles and routines. From this perspective, the duality of organizational knowledge becomes clear: it is both individual and collective judgements about how to behave, and the incremental outcome of these judgements, embedded in decisions that support the objects of activity systems.

  17. Pilot Study on the Genetic Background of an Active Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Test in Finnish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Raivisto, Teija; Kettunen, Kaisa; Kovanen, Leena; Haukka, Jari; Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Elg, Jessica; Gieselmann, Dirk-Rolf; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2017-05-01

    In periodontitis, genetics and smoking play important roles in host immune system response. The aim of this study is to determine whether the genetic background of initial periodontitis and caries could be detected using an active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 chairside test in Finnish adolescents. Forty-seven participants gave approval for analysis of both oral fluid collection and DNA. An aMMP-8 chairside test was performed on participants (adolescents aged 15 to 17 years), and full-mouth clinical parameters of oral health were assessed including periodontal, oral mucosal, and caries status in Eastern Finland from 2014 to 2015. DNA was extracted from oral fluid samples and genotyped for 71 polymorphisms in 29 candidate genes for periodontitis. Results were analyzed using a logistic regression model. P values were corrected for multiple testing using false discovery rate (<0.05). aMMP-8 chairside test positivity and three or more ≥4 mm pockets were associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR) (rs2228570, P = 0.002, q = 0.04) and MMP3 (rs520540, rs639752, rs679620, P = 0.0009, 0.003, 0.003, q = 0.04, respectively). None of the other single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied showed a significant association with the aMMP-8 chairside test and at least one caries lesion positivity. Genetic polymorphisms of MMP3 and VDR are linked to initial periodontitis in Finnish adolescents, and the aMMP-8 chairside test can eventually detect initial periodontitis in young patients with predisposing genetic background.

  18. The suitability of Finnish bedrock to the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Hakkarainen, V.

    1982-12-01

    A regional investigation of the suitability of Finnish bedrock to the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste is described. International geological criteria are applied to Finnish bedrock conditions. The main bedrock units are classified into different areas as concerning to recommendations for further site selection investigations. The Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks are generally of tight and strong composition and a major problem from the standpoint of waste disposal is fracturing. On the other hand, fractures are quite unevenly distributed in Finland and the bedrock seems to consist of stabile blocks surrounded by fracture zones. Crustal movements between the different bedrock blocks are in Finland at most only tenths of millimeters a year, and the movements are concentrated in the fracture zones. The fracture pattern also controls the hydrogeological system of the bedrock as the main groundwater flow occurs along the fractures. The fracturing thus has an influence on the stability as well as the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock. The regional recommendations for further site selection studies are based on geological criteria, such as fracturing, seismisity and economic resources. Other criteria, such as topography and erosion, are less significant in comparison. A number of different criteria are likely to prove significant later in more detailed local site investigation studies. The most favorable regions for more detailed investigations contain the granitic rocks of Central Finland and some of them are also to be found in northern and eastern parts of the country. Almost none of the main bedrock units can be classified as completely unsuitable for site selection investigations. Massifs large enough for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste can be found through detailed surveys in most parts of Finland because of the heterogeneity of the bedrock

  19. The Finnish healthcare services lean management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihnala, Susanna; Kettunen, Lilja; Suhonen, Marjo; Tiirinki, Hanna

    2018-02-05

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss health services managers' experiences of management in a special health-care unit and development efforts from the point of view of the Lean method. Additionally, the aim is to deepen the knowledge of the managers' work and nature of the Lean method development processes in the workplace. The research focuses on those aspects and results of Lean method that are currently being used in health-care environments. Design/methodology/approach These data were collected through a number of thematic interviews. The participants were nurse managers ( n = 7) and medical managers ( n = 7) who applied Lean management in their work at the University Hospital in the Northern Ostrobothnia Health Care District. The data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. Findings A common set of values in specialized health-care services, development of activities and challenges for management in the use of the Lean manager development model to improve personal management skills. Practical implications Managers in specialized health-care services can develop and systematically manage with the help of the Lean method. This emphasizes assumptions, from the point of view of management, about systems development when the organization uses the Lean method. The research outcomes originate from specialized health-care settings in Finland in which the Lean method and its associated management principles have been implemented and applied to the delivery of health care. Originality/value The study shows that the research results and in-depth knowledge on Lean method principles can be applied to health-care management and development processes. The research also describes health services managers' experiences of using the Lean method. In the future, these results can be used to improve Lean management skills, identify personal professional competencies and develop skills required in development processes. Also, the research findings can be used

  20. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  1. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  2. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  3. The Finnish customs to introduce more efficient radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevon, H.

    1995-01-01

    The customs authorities have started to control the import of radioactive substances and nuclear materials. Regular radiation measurements will be introduced at various frontier crossing points. Cooperation with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has also been intensified. The control measures apply primarily to goods traffic coming from - or through - Russia and the Baltic countries. The first stationary radiation measuring equipment for vehicles and their loads is in use at Vaalimaa customs station. All the busiest customs stations on Finland's eastern frontier will be provided with stationary radiation meters. The measurements will focus on scrap metal loads and loads that come either from the environs of certain nuclear facilities in the area of former Soviet Union or from areas that are particularly polluted. (orig.) (2 figs.)

  4. The role of peat in finnish greenhouse gas balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Hargreaves, K.; Korhola, A.

    2000-06-01

    Over the past, total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Finland, not considering land use change, forestry or peatlands, have remained between 70 000 and 80 000 Gg of CO 2 equivalents. A large portion of which (84% in 1998) is from energy and energy related sources. Signatory members to the 1997 Kyoto protocol of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change convention, which includes Finland, are compelled to assess their emissions at the national level. This study was undertaken to examine the issues of the role of Finnish peatlands in the national greenhouse gas inventory specifically within the context of the utilization of peatlands for energy production. Our analysis is essentially a literature review and assessment of what has been measured from Finnish peatlands. We are particularly fortunate that there have been a series of recent Ph.D. theses published at the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu and graduate work at the University of Kuopio on carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas exchange in Finnish peatlands that have both expanded our database and our understanding of peatland processes. Chapter 1 provides a background of the role of peatlands in carbon cycling within the context of changing climate and land use. In Finland about 56 x 103 ha of peatland area were being harvested in 1997, 94% for energy. Even though this is a relatively small area, the implications, on a national scale, for GHG fluxes and carbon balance can be significant The magnitude of GHG fluxes and a qualitative assessment of extant data quality and quantity under different Finnish land use forms and activities is considered in chapter 2. CO 2 fluxes derived from long term C accumulation rates indicate that 3 010 Gg CON and 9 400 Gg CO 2 are sequestered annually from the atmosphere into undrained and peatlands drained for forestry, respectively. Peatlands drained for agriculture emit CO 2 at a rate of 3 200-7 800 Gg annually. Peat harvesting activities and

  5. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P. [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  7. Finnish Nuclear Power Development - Experiences and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, M.; Mattila, L.

    1996-01-01

    A small nation planning to make use of nuclear energy technology faces an important question: Is a nuclear energy programme just buying a rector and fuel from abroad? The Finnish experience says no. Making the best economic and technical choices depends on circumstances and good decisions can be based only on adequate research. Carrying out a successful nuclear energy programme demands high quality standards and, most importantly, nuclear safety is a national responsibility. Through training of personal and a deep understanding of the technology are necessary to meet these challenges. In Finland, comprehensive coverage of important scientific and technical aspects has been achieved economically by pooling the resources of all domestic parties having relevant expertise and by extensive international collaboration. (author)

  8. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  9. The occurrence of rare earth elements in some Finnish mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yliruokanen, I.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the more abundant rare earths (RE (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the ash of 399 peat samples from 26 Finnish mires was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The content of all rare earths (La-Lu, Y in 29 samples was also determined by spark source mass spectrometry. The median RE contents in peat ashes from areas where the bedrock consists of rapakivi granite, granite or archean gneiss are reported. Detailed data concerning the individual mires are also presented. The highest RE contents were found in samples from rapakivi granite areas where a strong negative Eu anomaly was also observed. The RE contents were in general highest at the basal peat layers.

  10. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  11. Hypertension guideline implementation: experiences of Finnish primary care nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanen, Seija; Ijäs, Jarja; Kaila, Minna

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based guidelines on hypertension have been developed in many western countries. Yet, there is little evidence of their impact on the clinical practices of primary care nurses. METHOD: We assessed the style of implementation and adoption of the national...... Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in 32 Finnish health centres classified in a previous study as 'disseminators' (n = 13) or 'implementers' (n = 19). A postal questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n = 409) working in the outpatient services in these health centres. Additionally, senior nursing officers...... were telephoned to enquire if the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 327 nurses (80.0%), while all senior nursing officers (n = 32) were contacted. The majority of nurses were of the opinion...

  12. Divorce Risk Factors Across Finnish Marriage cohorts, 1954-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there has been a change in the effects of three divorce risk factors, female educational attainment, cohabitation, and parity. Several theoretical reasons suggest such a change, but the existing evidence gives mixed results. First marriages of Finnish women married between 1954 and 1989 are analysed using data from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS, collected in 1989 and 1990. The results from the discrete-time event history models show that the effect of having children on marital stability has changed: the impact of having two children has become less evident, while the effect of having three children or more has increased. These trends hold after controlling for young children and premarital children. Some explanations for this shift are discussed.

  13. Young People’s Attitudes towards Entrepreneurship in Finnish Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Rantanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze youngpeople’sattitudes towards entrepreneurship in theHelsinki-Uusimaa region of Finland.First, ourtheoretical framework links withattitude research, in particular, Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Our secondperspective derives from the theory of representations. Third, our analysis is basedon discussionsofthe welfare state and democratic values. We ask what socialpsychological factors explain young people’s entrepreneurial intentions. Surveydata (N=873was collected in electronic formatfromsecondary and vocationalschools. The questions were mainly multiple choiceLikert-scalequestions. Theanalysis was undertaken using simple statistical methods. Our results demonstratethat the relationship betweensocial values, representations concerningentrepreneurship,and entrepreneurial intention is complex in the Finnish context.Whilewe further argue thatthetheory of planned behavior is valid in thisinstance, the representations and social values serve to explain entrepreneurialintentiononly weakly.

  14. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the acquisition of temporal conjunctions in Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M

    2001-03-01

    This study concerns the acquisition of complex sentence structures in Finnish. Specifically, three simultaneous and sequential events were acted out with toys in an elicitation task, and the production of "and," "and then," "when," and "after" were observed. There were 48 children in a cross-sectional design at the age levels 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Immediately after the complex event was presented, the child was asked the initial request "What happened?" If the child did not produce the whole event spontaneously, she or he was prompted by "What else happened?" Finally, the prompted request "When did X?" was asked (X referring to the second action component of the event). The results showed that prompting better revealed the ability of the children, especially that of the younger ones, to use temporal conjunctions in complex sentences, as well as the delicate interplay of language skills and their flexible use.

  16. Finnish-Karelian symposium on mire conservation and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, H.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers based on presentations in a Finnish-karelischen symposium on the classification and conservation of mires, held in 1992. The symposium was arranged according to the contract of cooperation between the ministries of environment of Finland and Karelia, about mire conservation research. The aim of the cooperation is to improve the conservation of mires in the biogeographically uniform area of Eastern Fennoscandia, taking into account the great differences in mire utilization in Finland and Karelia. Another aim is to develop and unify the research methods. Paludification and development of mires is treated in three papers. Lake terrestrialization in Finland has been studied. Mires in fault valleys on the northwestern side of Lake Onega in Karelia have interesting stratigraphical features. The nutrient status of mires at different stages of development has been studied in Karelia, and the usability of the method is studied. The annual growth of hummock and lawn layer Sphagna and its dependence on the weather of the growth period as been studied in Karelia. The relationships of carbon balance, growth and different forms of mire utilization in Finland have been studied. The vegetation of the mires in Vodlozersky national park in Karelia has been studied in Finnish-Karelian cooperation. The main features of the vegetation are presented in one paper. For articles deal with mire conservation. Threatened mire plants and their conservation are treated in one paper. Another deals with the present state of mires in the raised bog zone in Finland, and the success of mire reservation. Gaps in mire conservation and possibilities to improve the protection of mires in Finland have been studied

  17. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  18. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  19. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Finnish fish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Hanninen, M.L.; Hirvela-Koski, V.

    2001-01-01

    Finnish isolates (n = 37) of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from farmed salmonids were studied using phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the characteristics of Swedish and Estonian F. psychrophilum isolates and the type strain, F...

  20. Ozone and UV research at Finnish Meteorological Inst.: review of selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P; Koskela, T; Damski, J; Supperi, A [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E [Finnish Meteorologican Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory; Ginzburg, M [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dijkhuis, J L [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). EUMETSAT

    1996-12-31

    Ozone and UV radiation research have become an important part of atmospheric research at Finnish Meteorological Institute after the discovery of chlorine based ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere

  1. Occlusion in the primary and early mixed dentitions in a group of Tanzanian and Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, H

    1990-01-01

    Two high and two low socioeconomic areas were selected for the Tanzanian portion of this study, with all nursery schools located in those areas included, for a subtotal of 580 children. The Finnish group was comprised of a total of 575 Caucasian children examined. The Tanzanian children (83 percent Black African, 10 percent Asian, 7 percent Arab) had fewer occlusal anomalies than the Finnish children did. Finnish children had a 13-percent incidence rate of lateral cross-bite; among African children, 8 percent showed anterior crossbite; and among the combined Asian/Arab group of children, 10 percent had an anterior open bite. African children had significantly fewer prevalences of distal bite, lateral crossbite and crowding than Finnish children did.

  2. Ozone and UV research at Finnish Meteorological Inst.: review of selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorologican Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory; Ginzburg, M. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dijkhuis, J.L. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). EUMETSAT

    1995-12-31

    Ozone and UV radiation research have become an important part of atmospheric research at Finnish Meteorological Institute after the discovery of chlorine based ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR THE FINNISH TOURIST COMPANY BASED ON SAINT PETERSBURG MARKET RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to get a marketing strategy for proposed tourist business through the field-work marketing research. The purpose of this marketing research was to investigate the attitudes of Russian tourists in Saint Pe-tersburg towards Finland as a destination. The research examines the respondents’ own evaluation of the Finnish tourism possibilities, as well as the expert evaluation (made by the professionals of tourist agencies in Saint Petersburg) of the Finnish tourist ma...

  4. The Future of the Retail Advertising: Implications for the Finnish Newspaper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    FLINK, SOILE-MARI

    2011-01-01

    Starting point for this research was the future changes Internet will cause to Finnish newspaper economies. When evaluating the economic importance of future development to newspapers? economies, one of the most important areas is retail advertising and its shifting to online environment. So far Finnish retail advertising has been very much focused on printed newspapers and retailers? online investments have been moderate and conservative. The change is about to happen and this research answe...

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  6. Guidelines for Finnish start-ups on how to utilize crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhiainen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to show how a Finnish start-up could benefit from crowdfunding.Other funding methods are explained shortly in the beginning and the rest of the thesis focusing on crowdfunding. The current Finnish legislation does not yet include anything aimed directly at crowdfunding, but a proposal is to be presented in spring 2016 to the ministry of Finance. There are some crowdfunding websites operating in Finland, including Mesenaatti.me and Invesdor.com. Other more popular we...

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.)

  8. From Ridiculed Deviants towards Normal Citizens. The Representation of Homosexuals in the Finnish Media 1990 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ylppö, Myrsky

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores how the Finnish media’s representations of homosexual men and women changed between 1990 and 2010, from negative public portrayals towards more positive ones. The thesis also examines if these changes reflect attitudes and opinions of the Finnish society and population overall during this time period. The primary sources consist of newspaper articles from the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, along with material from other newspapers, tabloids, and supporting research material...

  9. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  10. Internationalizing Services : Market research on exporting Finnish educational solutions to Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asemokha, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to bring clarity to the concept of internationalization and service (education) exports as an International Business tool. The study is commissioned by Finpros’ (The Finnish export organization) Future Learning Finland project an umbrella programme whose objective is internationalizing and exporting Finnish educational solutions to other countries. The commissioning party aims to use the study in its marketing activities. Therefore, this paper is built based on a hypothet...

  11. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  12. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  13. Police-registered offenses and psychiatric disorders among young males : the Finnish "From a boy to a man" birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemelä, Solja; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Helenius, Hans; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Sourander, Andre

    2007-06-01

    To study associations between crime and psychiatric disorders among adolescent males in a representative population-based cohort study. The sample includes 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information on criminality consists of offenses registered in the Finnish National Police Register 1998-2001. Crime was classified according to frequency and type (drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses). Information on psychiatric diagnoses between 1999 and 2004 was collected from the Finnish National Military Register. Of the 2,712 boys, 22% had a crime registration during the 4-year period, and 10% had at least one psychiatric disorder according to the Military Register. Those with psychiatric disorders accounted for 49% of all crimes. Of those with more than five crimes (n = 98), 59% had psychiatric diagnoses. After adjusting for other crime types and childhood socio-economic status, property crime was independently associated with several diagnoses: antisocial personality (APD), substance use (SUD), psychotic, anxiety, and adjustment disorders. Drug offending was independently associated with APD, SUD, and psychotic disorder, and traffic offenses with APD. Youth crime is predominantly associated with antisocial personality and substance use disorders. Crime prevention efforts should focus on boys showing a risk for antisocial and substance use problems. In particular, property, drug, and repeat offenders need mental health and substance use assessment. There is a need to develop integrated mental health and substance use treatment services for young offenders within or alongside the criminal justice system.

  14. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both

  15. Functioning of the Finnish electricity wholesale markets; Saehkoen tukkumarkkinan toimivuus Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehvilainen, I.; Broeckl, M.; Hakala, L.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of common Nordic electricity market has been to increase competition and efficiency. Market seems to be moving to the opposite direction in the 2010s. Wholesale market has become more fragmented as the market is split to larger number of price areas more often. Poor functioning of the wholesale markets is also the largest contributor to problems in the retail market. Politicians, market regulators, transmission system operators, and market players need to take action to improve the functioning of the market. Separation of price areas reduces competition in all market areas. The Finnish wholesale market is moderately or highly concentrated when Finland is separated from other price areas. Concentration is moderate, if all production capacity is considered. If only price setting hydropower and condensing power capacity are considered, the market is highly concentrated. High concentration can provide opportunities for the biggest producers to use strategic bidding to increase market prices. Larger number of price areas has reduced competition and liquidity with the financial area price products or CfDs. Poor functioning of CfD markets is emphasized by the low competition within the price areas. Bottlenecks between market areas create income for the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) that are responsible of the border transmissions. TSOs have no economic incentives to maintain and repair the border transmission lines, which seems peculiar when compared to e.g. regulation of electricity distribution companies. Finnish Fingrid shows a good example on transparent disclosure of received income and how the accrued funds are used. Import of electricity from Russia to Finland has been reduced since the end of 2011 because of the changes made in the Russian electricity market. Market liberalization in Russia has lead to a market structure that is different from the Nordic markets. Despite the differences, the two markets are becoming more integrated as the

  16. Natural gas - too expensive alternative for the Finnish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyytinen, A.-M.

    2001-01-01

    National Climate Strategy estimates that the annual GNP would be reduced by about 0.2 - 0.6 % (2 - 6 billion FIM/a). One should notice that this is the reduction of one year only, so the cumulative sum for ten years is 10 - 30 billion FIM. The natural gas alternative of the strategy means shutting down of coal-based energy production by the enforcement of legislation. It has been estimated that the state has to pay indemnities of about 1.0 billion FIM to power companies. Energy producers have estimated the sum to be at least ten times that presented in the strategy. The price of natural gas has also been estimated to be significantly lower than it is. The present price is about 20% higher than the one used in the analyses. In the strategy the economic growth rate was estimated to be relatively low, especially in energy intensive industry. However, at present it has been necessary to increase the growth rates significantly. If Finland ends up meeting the emissions reductions, agreed in Kyoto, with natural gas, in 2010 nearly all the CO 2 emissions of energy production are caused by natural gas combustion. If the requirements are then tightened this means that Finland has to start shutting down natural gas plants as well. Half of the emission reductions presented in the strategy are planned to be achieved by approved energy conservation programs and promotion programs for using of renewable energy sources. Finnish industry is willing to make voluntary agreements with the condition that no further tax increments or any emission quota are set. New taxes have been taken into use in many European countries so it was estimated that Finland would no longer be the country of high-energy taxation. However, it has appeared that there are used different kinds of refunding and emergency provisions so the situation has not changed. Despite of the climatic attitudes in the USA the climatic issue has been taken seriously in the EU, and several measures and acts are justified by

  17. Comparison of radionuclide data analysis results of the CTBTO/IDC and the Finnish NDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaranta, T.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is to operate a world-wide radionuclide monitoring network consisting of 80 measuring stations that transmit daily gamma-ray spectra measured from air filter samples to the International Data Centre (IDC). All spectra are analysed automatically and the results are reviewed interactively by an analyst. Quality of the automated analysis has a substantial impact on the reliability and efficiency of the analysis operation. The Finnish National Data Centre (FiNDC) receives the analysis results and raw spectral data from the IDC and performs radionuclide analysis of the spectra using dedicated Finnish software packages. This work evaluates the differences between the analysis results of the IDC and the FiNDC. The results are studied with respect to the spectrum peak finding, fitting and explaining performance. Furthermore, nuclides associated with the peaks are considered, and an effort is made to approximate the number of spurious nuclide identifications. The material of this work consists of representative sets containing 500 to 1500 spectra and their respective analysis result pairs. The spectra were measured by the five certified radionuclide stations and three prototype stations that were operating between August 1, 2000 and March 26, 2001. In the set of 1500 spectra from eight stations, the FiNDC analysis software package was found to detect 4.2 more peaks per spectrum and to explain 5.6 more peaks per spectrum than the IDC software package, which, in turn, left 1.4 more peaks per spectrum unexplained. The median peak explanation percentages of the FiNDC and IDC were 96.7 and 92.3, respectively. The FiNDC analysis software package was found to report 0.7 more spurious nuclides than the IDC analysis software package. When only the CTBTO relevant nuclides were considered, the difference decreased to 0.05. The throughput times involved with the IDC raw measuring data transfer and automatic analysis result

  18. Hip fracture prevention with a multifactorial educational program in elderly community-dwelling Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, T; Löyttyniemi, E; Välimäki, M

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines suggest identification of women at fracture risk by bone density measurement and subsequently pharmacotherapy. However, most women who sustain a hip fracture do not have osteoporosis in terms of bone density. The present non-pharmacological intervention among elderly women unselected for osteoporosis reduced hip fracture risk by 55 % providing an alternative approach to fracture prevention. Hip fractures are expensive for society and cause disability for those who sustain them. We studied whether a multifactorial non-pharmacological prevention program reduces hip fracture risk in elderly women. A controlled trial concerning 60- to 70-year-old community-dwelling Finnish women was undertaken. A random sample was drawn from the Population Information System and assigned into the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Of the 2,547 women who were invited to the IG, 1,004 (39 %) and of the 2,120 invited to the CG, 1,174 (55 %) participated. The IG participated in a fracture prevention program for 1 week at a rehabilitation center followed by review days twice. The CG received no intervention. During the 10-year follow-up, both groups participated in survey questionnaire by mail. Outcome of interest was occurrence of hip fractures and changes in bone-health-related lifestyle. During the follow-up, 12 (1.2 %) women in the IG and 29 (2.5 %) in the CG sustained a hip fracture (P = 0.039). The determinants of hip fractures by stepwise logistic regression were baseline smoking (odds ratio (OR) 4.32 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.14-8.71), age OR 1.15/year (95 % CI 1.03-1.28), fall history OR 2.7 (95 % CI 1.24-5.9), stroke history OR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.19-7.54) and participating in this program OR 0.45 (95 % CI 0.22-0.93). Starting vitamin D and calcium supplement use was more common in the IG compared with the CG. The results suggest that this non-pharmacological fracture prevention program may reduce the risk of hip fractures in elderly

  19. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  20. Distribution and content of ellagitannins in Finnish plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Johanna; Koskinen, Piia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    The results of a screening study, in which a total of 82 Finnish plant species were studied for their ellagitannin composition and content, are presented. The total ellagitannin content was determined by HPLC-DAD, the detected ellagitannins were further characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and divided into four structurally different sub-groups. Thirty plant species were found to contain ellagitannins and the ellagitannin content in the crude extracts varied from few mgg(-1) to over a hundred mgg(-1). Plant families that were rich in ellagitannins (>90mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were Onagraceae, Lyhtraceae, Geraniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fagaceae and some species from Rosaceae. Plant species that contained moderate amounts of ellagitannins (31-89mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the family Rosaceae. Plant species that contained low amounts of ellagitannins (1-30mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. The specific ellagitannin composition of the species allowed their chemotaxonomic classification and the comparison between the older Cronquist's classification and the nowadays preferred Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Finnish Highly Skilled Migrants and the European Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koikkalainen Saara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe is home to a globally unique area where the barriers of transnational migration have been largely removed. This article focuses on Finnish highly skilled, intra-European migrants and their labour market situation immediately following the economic crisis of 2008. Based on two consecutive online surveys (carried out in spring 2008 and summer 2010 of tertiary educated Finns living in other EU countries, the article examines the effects of the global economic downturn on the careers of these highly skilled migrants. Only 16 per cent of the respondents report that their labour market situation had worsened. A higher percentage (24% felt that their situation had improved and the majority (54% had either experienced no change in their situation or stated that their reasons for changing jobs or moving had nothing to do with the crisis. The article concludes that these migrants were protected from the full force of the crisis by their high human capital, flexibility of alternating between studying and work, employment in international workplaces and their intra-European migrant status.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with longevity in a Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Karhunen, Pekka J; Jylhä, Marja; Majamaa, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may cause slight differences both in the functioning of the respiratory chain and in free radical production, and an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups and longevity has been suggested. In order to determine further the role of mtDNA in longevity, we studied the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters among elderly subjects and controls in a Finnish population. Samples were obtained from 225 persons aged 90-91 years (Vitality 90+) and from 400 middle-aged controls and 257 infants. MtDNA haplogroups were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The haplogroup frequencies of the Vitality 90+ group differed from both those of the middle-aged controls ( P=0.01) and the infants ( P=0.00005), haplogroup H being less frequent than among the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.001) and infants ( P=0.00001), whereas haplogroups U and J were more frequent. Haplogroup clusters also differed between Vitality 90+ and both the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.002) and infants ( P=0.00001), the frequency of haplogroup cluster HV being lower in the former and that of UK and WIX being higher. These data suggest an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups or haplogroup clusters and longevity. Furthermore, our data appear to favour the presence of advantageous polymorphisms and support a role for mitochondria and mtDNA in the degenerative processes involved in ageing.

  3. The Finnish final disposal programme proceeds to the site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Research for the selection of the final disposal site has been carried out already since the beginning of 1980's. Field studies were started in 1987: In the recent years, studied sites have included Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Romuvaara in Kuhmo and Kivetty in Aeaenekoski. Based on 40 years operation of four power plant units, the estimate for the accumulation of spent fuel to be disposed of in Finland is 2,600 tU. A 'Decision in Principle' is needed from the Finnish government to select the final disposal site, Posiva submitted the application for a policy decision in May 1999. The intended site of the facility is Olkiluoto which produces most of the spent fuel in Finland: A disposal would minimise the need of transports. In a poll among the inhabitants of Eurajoki, 60 per cent approved the final disposal facility. After a positive decision of the government, Posiva will construct an underground research facility in Olkiluoto. The construction of the final disposal facility will take place in the 2010's, the facility should be operational in 2020. (orig.) [de

  4. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  5. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viitala Sirja M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

  6. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  7. Organisational justice and smoking: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Cox, Sara J; Cox, Tom; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2007-05-01

    To examine the extent to which the justice of decision-making procedures and interpersonal relationships is associated with smoking. 10 municipalities and 21 hospitals in Finland. Cross-sectional data derived from the Finnish Public Sector Study were analysed with logistic regression analysis models with generalised estimating equations. Analyses of smoking status were based on data provided by 34,021 employees. Separate models for heavy smoking (> or = 20 cigarettes/day) were calculated for 6295 current smokers. After adjustment for age, education, socioeconomic position, marital status, job contract and negative affectivity, smokers who reported low procedural justice were about 1.4 times more likely to smoke > or = 20 cigarettes/day compared with their counterparts who reported high levels of justice. In a similar way, after adjustments, low levels of justice in interpersonal treatment was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of heavy smoking (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.77 for men and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.83 for women). Further adjustment for job strain and effort-reward imbalance had little effect on these results. No associations were observed between justice components and smoking status or ex-smoking. The extent to which employees are treated with justice in the workplace seems to be associated with smoking intensity independently of established stressors at work.

  8. Management of work-related stress by Finnish occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, M; Liira, J

    2013-07-01

    Occupational stress is a serious threat to the well-being of employees and organizations and may cause ill-health and loss of productivity. Determining the methods that occupational health (OH) services and employers use to manage work-related stress can help to detect both barriers and facilitating factors for effective stress management. To examine stress management methods used by OH physicians in Finland. Anonymous, self-administered e-mail questionnaire to Finnish OH physicians. A total of 222 OH physicians responded. Neither OH services nor their client organizations used standardized tools to assess or manage work-related stress. Work-related stress was assessed using patient interviews. Physicians reported that the main method used to manage occupational stress was supporting the individual employee. Half of the physicians attempted to involve workplaces in stress management by asking their patients to contact their supervisors regarding stress issues. In order to tackle work-related stress consistently and effectively employers and OH services should have agreed standardized protocols for managing stress in the workplace.

  9. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T; Hakola, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  10. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-and-fattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples.

  11. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  12. Gold Medal for Finnish Health in All Policies Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Lewis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book “Health in All Policies: Seizing opportunities, implementing policies” edited by Kimmo Leppo, Eeva Ollila, Sebastián Peña, Matthias Wismar, and Sarah Cook. This book (printed and online publication was published by the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland in 2013 (1. The book is freely available at http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/188809/Health-in-All-Policies-final.pdf. The main features, structure, and highlighted contents of the book are briefly sketched out in this review. The book promotes understanding of a Health in All Policies (HiAP approach, the history, and the scientific evidence of effectiveness available to apply the HiAP concept in order to overcome challenges faced by policy-makers. HiAP is a relatively novel approach which arises from the traditional idea that health is not only medicine (2. The book offers lessons to policy-makers and managers on how to apply the HiAP approach. It further highlights the health sector’s role in developing healthy public policies. In addition, the book provides examples of structures to foster collaboration, coherence, and participation among stakeholders from different government portfolios and responsibilities. The book further provides invaluable insights for politicians, researchers, and civil society advocates.

  13. Integrated Safeguards proposal for Finland. Final report on Task FIN C 1264 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, M.

    2000-08-01

    The IAEA has requested several member states to present their proposal of the application of the Integrated Safeguards (IS) system in their nuclear facilities. This report contains a IS proposal for Finland prepared under the Task FIN C 1264 of The Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. The comprehensive safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been one of the main tools in the fight against nuclear proliferation since the entry-into-force of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty three decades ago. In the 1990s some of the inherent weaknesses of this so-called traditional safeguards system were revealed first in Iraq and then in North Korea. Therefore, the member states of the LAEA decided to give the Agency additional legal authority in order to make its control system more effective as well as more efficient than before. This was accomplished by the approval of the so-called Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540) in 1997. Straightforward implementation of new safeguards measures allowed by the Additional Protocol (INF-CIRC540) without careful review of the old procedures based on INFCIRC153 would only result in increased costs within the IAEA and in the member states. In order to avoid that kind of outcome the old and new means available to the Agency shall be combined to form an optimised integrated safeguards (IS) system. When creating an effective and efficient system a necessary approach is a state-level evaluation, which means that each state shall be assessed by the IAEA separately and as a whole. The assessment of a country's nuclear field shall result in credible assurance of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear materials to prohibited purposes and of the absence of clandestine nuclear activities, facilities and materials. Having achieved that assurance and being able to maintain it in a state the LAEA can leave some traditional routine safeguards activities undone there. At present, the nuclear fuel cycle in

  14. Eskers and bedrock gorges (tunnel valleys in the Pakasaivo area, western Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet, including the behavior of the ice sheet and meltwater activity, were conducted in the vicinity of the Pakasaivo canyon lake, located in western Finnish Lapland. Pakasaivo itself, a circular basin up to 100 m deep, was formed in the broken bedrock by glacial erosion and meltwater streams. It was originally related to a former subglacial meltwater system, including the deep Keinokursu gorge. Both this gorge and the Pakasaivo canyon lake were formed subglacially duringan early stage of deglaciation. It was characterized by intense meltwater erosion, which in Pakasaivo also seems to have generated a strong whirl. Steep-crested esker ridges were subsequently deposited; subaerial meltwater activity then followed. Finally the meltwaterwas discharged from the ice-dammed lake north of the area and passed through the Pakasaivo canyon to the ice-free areas. This caused additional intense erosion of the canyon floor and walls, and the deep circular basin is highly similar to a plunge pool formed at the base of a cataract.

  15. Energy-related taxation as an environmental policy tool--the Finnish experience 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, Jarmo

    2005-01-01

    Finland has over 10 years experience of environment-based energy taxation. The design and level of the CO 2 and energy tax scheme has been changed several times on an ad hoc basis. In recent years, Finland has introduced more and more tax 'departures', i.e. deviations and exceptions from an 'ideal' type of environmental tax. Examples of this include fuel-specific and user-specific exemptions or lowered tax levels taxes on electricity production from non-fossil energy sources, plus refund systems for fossil fuel and electricity users. Thus, it is apparent that Finnish energy taxation aimed at improving the environment has developed ineffectively. Increases in the level of CO 2 tax on fossil fuels have served mostly fiscal purposes with reduced CO 2 emissions being only a side benefit. No systematic follow-up or ex post analysis on the impacts of the CO 2 and energy taxes has been carried out. From the perspective of greenhouse gas mitigation, the discussion on economic instruments has shifted from CO 2 taxation towards emissions trading in the international context of the European Union and the Kyoto Protocol

  16. French-Finnish colloquium on safety of French and Russian type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukka, M.; Jaervinen, M.; Minkkinen, P.; Ukkola, A.; Levomaeki, L.

    1994-01-01

    The French-Finnish Colloquium on Safety of French and Russian Type Nuclear Power Plants was held in June, 14th - 16th, 1994, in Lappeenranta, Finland. The main topics of the colloquium were: VVER and RBMK reactors; Industrial safety studies for VVER's in FRAMATOME; Structural safety analysis of Ignalina NPP; Thermalhydraulic system (BETHSY) and analytical experiments for French NPP; Test facilities simulating VVER plants during accidents; PACTEL - facility for VVER thermal hydraulics; High burn-up fuel and reactivity accidents; Overview of severe accident research at Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute of CEA; Research of severe accidents in Finland; Review of main activities concerning computer codes used for VVER thermal-hydraulic safety analysis in OKB Gidropress; CATHARE code; APROS computer code, new developments; TRIO and TOLBIAC computer codes; ESTET and N3S softwares; HEXTRAN - 3D reactor dynamics code for VVER accident analysis; An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs; Boron mixing transients in a 900 MW PWR vessel for a reactor start-up operation; and Problem of boric acid dilution in IVO

  17. Towards greener products. A case study of five international Finnish enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, P.; Heiskanen, E.; Melanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Product-oriented environmental policy has in recent years been widely discussed and the Commission of the European Communities has issued a Green Paper on Integrated Product Policy (IPP). At the same time, companies have envisaged changes in regulatory requirements and adopted various voluntary environmental initiatives in order to achieve competitive advantage. The main principle of integrated product policy is that products and their environmental effects are viewed from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this study was to evaluate how companies incorporate environmental aspects into their product development and how the product policy exercised by government influences to this process. Data were collected at five Finnish companies (KONE, elevators; Nokia, mobile phones; Stora Enso, packaging boards; Virke, textiles; YIT-Yhtymae, building construction) using a case study strategy. The importance of waste and environmental issues in the product development of the case companies appears to have grown in recent years. Environmental concerns have been integrated - in one way or another - into product development processes. However, the results of this integration are not yet fully visible. The principal pressures to incorporate environmental issues into product development have come from customers or through the anticipation or implementation of extended producer responsibility systems. Recognition of the environmental advantages of their own products, and the use of this in marketing has been an important starting-point for environmental initiatives at least at KONE and Virke. (orig.)

  18. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; Boer, W. de; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha⁻¹ a⁻¹. The Dutch sites had also

  19. Methane oxidation in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests with different soil texture and atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, A.; Martikainen, P.J.; Ferm, A.; Ruuskanen, J.; De Boer, W.; Troelstra, S.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied methane oxidation capacity in soil profiles of Dutch and Finnish coniferous forests. The Finnish sites (n = 9) had nitrogen depositions from 3 to 36 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The deposition of N on the Dutch sites (n = 13) was higher ranging from 50 to 92 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The Dutch sites had

  20. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  1. Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards. Annual report 1994; Suomen tukiohjelma IAEA:n safeguards-valvonnalle. Vuoden 1994 toimintakertomus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, M [ed.

    1995-05-01

    Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out trough separate tasks concentrating on verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to the Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English.

  2. Implications of the Bologna Process for Throughput in the Higher Education Sector: An Empirical Illustration Based on a Finnish-British Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study illustrates the differences between Finnish and British graduates in the higher education-to-work transition and related market mechanisms in the year 2000. Specifically, the differences between the Finnish and British students' academic careers and ability to find employment after graduation were evaluated in relation to the Finnish HE…

  3. A study on the deregulation of the Finnish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Governments have regarded the electricity industry as a leading industrial sector throughout the history. Because of its strategic importance to industrial development, its impacts on the social and environmental issues and its natural monopoly characteristics, it has been seen necessary to regulate electricity industry effectively. However, in the mid 1980s it was realised that even though transmission and distribution networks are natural monopolies, the scale economies in electricity production at the generating unit level had exhausted at a unit size of about 500 MW. This meant that supply and generation had become potentially competitive activities. In Finland the new Electricity Market Act (EMA) came into force in 1.11.1995. According to it the production and supply of electricity became deregulated and competition was introduced to the industry. The main aim of the law was to improve efficiency. This dissertation analyses, both theoretically and empirically, the impacts of deregulation to the Finnish electricity markets. In chapter two we discuss on the grounds and incentives of the deregulation processes that have been carried out in different countries. We also determine the crucial factors in order succeed in the deregulation process. According to our view the success depend on the number of active players in the wholesale market, the rules of the bidding procedure, the organisation of the demand side operation, the neutrality of transmission grid, the structure of production technologies and the ownership structure of the industry. In chapter three we theoretically model the profit maximising behaviour of the Finnish electricity companies based on different stages of vertical integration and on different stage of competition. According to our results the profit maximising pricing rules of distribution units is dependent on the stage of integration and on the stage of competition. The separated distribution company maximises profits by setting the

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-11-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the second quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of TVO plant units and the Midsummer shutdown at TVO II which was due to low electricity demand, a turbine generator inspection and repairs. The load factor average of all plant units was 88.9 %. Events in the second quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  5. The 1993 Finnish Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI - A review of aims, approaches and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppanen, Jouko

    1993-10-01

    The communications of the International Interdisciplinary Seminar on SETI, held on March 6-7, 1993 in Vantaa, Finland, are reviewed and the contents and conclusions of papers summarized. The seminar was organized jointly by the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Society (FAIS), Finnish Astronomical Society, Ursa Astronomical Association and Heureka - The Finnish Science Centre. As the ninth in a series of intelligence-related seminars of FAIS, SETI was chosen as the topic for spring 1993, noting the new ten year NASA SETI program HRMS (High Resolution Micro-wave Survey), commenced on Columbus Day, October 12, 1992. The aims and the interdisciplinary format of the seminar are described, the main results and conclusions of papers are restated, and the seminar publications introduced. The summaries of papers are based on their abstracts and contain excerpts from texts.

  6. Important themes in research on and education of young children in day care centres: Finnish viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritta Hännikäinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to outline important themes, according to Finnish early childhood education researchers, that need to be addressed in researching and educating children under three years of age in Finland. To achieve this aim, the article divides into two parts. First, we present and discuss the results of a small-scale survey, conducted in Finland, on the views of key informants in the early childhood education units of Finnish universities. Second, the views presented in the survey are used as a starting point to introduce two ongoing qualitative case studies on the everyday life of toddlers in Finnish day care centres. In line with the survey findings, these case studies emphasize in particular the importance of the relational, social nature of children, the educational community, and the sensitivity of the adult for children’s wellbeing in day care groups.

  7. Job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction among Finnish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, P M; Meretoja, O A; Töyry, S M; Luukkonen, R A; Elovainio, M J; Leino, T J

    2007-08-01

    Organizational changes and relative growth of the ageing population together with related health problems seem to have increased stressfulness in the work of anaesthesiologists. However, little is known about their work-related well-being and the factors through which their situation could be improved. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the level and the determinants of job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction among female and male anaesthesiologists involved 258 Finnish anaesthesiologists working full time (53% men). The respondents had fairly high job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction. No gender differences appeared in these well-being indicators, but their determinants differed by gender. Job satisfaction was only associated with work-related factors in both genders: with job control in women and with job control and organizational justice in men. Work ability correlated with job control and health in both genders and with family life in women. Life satisfaction correlated with individual- and family related factors such as social support and family problems in both genders. Life satisfaction correlated with physical workload in men and health in women. Women had less job control, fewer permanent job contracts and more domestic workload than men. Job control and organizational justice were the most important determinants in work-related well-being. Work-related factors were slightly more important correlates of well-being in males, and family life seems to play a larger role in the well-being of female anaesthesiologists. Organizational and gender issues need to be addressed in order to maintain a high level of well-being among anaesthesiologists.

  8. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  9. Radioactivity of Focus vesiculosus along the Finnish coast in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Sjoeblom, K.-L.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    1988-05-01

    Samples of Fucus vesiculosus were collected along the west and south coast of Finland at 25 stations in June-October 1987. More detailed surveys were conducted in the marine areas surrounding the nuclear power stations at Olkiluoto and Loviisa. The samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and partly also for 90 Sr and transuranic elements. From the twelve gamma-emitting radionuclides detected in the Focus samples, 40 K, 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were found in nearly all samples. 54 Mn and 65 Zn were almost regularly detected in the samples from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa areas and commonly also along the whole coast, whereas 60 Co was rarely found at the coastal stations outside the immediate vicinities of the power stations. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs varied in the Fucus samples from 80 to 670 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest values were found in the Loviisa area and in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and the lowest in the Archipelago Sea. The values reflect differences in the amounts of local fallout and runoff, but also the transport of radionuclides by river waters and currents in the sea. The results provide evidence of the indicator value of Fucus vesiculosus in the monitoring of radioactive substances, both in the environs of the nuclear power stations and also in studies regarding the dispersion and behaviour of fallout nuclides in the marine environment. Among the great number of samples taken in the Finnish monitoring programme, Fucus was the most sensitive bioindicator of 60 Co and 65 Zn, and thus enabled detection of these radionuclides in the fallout from Chernobyl

  10. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Tarja; Mäntynen, Raija; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2013-10-02

    Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is a complex, continuously changing work

  11. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  12. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopia, Hanna; Lottes, Ilsa; Kanne, Mariël

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work from the perspectives of Finnish and Dutch healthcare professionals studying at the master's level. Exploratory, qualitative study that used the text of student online discussions of ethical dilemmas at work as data. Participants' online discussions were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The sample consisted of 49 students at master's level enrolled in professional ethics courses at universities in Finland and the Netherlands. Permission for conducting the study was granted from both universities of applied sciences. All students provided their informed consent for the use of their assignments as research data. Participants described 51 problematic work situations. Among these, 16 were found to be ethical dilemmas, and the remaining were work issues with an ethical concern and did not meet criteria of a dilemma. The most common problems resulted from concerns about quality care, safety of healthcare professionals, patients' rights, and working with too few staff and inadequate resources. The results indicated that participants were concerned about providing quality of care and raised numerous questions about how to provide it in challenging situations. The results show that it was difficult for students to differentiate ethical dilemmas from other ethical work concerns. Online discussions among healthcare providers give them an opportunity to relate ethical principles to real ethical dilemmas and problems in their work as well as to critically analyze ethical issues. We found that discussions with descriptions of ethical dilemmas and concerns by health professionals provide important information and recommendations not only for education and practice but also for health policy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  14. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the Finnish nuclear safety research program 'SAFIR2010'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A panel of three members has been asked by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE) to evaluate SAFIR2010, the Finnish research program on nuclear power plant safety. The program was established for the period 2007-2010 to help maintain expertise in nuclear safety, to integrate young people into the research in order to help assure the future availability of expertise, and to support international collaborations. The program is directed by a Steering Group, appointed by MEE, with representatives from all organizations involved with nuclear safety in Finland. SAFIR2010 has consisted of approximately 30 projects from year to year that fall into eight subject areas: 1. Organization and human factors 2. Automation and control room 3. Fuel and reactor physics 4. Thermal hydraulics 5. Severe accidents 6. Structural safety of reactor circuit 7. Construction safety 8. Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) For each of these areas there are Reference Groups that provide oversight of the projects within their jurisdiction. The panel carried out its evaluation by reviewing copies of relevant documents and, during a one-week period 17-22 January 2010, meeting with key individuals. The results of the panel are provided as general conclusions, responses to questions posed by MEE, challenges and recommendations and comments on specific projects in each subject area. The general conclusions reflect the panel's view that SAFIR2010 is meeting its objectives and carrying out quality research. The questions addressed are: (a.) Are the achieved results in balance with the funding? Are the results exploited efficiently in practice? (b.) How well does the expertise cover the field? Is the entire SAFIR2010 programme balanced to all different fields in nuclear safety? Does it raise efficiently new experts? (c.) Have the 2006 evaluation results been implemented successfully into SAFIR2010 program? (d.) Challenges and recommendations. In general the panel was very positive about SAFIR

  16. Finnish studies on radioactivity in the Baltic Sea in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Ilus, E.; Saxen, R.

    1988-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances in the Baltic Sea was continued within the framework of the Finnish national monitoring programme. The only regularly detected gamma nuclides in sea water were 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The ratio 134 Cs/ 137 Cs in surface water samples was 0.36+-0.01. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs have became more evenly distributed during the last year, so that in the surface water of the Baltic Proper the values were 100-200 Bq m -3 , in the Gulf of Finland 200-300 Bq m -3 , in the Bothnian Sea 300-400 Bq m -3 and in the Bothnian Bay about 100 Bq m -3 in 1987. The sedimentation of the Chernobyl fallout into the bottom sediments of the open sea basins only began to increase in 1987. The addition of 137 Cs and other fallout nuclides was strongest at the XV 1 station in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, where the total deposition of 137 Cs was about 18 kBq m -3 during the last year. No areal differences were found in the fish samples caught from the coastal waters of Finland in 1987. In pike and cod the 137 Cs values have slightly increased since 1986, being now about five times (15-30 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) the values before the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 90 Sr (0.030-0.11 Bq kg -1 fresh weight) were at the same level as in 1985 and the preceding years

  17. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  18. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-01-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  19. Reliability and validity study of the Finnish version 2.0 of the oswestry disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Ylinen, Jari; Salo, Petri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-02-15

    Prospective clinical validation study. The aims of this study were to translate into Finnish and culturally adapt and study the psycho-metric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0. The ODI is one of the most commonly reported back-specific disability questionnaires. It is widely used both in clinical work and in medical studies. To date, no validated Finnish version of the ODI version 2.0 has been reported. The ODI version 2.0 was translated into the Finnish language. A total of 115 patients with back pain, referred by the primary care physician to the outpatient clinic of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, were recruited for this study. The patients answered a questionnaire package that included the Finnish ODI 2.0, Back Pain Questionnaire for Visual Analogue Assessment (Million-VAS), Visual Analogue Scales of back and leg pain (VASback, VASleg), the Depressions Scale, and a question on their subjectively perceived health. The package was administered twice; 2 weeks before and at the arrival to the clinic. Reproducibility of the ODI was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.94) and the internal consistency was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90). Factor analysis showed that the ODI was loaded on 2 factors, which explained 51% of the total variance. In testing convergent validity ODI correlated with Million-VAS, r = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84); VASback, r = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.32-0.62); and VAS leg, r = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23-0.57). The Finnish ODI version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument that showed psychometric properties comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it can be used in assessing the disability among Finnish-speaking patients with back pain for both clinical and scientific purposes.

  20. Foreign-language teaching and studying in Chilean and Finnish classrooms as seen by teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjanne Pirjo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports Chilean and Finnish foreign-language (FL teachers’ perceptions of teaching and study realities in their own FL classrooms. Communicative language teaching (CLT is used as the teaching–studying–learning methodological framework of an international KIELO project (= the acronym for Finnish “kieltenopetus” meaning “language teaching”, whose online survey was used to collect data for this article. We aim at answering the following research question: What are the FL teachers’ main approaches to teaching and studying in Chilean and Finnish FL classrooms and what is the FL classroom teaching and study reality like in these two countries? The data were collected from 83 Chilean and 147 Finnish FL teachers through an online survey covering 15 key themes of CLT and including 115 Likert-scale statements and 8 open-ended questions. In the descriptive data analysis, both Chilean and Finnish FL teachers claim that they encourage their students to use the target language considerably and that they use communicative oral tasks. For both groups of participants, however, teacher-centeredness and use of textbook score relatively high. The two-cluster analysis revealed a context-dependent cluster and a context-independent cluster. Context-dependent teachers tended to favor communicative oral tasks, real-life tasks and their own language tasks, whereas context-independent teachers favored more non-communicative tasks. Context-dependent teachers proved more student-centered than context-independent teachers. For Chilean and Finnish research participants, the use of mother tongue in foreign language classrooms appears to be an issue despite the growing need of foreign language communication.

  1. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in Finnish-rainbow trout farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja-Halli, M.; Vehmas, T.K.; Rimaila-Parnanen, E.

    2006-01-01

    and NV gene regions of Finnish VHSV isolates collected between 2000 and 2004 revealed that all isolates were closely related, with 99.3 to 100% nucleotide identity, which suggests the same origin of infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were closely related to the old freshwater isolates...... from rainbow trout in Denmark and to one old marine isolate from cod in the Baltic Sea, and that they were located close to the presumed ancestral source. As the Finnish isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments, they could represent an intermediate stage...

  2. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2. quarter 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1988-12-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environement

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3. quarter 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-06-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel o the environment

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3. quarter 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1989-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  6. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  7. Efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, in Finnish infants up to 3 years of age: the Finnish Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Ferrante, Shannon Allen; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-11-01

    Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST) enrolled nearly 70,000 infants, of whom more than 23,000 were from Finland. REST determined the efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and emergency department (ED) visits in the first year after vaccination. Finnish infants initially in REST transitioned into the Finnish Extension Study (FES), where they were followed for rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits through their second year of life and beyond. FES identified 150 (31%) additional rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases beyond those identified in REST in the Finnish participants. Overall, RV5 reduced RVGE hospitalisations and ED visits, regardless of the rotavirus serotype, by 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.8-95.9%) for up to 3.1 years following the last vaccine dose. Vaccine efficacy against combined hospitalisations and ED visits between ages 4 months to 11 months, 12 months to 23 months, and 24 months to 35 months was 93.9% (95% CI: 89.1-96.9%), 94.4% (95% CI: 90.2-97.0%), and 85.9% (95% CI: 51.6-97.2%), respectively. The reduction of hospitalisations and ED visits due to any acute gastroenteritis, rotavirus or not, was 62.4% (95% CI: 57.6-66.6%) over the entire follow-up period. The results from FES confirm that RV5 induces high and sustained protection against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits, and has a very substantial impact on all gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations and ED visits into the third year of life in Finnish children.

  8. -30 per cent EU-wide emission cut from the perspective of the Finnish economy; 30 prosentin vaehennystavoitteeseen siirtymisen energia- ja kansantaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Koljonen, T.; Lehtilae, A.

    2013-03-15

    The Eu is considering the adoption of a tighter emission target, to replace the agreed -20 per cent emission target already agreed on. In this study, we analyze the implications of the proposed -30 per cent EU-wide emission cut from the perspective of the Finnish economy. We use an energy system model to study the technological choices and direct energy and investment costs of the stricter target, and an applied general equilibrium model to analyse its economic implications at industry and macroeconomic levels. We find that the stricter target increases the economic costs roughly proportionally to the abatement effort and consist mostly of the welfare losses of taxation. (orig.)

  9. Use of sunbeds by Finnish population; Suomalaisten solariuminkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, V

    2000-10-01

    The sun is clearly the most important source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in environment. The UVR doses caused to the population by the sun have been estimated in several studies. However, the use of sunbeds and the UVR exposure caused by them have been assessed only by few surveys. Therefore, the main objective of this study was set to collect data about the use of sunbeds in Finland and to estimate the UVR doses caused to the population by sunbeds. The basic material for this research was collected during year 1998 by a questionnaire mailed to 4000 Finns older than 15 years. 28,7% of the respondents had visited sunbed sometime during their life, and 8,6% had used sunbed during the year 1997. Consequently it was estimated that in 1997 approximately 360 000 Finns aged over 15 years were using sunbeds. Young people, 20-34 years, were using sunbeds more than older people and two of three sunbed users were women. During the year 1997, an average sunbed user visited sunbeds 6,8 times. When UVR doses caused by sunbeds and sun were compared, it was estimated that by average use of sunbeds the annual UVR dose of outdoor and indoor workers might increase 2% and 30%, respectively. The annual UVR dose of an average sunbed user was assessed to increase by 13% because of sunbed use. Sunbeds were estimated to be responsible for 1% addition to the annual UVR dose of Finnish population. The sun is still the major source of VVR doses when the whole population is concerned, but enthusiastic sunbed users may even triple their annual UVR doses. The best tools for keeping the annual UVR doses reasonably low are to deliver information of the hazards of W-radiation to the groups at risk and to monitor the radiation safety of sunbeds. It is worthwhile to aim information campaigns for the biggest user groups found by this study. Attention should be drawn to the attitudes and ideals towards tanned skin. (orig.)

  10. Breeding of a protein pea ideotype for Finnish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Hovinen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of protein pea (Pisum sativum L. adapted to cultivation in Finnish conditions were specified. Ideotypes for pure and mixed stands were defined separately. Factors affecting seed yield, protein yield and protein content were determined. Efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation in the varieties was evaluated at two nitrogen application levels, 16 and 80 kg/ha. Selection methods for increasing protein content were discussed. The commercial varieties bred during the programme were presented. The effect of the gene af on different characteristics of the pea was the central object of the studies. The ideotype of peas for cultivation in Finland has to be of the afila-type. This concerns cultivation in both pure and mixed stands. Afila-peas gave seed yields and protein yields as high as the leafed ones. The lodging of afila-peas throughout the generative growth phase was less than that of the conventional leaf types. In mixed cropping the most suitable afila-peas generally formed almost completely unlodged stands together with cereals. The best seed yields were given by the varieties with a stem height of 61 to 94 cm. Due to competition, the corresponding height in mixed stands ranged from 80 to 100 cm. For the same reason, varieties to be used in mixed stands must possess a fairly large seed size and fast growth rate after emergence. The optimum flowering period lasted from 19 to 28 days. The varieties must be early, with a growing time from 91 to 101 days. Late varieties are not adapted to northern conditions, giving low yields and poor quality. The mean yield of the varieties was 4500 kg/ha in pure stands. The high nitrogen application level of 80 kg/ha did not increase pea yield in comparison with the 16 kg/ha level. In contrast, it enhanced the protein content by 1 % and the protein yield slightly. In mixed stands the mean total yield was 4700kg/ha. The hectare yields of crude protein reached levels of 990 and 900 kg

  11. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-01-27

    Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples' PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7-7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the

  12. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  13. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  14. Applying open innovation in business strategies : Evidence from Finnish software firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harison, Elad; Koski, Heli

    Our study aims at shedding light on the innovative business strategies in the software sector and understanding better the economics that underlies the supply of Open Source Software (OSS). We use survey data collected from 170 Finnish software companies to investigate how different properties of

  15. Epidemiology of Anorexia Nervosa in Men : A Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans W.; Susser, Ezra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background: To examine the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in men, we screened Finnish male twins born in 1975-79. Methods and Findings: Men (N = 2122) from FinnTwin16 birth cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by a questionnaire. The screen positives (N = 18), their male co-twins (N

  16. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  17. Happy Spouses, Happy Parents? Family Relationships among Finnish and Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Kaisa; Kinnunen, Ulla; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna; Wierda-Boer, Hilde; Gerris, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study links between spousal and parent-child relationships among Finnish (n = 157 couples) and Dutch (n = 276 couples) dual earners with young children were examined using paired questionnaire data. Variable-oriented analyses (structural equation modeling with a multigroup procedure) supported the spillover hypothesis, as higher levels of…

  18. The Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education through Curriculum Reform in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in…

  19. Nuclear is coming back in Finland. The finnish deputies approved the design of a new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The finnish Parliament agreed the construction of a fifth reactor in the country to reach an increase of 25% of its electric power consumption in 2015. The government decision and the impacts on the european nuclear industry are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Studies of potential severe accidents in Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3. quarter 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Ilari.

    1989-07-01

    This thesis is based on six publications dealing with severe accident studies in Finnish nuclear power plants. Main emphasis has been put on general technical bases and methodologies applied in severe accident evaluation in Finland. As an example of the use of the analysis and evaluation methods, the analysis of one representative accident sequence, t otal loss of AC power , has been presented for both Finnish power plant types. This accident sequence is required to be analyzed in the Finnish safety guide YVL 2.2 which deals with transient and accident analyses as a basis of technical solutions at nuclear powr plants. Two different analysis methods, MAAP 3.0 and MARCH 3/STCP have been used for receiving as complete a picture as possible of the flow of events and for verifying the models to some extent. Besides the use of the two different models, the method of sensitivity analysis has been used for evaluating the effects of some important technical parameters on the accident flow. Finally, conclusions of the applicability of the two methods for analyzing severe accident sequences in Finnish plants have been discussed

  1. The Finnish multisource national forest inventory: small-area estimation and map production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    A driving force motivating development of the multisource national forest inventory (MS-NFI) in connection with the Finnish national forest inventory (NFI) was the desire to obtain forest resource information for smaller areas than is possible using field data only without significantly increasing the cost of the inventory. A basic requirement for the method was that...

  2. Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäki, K.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations. The influence of time-dependent fixed effects in the model when estimating the genetic trends was also studied. Official hip and elbow dysplasia screening

  3. Multilayered Word Structure Model for Assessing Spelling of Finnish Children in Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulju, Pirjo; Mäkinen, Marita

    2017-01-01

    This study explores Finnish children's word-level spelling by applying a linguistically based multilayered word structure model for assessing spelling performance. The model contributes to the analytical qualitative assessment approach in order to identify children's spelling performance for enhancing writing skills. The children (N = 105)…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  5. High Performance Education Fails in Sustainability?--A Reflection on Finnish Primary Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Lili-Ann; Sjöblom, Pia; Hofman-Bergholm, Maria; Palmberg, Irmeli

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability is internationally often emphasized as an essential aim of higher education, but more as a principle than on the practical level. This is also obvious in the academic education of primary teachers in Finland. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Finnish teachers to include sustainability in their teaching and everyday life in…

  6. Finnish Mentor Mathematics Teachers' Views of the Teacher Knowledge Required for Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…

  7. Secular Ethics Education as an Alternative to Religious Education--Finnish Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliacus, Harriet; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a Finnish perspective to international discussions on religious and worldviews education through the subject of secular ethics. This subject has been offered in Finland since 1985 throughout comprehensive schools and is primarily directed at students who are non-affiliated. Secular ethics education has scarcely been researched…

  8. The key elements for genetic response in Finnish dairy cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Juga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some key elements of Finnish animal breeding research contributing to the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme and discusses the possibilities and problems in collecting data for genetic evaluation, prediction of breeding values both within and across countries, estimation of the economic value of important traits, and selection of bulls and cows. Economic values are calculated for fertility, udder health and production traits when one genetic standard deviation unit (gen. sd. is changed in each trait independently and the financial returns from selection response in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme are estimated. The following components were used to calculate the economic value of mastitis treatments: 1 cost of mastitis including discarded milk and treatment costs, 2 reduction in milk price due to higher somatic cell count, 3 replacement costs and 4 lower production level of the herd due to involuntary culling of cows because of udder problems. A high somatic cell count lowers the price of milk and eventually leads to involuntary culling. For treatments for fertility disorders the following costs were included: 1 treatment costs 2 higher replacement costs and 3 decreased milk production in the herd. Days open included the following costs: 1 extra insemination, 2 reduced annual milk yield and 3 fewer calves born. Animal breeding was found to be a very cost effective investment, yielding returns of FIM 876.9 per cow from one round of selection when the gene flow was followed for over 25 years in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme.

  9. A Postcolonial Discourse Analysis of Finnish School Textbooks: Learning about the World from a Tourist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikander, Pia; Zilliacus, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we ask how Finnish basic education school textbooks in social science portray tourism and countries with a big tourism sector. We have analyzed the textbook quotes from a postcolonial perspective, using discourse theory analysis. The idea is to challenge what is considered objective information about tourist locations in school…

  10. Students' Views on Thesis Supervision in International Master's Degree Programmes in Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Kalypso; Kallo, Johanna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs an intercultural perspective to examine students' views on master's thesis supervision and the roles and responsibilities of supervisors and students. The 302 respondents who answered the online questionnaire were enrolled in international master's degree programmes in four Finnish universities. The study revealed asymmetric…

  11. Regulated and Liberated Bodies of Schoolgirls in a Finnish Short Film from the 1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Marjo

    2018-01-01

    This article focuses on the bodies of schoolgirls as visualised and represented in a short film of Finnish secondary schools for girls in the 1950s. The film, "Oma tyttökouluni" ("My Own Girls' School") was released in 1957 and was screened in cinemas in advance of feature films. Although the short film was made in a…

  12. Computer-Based Molecular Modelling: Finnish School Teachers' Experiences and Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksela, Maija; Lundell, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Modern computer-based molecular modelling opens up new possibilities for chemistry teaching at different levels. This article presents a case study seeking insight into Finnish school teachers' use of computer-based molecular modelling in teaching chemistry, into the different working and teaching methods used, and their opinions about necessary…

  13. Towards ICT in Everyday Life in Finnish Schools: Seeking Conditions for Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Hannele; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Vahtivuori-Hanninen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses how to strengthen educational use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Finnish schools. The conceptions and experiences of the successful integration of ICT in everyday school settings are reported. Participant observations in 20 schools in different parts of Finland were carried out, including discussions…

  14. Exploring the Moral and Distributive Levers for Teacher Empowerment in the Finnish Policy Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok; Hjertø, Kjell Brynjulf; Tihveräinen, Saku Petteri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between school leadership practices and teacher empowerment in the Finnish policy culture. Specifically, moral leadership and distributed leadership enacted by school principals are tested in a simultaneous design as predictor to two distinct yet related aspects of teachers' sense…

  15. National Assessment Meets Teacher Autonomy: National Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Music in Finnish Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, teachers' have extensive autonomy, that is freedom from control by others over their professional actions in the classroom, and it is considered a strength of Finnish education. At the same time, national assessment of learning outcomes has been constructed to examine the learner's progress and achievements in relation to the criteria…

  16. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  17. School-External Factors in Finnish Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Sophie; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the English language competence of Finnish bilingual pupils and school-external factors such as parental expectations, home involvement, and exposure to English outside the classroom. Data on the pupils' language competence was collected from n?=?122 6th graders in bilingual education, and compared…

  18. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  19. Biodiversity in Finnish wilderness areas: Historical and cultural constraints to preserve species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna-Liisa Sippola

    2002-01-01

    The present status of species and habitats in Finnish wilderness areas is largely a consequence of past administrative, use, and management traditions in northern Finland. The existing wilderness legislation sets a framework for management, but historical uses and administrative decisions have influenced many prevailing practices. In addition, management of many uses...

  20. Tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use among Finnish adolescent twins: causal relationship or correlated liabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Levälahti, E.; Korhonen, T.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Among Finnish adolescent twins, we compared (a) a model that describes a direct impact of liability to tobacco use on cannabis and other illicit drug use with (b) a model that included a shared underlying liability for these substances. Furthermore, the extent to which genetic and

  1. Methylobacterium sp. isolated from a Finnish paper machine produces highly pyruvated galactan exopolysaccharide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, R.P.; Waard, de P.; Schols, H.A.; Siika-aho, M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The slime-forming bacterium Methylobacterium sp. was isolated from a Finnish paper machine and its exopolysaccharide (EPS) was produced on laboratory scale. Sugar compositional analysis revealed a 100% galactan (EPS). However, FT-IR showed a very strong peak at 1611 cm-1 showing the presence of

  2. Identities of Special Needs Education in the Discourse of Finnish Professors of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehkakoski, Tanja; Sume, Helena; Puro, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This article examines both the discourses upon which Finnish special needs education professors draw when speaking about their field, and the consequent identities for it. The research material consists of theme interviews with 10 professors of special needs education and is analysed from a socio-constructionist, discourse analytical perspective.…

  3. The Influence of Performance-Based Management on Teaching and Research Performance of Finnish Senior Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, Jussi; Pekkola, Elias; Lyytinen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of performance-based management in higher education, empirical research on its actual impact has remained scarce, particularly in Europe. With agency theory as a framework, our study utilised survey data collected from Finnish universities in order to explore the influence of performance management on perceived teaching…

  4. Finnish Media Literacy Education Policies and Best Practices in Early Childhood Education and Care since 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…

  5. Mapping of fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire by genome-wide association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulmann, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Iso-Touru, T

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome scan using single marker association was used to detect chromosome regions associated with seven female fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle. The phenotypic data consisted of de-regressed estimated breeding values for 340 bulls which were estimated using a single trait...

  6. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  7. The Influences of an Exemplary Ballet Teacher on Students' Motivation: "The Finnish Way"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Joey

    2017-01-01

    This ethnographic case story aims to illuminate the instructional practices and decisions of an exemplary ballet teacher, Minna Stenvall at the Finnish National Opera Ballet School. Minna is considered to be exemplary in her field because she received the Best Ballet Pedagogue Award in 2014. Spurred on by the literature on the significant role…

  8. Factors effecting Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure ratings:an empirical study of Finnish listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Roitto, A. (Artturi)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure is becoming more common practise amongst companies, it is valuable to understand the underlying factors involved. The Goal of this thesis is to examine if the factors suggested by previous studies seem to have significance in a Finnish sample composed of 31 listed companies. As an ancillary research question linkage between Corporate Governance recommendation devi...

  9. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  10. Implementing the Finnish Literacy Curriculum in a First-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the first author's process of implementing new literacy practices as a teacher in a Finnish first-grade classroom from a poststructuralist perspective by using nexus analysis (NA). We concentrated on two essential concepts in NA, Bourdieu's habitus and Goffman's interaction order, which we linked to Grundy's curriculum…

  11. University Applicants' Critical Thinking Skills: The Case of the Finnish Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Jukka; Marttunen, Miika; Kallio, Eeva; Tynjälä, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the quality of the critical thinking skills of applicants (n = 77) seeking entry to the faculty of educational sciences in a Finnish university and how these skills are associated with the applicant's age, previous higher education experience, and matriculation and entrance examination scores. The data consist of the…

  12. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  13. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  14. Analysis of the Development of Academic Writing in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Janhonen, Sirpa; Tuomi, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the genre of the reviewed scientific articles published in the "FJNSc" ("Finnish Journal of Nursing Science") during its history. The aim was to bring a critical approach to writing in nursing science and to discuss the dominant conventions of scientific writing in nursing. A total of 27…

  15. Geography in the Finnish School Curriculum: Part of the "Success Story"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the status of geography education in the Finnish national curricula from the 1970s until today. Conceptions of teaching, learning and change in society are traced through curriculum texts; in addition, the ways in which these are applied in the subject-specified aims and content of the geography curriculum are explored.…

  16. From Canon to Chaos Management: Blogging as a Learning Tool in a Modern Finnish Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Elina; Vaarala, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the teaching experiment implemented in summer 2013 in a modern Finnish literature course organised by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO) and the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre. In order to break away from the traditional conception of literature and text, students' independent blogging was chosen as the…

  17. Hybridisation or Ousterisation? The Case of Local Accountability Policy in Finnish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Maiju; Lipponen, Lasse; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analytic concept of imaginary, this study investigates policy hybridisation in the Finnish early childhood education. Specifically, it illuminates how the interplay between different imaginaries enabled the neoliberal imaginary to oust the social-democratic imaginary through a tripartite process in a case of local productivity…

  18. SAFIR2014. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2011-2014. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [ed.

    2013-02-15

    The Finnish Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research Programme 2011-2014, SAFIR2014, is a 4-year publicly funded national technical and scientific research programme on the safety of nuclear power plants. The programme is funded by the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR), as well as other key organisations operating in the area of nuclear energy. The programme provides the necessary conditions for retaining knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe use of nuclear power, for developing new know-how and for participation in international co-operation. The SAFIR2014 Steering Group, responsible of the strategic alignements of the programme, consists of representatives of the Finnish Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum), Fennovoima Oy, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Aalto University (Aalto), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (TTL) and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The research programme is divided into nine areas: Man, organisation and society, Automation and control room, Fuel research and reactor analysis, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuits, Construction safety, Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), and Development of research infrastructure. A reference group is assigned to each of these areas to respond for the strategic planning and to supervise the projects in its respective field. Research projects are selected annually based on a public call for proposals. Most of the projects are planned for the entire duration of the programme, but there can also be shorter one- or two-year projects. The annual volume of the SAFIR2014 programme in 2011-2012 has been 9,5-9,9 M euro. Main funding organisations were the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR) with over 5 M euro and

  19. SAFIR2014. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2011-2014. Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    2013-02-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Power Plant Safety Research Programme 2011-2014, SAFIR2014, is a 4-year publicly funded national technical and scientific research programme on the safety of nuclear power plants. The programme is funded by the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR), as well as other key organisations operating in the area of nuclear energy. The programme provides the necessary conditions for retaining knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe use of nuclear power, for developing new know-how and for participation in international co-operation. The SAFIR2014 Steering Group, responsible of the strategic alignements of the programme, consists of representatives of the Finnish Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum), Fennovoima Oy, Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT), Aalto University (Aalto), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (TTL) and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). The research programme is divided into nine areas: Man, organisation and society, Automation and control room, Fuel research and reactor analysis, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuits, Construction safety, Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), and Development of research infrastructure. A reference group is assigned to each of these areas to respond for the strategic planning and to supervise the projects in its respective field. Research projects are selected annually based on a public call for proposals. Most of the projects are planned for the entire duration of the programme, but there can also be shorter one- or two-year projects. The annual volume of the SAFIR2014 programme in 2011-2012 has been 9,5-9,9 M euro. Main funding organisations were the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund (VYR) with over 5 M euro and

  20. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  1. Finnish Archaeologists’ Contacts with the Baltic Countries during the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Salminen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finnish archaeologists, especially Aarne Michaël Tallgren, had established contacts with their colleagues in the Baltic countries before the Second World War. In the summer of 1939, the world situation became a dominant theme in letters between archaeologists. The outbreak of war in Europe and the military base negotiations in Moscow evoked increasing concern. After the Soviet attack on Finland, only a few Finnish and Baltic archaeologists stayed in contact, but communications revived quickly after the Finnish-Soviet peace treaty of 1940. Estonian archaeologist Harri Moora saw the trials of war as a punishment for forgetting all spiritual values in previous years. The Soviet occupation of the Baltic countries in 1940 broke all contacts for longer than a year. After Germany had occupied the Baltic countries in 1941 and was allied with Finland in war against the Soviet Union, connections could be resumed to some extent. Tallgren, together with the Swedish State Antiquarian Sigurd Curman, now started planning the evacuation of children from Estonia to Sweden. In 1942, scholarly discussion returned to the correspondence, although only on a practical level, but already in early 1943 all correspondence became impossible. At the same time, Finnish archaeologists were in contact with Baltic refugees, especially Francis Balodis from Latvia. There were also Scandinavian and British archaeologists with whom Finnish researchers exchanged information about colleagues in the Baltic countries. The communications mainly focused on three things: getting and spreading information regarding the current situation, offering both practical help and psychological support to colleagues in the Baltic countries, and attempting to re-establish the exchange of ideas within the scholarly community.

  2. The SKVR Database of Ancient Poems of the Finnish People in Kalevala Meter and the Semantic Kalevala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Harvilahti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the principal aims of establishing a web-based infrastructure for epic research and demonstrates possibilities for using this infrastructure for textual research on epics. The web infrastructure discussed here has developed out of the Finnish Literature Society’s pioneering open-access digitized edition of Kalevala-meter poetry Suomen Kansan Vanhat Runot (“The Ancient Poems of the Finnish People”; 34 volumes, SKVR and the Semantic Kalevala, an electronic indexing of the Finnish national epic Kalevala that uses the Culture Sampo web portal.

  3. Applying a synthetic approach to the resilience of Finnish reindeer herding as a changing livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Sarkki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding is an emblematic livelihood for Northern Finland, culturally important for local people and valuable in tourism marketing. We examine the livelihood resilience of Finnish reindeer herding by narrowing the focus of general resilience on social-ecological systems (SESs to a specific livelihood while also acknowledging wider contexts in which reindeer herding is embedded. The questions for specified resilience can be combined with the applied DPSIR approach (Drivers; Pressures: resilience to what; State: resilience of what; Impacts: resilience for whom; Responses: resilience by whom and how. This paper is based on a synthesis of the authors' extensive anthropological fieldwork on reindeer herding and other land uses in Northern Finland. Our objective is to synthesize various opportunities and challenges that underpin the resilience of reindeer herding as a viable livelihood. The DPSIR approach, applied here as a three step procedure, helps focus the analysis on different components of SES and their dynamic interactions. First, various land use-related DPSIR factors and their relations (synergies and trade-offs to reindeer herding are mapped. Second, detailed DPSIR factors underpinning the resilience of reindeer herding are identified. Third, examples of interrelations between DPSIR factors are explored, revealing the key dynamics between Pressures, State, Impacts, and Responses related to the livelihood resilience of reindeer herding. In the Discussion section, we recommend that future applications of the DPSIR approach in examining livelihood resilience should (1 address cumulative pressures, (2 consider the state dimension as more tuned toward the social side of SES, (3 assess both the negative and positive impacts of environmental change on the examined livelihood by a combination of science led top-down and participatory bottom-up approaches, and (4 examine and propose governance solutions as well as local adaptations by

  4. RETU The Finnish research programme on reactor safety 1995-1998. Final Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanttola, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Reactor Safety (RETU, 1995-1998) research programme concentrated on search of safe limits for nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of nuclear power plants. The total volume of the programme was 100 person years and funding FIM 58 million. This symposium report summarises the research fields, the objectives and the main results obtained. In the field of operational margins of a nuclear reactor, the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel was studied both in normal operation and during power transients. The static and dynamic reactor analysis codes were developed and validated to cope with new fuel designs and complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients. Advanced flow models and numerical solution methods for the dynamics codes were developed and tested. Research on accident management developed and validated calculation methods needed to plan preventive measures and to train the personnel to severe accident mitigation. Efforts were made to reduce uncertainties in phenomena important in severe accidents and to study actions planned for accident management. The programme included experimental work, but also participation in large international tests. The Finnish thermal-hydraulic test facility PACTEL was used extensively for the evaluation of the VVER-440 plant accident behaviour, for the validation of the accident analysis computer codes and for the testing of passive safety system concepts for future plant designs. In risk management probabilistic methods were developed for safety related decision making and for complex event sequences. Effects of maintenance on safety were studied and effective methods for assessment of human reliability and safety critical organisations were searched. To enhance human competencies in control of complex environments, practical tools for training and continuous learning were worked out, and methods to evaluate appropriateness of control room design were developed. (orig)

  5. Systematic analysis of dependent human errors from the maintenance history at finnish NPPs - A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    Operating experience has shown missed detection events, where faults have passed inspections and functional tests to operating periods after the maintenance activities during the outage. The causes of these failures have often been complex event sequences, involving human and organisational factors. Especially common cause and other dependent failures of safety systems may significantly contribute to the reactor core damage risk. The topic has been addressed in the Finnish studies of human common cause failures, where experiences on latent human errors have been searched and analysed in detail from the maintenance history. The review of the bulk of the analysis results of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa plant sites shows that the instrumentation and control and electrical equipment is more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance and that plant modifications and also predetermined preventive maintenance are significant sources of common cause failures. Most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage period at the both sites, and less than half of the dependent errors were identified during the same outage. The dependent human errors originating from modifications could be reduced by a more tailored specification and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by a more case specific planning of the installation inspection and functional testing of complicated maintenance works or work objects of higher plant safety and availability importance. A better use and analysis of condition monitoring information for maintenance steering could also help. The feedback from discussions of the analysis results with plant experts and professionals is still crucial in developing the final conclusions and recommendations that meet the specific development needs at the plants. (au)

  6. Health in All Policies: From rhetoric to implementation and evaluation - the Finnish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Timo

    2018-02-01

    The principles of the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach are not new. Their international roots can be traced back to 1978 and the Alma-Ata Declaration and the 1986 Ottawa Charter. In Finland, the roots of HiAP go back to 1972 when the Economic Council of Finland, chaired by the Prime Minister, launched the 'Report of the working group exploring the goals of health'. The paper discusses the history, rationale, and implementation of the principles underlying the umbrella concept of HiAP. A rationale for implementing a new concept - HiAP in 2006 during the Finnish European Union presidency - is given. The focus here will be on implementation of HiAP. International material supporting the implementation is introduced and practical examples from Finland presented. The Benchmarking System for Health Promotion Capacity Building is introduced, since it has been used as a primary source of information for monitoring and evaluating HiAP in Finland at the local level. The experience from Finland clearly indicates that HiAP as an approach and as a way of working requires long-term commitment and vision. For working across sectors it is crucial to have data on health and health determinants and analyses of the links between health outcomes, health determinants, and policies across sectors and levels of governance. Intersectoral structures, processes, and tools for the identification of problems and solutions, decisions, and implementation across sectors are prerequisites of HiAP. Legislative backing has proven to be useful, especially in providing continuation and sustainability.

  7. Environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool; Uimahallin ympaeristoekuormitukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaahterus, T.; Saari, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this study the environmental burdens of a Finnish indoor swimming pool generated by its energy consumption were calculated. The calculations were made by using a calculation method based on LCA methodology. Calculations were made of 50 years period. The energy consumption dating from the time of the indoor swimming pool causes towards the gross-floor area a nearly four times bigger environmental load than for example a block of flats and indoor ice- skating rink. On a block of flats and indoor ice-skating rink the energy consumption dating from the time of the use causes more than 90 % of the environmental burdens of the whole life span. One can suppose that at the indoor swimming pool the share of the energy consumption dating from the time of the use only is emphasized. In this study confine therefore to dealing with the environmental loads caused only by the energy consumption dating from the time of the use. The results of these calculations showed that the energy flow of the life cycle energy consumption was 193 000 MJ/brm{sup 2}. 11,2 ton per gross-floor area CO{sub 2} equivalents, 21 kg per gross-floor area SO{sub 2} equivalents and 290 g per gross-floor area ethene equivalents of environmental burdens were caused. The main factor causing the most environmental loads were the need of heating energy. The need of heating energy produced 75 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 70 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 59 % of the ethene equivalents. The need of the electric energy produced 23 % of the CO{sub 2} equivalents, 23 % of the SO{sub 2} equivalents and 17 % of the ethene equivalents. Of the heating energy the share of the warming of water was 56 %. The most significant part of the electric energy were consumed in the use of the sauna stoves and vapor sauna (31 %) and heating pumps and water elements (30 %). Almost all (87 %) of the energy, consumed during the life cycle, was produced with non-renewable energy sources. The source information of the energy was

  8. Decadence in the Wilderness. Will to Transgression or the Strange Bird of Finnish Decadence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Lyytikäinen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The decadence that the Decadents identified in their own civilization was recognized through the model of Roman Empire, although they thought that the Romans were, even in their decadence, much more vigorous than the modern "cerebral" decadents. The figures of the late Empire, which fused the over-ripeness of culture with barbarism, were great even in their decline; the ancient uninhibited transgressions and vices fascinated the decadents although even the imagined debaucheries exhausted the modern decadents. Des Esseintes is, of course, a paradigmatic figure, connecting extreme weakness and fragility of the nervous system with wild sadistic dreams. He is capable of producing vigorous mental images, imagining sublimely horrible figures and emblems of disease, which fell on a fertile ground in later decadent writings. At the same time, the idea of the savage and the primitive which had underwent a radical change, when the romantic idea of the noble savage was replaced by the primitive as the lowest order of humanity, became fashionable even among many Decadents. This debauched barbarian or savage (whose representatives or relics the survived "primitive cultures" were marked the beginnings of human culture and was the suppressed foundation of all developed cultures. The danger of the return of this primitive side of man could threaten even the most civilized individuals or nations if the ties and restraints of culture were loosened (Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness represents this perfectly.  For the decadents, who did not see their own civilization in the terms of progress any more, and embraced ideas of entropy, dissolution and return to a state of new barbarism, the idea of the decline of their culture, thus, could become connected with the idea of the primitive "in us", the primitive lurking in the psyche of every individual and the primitive that was built in the culture itself. As the primitive became, increasingly, identified not only

  9. Establishing a culturally specific nursing home for Finnish-speaking older persons in Sweden: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2018-04-01

    The study aims to describe the establishment of a culturally specific nursing home for Finnish-speaking older persons in Sweden. A descriptive qualitative study. A descriptive case study based on a review of 14 public documents and individual interviews with two experts in the area, analysed with qualitative content analysis. This study found that shared language, preservation of customs and habits and collaboration between the representatives of the municipality, Finnish-speaking migrant associations and staff at the nursing home influenced the development of the culturally specific nursing home for older Finnish-speaking people intended to avoid loneliness, isolation and misunderstandings among older Finnish-speaking. Collaboration between healthcare service for older persons and minority people resulted in an optimal culturally specific nursing home, simultaneously encountering the majority culture. Nursing and healthcare services need to be aware of positive effects of collaboration with stakeholders to achieve optimal culturally specific nursing homes.

  10. Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards. Annual report 1993; Suomen tukiohjelma IAEA:n safeguards-valvonnalle. Vuoden 1993 toimintakertomus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, M [ed.

    1994-03-01

    Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out through separate tasks related to development of non-destructive measurement methods (NDA methods) for verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to a Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English. (editor).

  11. Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards. Annual report 1992; Suomen tukiohjelma IAEA:n safeguards-valvonnalle. Vuoden 1992 toimintakertomus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, M [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out through separate tasks related to development of non-destructive measurement methods (NDA methods) for verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to a Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English. (editor).

  12. Late-life functional capacity and health among Finnish war veterans:Veteran Project 1992 and 2004 surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, R. (Riitta)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Becoming involved in war is an experience that has the potential to shape later-life health. The aim of the present study was to explore Finnish Second World War veterans’ health status and the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) and functional capacity, especially the ability to walk, and to identify risk factors and their combinations that predict late-life mortality among veterans. The study population comprised Finnish Second World War veterans who participated in the ...

  13. Transnational sense of place: cinematic scenes of Finnish war child memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Kuusisto-Arponen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the role of popular geopolitics and people's performative repertoires in voicing the social silence. I have selected for close-reading some of the episodes of the film Mother of Mine, which tells the story of a Finnish war child. In my analysis I ask what the transnational memory sites of forced displacement are, how they are depicted, and in general what kind of socio-spatial identity struggles they are involved in. Moreover, in this article I argue that the many forms through which silence becomes expressive need to be studied on the scale of the body and daily performative practices. Thus, I conclude that through several daily practices the Finnish war children unconsciously developed transnational agencies in order to survive and re-create the existential social and spatial ties of belonging.

  14. Glocal Religion and Feeling at Home: Ethnography of Artistry in Finnish Orthodox Liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tiaynen-Qadir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adapts a glocalization framework in a transnational, anthropological exploration of liturgy in the Orthodox Church of Finland (OCF. It draws on long-term ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with participants of liturgy from Finnish, Russian, and Greek cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The main argument of the paper is that generic processes of nationalization and transnationalization are not mutually exclusive in practitioners’ experiences of liturgy in OCF, but rather generate a glocal space that incorporates Finnish, Russian, Karelian, and Byzantine elements. Individuals artistically engage with glocal liturgy on sensorial, cognitive, social, and semantic levels. What is important for the participants is a therapeutic sense that comes from a feeling of ‘being at home’, metaphorically, spiritually, and literally. People’s ongoing, creative work constitutes Orthodoxy as their national and transnational home.

  15. Intersectionality in Finnish adult education research: insights from the journal Aikuiskasvatus 2010-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seija Keskitalo-Foley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies intersectionality in Finnish research on adult education. Specifically, we investigate the kinds of discussions on differences and their relations that are going on in such research. To this end we seek to identify intersectional approaches in the articles published in the journal Aikuiskasvatus between 2010 and 2016, a period marked by an increase in multiculturalism and social division as well as in gendered and sexual diversity in Finnish society. We understand intersectional differences as performative processes, not stable essences. Our study indicates that only few articles analysed intersectional differences explicitly. Implicitly recognised differences were mostly seen as givens. Categories such as ethnicity and race were found to be lacking in the data, but age, gender, social class, education, occupation and learning difficulties were discussed.

  16. Cleanup techniques for Finnish urban environments and external doses from 137Cs - modelling and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moring, M.; Markkula, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    The external doses under various radioactive deposition conditions are assessed and the efficiencies of some simple decontamination techniques (grass cutting, vacuum sweeping, hosing of paved surfaces and roofs, and felling trees) are compared in the study. The present model has been constructed for the Finnish conditions and housing areas, using 137 Cs transfer data from the Nordic and Central European studies and models. The compartment model concerns behaviour and decontamination of 137 Cs in the urban environment under summer conditions. Doses to man have been calculated for wet (light rain) and dry deposition in four typical Finnish building areas: single-family wooden houses, brick terraced-houses, blocks of flats and urban office buildings. (26 refs.)

  17. Evaluation of current care effectiveness: a survey of hypertension guideline implementation in Finnish health centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanen, Seija I; Johannala-Kemppainen, Riitta; Ijäs, Jarja J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent and style of implementation of the Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in Finnish primary health centres, and to identify a scale of contrasting implementation styles in the health centres (with the two ends of the scale being referred to as information...... implementers or disseminators respectively). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. Development of a questionnaire and criteria for assessing the extent and style of implementation of the HT Guideline. SETTING: Primary healthcare. SUBJECTS: All head physicians and senior nursing officers in Finnish health centres (n...... =290). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The extent of adoption of the HT Guideline in health centres and the characteristics associated with the implementation style. RESULTS: Responses were received from 410 senior medical staff (246 senior nursing officers and 164 head physicians) representing altogether 264...

  18. Assessment of reliability and maintenance of motor operated valves at Finnish NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Haenninen, S.; Simola, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes two studies on motor operated valve (MOV) failure and maintenance experiences in Finnish nuclear power plants. In the first study, described in section 2 of this paper, the failure reports of MOVs at Finnish BWR units from a nine years' time period were analyzed in a systematic way. The dominant failure mechanisms were identified and time-dependencies in failure occurrence were studied. This study initiated an experience based reliability centered maintenance (RCM) analysis of motor operated valve drives, which is summarized in chapter 3 of this paper. The RCM analysis resulted in the identification and proposal of the most suitable and effective maintenance tasks for consideration. 9 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Attitudes toward guidelines in Finnish primary care nursing: a questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seija, Alanen; Kaila, Minna; Välimäki, Marita

    2009-01-01

    to be shaped by perceptions of others, which makes the role of organizational implementation interventions interesting. AIMS: This article describes primary care nurses' attitudes toward guidelines among Finnish primary care nurses and the associations between attitudes, implementation interventions...... more positively and that guidelines were more easily available. Further, nurses who were familiar or very familiar with the guidelines had more positive attitudes toward them. Attitudes were also associated with self-reported guideline use. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based guidelines were accepted...... as a reliable source of advice in patient care in Finnish primary care. It seems that implementation interventions improve attitudes toward guidelines and enhance guideline use. These interventions might also be important from another point of view; they presumably improve familiarity with guidelines, which...

  20. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  1. Twin study of heritability of eating bread in Danish and Finnish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu

    2010-01-01

    Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...

  2. Discursive turns from 'Bildung' to managerialism: Memory-work of the Finnish adult education generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Filander

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the struggles over ethos in academic adult education tradition that grows from the frameworks of student generations in Finnish adult education. It brings together elements of present-day analysis and historically sensitizing memory data on generations of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. My interest here lies in how the rhetoric of lifelong learning and education has revised the basic assumptions of adult education. The data suggest that the dominant narrative of adult education is increasingly the discourse of marketization. Finnish present-day student generations seem to have lost their intrinsic connections with the Scandinavian traditions of popular enlightenment and the values of equality and basic logics enabling 'second chances' for all adult citizens within the Nordic welfare state. One of the results of the analysis was the following question: Should we reinvent adult education again from the standpoint of sustainable development of 'ordinary people'?

  3. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.-L.; Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1989-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes for monitoring radioactive contamination around Finnish nuclear power plants in 1987 are reported. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident, which took place in April 1986, was still dominating the artificial radiation situation in Finland. Thus, large amounts of 137 Cs and other long-lived fallout nuclides predominated in the environmental samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The extremely small airborne releases from Finnish nuclear power plants were almost totally covered by fallout nuclides. The somewhat higher aquatic releases were easier to distinguish, and it was possible to follow their spread in the marine environment. The contribution of locally discharged nuclides to radiation doses of the population was insignificant

  4. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  5. Openness and Continuous Collaboration as the Foundation for Entrepreneurial Discovery Process in Finnish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona ROMAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial discovery process (EDP is a bottom-up process engaging regional actors from academic, business, government and civil society together to identify new market opportunities and overcome the potential barriers to innovation. While EDP forms the key principle behind the smart specialization policy of European Commission, its operationalization has remained a challenge. We adopted a grounded theory approach to explore the dynamics of EDP through a case study in Finnish regions. Our aim is to identify the key underlying factors of EDP. Based on the semi-structured interviews with 10 Finnish regions during September 2016, we identified openness, engaging, focused networking and continuous collaboration as the key factors underlying EDP. Our findings contribute to the theoretical debate on what constitutes EDP in the context of smart specialization. We also provide examples for policymakers how to implement these factors based on our case study.

  6. Progressive thalamocortical neuron loss in Cln5 deficient mice: Distinct effects in Finnish variant late infantile NCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Carina; Kielar, Catherine; Hansen, Stine N; Pontikis, Charlie C; Alexander, Noreen A; Kopra, Outi; Jalanko, Anu; Cooper, Jonathan D

    2009-05-01

    Finnish variant LINCL (vLINCL(Fin)) is the result of mutations in the CLN5 gene. To gain insights into the pathological staging of this fatal pediatric disorder, we have undertaken a stereological analysis of the CNS of Cln5 deficient mice (Cln5-/-) at different stages of disease progression. Consistent with human vLINCL(Fin), these Cln5-/- mice displayed a relatively late onset regional atrophy and generalized cortical thinning and synaptic pathology, preceded by early and localized glial responses within the thalamocortical system. However, in marked contrast to other forms of NCL, neuron loss in Cln5-/- mice began in the cortex and only subsequently occurred within thalamic relay nuclei. Nevertheless, as in other NCL mouse models, this progressive thalamocortical neuron loss was still most pronounced within the visual system. These data provide unexpected evidence for a distinctive sequence of neuron loss in the thalamocortical system of Cln5-/- mice, diametrically opposed to that seen in other forms of NCL.

  7. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  8. Attributions by Team Members for Team Outcomes in Finnish Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Valo, Maarit; Hurme, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on teamwork in Finnish working life. Through a wide cross-section of teams the study examines the causes to which team members attribute the outcomes of their teams. Qualitative data was collected from 314 respondents. They wrote 616 stories to describe memorable experiences of success and failure in teamwork. The stories revealed 1930 explanations. The findings indicate that both favorable and unfavorable team outcomes are perceived as being caused by ...

  9. The Journalists as a Brand: a comparative study between Finnish and Portuguese journalists

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Maarit Anneli Rasi

    2015-01-01

    This work explores has personal branding started to be part of journalists profession. In a time when journalism is said to be in crises because of globalization, reductions in media houses and European economic crisis the topic of this survey is important."The Journalist as a Brand" inquiry was sent to 60 journalists from Finland and Portugal in spring 2015. The comparative inquiry explored the differences in journalists attitudes toward personal branding among Finnish and Portuguese journal...

  10. Marketing the Eco-Efficiency of a Finnish Product in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarova, Asiia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitatitive research was to find the way for a Finnish company to market the eco-efficient characteristics as an advantage of their products and bring the message effectively to their consumers in Russia. The core objective was to create a strategic marketing plan; the goal was to work out an efficient strategy, practical marketing steps and effective solutions. The first theory part focused on the comparison of general eco-awareness in Europe and Russia. The part rev...

  11. Ladies in armour : a phenomenological investigation of experiences of highly skilled Finnish female kendo athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dekšnytė, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Women in sports have historically been marginalised. Feminist studies have revealed a struggle to balance athletic and feminine identities in “conventionally masculine” sports. However, there is a need to explore women's experiences in a variety of sports. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore the experiences of three highly skilled Finnish female athletes of Japanese kendo in order to better understand personal and social meanings of gender and sport. Participants were...

  12. Trust in Management under Post-bureaucratic Conditions: The Case of Finnish Civil Servants

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakko Koivumäki; Pasi Pyöriä

    2013-01-01

    The Finnish state administration has recently undergone a wave of reforms towards decentralized decision-making and increased flexibility in organizing work. Traditional bureaucracy, however, has its virtues. Based on a survey and qualitative interview material, the results presented in this paper indicate that many characteristics of bureaucracy, such as well-defined work roles and hierarchical control, facilitate trust among employees. In contrast, the current post-bureaucratic model of org...

  13. Finnish Students’ Adoption of Smartphones and Tablets to Study Programming Online Using Technology Acceptance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Thien, An

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets has been applied into diverse domains. In the fast pace of technology, smartphones and tablets are supposed to be efficient tools for education, typical online learning or learning from the distance via the Internet. There is few re-search that investigates the factors affecting the use of smartphones and tablets by Finnish students for their online learning in programming. The conceptual framework of the research was adapted from the ...

  14. Content of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in muscle, liver and kidney of Finnish cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabel-Taucher, R; Nurmi, E; Karppanen, E

    1975-01-01

    A total of 120 normal slaughter cows were analyzed with respect to Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg in muscle, liver and kidneys. The cows originated from 6 different slaughter-houses throughout the country. Imported cow livers, were also analyzed for comparison with the Finnish material. The Cu content in the Finnish animals turned out to be relatively low. The imported samples had even lower contents. There seemed to be no correlation between the Cu contents in muscle, liver and kidneys. Statistical tests established that the mean Cu content in livers from Oulu was significantly higher than most of the others at the 5% level. The Zn determinations revealed the highest amounts in the muscle. No correlation between the contents in muscle, liver and kidneys was shown. The animals from Seinaejoki had the highest Zn contents, significantly different from most of the others. The imported livers did not differ much from the domestic ones with regards to the Zn content. The same was true for the Pb content. The correlation coefficients of Pb in muscles, liver and kidneys were low. The animals from Kouvola contained the highest amounts of Pb, and the mean Pb content of these animals' kidneys was significantly different from all the others. The Cd content was highest in the animals from Turku. A good correlation was observed between the Cd contents in liver and kidneys. The Cd content of the imported livers was of the same order as that of the Finnish ones. No correlation was found between the Zn, Pb and Cd contents. The amounts of Hg in Finnish cattle were very low, especially so in animals from the North of Finland. The Hg content of the imported samples was of the same order as the figures recorded from the South of Finland. 24 references, 5 tables.

  15. Challenges and success factors in pursuing disruptive innovations: A Finnish hightech start-up case study

    OpenAIRE

    Majamäki, Liisa; Akpinar, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing acknowledgment of disruptive innovations for their potential to generate high growth, their high rate of failure necessitates research on what kind of challenges start-ups pursuing disruptive innovations face and how they overcome them. This study contributes to increase understanding in this field by studying the case of a Finnish high-tech start-up’s successful new-market disruption in business-to-business context. Identifying disruptive innovations that have market poten...

  16. Reliability of diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, Urho [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Vuorimiehentie 5, SF-02150, Espoo (Finland)

    1986-02-15

    The operating experiences of 40 stand-by diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants have been analysed with special emphasis on the impact of the frequency of surveillance testing and of the test procedure on diesel generator reliability, the contribution of design, manufacturing, testing and maintenance errors and the potential and actual common cause failures, The results pf the analyses consisted both practical recommendations and mathematical reliability models and useful reliability data. (author)

  17. Attitudes towards care robots among Finnish home care personnel : a comparison of two approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Teemu; Lehto, Paula; Vuorinen, Pertti; Coco, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    Study's rationale The significance of care robotics has been highlighted in recent years. Aims and objective The article examines the adoption of care robots in home care settings, and in particular Finnish home care personnel's attitudes towards robots. The study compares the importance of the Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale advanced by Nomura and specific positive attitudes related to the usefulness of care robots for different tasks in the home care. Methodological ...

  18. Digital Marketing concept and strategy for a Finnish Start-up, Case: Sofi Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Buda, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    The case company is a Finnish start-up company that operates in the industrial water filtration business and who aims to increase its brand awareness and generate more sales leads. The aim of this study is to provide effective and inexpensive tools for Sofi Filtration to engage its target audience and grow its business by being acknowledged as an expert in industrial water filtration. The thesis is part of the International Business Management program offered by HAAGA-HELIA University of ...

  19. Environmental and legislative drivers for sustainable music festival management : why Finnish music festivals should "go green"

    OpenAIRE

    Okolo-Kulak, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate why Finnish music festivals should "go green". The research was conducted from the aspect of environmental and legal drivers for sustainability. Academic sources on event management, sustainability as well as sustainable event management (SEM) were used to collect information on the subject. Furthermore, secondary sources were used to grasp a deep understanding on the environmental issues as well as legislative drivers for sustainability. The r...

  20. Ecommerce drivers and marketing partnerships in successful export marketing of Finnish born globals

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the utilization of ecommerce and marketing partnerships as part of born global internationalization strategies. The study will combine the existing literature of born global internationalization, export marketing strategies and ecommerce as part of internationalization to form an understanding on how two Finnish health and welfare sector born globals internationalize, and how ecommerce drivers affect their internationalization. Because of the explorative nature of the stud...

  1. Paternal masculinities in early fatherhood: dominant and counter narratives by Finnish first-time fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Petteri; Mykkänen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we seek to extend understanding of the role of gender in early fatherhood by examining narratives of paternal masculinities, that is, the social and cultural constructions of gendered practices and conventions produced by men on their roles as male parents. The data comprised interviews with 44 Finnish first-time fathers (aged 20-42 years) living in a heterosexual relationship. The narrative of the “decent father,” was identified as the dominant narrative of paternal masculin...

  2. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  3. Marketing communication strategy of Finnish and Japanese mobile game developers and publishers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yi-Tung

    2017-01-01

    Both the marketing communication strategy of mobile game industry and the industry itself have been drastically evolving in the past years since the development of computation, data transfer and communication technology on mobile devices. Marketing communication has been considered a significant part in marketing strategy, but the marketing communication strategy, activity and channels were not well investigated so far. In this study, 9 SMEs Finnish and Japanese mobile game developers and pub...

  4. Trust in Management under Post-bureaucratic Conditions: The Case of Finnish Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Koivumäki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish state administration has recently undergone a wave of reforms towards decentralized decision-making and increased flexibility in organizing work. Traditional bureaucracy, however, has its virtues. Based on a survey and qualitative interview material, the results presented in this paper indicate that many characteristics of bureaucracy, such as well-defined work roles and hierarchical control, facilitate trust among employees. In contrast, the current post-bureaucratic model of organizing work may increase insecurity and decrease trust.

  5. Views on safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.

    2000-02-01

    The report presents the results of interviews about safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants. The aim is to promote the safety work and increase the debate about safety in nuclear power plants, by showing that the safety culture is an important safety factor. The interviews point out different threats, which may become real. It is therefor necessary that the safety aspects get support from of the society and the power plant owners. (EHS)

  6. Adults learning Finnish as a foreign language : role of support, emotions and reasons connected with learning

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine adults learning Finnish as a foreign language while striving to understand the reasons behind their decisions to do so, the support that was individually offered to the participants, how they felt throughout the learning process, and whether or not they found themselves to be self-reliant learners, as per Knowles’ andragogy theory. This study set out to examine adult language learners participating in the language and integration program at Pa...

  7. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lallukka Tea; Sares-Jäske Laura; Kronholm Erkki; Sääksjärvi Katri; Lundqvist Annamari; Partonen Timo; Rahkonen Ossi; Knekt Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. METHODS: We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000-2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30-79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-rel...

  8. How the Goethe-Institut Finland Promotes Its Services to Finnish University Students of German Language

    OpenAIRE

    Venho, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes how the Goethe-Institut Finnland, a nonprofit cultural German institution, promotes its services to Finnish university students of German language, by focusing on the perspectives of students in HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences. The objective of the study is to identify the degree of familiarity of the Goethe-Institut Finnland among students of German language in HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences, to recognize the demand for its services for learners...

  9. GPRsurvey as a part of land-use planning in Levi, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2010-05-01

    The need for detailed information regarding overlying soil layers in townplanning areas has become an important issue, especially in certain areas of Finnish Lapland where the lack of usable soil materials is obvious. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a fast and cost-effective method of determining the structure of subsurface layers and quantity of soil material above the bedrock surface. This environmental project was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland together with local enterprises, environmental authorities and an EU structural fund. One of the goals of the project was to use GPR to determine the thickness of soil layers and the differences in material above the bedrock level in certain target areas of the project. The study area is located in the municipality of Kittilä, in the center of the Levi ski resort. The study area (total size of 28 hectares) and surroundings are under fast townplanning and there are, for example, plans for a hotel, apartments and underground garages and service routes, thus it is very important to determine the volume of quarrying. As well, the quality and quantity of existing soil is valid data for the reuse of materials and upcoming construction. One drilling program has already been executed in the area (11 boreholes), so GPR profiles were planned based on this drilling data, soil mapping data and data collected from the townplanning map of the area. According to these earlier drillings and soil mapping, most of the soil in the study area was morainic, so the antenna for the GPR-survey was set at 100 MHz. The positioning method used in this project was VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference Station Global Positioning System), which is a very accurate positioning system to use. Accuracy can be as good as a few centimeters. After the GPR-survey, secondary drilling program was carried out according to the GPR-profiles, thus the total amount of collected data from the planning area was 23 boreholes and 3500 meters of GPR

  10. Comparison of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking among Estonian and Finnish physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Rahu, Kaja; Barengo, Noël C; Rahu, Mati; Sandström, Patrick H; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To compare smoking behaviour, attitudes and opinions towards smoking and smoking cessation among Estonian and Finnish physicians. A cross-sectional postal survey using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out among 2,480 Estonian and 2,075 Finnish physicians. Daily smoking prevalence was higher among Estonian physicians than among their Finnish counterparts in both male (18.6% and 6.7%) and female (6.6% and 3.6%). Compared to Estonia, physicians in Finland more often agreed that smoking is very harmful to their health, that trying to convince people to stop smoking is their responsibility and that smoking prevention should be part of the normal and special training of health professionals. In both countries, non-smoking physicians held more unfavourable attitudes towards smoking than those who were smoking. Physicians' own smoking patterns and quitting behaviour are important because physicians serve as models for their patients and play a key role in the reinforcement of smoke-free health facilities. These results remain a challenge to medical educators, especially in Estonia. Estonia needs to improve medical education in terms of motivating physicians to ask about the smoking patterns of their patients and of training medical students and resident physicians to counsel their patients to stop smoking.

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd, quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaeae, T [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and for TVO II`s brief outage to repair a failed component, Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all plant units was 90.4 %. Events in this quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  12. The Finnish power market: Are imports from Russia low-cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Camila; Gore, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Electricity market integration of high- and low-price areas is expected to bring benefits to the consumers in a high-price area. However, these potential benefits are highly dependent on the market characteristics and the policy interventions. We use simulation to study the effects of different alternatives for the expansion and operation of the interconnector Finland–Russia on the Finnish market (a high-price area). Our results show that the current trading arrangement, where a single trader owns the transmission rights, and limits the trade during peak hours to avoid capacity charges in Russia, is beneficial for Finland at the current interconnection capacity. However, if the interconnector is expanded, the behaviour of the trader would create significant distortions in the Finnish market. We also analyse the pros and cons of maintaining a strategic reserve in Finland in combination with the different scenarios of interconnection expansion and trading arrangements. We conclude that in the absence of trust in imports, the need for a strategic reserve is undeniable. This will slightly reduce the economic benefits of integration for Finnish consumers, but it will significantly improve reliability. - Highlights: • We model the likely long-term dynamics of the interconnection Finland–Russia. • Different cross-border arrangements and capacity adequacy policies are considered. • Discriminatory access to the interconnector undermines the benefits of integration. • Market coupling reduces supply costs but creates reliability concerns. • Keeping a strategic reserve reduces the benefits of market coupling

  13. Attitudes towards schizophrenia on YouTube: A content analysis of Finnish and Greek videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Suni, Sanna; Hätönen, Heli; Apostolakis, Ioannis; Lionis, Christos; Välimäki, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    To investigate attitudes towards schizophrenia and people with schizophrenia presented in YouTube videos. We searched YouTube using the search terms "schizophrenia" and "psychosis" in Finnish and Greek language on April 3rd, 2013. The first 20 videos from each search (N = 80) were retrieved. Deductive content analysis was first applied for coding and data interpretation and it was followed by descriptive statistical analysis. A total of 52 videos were analyzed (65%). The majority of the videos were in the "Music" category (50%, n = 26). Most of the videos (83%, n = 43) tended to present schizophrenia in a negative way, while less than a fifth (17%, n = 9) presented schizophrenia in a positive or neutral way. Specifically, the most common negative attitude towards schizophrenia was dangerousness (29%, n = 15), while the most often identified positive attitude was objective, medically appropriate beliefs (21%, n = 11). All attitudes identified were similarly present in the Finnish and Greek videos, without any statistically significant difference. Negative presentations of schizophrenia are most likely to be accessed when searching YouTube for schizophrenia in Finnish and Greek language. More research is needed to investigate to what extent, if any, YouTube viewers' attitudes are affected by the videos they watch.

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd, quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-05-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and for TVO II's brief outage to repair a failed component, Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all plant units was 90.4 %. Events in this quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) (4 figs., 4 tabs.)

  15. Psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Women's Health Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katainen, Riina E; Engblom, Janne R; Vahlberg, Tero J; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2017-08-01

    The Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) is a validated and commonly used instrument for measuring climacteric-related symptoms. A revised version was previously developed. However, validation in a Finnish population is lacking. As it is important to use qualified instruments, we performed a validation study of the WHQ in a Finnish population. In all, 3,421 women, aged 41 to 54 years, formed the study population. In the original 36-item WHQ, the items were rated on a 1 to 4 scale and on a binary scale (0-1). The scaling of the revised 23-item WHQ was 0 to 100. We evaluated the psychometric properties (internal consistency, correlations between the symptom domains, factor structure, and sampling adequacy) in all three versions. For the 1 to 4 scale and on the revised version of the WHQ, the internal consistency was acceptable (the Cronbach's α coefficients >0.70) for most of the domains. On the binary scale, the majority of the coefficient values were below the acceptable level. The original symptom domains, especially those on the revised version, were recognizable from the factors in the exploratory factor analysis, but there were some limitations. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin values were high. The WHQ is a valid instrument for measuring climacteric-related symptoms in Finnish middle-aged women. The psychometric properties of the revised 23-item WHQ were as good or even better than those of the original 36-item WHQ. Thus, we encourage use of the revised version.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1997-02-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the third quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to identify and repair malfunctions of a high pressure turbine control valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 77.2%. Events in the third quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The names of Teollisuuden Voima Oy's plant units have changed. Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 now replace the names TVO I and TVO II previously used in quarterly reports. (orig.)

  17. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  18. Overcoming Barriers to Frugal Innovation: Emerging Opportunities for Finnish SMEs in Brazilian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirva Hyypiä

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Frugal innovation has become a popular concept, in academia but also in industry at large. Although there has been a great deal of discussion about the relevance of frugal innovation to the developed world, the notion’s full acceptance within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs still seems far in the distance. The opportunities and barriers seen with practical implementation of frugal innovation during the development processes have received little attention. This article considers these opportunities and barriers in the context of Finnish SMEs, providing insight specifically into the approaches these companies take in Brazilian markets. Qualitative data were drawn from a case study forming part of an extensive action research-based development project called SCALA, aimed at creating suitable and scalable mobile learning services for global markets. The concepts of frugal innovation and proceeding from user needs – essential parts of the development processes – are examined by observing three Finnish SMEs and their top managers, with particular focus on their interaction with Brazilian partners. Development sessions and meetings shed light on how the companies perceived and responded to testing their products/services with six individual schools in Brazil. Although frugal innovation is seen as essential for guaranteeing long-term competitiveness of Finnish SMEs – and access to rapidly growing, unsaturated emerging markets such as Brazil can be a step in the right direction – our study highlights numerous barriers and ways to overcome them in the real-world implementation of frugality in SMEs’ development processes.

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Fasety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the evironment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units and for TVO II`s Midsummer outage which was due to low electricity demand, the Finnish nuclear power plants were in power operation during the second quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all four plant units was 91.2 %. Events during the second annual quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  20. EPR: Comparative approach of the French and Finnish reviewing process and optimization of radiation-protection at the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couasnon, Olivier; Bouchez, Emmanuelle; Gourram, Hakim; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Riihiluoma, Veli; Beneteau, Yannick; Foret, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Following the assessment of EPR preliminary safety analysis report in France, the purpose of this paper is to present a comparative approach of the french and finnish reviewing process. The overall picture drawn in this occasion is dedicated: 1) To remind the history of EPR (from the decision to implement studies in the 90 's to the french and german cooperation and finally to the construction of a unit in Finland and another one in France); 2) To compare french and finnish safety evaluation systems: in France, the safety authority in charge of the authorization process is not directly linked to its technical support which leads the technical instruction. In Finland, the safety authority is in charge of the evaluation of safety analysis. In this process Technical Support Organizations (TSO) can be requested for example in some comparative calculations; 3) To present the dose targets (calculated reference doses) planned by the nuclear operators in the design phase as well as the global radiation-protection optimization process. In France, for example, EDF performed a detailed optimization analysis on selected tasks known to have a major contribution to the annual average collective dose (thermal insulation, logistics, valve-maintenance, opening/closing of the vessel, preparation and checks of steam generators, on-site spent fuel management and waste management). The optimization process is set in France on an iterative method. In Finland the optimization of annual collective dose has to be described in a separate topical report. In every phase of system descriptions the radiation-protection aspects have to be taken into account to meet the requirement stated in specific regulatory guides; 4) As a conclusion, to draw a comparison between the EPR collective dose target and doses received on other pressurized water reactors that are close to the EPR design (Konvoi of German design, 'best French units'). This paper has been jointly written by the french operator (EDF

  1. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilander, T; Kansanaho, A; Toivonen, H

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.).

  2. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilander, T.; Kansanaho, A.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.)

  3. Genetic variation of loin and ham quality in Finnish Landrace and Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. SEVÓN-AIMONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection potential for meat quality of economically important loin (longissimus and ham muscles (adductor, semimembranosus, biceps femoris has been assessed. Ultimate pH (pHu, meat colour (lightness, redness and yellowness, drip loss and two visually scored colour traits were recorded from 483 Finnish Landrace and 494 Finnish Large White station test pigs in a half-sib design. A univariate restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. The statistical model contained age at beginning of test, sex and time lapse from slaughter to dissection as fixed effects and slaughter batch, common environment of littermates and additive genetic effect of the animal as random effects. The average pHu values in adductor and semispinalis were between 5.6 and 6.1. The pHu were on average 5.4 and 5.5 in longissimus and semimembranosus respectively, with the latter two being lower than optimum values of 5.6 to 5.9. Lightness for semimembranosus turned to be clearly lighter (62 than for other muscles. Lightness for longissimus (56 was slightly lighter than optimum (from 48 to 54. The heritability varied from zero to 0.45 for pHu, from 0.02 to 0.34 for lightness, from 0.17 to 0.56 for redness, from zero to 0.28 for yellowness and from 0.05 to 0.16 for drip loss. Heritability for redness values was considerably higher than heritability for other meat quality traits. The heritability of quality traits spoke for possibilities for genetic improvement of meat quality. Genetic correlations between quality traits (pHu and lightness and average daily gain varied strongly among breeds and muscles. Genetic correlations between meat-% and pHu were in most cases high and unfavourable (rg from –0.36 to –0.68 except in longissimus, where it was 0.11. Genetic correlations between meat-% and lightness were unfavourable in Finnish Large White (from 0.47 to 0.92 but in Finnish Landrace estimates varied among muscles (from –0.40 to 0.47. Due to

  4. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  5. Founder representation and effective population size in old versus young breeds-genetic diversity of Finnish and Nordic Spitz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, M; Anderson, H; Svevar, T; Kangasvuo, I; Donner, J; Pohjoismäki, J

    2017-10-01

    Finnish Spitz is 130-year-old breed and has been highly popular in Finland throughout its history. Nordic Spitz is very similar to Finnish Spitz by origin and use, but is a relatively recent breed with much smaller population size. To see how breed age and breeding history have influenced the current population, we performed comprehensive population genetic analysis using pedigree data of 28,119 Finnish and 9,009 Nordic Spitzes combined with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 135 Finnish and 110 Nordic Spitzes. We found that the Finnish Spitz has undergone repeated male bottlenecks resulting in dramatic loss of genetic diversity, reflected by 20 effective founders (f a ) and mean heterozygosity (Hz) of 0.313. The realized effective population size in the breed based on pedigree analysis (N¯ec) is 168, whereas the genetic effective population size (N eg ) computed the decay of linkage disequilibrium (r 2 ) is only 57 individuals. Nordic Spitz, although once been near extinction, has not been exposed to similar repeated bottlenecks than Finnish Spitz and had f a of 27 individuals. However, due to the smaller total population size, the breed has also smaller effective population size than Finnish Spitz (N¯ec = 98 and N eg  = 49). Interestingly, the r 2 data show that the effective population size has contracted dramatically since the establishment of the breed, emphasizing the role of breed standards as constrains for the breeding population. Despite the small population size, Nordic Spitz still maintains SNP heterozygosity levels similar to mixed breed dogs (mean Hz = 0.409). Our study demonstrates that although pedigree analyses cannot provide estimates of the present diversity within a breed, the effective population sizes inferred from them correlate with the genotyping results. The genetic relationships of the northern Spitz breeds and the benefits of the open breed registry are discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Future of Finnish energy business - scenarios and strategies. Summary report of the SALKKU research project; Suomalainen tulevaisuuden energialiiketoiminta - skenaariot ja strategiat. SALKKU-hankkeen yhteenvetoraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Koreneff, G.; Simila, L. [and others

    2012-05-15

    This report gives a summary of the results of the research project 'Future of Finnish energy business - scenarios and strategies' (SALKKU). The SALKKU research was carried out as a joint research project of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and MTT Agrifood Research Finland (MTT). The coordinating partner was VTT. The objective of the project was to assess the future energy business and factors contributing to it up to year 2050. The research in SALKKU is partly a continuation of the work done in the research project 'SEKKI - The Competitiveness of Finnish Energy Industry under Developing Climate Policy', which was a part of the ClimBus-programme of Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology, and the results of which have been published in VTT's and MTT's report series in 2009. The focus in SALKKU project was on assessing future energy businesses by analysing the development of energy demands and supplies as well as energy markets under the influence of future energy and climate policies, depleting fossil resources, growing population, and the economic development. The demand for energy was studied on a global, an EU, and especially on an Asian level. On the supply side the focus was both on fossil reserves and resources and on the technical and the techno-economical potential of field bioenergy. There are vast uncertainties concerning the growth in food demand and changing eating habits on one hand, and the demand for bioenergy on the other hand. The EnTech project by Etlatieto, a subsidiary of ETLA, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, was carried out as a parallel project to SALKKU. The EnTech project assessed the development of energy technology export of the Finnish energy industry. One part of the work at VTT was to analyse the impacts of future climate policies on greenhouse gas emissions, on the development of the energy systems, and on clean energy investments. The area of focus was on long term

  7. Sleep apnoea: Finnish National guidelines for prevention and treatment 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L A; Anttalainen, U; Pietinalho, A; Hämäläinen, P; Koskela, K

    2003-04-01

    (1) After negotiations with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, a national programme to promote prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sleep apnoea for the years 2002-2012 has been prepared by the Finnish Lung Health Association on the basis of extensive collaboration. The programme needs to be revised as necessary, because of the rapid development in medical knowledge, and in appliance therapy in particular. (2) Sleep apnoea deteriorates slowly. Its typical features are snoring, interruptions of breathing during sleep and daytime tiredness. Sleep apnoea affects roughly 3% of middle-aged men and 2% of women. In Finland, there are approx. 150,000 sleep apnea patients, of which 15,000 patients have a severe disease, 50,000 patients are moderate and 85,000 have a mild form of the disease. Children are also affected by sleep apnea. A typical sleep apnea patient is a middle-aged man or a postmenopausal woman. (3) The obstruction of upper airways is essential in the occurrence of sleep apnoea. The obstruction can be caused by structural and/or functional factors. As for structural factors, there are various methods of intervention, such as to secure children's nasal respiration, to remove redundant soft tissue, as well as to correct malocclusions. It is possible to have an effect on the functional factors by treating well diseases predisposing to sleep apnoea, by reducing smoking, the consumption of alcohol and the use of medicines impairing the central nervous system. The most important single risk factor for sleep apnoea is obesity. (4) Untreated sleep apnoea leads to an increase morbidity and mortality through heart circulatory diseases and through accidents by tiredness. Untreated or undertreated sleep apnoea deteriorates a person's quality of life and working capacity. (5) The goals of the Programme for the prevention and treatment of sleep apnoea are as follows: (1) to decrease the incidence of sleep apnoea, (2) to ensure that as many patients

  8. Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Reference values in the Finnish general population and associations with leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Petteri; Borodulin, Katja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kujala, Urho; Pohjolainen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki

    2015-03-01

    To create reference values for the general Finnish population using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-FIN), to study gender differences in the TSK-FIN, to assess the internal consistency of the TSK-FIN, to estimate the prevalence of high levels of kinesiophobia in Finnish men and women, and to examine the association between kinesiophobia and leisure-time physical activity and the impact of co-morbidities on kinesiophobia. The study population comprised 455 men and 579 women. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic factors, leisure-time physical activity, co-morbidities and kinesiophobia. The mean TSK-FIN score was significantly higher for men (mean 34.2, standard deviation (SD) 6.9) compared with women (mean 32.9, SD 6.5), with an age-adjusted p = 0.004 for the difference between men and women. Cronbach's alpha was 0.72, indicating substantial internal consistency. Men over 55 years of age and women over 65 years of age had a higher (p physical activity among both sexes. The presence of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease or a mental disorder was associated with a higher TSK-FIN score compared with the absence of the aforementioned disorders. We present here the reference values for the TSK-FIN. The reference values and prevalence among the general population may help clinicians to define the level of kinesiophobia among patients. Disorders other than musculoskeletal diseases were associated with kinesiophobia, which should be noted in daily practice.

  9. Exploring origin of food as a source of meanings for Finnish consumers: A qualitative comparison of meanings in Swedish, German and French food

    OpenAIRE

    Luomala, Harri

    2004-01-01

    The findings show that Finnish consumers attach partly overlapping partly distinct cognitive, affective, and normative meanings to Swedish, German, and French food. Swedish and French foods are perceived healthier than German food. Finnish consumers also think that Swedish and French food is of high quality, safe and pure while in the case of German food consumers were more doubtful.

  10. Some applied isotope techniques at the Finnish TRIGA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, A.

    1972-01-01

    The paper describes two separate radioactive tracer methods and a delayed neutron analyzer system. A process study in a ferrochrome smelter was based on the activation of large amounts of process input materials in special sample holders on the reflector of Triga Mark II reactor. In a typical surface water study 82 Br-solution has been injected in a waste water canal at a pulp and paper factory. The dilution mixing and flow of the tracer can be followed in the adjoining lake system for 6-8 days and up to a distance of 10 km. The tracer concentration has been measured directly without any sampling procedures. A delayed neutron analyzer for routine uranium ore analyses is presented. A polyethylene moderator block and seven parallelly connected BF 3 -detectors have been used in conjunction with a fast pneumatic sample transfer and irradiation system. (author)

  11. Sense of mastery differences between working-age Swedish- and Finnish-speaking Finns: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reini, Kaarina; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-06-01

    To examine the probability of a high sense of mastery in a population-representative sample of working-age people and to study the differences in mastery between Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns in particular. The data originates from the Western Finland Mental Health Surveys (2008-2014). Associations between sense of mastery and language groups were analyzed with logistic regressions. Swedish-speaking Finns have a higher sense of mastery and the association is mediated by social support. Moreover, a difference in a high sense of mastery is found between Swedish- and Finnish-speaking married women that are outside the labor market. Our findings imply that Finnish-speaking women that are outside the labor market, e.g. on maternity leave or taking care of the household, should be recognized in health and social care services as a group that can benefit from additional support.

  12. Technological Knowledge and Reasoning in Finnish and Estonian Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Ossi; Soobik, Mart

    2017-01-01

    The main idea of this research was to find out if there is a relationship between students' undertakings within Craft and Technology education and their ability to understand technological concepts. Study participants' technological knowledge and reasoning was measured with a questionnaire regarding mechanical systems connected with simple…

  13. From PISA to National Branding: Exploring Finnish Education®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Monika; Popovic, Ana; Dervin, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Since the recent global paradigm shift in the governance of higher education toward business and marketing, internationally competitive education is increasingly considered as an asset for governments. Consequently, governments started to invest in education branding and marketing their educational systems. In Finland, national interest in…

  14. Trends of energy efficiency in Finnish road freight transport 1995-2009 and forecast to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Poellaenen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A framework for modeling and analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport is presented in this paper. This framework is tested by using the data from the Finnish Goods Transport by Road statistics. The data was enhanced by calculating the fuel consumption for each trip in the data. To calculate this, weight-fuel consumption functions were estimated for each Euro-class vehicles and road type. This is a new method for analyzing the energy efficiency of road freight transport and it could be applied also in other countries gathering freight transport data with continuous company surveys. The analysis show that the energy efficiency of road freight transport in Finland improved during 1995-2002, but has declined since. The major drivers in the development have been the changes in the level of empty running and vehicle fuel efficiency. Extrapolating current statistical trends of factors that influence the energy efficiency show that the target set by the Finnish government for improving energy efficiency by 9% until 2016 will not be achieved. However, the target is possible to be achieved by a combination of small changes to some determinants. - Research highlights: →A new method for analyzing energy efficiency by adding fuel data to national freight statistics. →Energy efficiency improved in Finland from 1995 to 2002 but has declined since. →Energy efficiency in Finland is still on a good level internationally. →Target of the Finnish energy efficiency agreement was quantified for the first time in this study. →The target will not be achieved if the past trends continue.

  15. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  16. Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management (KYT). Framework Programme for 2002-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The new Finnish research programme on nuclear waste management (KYT) will be conducted in 2002 - 2005. This framework programme describes the starting point, the basic aims and the organisation of the research programme. The starting point of the KYT programme is derived from the present state and future challenges of Finnish nuclear waste management. The research programme is funded mainly by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Posiva Oy, Fortum Oyj, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), and the National Technology Agency (Tekes). As both regulators and implementors are involved, the research programme concentrates on neutral research topics that must be studied in any case. Methods and tools for experimental and theoretical studies fall in this category. State of the art -reviews on relevant topics also create national know-how. Topics that directly belong to licensing activities of nuclear waste management are excluded from the research programme. KYT carries out technical studies that increase national know-how in the area of nuclear waste management. The aim is to maintain and develop basic expertise needed in the operations derived from the national nuclear waste management plan. The studies have been divided into strategic studies and studies enhancing the long-term safety of spent nuclear fuel disposal. Strategic studies support the overall feasibility of Finnish nuclear waste management. These studies include basic options and overall safety principles related to nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear waste management. In addition, general cost estimates as well as general safety considerations related to transportations, low- and medium level wastes, and decommissioning are included in strategic studies. Studies supporting the long-term safety of spent fuel disposal include issues related to performance assessment methodology, release of radionuclides from the repository, behaviour of bedrock and groundwater

  17. Recent fertility patterns of Finnish women by union status: A descriptive account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Remarkably little is known about the significance of consensual unions for fertility. This is true everywhere, but the lacuna is more important in the Nordic countries where there is so much childbearing outside of marriage, mostly in consensual unions. The purpose of this paper is to help fill this hole in our knowledge for Finland. OBJECTIVE Unusually good register data enable us to study recent fertility trends by union status (married, cohabiting, neither using records for some 112,000 Finnish women, or 11Š of all women at fertile ages. METHODS Our description of fertility is based on group-specific duration-based TFRs, which is the number of children borne by a woman who remains in the group throughout her reproductive life, as computed from the fertility rates for a synthetic cohort. This is an intuitively appealing metric that has been taken into systematic use only recently. RESULTS We find substantial fertility differences between women who cohabit, women who marry directly (i.e., without pre-marital cohabitation, and women who marry their cohabitational partner. As one would also expect in Finland, cohabiting women have much lower fertility than married women. The marital TFR is highest among the directly-married and declines monotonically as the length of pre-marital cohabitation increases, even when premarital childbearing is included in the count. As far as we know the latter relationship has not been shown before, because extensive data for complete cohabitational unions have not been available for other populations. CONCLUSIONS The Finnish data are unique, even among the Nordic countries, in that they contain individual-level life histories of family dynamics that cover consensual unions from their very start. Fertility analysis would benefit if data similar to the Finnish were to become available, because analyses that rely on civil status as an indicator of union status barely add anything to what we already know

  18. Finnish EPR Olkiluoto 3. The world's first third-generation reactor now under construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EPR was developed by Framatome and Siemens KWU (the nuclear division of Siemens), whose nuclear activities were combined in January 2001 to form Framatome ANP, now AREVA NP. The French electricity utility EDF (Electricite de France), together with the major German utilities, played an active role in the project. The safety authorities of the two countries joined forces to bring their respective safety standards into line and draw up joint design rules for the new reactor. On December 18, 2003, the consortium formed by AREVA and Siemens - and led by AREVA - signed a contract with TVO for the turnkey construction of the EPR. The overall Olkiluoto 3 project cost has been estimated by TVO at around euros 3 Billion. TVO is responsible for the overall project management and licensing process with the Finnish Safety Authority STUK. In the pre-qualification phase, STUK concluded that the EPR can meet the Finnish licensing requirements. All specific comments will be taken into account for the realization of the project. In January 2005, STUK emphasized in its safety assessment that the evolutionary EPR design compared to predecessor product lines has been further enhanced by AREVA. This paper presents first, The Finnish energy situation (Electricity consumption and supply, Finland's Kyoto CO 2 cutback, Competitiveness of nuclear power), and then the EPR in Olkiluoto (General schedule of responsibilities, Important milestones of the project). Finally, the EPR third-generation and advanced reactor is presented with its position in the international competition (Targeted design objectives, Main characteristics, competitiveness, safety, Additional measures to prevent the occurrence of events likely to damage the core, Increased protection against the consequences of core melt)

  19. Exposure of Finnish population to solar UV radiation and consequent carcinogenic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurto, L.; Jansen, C. [Turku Univ. Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jokela, K. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone increases irradiance of terrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at short wavelengths, which may be harmful to the human health. To understand quantitatively the risks caused by increasing UV radiation to the Finnish population, the actual UV exposure of the population has to be assessed. It was shown that the snow reflection increases the UV exposure to the face and eyes particularly in the northern Finland. In 1993 exceptionally low ozone levels persisted up to the end of May, which resulted in a theoretical increase in the annual UV dose ranging from 8 % to 13 % in Finland. The maximal increase in the measured erythemally effective dose rate was 34 % on 23 April, when compared with the theoretical normal value. During this study exposure models have been developed. The models have been combined them with Green`s radiation transfer model to estimate annual facial UV doses received by different groups of Finnish population. Also, an updated estimate for increase in skin cancer incidence due to the ozone depletion is presented. It is estimated that the maximal increase in UV doses caused by the depletion of the stratospheric ozone will be 12 % in the first years of the next century in Finland. This may result in increase in skin carcinomas by 20-30 % if the people do not improve their protection against solar UV radiation. At the moment the annual facial UV dose of the Finnish indoor worker varies from 3 % to 6 % of the annual ambient dose. In the worst case an outdoor worker may receive even 16% of the annual ambient dose. However, the doses received by indoor workers during vacation to an untanned skin may be more harmful due to the increased risk of malignant melanoma.

  20. Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.