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Sample records for finnish caucasian population

  1. Moyamoya vasculopathy - Patient demographics and characteristics in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Marika; Mustanoja, Satu; Pekkola, Johanna; Tyni, Tiina; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kivipelto, Leena; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Moyamoya vasculopathy, a rare steno-occlusive progressive cerebrovascular disorder, has not been thoroughly studied in Caucasian populations. We established a registry of Finnish patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, to collect and report demographic and clinical data. Methods We collected data both retrospectively and prospectively from all the patients with a moyamoya vasculopathy referred to our hospital between January 1987 and December 2014. All patients underwent a neurological outpatient clinic visit. Results We diagnosed 61 patients (50 females, 10 children) with moyamoya vasculopathy. The mean age at the disease-onset was 31.5 ± 17.9 years. The two most common presenting symptoms were ischemic stroke (n = 31) and hemorrhage (n = 8). Forty-four percent underwent revascularization surgery, and 70% were prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The results support in part the Western phenotype of the disease considering the later presentation and larger female predominance compared to the Asian moyamoya vasculopathy reports. However, the proportion of ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes is closer to Japanese population than German population. The absence of familial cases points to a different genetic profile in the Finnish patients.

  2. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...

  3. Use of sunbeds by Finnish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalarvo, V.

    2000-10-01

    The sun is clearly the most important source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in environment. The UVR doses caused to the population by the sun have been estimated in several studies. However, the use of sunbeds and the UVR exposure caused by them have been assessed only by few surveys. Therefore, the main objective of this study was set to collect data about the use of sunbeds in Finland and to estimate the UVR doses caused to the population by sunbeds. The basic material for this research was collected during year 1998 by a questionnaire mailed to 4000 Finns older than 15 years. 28,7% of the respondents had visited sunbed sometime during their life, and 8,6% had used sunbed during the year 1997. Consequently it was estimated that in 1997 approximately 360 000 Finns aged over 15 years were using sunbeds. Young people, 20-34 years, were using sunbeds more than older people and two of three sunbed users were women. During the year 1997, an average sunbed user visited sunbeds 6,8 times. When UVR doses caused by sunbeds and sun were compared, it was estimated that by average use of sunbeds the annual UVR dose of outdoor and indoor workers might increase 2% and 30%, respectively. The annual UVR dose of an average sunbed user was assessed to increase by 13% because of sunbed use. Sunbeds were estimated to be responsible for 1% addition to the annual UVR dose of Finnish population. The sun is still the major source of VVR doses when the whole population is concerned, but enthusiastic sunbed users may even triple their annual UVR doses. The best tools for keeping the annual UVR doses reasonably low are to deliver information of the hazards of W-radiation to the groups at risk and to monitor the radiation safety of sunbeds. It is worthwhile to aim information campaigns for the biggest user groups found by this study. Attention should be drawn to the attitudes and ideals towards tanned skin. (orig.)

  4. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  5. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  6. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with longevity in a Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Karhunen, Pekka J; Jylhä, Marja; Majamaa, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may cause slight differences both in the functioning of the respiratory chain and in free radical production, and an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups and longevity has been suggested. In order to determine further the role of mtDNA in longevity, we studied the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters among elderly subjects and controls in a Finnish population. Samples were obtained from 225 persons aged 90-91 years (Vitality 90+) and from 400 middle-aged controls and 257 infants. MtDNA haplogroups were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The haplogroup frequencies of the Vitality 90+ group differed from both those of the middle-aged controls ( P=0.01) and the infants ( P=0.00005), haplogroup H being less frequent than among the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.001) and infants ( P=0.00001), whereas haplogroups U and J were more frequent. Haplogroup clusters also differed between Vitality 90+ and both the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.002) and infants ( P=0.00001), the frequency of haplogroup cluster HV being lower in the former and that of UK and WIX being higher. These data suggest an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups or haplogroup clusters and longevity. Furthermore, our data appear to favour the presence of advantageous polymorphisms and support a role for mitochondria and mtDNA in the degenerative processes involved in ageing.

  7. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  8. Use of sunbeds by Finnish population; Suomalaisten solariuminkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, V

    2000-10-01

    The sun is clearly the most important source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in environment. The UVR doses caused to the population by the sun have been estimated in several studies. However, the use of sunbeds and the UVR exposure caused by them have been assessed only by few surveys. Therefore, the main objective of this study was set to collect data about the use of sunbeds in Finland and to estimate the UVR doses caused to the population by sunbeds. The basic material for this research was collected during year 1998 by a questionnaire mailed to 4000 Finns older than 15 years. 28,7% of the respondents had visited sunbed sometime during their life, and 8,6% had used sunbed during the year 1997. Consequently it was estimated that in 1997 approximately 360 000 Finns aged over 15 years were using sunbeds. Young people, 20-34 years, were using sunbeds more than older people and two of three sunbed users were women. During the year 1997, an average sunbed user visited sunbeds 6,8 times. When UVR doses caused by sunbeds and sun were compared, it was estimated that by average use of sunbeds the annual UVR dose of outdoor and indoor workers might increase 2% and 30%, respectively. The annual UVR dose of an average sunbed user was assessed to increase by 13% because of sunbed use. Sunbeds were estimated to be responsible for 1% addition to the annual UVR dose of Finnish population. The sun is still the major source of VVR doses when the whole population is concerned, but enthusiastic sunbed users may even triple their annual UVR doses. The best tools for keeping the annual UVR doses reasonably low are to deliver information of the hazards of W-radiation to the groups at risk and to monitor the radiation safety of sunbeds. It is worthwhile to aim information campaigns for the biggest user groups found by this study. Attention should be drawn to the attitudes and ideals towards tanned skin. (orig.)

  9. Differential splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman H Lee, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: George Washington...splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? 5b...American (AA) versus Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer (PCa). We focused our efforts on two oncogenes, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  11. The role of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1A1 polymorphisms in harmful alcohol consumption in a Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Penelope A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver cystolic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1 has been previously associated with both alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption behaviour, and has been implicated in alcohol-induced flushing and alcohol sensitivity in Caucasians. The present study tested for association between ALDH1A1 and alcohol consumption behaviour and susceptibility to problem drinking or alcohol dependence in Finnish cohorts of unrelated male subjects recruited from alcoholism clinical treatment facilities (n = 104 and from the general population (n = 201. All participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within or flanking ALDH1A1. To test for association between alcohol consumption behaviour and these polymorphisms, we used generalised linear models and haplotypic analysis. Three SNPs were nominally associated (rs348449, p = 0.043; rs610529, p = 0.013; rs348479, p = 0.025 with the quantitative AUDIT score, which evaluates alcohol consumption behaviour. Two-locus (rs6I0529-rs2288087 haplotype analysis increased the strength of association with AUDIT score (p = 0.00I5. Additionally, rs348449 is highly associated with problem drinking (allelic odds ratio [OR] 7.87, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.67-37.01 but due to the low minor allele frequency (0.01 and 0.07 in controls and problem drinkers, respectively, more samples are required to validate this observation. Conversely, rs348479 (p = 0.019 and rs6I0529 (allelic OR 0.65, 95 per cent CI 0.43-0.98; genotypic OR 0.32, 95 per cent CI 0.12-0.84 are implicated in alcohol dependence status. This study provides further evidence for a role for ALDH1A1 in alcohol consumption behaviour, including problem drinking and possibly alcohol dependence, in our Finnish population.

  12. Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäki, K.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations. The influence of time-dependent fixed effects in the model when estimating the genetic trends was also studied. Official hip and elbow dysplasia screening

  13. Distinct genetic alteration profiles of acute myeloid leukemia between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chunlin; Lin, Dong; Liu, Bingcheng; Liu, Kaiqi; Qiu, Shaowei; Gong, Benfa; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guangji; Wei, Shuning; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Yuntao; Zhao, Xingli; Gu, Runxia; Mi, Yingchang; Wang, Jianxiang

    2018-02-10

    Racial and ethnic disparities in malignancies attract extensive attention. To investigate whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population, data from several prospective AML trials were retrospectively analyzed in this study. We found that there were more patients with core binding factor (CBF) leukemia in Eastern Asian cohorts and there were different CBF leukemia constitutions between them. The ratios of CBF leukemia are 27.7, 22.1, 21.1, and 23.4%, respectively, in our (ChiCTR-TRC-10001202), another Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Eastern Asian cohorts, which are significantly higher than those in ECOG1900, MRC AML15, UK NCRI AML17, HOVON/SAKK AML-42, and German AML2003 (15.5, 12.5, 9.3, 10.2, and 12%, respectively). And CBFbeta-MYH11 occurred more prevalently in HOVON/SAKK AML- 42 and ECOG1900 trials (50.0 and 54.3% of CBF leukemia, respectively) than in Chinese and Japanese trials (20.1 and 20.8%, respectively). The proportion of FLT3-ITD mutation is 11.2% in our cohort, which is lower than that in MRC AML15 and UK NCRI AML17 (24.6 and 17.9%, respectively). Even after excluding the age bias, there are still different incidence rates of mutation between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population. These data suggest that there are racial and ethnic disparities in genetic alteration between Caucasian and Eastern Asian population.

  14. Impact and characteristics of the non-Caucasian population in hospital admissions for diabetes onset during 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, Patricia; Guerrero, Mireia; García-Martín, Isabel; Caballero, Jordi; Pérez-Maraver, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of non-Caucasian patients in hospital admissions for onset of symptomatic diabetes mellitus during the 2003-2010 period, and to analyze the characteristics differentiating them from the Caucasian population at diagnosis and 2 years later. A retrospective, observational study. Patients aged 18-40 years admitted for de novo symptomatic diabetes from January 2003 to October 2010. Prevalence of patients of non-Caucasian origin was analyzed, and clinical, biochemical, immunological, and beta-cell function of both populations were compared at diagnosis and 2 years later. Nineteen percent of patients admitted to hospital for de novo symptomatic diabetes were non-Caucasian, with a progressive increase in recent years. Non-Caucasian patients had milder decompensation (3.0% had ketoacidosis, as compared to 15.2% in the Caucasian group, P1%, P1) and higher stimulated C-peptide levels (0.70±0.56 vs. 0.42±0.39 nmol/l, P1 vs. 93.8%). Non-Caucasian patients had a lower prevalence of autoimmunity, better beta-cell function at diagnosis, particularly due to the subgroup with negative autoimmunity, and less need for intensive treatment 2 years after diagnosis, features which are more characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  16. Relationship between proguanil metabolic ratio and CYP2C19 genotype in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, J M; Shenfield, G M; Gross, A S

    1998-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between proguanil metabolic ratio (MR, proguanil/cycloguanil) and CYP2C19 genotype in a Caucasian population. Ninety-nine Caucasians (age range: 18-55 years, 54 female, 45 male) were genotyped for CYP2C19 and phenotyped for proguanil oxidation by collecting urine for 8 h after taking 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride. Proguanil and cycloguanil concentrations were measured by h.p.l.c. PCR was employed for CYP2C19 genotyping. The three (3%) individuals who were homozygous for CYP2C19*2 (*2/*2) had the highest proguanil MRs (range: 8.0-134.6). Seventy-three (74%) individuals were homozygous for the wild-type allele (*1/*1) and 23 (23%) were heterozygous (*1/*2). The *1/*1 individuals had lower MRs (median=1.4, range: 0.23-5.9, P=0.003, Mann-Whitney U-test) than the *1/*2 subjects (median=2.5, range: 0.88-7.3). A CYP2C19 gene-dose effect for proguanil oxidation to cycloguanil was observed, confirming a role for CYP2C19 in cycloguanil formation in vivo. However, there was substantial overlap of proguanil MRs in subjects of different CYP2C19 genotypes, due possibly to variability in the activity of other enzymes contributing to the formation of cycloguanil.

  17. Founder representation and effective population size in old versus young breeds-genetic diversity of Finnish and Nordic Spitz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, M; Anderson, H; Svevar, T; Kangasvuo, I; Donner, J; Pohjoismäki, J

    2017-10-01

    Finnish Spitz is 130-year-old breed and has been highly popular in Finland throughout its history. Nordic Spitz is very similar to Finnish Spitz by origin and use, but is a relatively recent breed with much smaller population size. To see how breed age and breeding history have influenced the current population, we performed comprehensive population genetic analysis using pedigree data of 28,119 Finnish and 9,009 Nordic Spitzes combined with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 135 Finnish and 110 Nordic Spitzes. We found that the Finnish Spitz has undergone repeated male bottlenecks resulting in dramatic loss of genetic diversity, reflected by 20 effective founders (f a ) and mean heterozygosity (Hz) of 0.313. The realized effective population size in the breed based on pedigree analysis (N¯ec) is 168, whereas the genetic effective population size (N eg ) computed the decay of linkage disequilibrium (r 2 ) is only 57 individuals. Nordic Spitz, although once been near extinction, has not been exposed to similar repeated bottlenecks than Finnish Spitz and had f a of 27 individuals. However, due to the smaller total population size, the breed has also smaller effective population size than Finnish Spitz (N¯ec = 98 and N eg  = 49). Interestingly, the r 2 data show that the effective population size has contracted dramatically since the establishment of the breed, emphasizing the role of breed standards as constrains for the breeding population. Despite the small population size, Nordic Spitz still maintains SNP heterozygosity levels similar to mixed breed dogs (mean Hz = 0.409). Our study demonstrates that although pedigree analyses cannot provide estimates of the present diversity within a breed, the effective population sizes inferred from them correlate with the genotyping results. The genetic relationships of the northern Spitz breeds and the benefits of the open breed registry are discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  19. The Populist Toolkit : Finnish Populism in Action 2007–2016

    OpenAIRE

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuukka

    2017-01-01

    Populism has often been understood as a description of political parties and politicians, who have been labelled either populist or not. This dissertation argues that it is more useful to conceive of populism in action: as something that is done rather than something that is. I propose that the populist toolkit is a collection of cultural practices, which politicians and citizens use to make sense of and do politics, by claiming that ‘the people’ are opposed by a corrupt elite – a powerful cl...

  20. Anthropometric study of the caucasian nose in the city of Curitiba: relevance of population evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Carvalho, Bettina; Dolci, José Eduardo Lutaif; Becker, Renata; Berger, Cezar; Mocellin, Marcos

    2017-07-03

    Norms and patterns of nasal esthetics are essential for an adequate preoperative evaluation and surgical programming. The esthetic nasal patterns used are a blend of artistic beauty ideals and tracings in models and celebrities. Because they do not consider population measures, they vary according to the period, and allow a discrepancy between the surgeon's preference and the patient's real desire for rhinoplasty. Not all populations wish to obtain an esthetic result according to these values, but prefer a natural result, that is, one with some of the nasal characteristics of the population to which they belong to. The Brazilian population lacks population studies to evaluate its nose measurements. (1) To evaluate the anthropometric measures of Caucasian noses of people living in the city of Curitiba (state of Paraná), and to compare them to the ideal esthetic pattern of the literature; (2) To compare them between genders. This is a prospective cohort study involving 100 Caucasian volunteers at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Through the frontal and lateral view photos, intercanthal distance, alar distance, nasal dorsum length, nasofrontal angle, nasolabial angle, and nasal tip projection (Goode's method) were obtained. A statistical analysis was performed to compare the measures obtained between genders and with the ideal patterns. Comparing the results obtained with those predicted by the esthetic ideals, the sample presented: similar nasolabial angle (p=0.07), alar width greater than intercanthal distance (p<0.001), higher nasal tip projection (p<0.001), larger width-length ratio (p<0.001), and more obtuse nasofrontal angle (p<0.001). The nasofrontal angle (p=0.0008) and the tip projection (p=0.032) were statistically different between the genders. Men had a smaller nasofrontal angle, and a larger Goode's ratio. Except for the nasolabial angle, the measures obtained in the population sample differed from the published esthetic ideals. Comparing the

  1. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine T Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent bottlenecks offer advantages for studying rare variants in complex diseases as they have deleterious variants that are present at higher frequencies as well as a substantial reduction in rare neutral variation. To explore the potential of the Finnish founder population for studying low-frequency (0.5-5% variants in complex diseases, we compared exome sequence data on 3,000 Finns to the same number of non-Finnish Europeans and discovered that, despite having fewer variable sites overall, the average Finn has more low-frequency loss-of-function variants and complete gene knockouts. We then used several well-characterized Finnish population cohorts to study the phenotypic effects of 83 enriched loss-of-function variants across 60 phenotypes in 36,262 Finns. Using a deep set of quantitative traits collected on these cohorts, we show 5 associations (p<5×10⁻⁸ including splice variants in LPA that lowered plasma lipoprotein(a levels (P = 1.5×10⁻¹¹⁷. Through accessing the national medical records of these participants, we evaluate the LPA finding via Mendelian randomization and confirm that these splice variants confer protection from cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.84, P = 3×10⁻⁴, demonstrating for the first time the correlation between very low levels of LPA in humans with potential therapeutic implications for cardiovascular diseases. More generally, this study articulates substantial advantages for studying the role of rare variation in complex phenotypes in founder populations like the Finns and by combining a unique population genetic history with data from large population cohorts and centralized research access to National Health

  2. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  3. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  4. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Sciatica in Finnish Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Lemmelä

    Full Text Available Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (p<1x10-6 were replicated in 776 Finnish sciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981 at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08 and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively. The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04. Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6-7% than in other European populations (1-2%. Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109 were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB, which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate.

  5. Exposure of Finnish population to solar UV radiation and consequent carcinogenic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurto, L.; Jansen, C. [Turku Univ. Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jokela, K. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone increases irradiance of terrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at short wavelengths, which may be harmful to the human health. To understand quantitatively the risks caused by increasing UV radiation to the Finnish population, the actual UV exposure of the population has to be assessed. It was shown that the snow reflection increases the UV exposure to the face and eyes particularly in the northern Finland. In 1993 exceptionally low ozone levels persisted up to the end of May, which resulted in a theoretical increase in the annual UV dose ranging from 8 % to 13 % in Finland. The maximal increase in the measured erythemally effective dose rate was 34 % on 23 April, when compared with the theoretical normal value. During this study exposure models have been developed. The models have been combined them with Green`s radiation transfer model to estimate annual facial UV doses received by different groups of Finnish population. Also, an updated estimate for increase in skin cancer incidence due to the ozone depletion is presented. It is estimated that the maximal increase in UV doses caused by the depletion of the stratospheric ozone will be 12 % in the first years of the next century in Finland. This may result in increase in skin carcinomas by 20-30 % if the people do not improve their protection against solar UV radiation. At the moment the annual facial UV dose of the Finnish indoor worker varies from 3 % to 6 % of the annual ambient dose. In the worst case an outdoor worker may receive even 16% of the annual ambient dose. However, the doses received by indoor workers during vacation to an untanned skin may be more harmful due to the increased risk of malignant melanoma.

  6. Exposure of Finnish population to solar UV radiation and consequent carcinogenic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurto, L; Jansen, C [Turku Univ. Hospital, Turku (Finland); Jokela, K [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone increases irradiance of terrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at short wavelengths, which may be harmful to the human health. To understand quantitatively the risks caused by increasing UV radiation to the Finnish population, the actual UV exposure of the population has to be assessed. It was shown that the snow reflection increases the UV exposure to the face and eyes particularly in the northern Finland. In 1993 exceptionally low ozone levels persisted up to the end of May, which resulted in a theoretical increase in the annual UV dose ranging from 8 % to 13 % in Finland. The maximal increase in the measured erythemally effective dose rate was 34 % on 23 April, when compared with the theoretical normal value. During this study exposure models have been developed. The models have been combined them with Green`s radiation transfer model to estimate annual facial UV doses received by different groups of Finnish population. Also, an updated estimate for increase in skin cancer incidence due to the ozone depletion is presented. It is estimated that the maximal increase in UV doses caused by the depletion of the stratospheric ozone will be 12 % in the first years of the next century in Finland. This may result in increase in skin carcinomas by 20-30 % if the people do not improve their protection against solar UV radiation. At the moment the annual facial UV dose of the Finnish indoor worker varies from 3 % to 6 % of the annual ambient dose. In the worst case an outdoor worker may receive even 16% of the annual ambient dose. However, the doses received by indoor workers during vacation to an untanned skin may be more harmful due to the increased risk of malignant melanoma.

  7. Population effect model identifies gene expression predictors of survival outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma for both Caucasian and Asian patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshuai Cai

    Full Text Available We analyzed and integrated transcriptome data from two large studies of lung adenocarcinomas on distinct populations. Our goal was to investigate the variable gene expression alterations between paired tumor-normal tissues and prospectively identify those alterations that can reliably predict lung disease related outcomes across populations.We developed a mixed model that combined the paired tumor-normal RNA-seq from two populations. Alterations in gene expression common to both populations were detected and validated in two independent DNA microarray datasets. A 10-gene prognosis signature was developed through a l1 penalized regression approach and its prognostic value was evaluated in a third independent microarray cohort.Deregulation of apoptosis pathways and increased expression of cell cycle pathways were identified in tumors of both Caucasian and Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that a 10-gene biomarker panel can predict prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in both Caucasians and Asians. Compared to low risk groups, high risk groups showed significantly shorter overall survival time (Caucasian patients data: HR = 3.63, p-value = 0.007; Asian patients data: HR = 3.25, p-value = 0.001.This study uses a statistical framework to detect DEGs between paired tumor and normal tissues that considers variances among patients and ethnicities, which will aid in understanding the common genes and signalling pathways with the largest effect sizes in ethnically diverse cohorts. We propose multifunctional markers for distinguishing tumor from normal tissue and prognosis for both populations studied.

  8. Gender differences in health information behaviour: a Finnish population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Narrowing the gaps in health outcomes, including those between men and women, has been a pronounced goal on the agenda of the Finnish health authorities since the mid-1980s. But still there is a huge gap in favour of women when it comes to life expectancy at birth. People's health information behaviour, that is how people seek, obtain, evaluate, categorize and use relevant health-related information to perform desired health behaviours, is a critical prerequisite to appropriate and consistent performances of these behaviours. With respect to gender, it has been noted that men often are unwilling and lack the motivation to engage with health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender affects health information behaviour in the Finnish population aged 18-65 years. The survey data were collected via a questionnaire which was posted to a representative cross section consisting of 1500 Finnish citizens. The statistical analysis consists of ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests. The results show that women were more interested in and reported much more active seeking of health-related information, paid more attention to potential worldwide pandemics and were much more attentive as to how the goods they purchase in everyday life affect their health than men did. Women also reported receiving far more informal health-related information from close family members, other kin and friends/workmates than men did. Thus, to succeed in public health promotion and interventions the measures taken should be much more sensitive to the gender gap in health information behaviour. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Sciatica in Finnish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmelä, Susanna; Solovieva, Svetlana; Shiri, Rahman; Benner, Christian; Heliövaara, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Seppälä, Ilkka; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Palotie, Aarno; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7.7 million autosomal variants. The most promising loci (psciatica patients and 18,489 controls. We identified five intragenic variants, with relatively low frequencies, at two novel loci associated with sciatica at genome-wide significance. These included chr9:14344410:I (rs71321981) at 9p22.3 (NFIB gene; p = 1.30x10-8, MAF = 0.08) and four variants at 15q21.2: rs145901849, rs80035109, rs190200374 and rs117458827 (MYO5A; p = 1.34x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 2.32x10-8, MAF = 0.07; p = 3.85x10-8, MAF = 0.06; p = 4.78x10-8, MAF = 0.07, respectively). The most significant association in the meta-analysis, a single base insertion rs71321981 within the regulatory region of the transcription factor NFIB, replicated in an independent Finnish population sample (p = 0.04). Despite identifying 15q21.2 as a promising locus, we were not able to replicate it. It was differentiated; the lead variants within 15q21.2 were more frequent in Finland (6-7%) than in other European populations (1-2%). Imputation accuracies of the three significantly associated variants (chr9:14344410:I, rs190200374, and rs80035109) were validated by genotyping. In summary, our results suggest a novel locus, 9p22.3 (NFIB), which may be involved in susceptibility to sciatica. In addition, another locus, 15q21.2, emerged as a promising one, but failed to replicate.

  10. Accuracy of height estimation and tidal volume setting using anthropometric formulas in an ICU Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'her, Erwan; Martin-Babau, Jérôme; Lellouche, François

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of patients' height is essential for daily practice in the intensive care unit. However, actual height measurements are unavailable on a daily routine in the ICU and measured height in the supine position and/or visual estimates may lack consistency. Clinicians do need simple and rapid methods to estimate the patients' height, especially in short height and/or obese patients. The objectives of the study were to evaluate several anthropometric formulas for height estimation on healthy volunteers and to test whether several of these estimates will help tidal volume setting in ICU patients. This was a prospective, observational study in a medical intensive care unit of a university hospital. During the first phase of the study, eight limb measurements were performed on 60 healthy volunteers and 18 height estimation formulas were tested. During the second phase, four height estimates were performed on 60 consecutive ICU patients under mechanical ventilation. In the 60 healthy volunteers, actual height was well correlated with the gold standard, measured height in the erect position. Correlation was low between actual and calculated height, using the hand's length and width, the index, or the foot equations. The Chumlea method and its simplified version, performed in the supine position, provided adequate estimates. In the 60 ICU patients, calculated height using the simplified Chumlea method was well correlated with measured height (r = 0.78; ∂ ventilation, alternative anthropometric methods to obtain patient's height based on lower leg and on forearm measurements could be useful to facilitate the application of protective mechanical ventilation in a Caucasian ICU population. The simplified Chumlea method is easy to achieve in a bed-ridden patient and provides accurate height estimates, with a low bias.

  11. The ethnic gap in mobility: a comparison of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants and the general Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rask

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many ethnic minority populations have poorer health than the general population. However, there is limited knowledge on the possible ethnic gap in physical mobility. We aim to examine the prevalence of mobility limitations in working-age Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants in comparison to the general population in Finland. We also determine whether the association between ethnic group and mobility limitation remains after taking into account socio-economic and health-related factors. Methods We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu and the Finnish Health 2011 Survey. The participants comprised 1880 persons aged 29–64 years. The age-adjusted prevalence of difficulties in various mobility tasks was calculated using predictive margins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between socio-economic, health- and migration-related factors and mobility limitation (self-reported difficulty in walking 500 m or stair climbing. The association between ethnic group and mobility limitation was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results Mobility limitations were much more prevalent among Somali origin women (46 % and Kurdish origin men (32 % and women (57 % compared to men and women in the general Finnish population (5–12 %. In Russian origin men and women, the prevalence of mobility limitation (7–17 % was similar to the general Finnish population. Socio-economic and health-related factors, but not migration-related factors (time lived in Finland and language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish, were found to be associated with mobility limitation in the studied populations. Somali and Kurdish origin migrants were found to have increased odds for mobility limitation compared to the general Finnish population, even after adjusting for socio-economic and health-related factors (Somalis odds ratio [OR] 3.61; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.07–6.29, Kurds

  12. Sense of mastery differences between working-age Swedish- and Finnish-speaking Finns: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reini, Kaarina; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-06-01

    To examine the probability of a high sense of mastery in a population-representative sample of working-age people and to study the differences in mastery between Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns in particular. The data originates from the Western Finland Mental Health Surveys (2008-2014). Associations between sense of mastery and language groups were analyzed with logistic regressions. Swedish-speaking Finns have a higher sense of mastery and the association is mediated by social support. Moreover, a difference in a high sense of mastery is found between Swedish- and Finnish-speaking married women that are outside the labor market. Our findings imply that Finnish-speaking women that are outside the labor market, e.g. on maternity leave or taking care of the household, should be recognized in health and social care services as a group that can benefit from additional support.

  13. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  14. The effect of inversion at 8p23 on BLK association with lupus in Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Namjou

    Full Text Available To explore the potential influence of the polymorphic 8p23.1 inversion on known autoimmune susceptibility risk at or near BLK locus, we validated a new bioinformatics method that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion in a Caucasian population.Principal components analysis (PCA was performed using markers inside the inversion territory followed by k-means cluster analyses on 7416 European derived and 267 HapMaP CEU and TSI samples. A logistic regression conditional analysis was performed.Three subgroups have been identified; inversion homozygous, heterozygous and non-inversion homozygous. The status of inversion was further validated using HapMap samples that had previously undergone Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays with a concordance rate of above 98%. Conditional analyses based on the status of inversion were performed. We found that overall association signals in the BLK region remain significant after controlling for inversion status. The proportion of lupus cases and controls (cases/controls in each subgroup was determined to be 0.97 for the inverted homozygous group (1067 cases and 1095 controls, 1.12 for the inverted heterozygous group (1935 cases 1717 controls and 1.36 for non-inverted subgroups (924 cases and 678 controls. After calculating the linkage disequilibrium between inversion status and lupus risk haplotype we found that the lupus risk haplotype tends to reside on non-inversion background. As a result, a new association effect between non-inversion status and lupus phenotype has been identified ((p = 8.18×10(-7, OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.10-1.26.Our results demonstrate that both known lupus risk haplotype and inversion status act additively in the pathogenesis of lupus. Since inversion regulates expression of many genes in its territory, altered expression of other genes might also be involved in the development of lupus.

  15. Replication of endometriosis-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, J; Xu, H; Vodolazkaia, A; Fassbender, A; Kyama, C; Bokor, A; Gemzell-Danielsson, K; D'Hooghe, T M; Falconer, H

    2013-03-01

    Is it possible to replicate the previously identified genetic association of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs12700667, rs7798431, rs1250248 and rs7521902, with endometriosis in a Caucasian population? A borderline association was observed for rs1250248 and endometriosis (P = 0.049). However, we could not replicate the other previously identified endometriosis-associated SNPs (rs12700667, rs7798431 and rs7521902) in the same population. Endometriosis is considered a complex disease, influenced by several genetic and environmental factors, as well as interactions between them. Previous studies have found genetic associations with endometriosis for SNPs at the 7p15 and 2q35 loci in a Caucasian population. Allele frequencies of SNPs were investigated in patients with endometriosis and controls. Blood samples and peritoneal biopsies were taken from a Caucasian female population consisting of 1129 patients with endometriosis and 831 controls. DNA was extracted for genotyping. The study was performed at a University hospital and research laboratories. A weak association with endometriosis (all stages) was observed for rs1250248 (P = 0.049). No significant associations were observed for the SNPs rs12700667, rs7798431 and rs7521902. A non-significant trend towards the association of rs1250248 with moderate/severe endometriosis was observed (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.44). The inability to confirm all previous findings may result from differences between populations and type II errors. Our result demonstrates the difficulty of identifying common genetic variants in complex diseases. This study was supported by grants from the Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm City County/Karolinska Institutet (ALF), Stockholm, Sweden, Swedish Medical Research Council (K2007-54X-14212-06-3, K2010-54X-14212-09-3), Stockholm, Sweden, Leuven University Research Council (Onderzoeksraad KU Leuven), the Leuven University Hospitals Clinical Research Foundation

  16. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  17. Finnish version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia: Reference values in the Finnish general population and associations with leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Petteri; Borodulin, Katja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kujala, Urho; Pohjolainen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki

    2015-03-01

    To create reference values for the general Finnish population using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-FIN), to study gender differences in the TSK-FIN, to assess the internal consistency of the TSK-FIN, to estimate the prevalence of high levels of kinesiophobia in Finnish men and women, and to examine the association between kinesiophobia and leisure-time physical activity and the impact of co-morbidities on kinesiophobia. The study population comprised 455 men and 579 women. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic factors, leisure-time physical activity, co-morbidities and kinesiophobia. The mean TSK-FIN score was significantly higher for men (mean 34.2, standard deviation (SD) 6.9) compared with women (mean 32.9, SD 6.5), with an age-adjusted p = 0.004 for the difference between men and women. Cronbach's alpha was 0.72, indicating substantial internal consistency. Men over 55 years of age and women over 65 years of age had a higher (p physical activity among both sexes. The presence of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease or a mental disorder was associated with a higher TSK-FIN score compared with the absence of the aforementioned disorders. We present here the reference values for the TSK-FIN. The reference values and prevalence among the general population may help clinicians to define the level of kinesiophobia among patients. Disorders other than musculoskeletal diseases were associated with kinesiophobia, which should be noted in daily practice.

  18. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of 137Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Tillander, M.

    1995-01-01

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ''sample'' to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondos Adam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.

  20. An Obesity-Related FTO Variant and the Risk of Preeclampsia in a Finnish Study Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miira Klemetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a common variant of the obesity and fat mass-related FTO gene, rs9939609, to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and elevated blood pressure. We investigated whether the FTO SNP rs9939609 is associated with the risk of preeclampsia (PE in a Finnish study population. 485 women with prior PE and 449 women who had given birth after a normotensive pregnancy were genotyped (TaqMan for the SNP rs9939609. The prevalences of genotypes AA, AT, and TT were 15%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, among the PE cases, and 16%, 47%, and 37%, respectively, among the controls (P=0.199. We found no evidence of an association between the FTO SNP rs9939609 and PE. However, our cases were dominated by severe, early-onset PE. Thus, we are unable to exclude an association with the milder, later-onset form of the disease in which the role of maternal metabolic predisposition could be more significant.

  1. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Protective Low-Frequency Variants for Preeclampsia in the Fms Related Tyrosine Kinase 1 Gene in the Finnish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, A Inkeri; Daly, Emma; Triebwasser, Michael; Kurki, Mitja I; Roberson, Elisha D O; Häppölä, Paavo; Auro, Kirsi; Perola, Markus; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Salmon, Jane E; Meri, Seppo; Daly, Mark; Atkinson, John P; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a common pregnancy-specific vascular disorder characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria during the second half of pregnancy. Predisposition to preeclampsia is in part heritable. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. We have sequenced 124 candidate genes implicated in preeclampsia to pinpoint genetic variants contributing to predisposition to or protection from preeclampsia. First, targeted exomic sequencing was performed in 500 preeclamptic women and 190 controls from the FINNPEC cohort (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium). Then 122 women with a history of preeclampsia and 1905 parous women with no such history from the National FINRISK Study (a large Finnish population survey on risk factors of chronic, noncommunicable diseases) were included in the analyses. We tested 146 rare and low-frequency variants and found an excess (observed 13 versus expected 7.3) nominally associated with preeclampsia ( P preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. An evaluation of the performance of tag SNPs derived from HapMap in a Caucasian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montpetit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haplotype Map (HapMap project recently generated genotype data for more than 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in four population samples. The main application of the data is in the selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs to use in association studies. The usefulness of this selection process needs to be verified in populations outside those used for the HapMap project. In addition, it is not known how well the data represent the general population, as only 90-120 chromosomes were used for each population and since the genotyped SNPs were selected so as to have high frequencies. In this study, we analyzed more than 1,000 individuals from Estonia. The population of this northern European country has been influenced by many different waves of migrations from Europe and Russia. We genotyped 1,536 randomly selected SNPs from two 500-kbp ENCODE regions on Chromosome 2. We observed that the tSNPs selected from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain from Utah (CEU HapMap samples (derived from US residents with northern and western European ancestry captured most of the variation in the Estonia sample. (Between 90% and 95% of the SNPs with a minor allele frequency of more than 5% have an r2 of at least 0.8 with one of the CEU tSNPs. Using the reverse approach, tags selected from the Estonia sample could almost equally well describe the CEU sample. Finally, we observed that the sample size, the allelic frequency, and the SNP density in the dataset used to select the tags each have important effects on the tagging performance. Overall, our study supports the use of HapMap data in other Caucasian populations, but the SNP density and the bias towards high-frequency SNPs have to be taken into account when designing association studies.

  4. Insulinaemia and insulin resistance in Caucasian general paediatric population aged 2 to 10 years: Associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías-Hernández, Irene; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Muñoz-Vico, Francisco Javier; Vázquez Lopez, María Ángeles; Olvera-Porcel, María Carmen; Bonillo Perales, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine values of insulinaemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) among a population of prepubertal Caucasian children, to analyse factors associated with insulin resistance (IR), and to study its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Population-based study conducted on a randomly selected sample of prepubescent Caucasian subjects aged 2.00 to 9.99 years old. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were obtained, including fasting glucose, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and insulin. In addition, QUICKI and HOMA indices were calculated. Generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to calculate centiles curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with IR. A total of 654 subjects were included. Mean values obtained for insulinaemia, HOMA index, and QUICKI were 3.74 μIU/mL, 0.73, and 0.44, respectively, in the overall population and 3.32 μIU/mL, 0.64 and 0.46, respectively, in normal weight subjects. The main factor associated with IR was abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 3.38 [95% CI 1.44-7.94] in the subgroup aged 2.00-5.99 years and OR 9.14 [3.42-24.41] for those aged 6.00-9.99 years). An increased risk of hyperglycaemia (P = 0.043), hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001), and HDL < p10 (P = 0.021) was described among children aged 2.00 to 5.99 years with IR, and among those aged 6.00 to 9.99 years, IR was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001). Abdominal obesity was the main factor associated with IR. Metabolic changes associated with IR seem to be present from early stages of life, which highlights the importance of the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. IL23R in the Swedish, Finnish, Hungarian and Italian populations: association with IBD and psoriasis, and linkage to celiac disease

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    Vatta Serena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association of the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has been confirmed in several populations. IL23R also associates with psoriasis, suggesting that the gene may be an important candidate for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods We studied association of single-nucleotide variants in IL23R with IBD in Swedish patients, in both Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC subsets. The same genetic variants were also studied in Finnish patients with psoriasis or celiac disease, and in Hungarian and Italian patients with celiac disease. Results Association of IL23R with IBD was replicated in our Swedish patients, and linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis was found in the Finnish population. The IL23R region was also linked to celiac disease in Finnish families, but no association of IL23R variants with celiac disease was found in the Finnish, Hungarian or Italian samples. Conclusion Our study is the first to demonstrate association of IL23R with CD and UC in Swedish patients with IBD. It is also the first study to report linkage and association of the IL23R region with psoriasis in the Finnish population. Importantly, this is the first report of linkage of the IL23R region to celiac disease, a chronic inflammatory condition in which IL23R has not been previously implicated.

  6. Contributions of Caucasian-associated bone mass loci to the variation in bone mineral density in Vietnamese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Sing C; Tran, Bich; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is under strong genetic regulation, but it is not clear which genes are involved in the regulation, particularly in Asian populations. This study sought to determine the association between 29 genes discovered by Caucasian-based genome-wide association studies and BMD in a Vietnamese population. The study involved 564 Vietnamese men and women aged 18 years and over (average age: 47 years) who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City. BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, total hip and whole body was measured by DXA (Hologic QDR4500, Bedford, MA, USA). Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 29 genes were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The magnitude of association between SNPs and BMD was analyzed by the linear regression model. The Bayesian model average method was used to identify SNPs that are independently associated with BMD. The distribution of genotypes of all, but two, SNPs was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. After adjusting for age, gender and weight, 3 SNPs were associated with BMD: rs2016266 (SP7 gene), rs7543680 (ZBTB40 gene), and rs1373004 (MBL2/DKK1 gene). Among the three genetic variants, the SNP rs2016266 had the strongest association, with each minor allele being associated with ~0.02 g/cm(2) increase in BMD at the femoral neck and whole body. Each of these genetic variant explained about 0.2 to 1.1% variance of BMD. All other SNPs were not significantly associated with BMD. These results suggest that genetic variants in the SP7, ZBTB40 and MBL2/DKK1 genes are associated with BMD in the Vietnamese population, and that the effect of these genes on BMD is likely to be modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Familial occurrence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in a Caucasian population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corporaal, S.; Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees

    To determine the prevalence of autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in relatives of Caucasian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) we questioned 118 patients for the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in their relatives. Multicase SLE families were selected for further investigation:

  8. Incidence of diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis in Caucasian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based study

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    Ivan Kruljac

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aimed to analyze incidence and characteristics of patients with diabetic ketosis (DK and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA in Caucasian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: Studied population included 261,749 adults. DK criteria included plasma glucose >13.9 mmol/L and ketonuria >2, while in DKA bicarbonate <18 mEq/L or pH<7.30 was also required. Hyperglycemic crises without these criteria were defined as non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH. Results: During a 5-year period, we observed 630 episodes of DK and 215 episodes of DKA. Only 8.6% of DK episodes and 34.4% of DKA were attributed to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Patients with T1DM were younger, leaner, majority had newly diagnosed disease, and hyperglycemia was the main cause of admission. Standardized incidence ratio for DK was 48.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.5-52.1 and 17.0 (95% CI 14.9-19.4 for DKA. Incidence for both DK and DKA was increasing with age. In patients younger than 50, the incidence of DK and DKA was similar. However, dramatic rise in the incidence of DK was observed in both sexes after the age of 50. When compared with patients with NKH, the patients with DK had higher serum pH and bicarbonates. Patients with T2DM had a risk of 0.8% for developing DKA and 2.9% for DK over 5-year period. Conclusions: Our study showed that DK and DKA are not uncommon in Caucasian adults and the majority of episodes were contributed to T2DM. Incidence of DK is far more higher than the incidence of DKA in patients older than 50, who predominantly have T2DM. Moreover, patients with DK have higher serum pH and bicarbonates, both of which imply that DK and DKA are distinct clinical entities in patients with T2DM. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of these clinical entities.

  9. Insulin‐degrading enzyme is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease in the Finnish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Saila; Parkinson, Michele; Helisalmi, Seppo; Mannermaa, Arto; Soininen, Hilkka; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Bertram, Lars; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    The gene for insulin‐degrading enzyme (IDE), which is located at chromosome 10q24, has been previously proposed as a candidate gene for late‐onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on its ability to degrade amyloid β‐protein. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IDE gene in Finnish patients with AD and controls revealed SNPs rs4646953 and rs4646955 to be associated with AD, conferring an approximately two‐fold increased risk. Single locus findings were corroborated by the results obtained from haplotype analyses. This suggests that genetic alterations in or near the IDE gene may increase the risk for developing AD. PMID:17496198

  10. Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.

  11. Multiple independent variants in 6q21-22 associated with susceptibility to celiac disease in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Bevova, Marianna R.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Monsuur, Alienke; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; van't Slot, Ruben; Mulder, Chris; Mearin, M. Luisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma R.; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle; Kere, Juha; Maki, Markku; Wijmenga, Cisca; Saavalainen, Paivi

    Celiac disease is an inflammatory enteropathy caused by intolerance to gluten. Previous linkage studies in the Dutch, Finnish and Hungarian populations have revealed a locus on chromosome 6q21-22 conferring susceptibility to celiac disease. This locus has previously been implicated in susceptibility

  12. GVHD after HLA-matched sibling BMT or PBSCT: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow (BM) transplantation is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BM or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BM was used in 13% and 53% of Caucasian and Japanese patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grades III–IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57–0.96), which resulted in lower risk of non-relapse mortality in Japanese patients (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54–0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. Lower risk of non-relapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among Japanese patients. In conclusion, irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, which results in lower risk of non-relapse mortality. PMID:26762681

  13. Intrinsic structural variation of the complex microsatellite marker MYCL1 in Finnish and Somali populations and its relevance to gastrointestinal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Vauhkonen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally complex MYCL1 microsatellite marker is often used to determine microsatellite instability in colorectal cancers but the allelic variation of this marker has remained largely uncharacterized in both populations and in cancers. Our study describes the allelic distributions of MYCL1 in Finnish (n = 117 and Somali population samples (n = 61 of non-related individuals and compares this distribution with the instability pattern obtained from 61 gastrointestinal tumors.

  14. Generic and crime type specific correlates of youth crime: a Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.

  15. Victimization and psychopathic features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T; Laajasalo, Taina; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Jokela, Markus

    2016-10-01

    We examined different forms of victimization experiences in relation to psychopathic features and whether these associations differed in boys and girls among 4855 Finnish school adolescents aged 15-16 years. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self Report (APSD-SR). Victimization was assessed with questions about violent and abusive experiences across lifetime and within the last 12 months. Results from linear regression analysis showed that victimization was significantly associated with higher APSD-SR total scores, more strongly in girls than boys. Recent (12-month) victimization showed significance in the relationship between victimization and psychopathic features; especially recent sexual abuse and parental corporal punishment were strong determinants of higher APSD-SR total scores. The present study demonstrates novel findings on how severe victimization experiences relate to psychopathic features in community youth, especially in girls. The findings underscore the need for comprehensive evaluation of victimization experiences when psychopathic features are present in youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  17. An indication of major genes affecting hip and elbow dysplasia in four Finnish dog populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maki, K.; Janss, L.L.G.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible existence of major genes influencing hip and elbow dysplasia in four dog populations. A Bayesian segregation analysis was performed separately on each population. In total, 34 140 dogs were included in the data set. Data were analysed with both a

  18. Distribution and medical impact of loss-of-function variants in the Finnish founder population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Elaine T.; Würtz, Peter; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Tukiainen, Taru; Rehnström, Karola; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Inouye, Michael; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Lek, Monkol; Flannick, Jason; Sim, Xueling; Manning, Alisa; Ladenvall, Claes; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Hämäläinen, Eija; Aalto, Kristiina; Maksimow, Mikael; Salmi, Marko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Ardissino, Diego; Shah, Svati; Horne, Benjamin; McPherson, Ruth; Hovingh, Gerald K.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Girelli, Domenico; Reiner, Alex P.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gabriel, Stacey; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laakso, Markku; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; McCarthy, Mark I.; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Metspalu, Andres; Freimer, Nelson B.; Zeller, Tanja; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Koskinen, Seppo; Raitakari, Olli; Durbin, Richard; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Daly, Mark J.; Palotie, Aarno

    2014-01-01

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, even in phenotypically relevant genes. Isolated populations with recent

  19. Optimal fetal growth for the Caucasian singleton and assessment of appropriateness of fetal growth: an analysis of a total population perinatal database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appropriateness of an individual's intra uterine growth is now considered an important determinant of both short and long term outcomes, yet currently used measures have several shortcomings. This study demonstrates a method of assessing appropriateness of intrauterine growth based on the estimation of each individual's optimal newborn dimensions from routinely available perinatal data. Appropriateness of growth can then be inferred from the ratio of the value of the observed dimension to that of the optimal dimension. Methods Fractional polynomial regression models including terms for non-pathological determinants of fetal size (gestational duration, fetal gender and maternal height, age and parity were used to predict birth weight, birth length and head circumference from a population without any major risk factors for sub-optimal intra-uterine growth. This population was selected from a total population of all singleton, Caucasian births in Western Australia 1998–2002. Births were excluded if the pregnancy was exposed to factors known to influence fetal growth pathologically. The values predicted by these models were treated as the optimal values, given infant gender, gestational age, maternal height, parity, and age. Results The selected sample (N = 62,746 comprised 60.5% of the total Caucasian singleton birth cohort. Equations are presented that predict optimal birth weight, birth length and head circumference given gestational duration, fetal gender, maternal height, age and parity. The best fitting models explained 40.5% of variance for birth weight, 32.2% for birth length, and 25.2% for head circumference at birth. Conclusion Proportion of optimal birth weight (length or head circumference provides a method of assessing appropriateness of intrauterine growth that is less dependent on the health of the reference population or the quality of their morphometric data than is percentile position on a birth weight

  20. Retracted: Association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohui; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei; Zheng, Dongwen

    2015-03-01

    The association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism with type-2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) susceptibility and the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic databases. Sixteen articles were identified for the analysis of the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. Sensitivity analysis according to sample size of case (ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. However, more studies should be performed in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Salonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15–74. Methods Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484 and 2015 (n = 4515. The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8. Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18–24. Women aged 18–24 and 45–54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65–74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15–17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15–17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18–24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35–44 and 45–54, and gambling 1–3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55–64. Conclusions Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women’s increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.

  2. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H S; Rissanen, H; Bullard, K M; Knekt, P

    2014-12-01

    Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; 'abdominal height' measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000-2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1-23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30-49 both for men (22.4 [20.5-24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3-22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6-23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8-21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30-39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3-22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7-22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5-22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4-20.8]). Finland's early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 World Obesity.

  3. Diagnostic cutoff points for {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in a Caucasian population with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muxi, Africa; Paredes, Pilar [Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); RECAVA, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona (Spain); Agencia de Gestio d' Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR 2009 SGR 1049), Barcelona (Spain); Navales, Ignacio; Sola, Oriol; Domenech, Beatriz [Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Valldeoriola, Francesc; Gaig, Carles; Cerda, Andres de la; Tolosa, Eduardo [Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Lomena, Francisco [Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Agencia de Gestio d' Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR 2009 SGR 1049), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Molecular imaging with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there is no consensual index to discriminate between normal and PD patients in the Caucasian population. The purpose of this study was to determine diagnostic cutoff points in the quantification of MIBG cardiac uptake in our population of PD patients. We have also calculated the reproducibility over a range of interpretation expertise. The study included 14 PD patients and 14 normal age- and sex-matched controls. Heart to mediastinum ratios (H/M) were calculated at 15 min (H/M15m) and 4 h (H/M4h) post-injection by three observers with different interpretation expertise, one of whom drew the regions of interest at three different times. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability was calculated (interclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variability). Diagnosis was estimated by maximizing the Youden index for H/M and washout ratios. Discrimination ability was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC). Sensitivity and specificity were reported, using our thresholds. The parameter with the best diagnostic accuracy was the H/M4h ratio, with a major AUC (0.976 area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve). The threshold was 1.43 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.37-1.50. Using this threshold, the sensitivity and specificity were 93 and 100%. The interobserver and intraobserver variabilities measuring this ratio were 3.2 and 3.1%, respectively. The diagnostic cutoff point for {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in a Caucasian population with PD was 1.43 for the H/M4h index, with a good sensitivity and specificity. The technique is easy to use, with a good reproducibility over a range of interpretation expertise. (orig.)

  4. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and inter-pregnancy weight change among women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and the general Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Kalpana; Koponen, Päivikki; Härkänen, Tommi; Gissler, Mika; Kinnunen, Tarja I

    2017-05-01

    We studied the differences in the mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and mean inter-pregnancy weight change in women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin and women in the general Finnish population. The population-based samples were from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the Health 2011 Survey conducted in six cities in Finland in 2010-2012. This study included women with at least one birth in Finland. Data on their previous pregnancies in Finland were obtained from the National Medical Birth Register for 318 Russian, 584 Somali and 373 Kurdish origin women and for 243 women in the general Finnish population (reference group). Data on pre-pregnancy weight and height were self-reported in early pregnancy. Linear logistic regression was the main method of analysis. The unadjusted mean pre-pregnancy BMI was higher in Somali (27.0 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) and Kurdish (25.8 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) women, but lower in Russian (22.2 kg/m 2 , p<0.001) women than in the reference group (24.1 kg/m 2 ). The adjusted coefficients for the difference in the mean pre-pregnancy BMI were -1.93 (95% CI -2.77 to -1.09) for Russian, 1.82 (95% CI 0.89-2.75) for Somali and 1.30 (95% CI 0.43-2.17) for Kurdish women compared with the reference group. Among women with at least two births, no statistically significant difference was observed in the mean inter-pregnancy weight change between the migrant groups and the reference group. Somali and Kurdish women had higher mean pre-pregnancy BMIs than women in the general Finnish population and may need special support and health promotion strategies for weight management.

  6. Statin use and vitreoretinal surgery: Findings from a Finnish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Sahanne, Sari; Takala, Annika; Haukka, Jari

    2018-01-16

    Vitreoretinal (VR) surgery is the third most common intraocular surgery after refractive and cataract surgery. The impact of statin therapy on VR surgery outcomes remains unclear, despite a potentially beneficial effect. We explored the association of preoperative statin therapy and the need for revitrectomy after primary vitrectomy. Our historical, population-based, register-based, VR surgery cohort consisted of 5709 patients operated in a tertiary, academic referral hospital in Finland, during 2008-2014, covering 6.5 years. Subgroup analysis was performed as follows: eyes operated due to (i) rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), (ii) VR interface diseases (macular pucker/hole), (iii) diabetic maculopathy or proliferative retinopathy, (iv) vitreous haemorrhage, (v) lens subluxation, (vi) vitreous opacities or (vii) other VR indication. The primary end-point event was revitrectomy during a postoperative follow-up period of 1 year due to retinal redetachment, vitreous rehaemorrhage, postoperative endophthalmitis, recurrent pucker or unclosed macular hole. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) was the second most frequent indication of VR surgery, including 1916 patients, with 305 re-operations with rate 0.20 (95% CI 0.18-0.23) per person-year. Statin treatment in time of operation was associated with lower risk of re-operation according to relative scale (incidence rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97), but not in absolute scale (incidence rate difference -0.58, 95% CI -4.30 to 3.15 for 100 person-years). No association with statin therapy and vitrectomy outcome was observed in the other VR subgroups. Use of statin treatment was associated with a 28% lower risk of revitrectomy in patients operated due to RRD. Further randomized clinical trials are highly warranted. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Psychosis Proneness in the Finnish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Ekelund, Jesper; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hennah, William

    2017-10-21

    The current study examined quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a nonpsychotic population, in order to elucidate their underlying genetic architecture and to observe if there is any commonality to that already detected in the studies of individuals with overt psychotic conditions, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Heritability, univariate and multivariate genome-wide association (GWAs) tests, including a series of comprehensive gene-based association analyses, were developed in 4269 nonpsychotic persons participating in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study with information on the following psychometric measures: Hypomanic Personality, Perceptual Aberration, Physical and Social Anhedonia (also known as Chapman's Schizotypia scales), and Schizoidia scale. Genome-wide genetic data was available for ~9.84 million SNPs. Heritability estimates ranged from 16% to 27%. Phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations ranged from 0.04-0.43, 0.25-0.73, and 0.12-0.43, respectively. Univariate GWAs tests revealed an intronic SNP (rs12449097) at the TMC7 gene (16p12.3) that significantly associated (P = 3.485 × 10-8) with the hypomanic scale. Bivariate GWAs tests including the hypomanic and physical anhedonia scales suggested a further borderline significant SNP (rs188320715; P-value = 5.261 × 10-8, ~572 kb downstream the ARID1B gene at 6q25.3). Gene-based tests highlighted 20 additional genes of which 5 had previously been associated to schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder: CSMD1, CCDC141, SLC1A2, CACNA1C, and SNAP25. Altogether the findings explained from 3.7% to 14.1% of the corresponding trait heritability. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary genomic evidence suggesting that qualitatively similar biological factors may underlie different psychosis proneness measures, some of which could further predispose to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland

  8. The prevalence of ALK rearrangement in pulmonary adenocarcinomas in an unselected Caucasian population from a defined catchment area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients diagnosed in the population of the greater Copenhagen area were included, irrespective of gender, age, smoking habits, stage or type of available diagnostic material. Tumours were stained with immunohistochemistry (clone 5A4). Immunohistochemistry-positive tumours were......AIMS: To assess the prevalence of EML4-ALK rearrangement gene measured by immunohistochemistry in an unselected population-based consecutive cohort of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung (ACL), and the correlation with smoking history, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), gender and age...

  9. The prevalence of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer in an unselected Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit G; Høgdall, Estrid; Clementsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    in a well-defined Danish population were included. The type of the diagnostic material, and data on smoking were registered. The mutation analyses were investigated by Therascreen EGFR RGQ-PCR Kit or Sanger sequencing. A total of 658 men and 598 women were included. 6.2% were never smokers, 38.9% were ex-smokers.......0% of adenocarcinomas, and 1.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were mutated. 29.4%, 4.4% and 2.9% of never, ex- and current smokers were mutated (p ... EGFR mutation. Adenocarcinomas were mutated more often (8.0%) than squamous cell carcinomas (1.9%). Mutations were found in never smokers as well as in former and current smokers. No difference in gender and age regarding mutation status was observed. EGFR mutations analysis was possible in almost all...

  10. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  11. Saitohin Q7R polymorphism is associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease susceptibility among caucasian populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Tian, Sai; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Xia, Wenqing; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-08-01

    Saitohin (STH) Q7R polymorphism has been reported to influence the individual's susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, conclusions remain controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to explore the association between STH Q7R polymorphism and AD risk. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science for studies published before 31 August 2016. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association using a fixed- or random-effects model. Subgroup analyses, Galbraith plot and sensitivity analyses were also performed. All statistical analyses were performed with STATA Version 12.0. A total of 19 case-control studies from 17 publications with 4387 cases and 3972 controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the Q7R polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of AD in a recessive model (RR versus QQ+QR, OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.01-1.60, P = 0.040). After excluding the four studies not carried out in caucasians, the overall association was unchanged in all comparison models. Further subgroup analyses stratified by the time of AD onset, and the quality of included studies provided statistical evidence of significant increased risk of AD in RR versus QQ+QR model only in late-onset subjects (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07-2.26, P = 0.021) and in studies with high quality (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.86, P = 0.043). This meta-analysis suggests that the RR genotype in saitohin Q7R polymorphism may be a human-specific risk factor for AD, especially among late-onset AD subjects and caucasian populations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. HNF1 alpha gene coding regions mutations screening, in a Caucasian population clinically characterized as MODY from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ariel Pablo; Foscaldi, Sabrina Andrea; Perez, Maria Silvia; Rodriguez, Martín; Traversa, Mercedes; Puchulu, Félix Miguel; Bergada, Ignacio; Frechtel, Gustavo Daniel

    2011-02-01

    There are at least six subtypes of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) with distinctive genetic causes. MODY 3 is caused by mutations in HNF1A gene, an insulin transcription factor, so mutations in this gene are associated with impaired insulin secretion. MODY 3 prevalence differs according to the population analyzed, but it is one of the most frequent subtypes. Therefore, our aims in this work were to find mutations present in the HNF1A gene and provide information on their prevalence. Mutations screening was done in a group of 80 unrelated patients (average age 17.1 years) selected by clinical characterization of MODY, by SSCP electrophoresis followed by sequenciation. We found eight mutations, of which six were novel and four sequence variants, which were all novel. Therefore the prevalence of MODY 3 in this group was 10%. Compared clinical data between the non-MODY 3 patients and the MODY 3 diagnosed patients did not show any significant difference. Eight patients were diagnosed as MODY 3 and new data about the prevalence of that subtype is provided. Our results contribute to reveal novel mutations, providing new data about the prevalence of that subtype. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  14. Are serum adiponectin concentrations in a population sample of 64-year-old Caucasian women with varying glucose tolerance associated with ultrasound-assessed atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, C J; Brohall, G; Hulthe, J; Wikstrand, J; Fagerberg, B

    2006-09-01

    To examine whether serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as intima media thickness (IMT) in the carotid arteries in Caucasian women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. From a population-based cohort of 64-year-old Swedish women, 533 subjects with type 2 diabetes (DM2, n=177), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n=178) or normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=178) were recruited. Anthropometrics, usual cardiovascular risk factors were examined and ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries was performed. Women with low adiponectin concentrations were characterized by thick IMT, higher prevalence of DM2, history of previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, anti-hypertensive treatment and high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, plasma insulin, serum triglycerides, fasting glucose, HbA1c, and low serum HDL cholesterol levels. Carotid IMT correlated with HbA1c (r=0.24, PDM2 (r=0.16, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (r=0.16, P<0.001), blood glucose (r=0.16, P<0.001), triglycerides (r=0.15, P<0.001), and reversely to adiponectin (r=-0.11, P=0.01), HDL cholesterol (r=-0.13, P=0.004), and alcohol intake (r=-0.087, P<0.05). A more detailed analysis of underlying associations was difficult due to a high co-linearity between these variable. Low serum adiponectin concentrations were associated with increased carotid artery IMT, and several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, mainly those constituting the metabolic syndrome.

  15. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Comparison of the GHQ-36, the GHQ-12 and the SCL-90 as psychiatric screening instruments in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, Matti M; Marttunen, Mauri; Aalberg, Veikko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the screening properties of two General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) versions and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), and to evaluate them as psychiatric screening instruments in Finland. We administered the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 to psychiatric outpatients (n=207) and to a community sample (n=315). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the screening performance of the two instruments and of the GHQ-12 extracted from the GHQ-36. The screening properties of the scales were found to be good and similar. Suggested optimal cut-off points were 3/4 for the GHQ-12, 8/9 for the GHQ-36 and 0.90/0.91 for the SCL-90. In conclusion, the scales functioned equally well in screening. This favors the GHQ-12 for pure screening. When information on the symptom level is also needed, the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 become better choices. The cut-off points presented here should be considered in the future Finnish psychiatric screening studies.

  17. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  18. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Ayala-Castillo, Miguel; Forero-Naranjo, Leonardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2015-12-10

    To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in a Colombian population. This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects (age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital's database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population.

  19. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  20. [Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain transmission caused by migratory processes in the Russian Federation (in case of populational migration from the Caucasian Region to Moscow and the Moscow Region)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskaia, S N; Chernousova, L N; Smirnova, T G; Larionova, E E; Kuz'min, A V

    2006-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 134 M. tuberculosis isolated from 134 patients treated at the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) those who were natives of Moscow and the Moscow Region (MR patients); 2) those who were migrants to the Moscow Region from Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Karachai-Cherkessia, North Ossetia (the Caucasian Region) (CR patients) who had fallen in the place of birth. Genotyping by the polymorphism of lengths of the restriction fragments containing the insertion sequence IS6110 revealed a genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains. The examined M. tuberculosis strains belonged to 13 genotypic families. The W and AI families were prevalent. The family W M. tuberculosis strains isolated from the Caucasians were highly clustered, as confirmed by the overwhelming predominance of the strain variant W148 (19.7%). The spectrum of the strain variants of the W family, and those of the AI family in particular, greatly differed in MR and CR patients. Only one strain variant AI12 occurring both in MR and CR patients was detected. A study of the transmission activity coefficient (TAC) of the families W and AI indicated that the transmission activity of W strains was significantly higher than that of M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family. A comparative analysis of the TAC of M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family demonstrated that the transmission activity of the strains of this family was identical no matter where a patient had fallen ill (1.59 and 1.41% in the Moscow and Caucasian Regions, respectively). Unlike M. tuberculosis strains of the AI family, the TAC of W strains isolated from the patients infected in the Moscow Region (28.17 and 19.05%, respectively), which suggests the more intensive transmission of the pathogen M. tuberculosis of the W family in the Caucasian Region.

  1. Ovarian cancer survival population differences: a "high resolution study" comparing Philippine residents, and Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa M; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-09-24

    In contrast to most other forms of cancer, data from some developing and developed countries show surprisingly similar survival rates for ovarian cancer. We aimed to compare ovarian cancer survival in Philippine residents, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US, using a high resolution approach, taking potential differences in prognostic factors into account. Using databases from the SEER 13 and from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed using the period analysis method and compared between Filipino-American ovarian cancer patients with cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasians in the US. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Despite more favorable distribution of age and cancer morphology and similar stage distribution, 5-year absolute and relative survival were lower in Philippine residents (Absolute survival, AS, 44%, Standard Error, SE, 2.9 and Relative survival, RS, 49.7%, SE, 3.7) than in Filipino-Americans (AS, 51.3%, SE, 3.1 and RS, 54.1%, SE, 3.4). After adjustment for these and additional covariates, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents was found (Relative Risk, RR, 2.45, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.99-3.01). In contrast, no significant differences were found between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians living in the US. Multivariate analyses disclosed strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients, for which differences in access to health care might have played an important role. Survival is no worse among Filipino-Americans than among Caucasians living in the US.

  2. Associations of Weight Concerns With Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Quit Smoking: A Population-Based Study Among Finnish Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Kinnunen, Taru H; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Patja, Kristiina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about weight gain occurring after smoking cessation may affect motivation and self-efficacy towards quitting smoking. We examined associations of smoking-specific weight concerns with smoking cessation motivation and self-efficacy in a population-based cross-sectional sample of daily smokers. Six-hundred biochemically verified (blood cotinine) current daily smokers comprising 318 men and 282 women aged 25-74 years, were studied as part of the National FINRISK (Finnish Population Survey on Risk Factors on Chronic, Noncommunicable Diseases) study and its DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic factors in the development of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) sub-study that was conducted in Finland in 2007. Self-reported scales were used to assess weight concerns, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the cessation of smoking. Multiple regression analyses of concerns about weight in relation to motivation and self-efficacy were conducted with adjustments for sex, age (years), body mass index (BMI, [kg/m(2)]), physical activity (times per week), and further controlled for nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Higher levels of weight concerns were associated with lower self-efficacy (β = -0.07, p motivation for smoking cessation (β = 0.02, p = 0.16). These cross-sectional population-based data do not support earlier findings that suggest that smokers with high levels of weight concerns are less motivated to quit smoking. Our data suggest that daily smokers who are highly concerned about weight may have lower self-efficacy for cessation of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Influence of model specifications on the reliabilities of genomic prediction in a Swedish-Finnish red breed cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2012-01-01

    Using a combined multi-breed reference population, this study explored the influence of model specification and the effect of including a polygenic effect on the reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV and GEBV). The combined reference population consisted of 2986 Swedish Red Breed (SRB) and ...

  4. The Finnish "social wilderness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville Hallikainen

    2000-01-01

    The cultural roots and images of the Finnish wilderness lie in its use as a source of livelihood practiced in southern and central Finland during the Middle Ages. There are statutory wilderness areas in Finland, but Finnish people consider many other areas as wilderness. It is important for management of the areas, statutory wilderness areas and the other wilderness-...

  5. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The Period 3 and Clock genes are important components of the mammalian molecular circadian system. Studies have shown association between polymorphisms in these clock genes and circadian phenotypes in different populations. Nevertheless, differences in the pattern of allele frequency and genotyping distribution are systematically observed in studies with different ethnic groups. To investigate and compare the pattern of distribution in a sample of Asian and Caucasian populations living in Brazil, we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in CLOCK. The aim of this investigation was to search for clues about human evolutionary processes related to circadian rhythms. We selected 109 Asian and 135 Caucasian descendants. The frequencies of the shorter allele (4 repeats in the PER3 gene and the T allele in the CLOCK gene among Asians (0.86 and 0.84, respectively were significantly higher than among Caucasians (0.69 and 0.71, respectively. Our results directly confirmed the different distribution of these polymorphisms between the Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups. Given the genetic differences found between groups, two points became evident: first, ethnic variations may have implications for the interpretation of results in circadian rhythm association studies, and second, the question may be raised about which evolutionary conditions shaped these genetic clock variations.

  6. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  7. ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of endometriosis in a French Caucasian population of 633 patients living in the same geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Bruno; Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20-2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes.

  8. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  9. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  10. A GWAS follow-up study reveals the association of the IL12RB2 gene with systemic sclerosis in Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Broen, Jasper; Gorlova, Olga; Simeón, Carmen P.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C.; Luis Callejas, Jose; Castellví, Ivan; Carreira, Patricia; José García-Hernández, Francisco; Fernández Castro, Mónica; Coenen, Marieke J.H.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg H.W.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Schuerwegh, Annemie J.; Palm, Øyvind; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airó, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Scorza, Raffaella; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M.; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Tan, Filemon K.; Arnett, Frank C.; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Assassi, Shervin; Fonseca, Carmen; Mayes, Maureen D.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Martin, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the IL12RB2 locus showed a suggestive association signal in a previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Aiming to reveal the possible implication of the IL12RB2 gene in SSc, we conducted a follow-up study of this locus in different Caucasian cohorts. We analyzed 10 GWAS-genotyped SNPs in the IL12RB2 region (2309 SSc patients and 5161 controls). We then selected three SNPs (rs3790567, rs3790566 and rs924080) based on their significance level in the GWAS, for follow-up in an independent European cohort comprising 3344 SSc and 3848 controls. The most-associated SNP (rs3790567) was further tested in an independent cohort comprising 597 SSc patients and 1139 controls from the USA. After conditional logistic regression analysis of the GWAS data, we selected rs3790567 [PMH= 1.92 × 10−5 odds ratio (OR) = 1.19] as the genetic variant with the firmest independent association observed in the analyzed GWAS peak of association. After the first follow-up phase, only the association of rs3790567 was consistent (PMH= 4.84 × 10−3 OR = 1.12). The second follow-up phase confirmed this finding (Pχ2 = 2.82 × 10−4 OR = 1.34). After performing overall pooled-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study, the association found for the rs3790567 SNP in the IL12RB2 gene region reached GWAS-level significant association (PMH= 2.82 × 10−9 OR = 1.17). Our data clearly support the IL12RB2 genetic association with SSc, and suggest a relevant role of the interleukin 12 signaling pathway in SSc pathogenesis. PMID:22076442

  11. Occlusion in the primary and early mixed dentitions in a group of Tanzanian and Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, H

    1990-01-01

    Two high and two low socioeconomic areas were selected for the Tanzanian portion of this study, with all nursery schools located in those areas included, for a subtotal of 580 children. The Finnish group was comprised of a total of 575 Caucasian children examined. The Tanzanian children (83 percent Black African, 10 percent Asian, 7 percent Arab) had fewer occlusal anomalies than the Finnish children did. Finnish children had a 13-percent incidence rate of lateral cross-bite; among African children, 8 percent showed anterior crossbite; and among the combined Asian/Arab group of children, 10 percent had an anterior open bite. African children had significantly fewer prevalences of distal bite, lateral crossbite and crowding than Finnish children did.

  12. Finnish Bioenergy Association - Finbio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopo, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Finnish Bioenergy Association, was founded in November 1991 in the city of Jyvaeskylae. In November 1996, the membership of FINBIO consisted of 17 contributing collective members and 75 individual members. Members of the organization include e.g. the Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Wood Energy Association and Finnish Biogas Centre, all of which represent specific bioenergy fields in Finland. The Finnish Bioenergy Association is a private, non-profit organization the objectives of which are to promote and develop harvesting, transportation and processing of biofuels and other biomass (wood-based biofuels, non-food crops, peat, biowaste); to promote the use of biomass in energy production and in other applications, in accordance with environmentally sound and sustainable development. The objectives of FINBIO is to promote the production and application of all forms of bioenergy in Finland. FINBIO acts as a coordinator for AEBIOM (the European Biomass Association) and its member associations, as well as for other international bioenergy-related organizations

  13. RETRACTED: Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Guo, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Zongpei; Li, Hong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The following article has been included in a multiple retraction: Tian-Biao Zhou, Xue-Feng Guo, Zongpei Jiang, and Hong-Yan Li Relationship between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T1DN susceptibility/risk of T1DM developing into T1DN in the Caucasian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563425, first published on February 1, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563425 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January

  14. Association of galanin haplotypes with alcoholism and anxiety in two ethnically distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, I; Hipp, H; McKnight, C; Evans, C; Buzas, B; Bollettino, A; Albaugh, B; Virkkunen, M; Yuan, Q; Max, MB; Goldman, D; Enoch, MA

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (GAL) is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Animal studies have implicated GAL in alcohol abuse and anxiety: chronic ethanol intake increases hypothalamic GAL mRNA; high levels of stress increase GAL release in the central amygdala. The coding sequence of the galanin gene, GAL, is highly conserved and a functional polymorphism has not yet been found. The aim of our study was, for the first time, to identify GAL haplotypes and investigate associations with alcoholism and anxiety. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning GAL were genotyped in 65 controls from five populations: US and Finnish Caucasians, African Americans, Plains and Southwestern Indians. A single haplotype block with little evidence of historical recombination was observed for each population. Four tag SNPs were then genotyped in DSM-III-R lifetime alcoholics and nonalcoholics from two population isolates: 514 Finnish Caucasian men and 331 Plains Indian men and women. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire harm avoidance (HA) scores, a dimensional measure of anxiety, were obtained. There was a haplotype association with alcoholism in both the Finnish (P=0.001) and Plains Indian (P=0.004) men. The SNPs were also significantly associated. Alcoholics were divided into high and low HA groups (≥ and alcoholics, low HA alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Our results from two independent populations suggest that GAL may contribute to vulnerability to alcoholism, perhaps mediated by dimensional anxiety. PMID:16314872

  15. Genetic variability of HLA in the Dariusleut Hutterites. A comparative genetic analysis of the Hutterities, the Amish, and other selected Caucasian populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Holmes, T M; Schlaut, J; Marchuk, L; Kovithavongs, T; Pazderka, F; Dossetor, J B

    1980-01-01

    There are three endogamous subdivisions of the Hutterite population, a North American religious isolate. These individuals live on communal farms, and residence is strictly patrilocal. We report on the distributions of HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes in 203 married women from one subdivision--the Dariusleut--in Alberta, Canada. We demonstrate that there is significant linkage disequilbrium among a large fraction of the distinct haplotypes in the Dariusleut Hutterite data; there is a restri...

  16. New Finnish radiation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  17. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  18. Ethnicity-related differences in inguinal canal dimensions between African and Caucasian populations and their potential impact on the mesh size for open and laparoscopic groin hernia repair in low-resource countries in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Kryspin; Kozieł, Sławomir; Pasierbek, Michał

    2018-03-01

    Access to surgery in Africa is significantly limited. Treatment outcomes in Africa differ significantly compared to those achieved in Europe or the US. Therefore, to popularise tension-free repair, it is essential to determine the economically justified mesh size for the African population. To conduct anthropometric evaluation of the inguinal canal in African and European patients to determine its potential consequences for the mesh size for open and laparoscopic hernia repair. The measurements were made in 44 adult males in Africa (group I) and were compared to measurements in 45 consecutive Caucasian males (group II). The mean age of patients was respectively 48.3 and 51.2 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the internal ring diameter between groups (2.2 vs. 2.1 cm; p = 0.58). The distance between the pubic tubercle and the inferomedial border of the internal inguinal ring was significantly shorter in group I (3.8 vs. 5.1 cm; p < 0.001). A similar difference was found in the length of transverse arch aponeurosis (2.9 vs. 4.0 cm; p < 0.001). The distance between the pubic tubercle and anterior superior iliac spine in group I was approximately 2 cm shorter on each side (10.0 vs. 11.8 cm; p < 0.001). The anatomical differences in inguinal dimensions between Central African and European populations support the potential need to adjust the standard size of synthetic mesh used for hernia repair to the needs of local populations. The significantly smaller dimensions of the inguinal canal in African males may allow the use of smaller meshes.

  19. Two new FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) missense polymorphisms, 739G-->A and 839T-->C, are partly responsible for non-secretor status in a Caucasian population from Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jacinta; Mendes, Nuno; Reis, Celso A; Santos Silva, Luis F; Almeida, Raquel; Le Pendu, Jacques; David, Leonor

    2004-11-01

    Secretor status is defined by the expression of H type 1 antigen on gastric surface epithelium and external secretions. The H type 1 structure, and other fucosylated carbohydrates (Le(a), sialyl-Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), sialyl-Le(x) and Le(y)), can serve as ligands for several pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, and are cancer-associated antigens. Secretor individuals are more susceptible to some bacterial and viral infections of the genito-urinary and digestive tracts. The aim of the present study was to examine FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) polymorphisms in a Caucasian population of non-secretor individuals (n=36) from northern Portugal and to evaluate the activity of the mutant FUT2 enzymes. The secretor status was determined by UEAI [Ulex europaeus (gorse) lectin] histochemistry in gastric mucosa, and FUT2 polymorphisms were studied by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and direct sequencing. The majority of non-secretors (88.9%) were homozygous for 428G-->A polymorphism; 5.6% were homozygous for 571C-->T and 5.6% were homozygous for two new missense polymorphisms, 739G-->A (2.8%) and 839T-->C (2.8%). By kinetic studies it was demonstrated that the two new FUT2 mutants (739G-->A and 839T-->C) are almost inactive and are responsible for some non-secretor cases.

  20. Two new FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) missense polymorphisms, 739G→A and 839T→C, are partly responsible for non-secretor status in a Caucasian population from Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Secretor status is defined by the expression of H type 1 antigen on gastric surface epithelium and external secretions. The H type 1 structure, and other fucosylated carbohydrates (Lea, sialyl-Lea, Leb, Lex, sialyl-Lex and Ley), can serve as ligands for several pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, and are cancer-associated antigens. Secretor individuals are more susceptible to some bacterial and viral infections of the genito-urinary and digestive tracts. The aim of the present study was to examine FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) polymorphisms in a Caucasian population of non-secretor individuals (n=36) from northern Portugal and to evaluate the activity of the mutant FUT2 enzymes. The secretor status was determined by UEAI [Ulex europaeus (gorse) lectin] histochemistry in gastric mucosa, and FUT2 polymorphisms were studied by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and direct sequencing. The majority of non-secretors (88.9%) were homozygous for 428G→A polymorphism; 5.6% were homozygous for 571C→T and 5.6% were homozygous for two new missense polymorphisms, 739G→A (2.8%) and 839T→C (2.8%). By kinetic studies it was demonstrated that the two new FUT2 mutants (739G→A and 839T→C) are almost inactive and are responsible for some non-secretor cases. PMID:15250822

  1. Thrombophilic Genetic Factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Noncirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A were studied as risk factors in 235 Caucasian subjects: 85 patients with abdominal thrombosis (54 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT and 31 with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and 150 blood bank donors. Seventy-five patients with PVT/BCS showed associated disease or particular clinical status (46 PVT/29 BCS: 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (20 PVT/17 BCS, 12 abdominal surgery (10 PVT/2 BCS, 10 contraception or pregnancy (6 PVT/4 BCS, 7 abdominal acute disease (6 PVT/1 BCS, and 9 chronic disease (4 PVT/5 BCS; ten patients did not present any association (8 PVT/2 BCS. PAI-14G-4G, MTHFR677TT, and V Leiden 506Q were significantly frequent (OR 95% CI and χ2 test with P value in abdominal thrombosis; in these patients PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT distributions deviated from that expected from a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PAI-1: χ2=13.8, P<0.001; MTHFR677: χ2=7.1, P<0.01, whereas the equilibrium was respected in healthy controls. V Leiden Q506 and Prothrombin 20210A were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium both in patients with abdominal thrombosis and healthy controls. Our study shows an important role of PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT in abdominal thrombosis without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Lestelle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare.

  3. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas: One Case with a Metastatic Evolution in a Caucasian Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestelle, Valentin; de Coster, Claire; Sarran, Anthony; Poizat, Flora; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a Caucasian woman, operated on for a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in 2009, who recurred 4 years later with multiple liver metastases requiring liver resection. This disease is infrequent, particularly among the Caucasian population, and metastatic evolution is very rare.

  4. Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chapmen

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...

  5. Finnish industry's energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Industry uses around half of the electricity consumed in Finland. In 1999, this amounted to 42.3 TWh and 420 PJ of fuel. Despite the continual improvements that have been made in energy efficiency, energy needs look set to continue growing at nearly 2% a year. Finnish industrial output rose by some 5.5% in 1999. In energy-intensive sectors such as pulp and paper, output rose by 3.4%, in the metal industry by 4%, and in the chemical industry by 3.1%. Growth across Finnish industry is largely focused on the electrical and electronics industries, however, where growth last year was 24.3% The Finnish forest products industry used a total of 26.1 TWh of electricity last year, up 1% on 1998. This small increase was the result of the industry's lower-than-average operating rate in the early part of the year The metal industry used 7.2 TWh of electricity, an increase of 5.8% on 1998. Usage in the chemical industry rose by 2% to 5.2 TWh. Usage by the rest of industry totalled 3.8 TWh, up 2.3% on 1998. All in all, industry's use of electricity rose by 2% in 1999 to 42,3 TWh. Increased demand on industry's main markets in Europe will serve to boost industrial output and export growth this year. This increased demand will be particularly felt in energy-intensive industries in the shape of an increased demand for electricity. Overall, electricity demand is expected to grow by 3% this year, 1% more than industry's longterm projected electricity usage growth figure of 2%. The structure of industry's fuel use in Finland has changed significantly over the last 25 years. Oil, for example, now accounts for only some 10% of fuel use compared to the 40% typical around the time of the first oil crisis. Oil has been replaced by biofuels, peat, and natural gas. The pulp and paper industry is the largest industrial user of renewable energy sources in Finland, and uses wood-related fuels to cover nearly 70% of its fuel needs

  6. Bibliometric evaluation of Finnish astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of ref...

  7. DIGITALISATION IN FINNISH MUSEUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laine-Zamojska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available W artykule omówiono generalny obraz digitalizacji w fińskim sektorze muzealnym. Przedstawiono szacunkowe liczby dotyczące digitalizacji dziedzictwa kulturowego na podstawie przeprowadzonych statystycznych badań, oraz zaprezentowano wiele projektów związanych z ucyfrowieniem fińskich muzeów.\tFiński sektor muzealny jest niezwykle zróżnicowany, podobnie jak stopień skatalogowania i zdigitalizowania kolekcji. W projektach rozwojowych aktywnie uczestniczy cały sektor muzealny. W ostatnich latach, dzięki wielu inicjatywom i badaniom udało się uzyskać szczegółowy obraz fińskiego sektora muzealnego. Największą inicjatywą jest projekt utworzenia Narodowej Biblioteki Cyfrowej, podlegający Ministerstwu Edukacji i Kultury. Celem projektu jest połączenie i udostępnienie zasobów z instytucji pamięci (bibliotek, archiwów i muzeów. Towarzyszą mu rozległe projekty digitalizacji.\tW związku z ogromną różnorodnością systemów do zarządzania kolekcją i praktykami katalogowymi w muzeach, w 2011 r. Państwowy Urząd Muzealny (Museovirasto / National Board of Antiquities, Fiński Związek Muzeów (Suomen museoliitto / Finnish Museums Association i Państwowa Galeria Sztuki (Valtion taidemuseo / Finnish National Gallery zainicjowały projekt Muzeum2015 (Museo2015 / Museum2015. Jego głównymi celami są: unifikacja procesów związanych z zarządzaniem kolekcją, stworzenie architektury korporacyjnej dla zarządzania muzealną kolekcją, stworzenie modelu zarządzania dla architektury korporacyjnej, oraz określenie i stworzenie warunków do zakupu i implementacji ogólnofińskiego systemu zarządzania kolekcją.\tRozwój cyfrowych narzędzi dla najmniejszych, prowadzonych przez wolontariuszy, muzeów lokalnych jest jednym z celów projektu badawczego ViMuseo, prowadzonego na Uniwersytecie w Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopisto / University of Jyväskylä.

  8. Blood pressure changes following aerobic exercise in Caucasian and Chinese descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Lane, A D; Kappus, R M; Bunsawat, K; Baynard, T; Li, S; Fernhall, B

    2015-03-01

    Acute aerobic exercise produces post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Chinese populations have lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease compared to Caucasians. PEH may be associated cardiovascular disease through its influence on hypertension. The purpose of this study was to compare PEH between Caucasian and Chinese subjects following acute aerobic exercise. 62 (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) subjects underwent measurement of peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial and cardiac evaluations, 30 min and 60 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise. Caucasians exhibited significantly higher baseline BP than the Chinese. While the reduction in brachial artery systolic BP was greater in Caucasian than in the Chinese, there was no difference in changes in carotid systolic BP between the groups. The increase in cardiac output and heart rate was greater in the Chinese than Caucasians, but total peripheral resistance and leg pulse wave velocity decreased by a similar magnitude in the Chinese and Caucasian subjects. We conclude that acute aerobic exercise produces a greater magnitude of PEH in peripheral systolic BP in Caucasian compared to Chinese subjects. The different magnitude in PEH was caused by the greater increase in cardiac output mediated by heart rate, with no change in stroke volume. It is possible that initial BP differences between races influenced the findings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,…

  10. Russian Subjects on the Territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland (according to the Russian and Finnish Population Statistics of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Kashchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical demographic research plays an important role in multi-disciplinary projects in historical, social and political sciences at the moment. It is of great importance for migration and social policy studies and also concerns economics, material and intellectual culture and inter-ethnic and inter-faith relations. The border regions with high population mobility are of particular interest. The search in the Russian State Historical Archive uncovered a complex of primary census material concerning the Russian population in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Thus it became possible to introduce previously unstudied documents, containing data on the Russian subjects, mainly military men, stationed at Helsinki, Sveaborg, Tavastgus, Torneo and a number of other garrisons into scientific use. Russian military men in those towns comprised quite a noticeable element in the composition of the population. It is no doubt that Russian officers and their family members were part of the town elite according to their social status, life experience, and level of education. Consequently the primary documents of the 1897 census give us a unique opportunity to see the demographic situation of the Russian garrisons accommodated in the Vyborg Governorate in the end of the 19th century from the inside, and add living colors related to biographies of certain people to the dry statistical picture which describes the population of the town.

  11. The positive impact of general vitamin D food fortification policy on vitamin D status in a representative adult Finnish population: evidence from an 11-y follow-up based on standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Itkonen, Suvi T; Lundqvist, Annamari; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Koskela, Tapani; Lakkala, Kaisa; Dowling, Kirsten G; Hull, George Lj; Kröger, Heikki; Karppinen, Jaro; Kyllönen, Eero; Härkänen, Tommi; Cashman, Kevin D; Männistö, Satu; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2017-06-01

    Background: A systematic vitamin D fortification of fluid milk products and fat spreads was started in 2003 in Finland to improve vitamin D status. Objective: We investigated the effects of the vitamin D fortification policy on vitamin D status in Finland between 2000 and 2011. Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations of a nationally representative sample comprising 6134 and 4051 adults aged ≥30 y from the Health 2000 and Health 2011 surveys, respectively, were standardized according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations. Results: Between 2000 and 2011, the mean S-25(OH)D increased from 48 nmol/L (95% CI: 47, 48 nmol/L) to 65 nmol/L (95% CI: 65, 66 nmol/L) ( P vitamin D supplement users increased from 11% to 41% ( P 50 nmol/L in 2011. Conclusions: The vitamin D status of the Finnish adult population has improved considerably during the time period studied. The increase is mainly explained by food fortification, especially of fluid milk products, and augmented vitamin D supplement use. Other factors, such as the difference in the ultraviolet radiation index between 2000 and 2011, may partly explain the results. When consuming vitamin D sources based on the nutritional recommendations, vitamin D status is sufficient [S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L], and supplementation is generally not needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Construct validity and reliability of the Finnish version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multanen, Juhani; Honkanen, Mikko; Häkkinen, Arja; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2018-05-22

    evaluate the predictive ability of KOOS in the Finnish population.

  13. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  14. Genotyping and surveillance for scrapie in Finnish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautaniemi Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of scrapie is known to be influenced by the amino acid polymorphisms of the host prion protein (PrP gene. There is no breeding programme for TSE resistance in sheep in Finland, but a scrapie control programme has been in place since 1995. In this study we have analysed PrP genotypes of total of 928 purebred and crossbred sheep together with the data of scrapie survey carried out in Finland during 2002–2008 in order to gain knowledge of the genotype distribution and scrapie prevalence in Finnish sheep. Results The ARQ/ARQ genotype was the most common genotype in all breeds studied. ARR allele frequency was less than 12% in purebred Finnish sheep and in most genotypes heterozygous for ARR, the second allele was ARQ. The VRQ allele was not detected in the Grey race sheep of Kainuu or in the Aland sheep, and it was present in less than 6% of the Finnish Landrace sheep. Leucine was the most prominent amino acid found in codon 141. In addition, one novel prion dimorphisms of Q220L was detected. During the scrapie survey of over 15 000 sheep in 2002–2008, no classical scrapie cases and only five atypical scrapie cases were detected. Conclusions The results indicate that the Finnish sheep populations have genetically little resistance to classical scrapie, but no classical scrapie was detected during an extensive survey in 2002–2008. However, five atypical scrapie cases emerged; thus, the disease is present in the Finnish sheep population at a low level.

  15. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences. PMID:28450829

  16. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  17. BRCA2 Mutations in 154 Finnish Male Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Syrjäkoski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996. Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%, eight of whom carried the 9346(-2 A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5 were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%, whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001. Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 dell, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations.

  18. From Ridiculed Deviants towards Normal Citizens. The Representation of Homosexuals in the Finnish Media 1990 - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ylppö, Myrsky

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores how the Finnish media’s representations of homosexual men and women changed between 1990 and 2010, from negative public portrayals towards more positive ones. The thesis also examines if these changes reflect attitudes and opinions of the Finnish society and population overall during this time period. The primary sources consist of newspaper articles from the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, along with material from other newspapers, tabloids, and supporting research material...

  19. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  20. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  1. Depression in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-09-01

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Caucasian facial L* shifts may communicate anti-ageing efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedayko, T; Azriel, M; Kollias, N

    2011-10-01

    An ageing study was conducted to capture skin colour parameters in the CIELab system from Caucasians of both genders and all available adult ages. This study produced a linear correlation between L* and age for a Caucasian population between 20 and 59 years of age as follows: (L* value) = -0.13 × (Age in years) + 63.01. Previous studies have addressed age-related changes in skin colour. This work presents a novel consumer correlated quantitative linear model of skin brightness by which to communicate age-related changes. Two product assessment studies are also presented here, demonstrating the ability of anti-ageing products to deliver on objective and subjective improvements in skin brightness. It was determined to be possible to use the fundamental Caucasian L*-age correlation to describe product benefits in a novel quantitative and consumer-relevant fashion, through the depiction of a 'years back' calculation. © 2011 Johnson & Johnson Consumer Products Company. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Big data in Finnish financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, M. (Mikko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aims to explore the concept of big data, and create understanding of big data maturity in the Finnish financial services industry. The research questions of this thesis are “What kind of big data solutions are being implemented in the Finnish financial services sector?” and “Which factors impede faster implementation of big data solutions in the Finnish financial services sector?”. ...

  4. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  5. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  6. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  7. The role of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, A.L.; Valkama, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for the dispersion forecasts for the radiation control in Finland. In addition to the normal weather forecasts the duty forecaster has the work station based three dimensional trajectory model and the short range dispersion model YDINO at his disposal. For expert use, dispersion and dose model TRADOS is available. The TRADOS, developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, includes a meteorological data base that utilizes the numerical forecasts of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) weather prediction model. The transport is described by three-dimensional air-parcel trajectories. For each time step the integrated air concentrations as well as dry and wet deposition for selected groups of radionuclides are computed. In the operational emergency application only external dose rates are computed. In the statistical version also individual and population dose estimates via several external and internal pathways can be made. The TRADOS is currently run under two separate user interfaces. The trajectory and dispersion model interface includes ready-made lists of the nuclear power plants and other installations. The dose model has a set of release terms for several groups of radionuclides. There is also a graphical module that enables the computed results to be presented in grid or also isolines. A new graphical user interface and presentation lay-outs redesigned as visual and end-user friendly as possible and with the aim of possible and with the aim of possible adoption as a Nordic standard will be installed in the near future. (orig.)

  8. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Lehtinen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in

  9. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  10. Various Portraits of Finnish Open University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Nori, Hanna; Alho-Malmelin, Marika

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the background and goals of students at the Finnish open university in the beginning of the twenty-first century. The material consists of statistics based on the student records of the Finnish open university in 2000 (n = 9080) and of the stories, educational autobiographies written by the adult learners (n =…

  11. Energy potential of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)); Valpola, S. (Geological Survey of Finland, Kokkola (Finland)), e-mail: kimmo.virtanen@gtk.fi, e-mail: samu.valpola@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    One-third of the Finnish land area is covered by mires and peat. GTK has investigated 2.0 million ha of the 9.3 million ha area covered by mires in Finland. According to the EU Commission, the broadly-based Finnish energy economy, with various energy sources, is the best in the EU. As a fuel, peat fulfils the goals of the EU energy policy in Finland well: it is local, its availability is good and the price is stable. The use of peat also enhances national security. At present, peat is used in around one hundred larger applications that co-generate electricity and heat. In Finland, the development of mires has led to several mire complex types and three main types: raised bogs in Southern Finland, aapa mires in Ostrobothnia and Lapland, and palsa mires in Northern Lapland. Peat layers are deepest in southern Finland and partly in the southern Finnish Lake area, the Region of North Karelia and in the area of central Lapland. The mean depth of geological mires is 1.41 m and the thickest drilled peat is 12.3 m. According to peat investigations, the national peat reserve totals 69.3 billion m3 in situ (peatlands larger than 20 hectares). The dry solids of peat are estimated at 6.3 billion tones. Sphagnum peat accounts for 54% and Carex peat for 45% of feasible peat reserves. Peatlands that are technically suitable for the peat industry cover a total area of 1.2 million ha and contain 29.6 billion m3 of peat in situ. Slightly humified peat suitable for horticultural and environmental use totals 5.9 billion m3 in situ. The energy peat reserve is 23.7 billion m3 in situ and its energy content is 12 800 TWh. (orig.)

  12. Mutational analysis of the HGO gene in Finnish alkaptonuria patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabe, D. B.-V.; Peterson, P.; Luopajarvi, K.; Matintalo, P.; Alho, A.; Konttinen, Y.; Krohn, K.; de Cordoba, S. R.; Ranki, A.

    1999-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), the prototypic inborn error of metabolism, has recently been shown to be caused by loss of function mutations in the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGO). So far 17 mutations have been characterised in AKU patients of different ethnic origin. We describe three novel mutations (R58fs, R330S, and H371R) and one common AKU mutation (M368V), detected by mutational and polymorphism analysis of the HGO gene in five Finnish AKU pedigrees. The three novel AKU mutations are most likely specific for the Finnish population and have originated recently.


Keywords: alkaptonuria; homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase; Finland PMID:10594001

  13. Romance Tourism and Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...

  14. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin MQ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Min-Qiang Lin,1,* Yue-Ping Li,2,* San-Gang Wu,3 Jia-Yuan Sun,4 Huan-Xin Lin,4 Shi-Yang Zhang,5 Zhen-Yu He4 1Department of Scientific Management, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 2Public Health School of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, 5Department of Hospital Infection Management, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER] database. Methods: Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed.Results: A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054, and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767. However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better

  15. Differences between Caucasian and Asian attractive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, S C

    2018-02-01

    There are discrepancies between the public's current beauty desires and conventional theories and historical rules regarding facial beauty. This photogrammetric study aims to describe in detail mathematical differences in facial configuration between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces. To analyse the structural differences between attractive Caucasian and attractive Asian faces, frontal face and lateral face views for each race were morphed; facial landmarks were defined, and the relative photographic pixel distances and angles were measured. Absolute values were acquired by arithmetic conversion for comparison. The data indicate that some conventional beliefs of facial attractiveness can be applied but others are no longer valid in explaining perspectives of beauty between Caucasians and Asians. Racial differences in the perceptions of attractive faces were evident. Common features as a phenomenon of global fusion in the perspectives on facial beauty were revealed. Beauty standards differ with race and ethnicity, and some conventional rules for ideal facial attractiveness were found to be inappropriate. We must reexamine old principles of facial beauty and continue to fundamentally question it according to its racial, cultural, and neuropsychological aspects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Finnish Kalevala and Estonian Kalevipoeg / Jaan Puhvel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puhvel, Jaan, 1932-

    2003-01-01

    Tõlgitud kogumikust: The world of the Kalevala : essays in celebration of the 150 year jubilee of the publication of the Finnish national epic / ed. Kai Laitinen. Los Angeles : UCLA Centre for the Study of Folklore & Mythology, 1987

  17. Late-life functional capacity and health among Finnish war veterans:Veteran Project 1992 and 2004 surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, R. (Riitta)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Becoming involved in war is an experience that has the potential to shape later-life health. The aim of the present study was to explore Finnish Second World War veterans’ health status and the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) and functional capacity, especially the ability to walk, and to identify risk factors and their combinations that predict late-life mortality among veterans. The study population comprised Finnish Second World War veterans who participated in the ...

  18. Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as an incidental finding in a Caucasian woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Petersen, Jeanette; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe

    2015-01-01

    Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (TML) is an extremely rare lymphoma strongly associated with autoimmune disease. We report an exceedingly rare case of TML found in a non-Asian population. TML was found incidentally in a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with a short history...

  19. Latinx and Caucasian Elementary School Children's Knowledge of and Interest in Engineering Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Gamze; Miller, Cindy Faith; Reisslein, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic minorities, such as Latinx people of Hispanic or Latino origin, and women earn fewer engineering degrees than Caucasians and men. With shifting population dynamics and high demands for a technically qualified workforce, it is important to achieve broad participation in the engineering workforce by all ethnicities and both genders. Previous…

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  1. Marketing communication in Finnish industrial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communication has a significant role for profitable businesses in industrial markets, and its role is only expected to rise in the future. Especially, integrated marketing communication (IMC) and customer-oriented approach are universally regarded fundamental developments in the field of marketing. Secondly, Finnish companies’ marketing competences are commonly considered insufficient in general. The purpose of this study was to describe how Finnish industrial companies execute t...

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  3. Piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces. The goals for the thesis are to find out how Snapchat can be used as part of Finnish Defence Forces’ social media communication and strategy. Conscripts are the most important target group for social media communication in the Defence Forces. Young conscripts are the main target group for Snapchat. This thesis is theoretically based on organizational communication, stakeholder communication and social media communicati...

  4. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  6. Awareness and use of the Heart Symbol by Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Helakorpi, Satu; Olli, Mari; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-03-01

    To study the awareness of the Heart Symbol in different age and educational groups, and changes in the awareness over a 9-year period. In addition, the reported use of products with the symbol was examined. A series of annual cross-sectional postal surveys on Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population. A random sample (n 5000 per annum) from the Finnish population aged 15-64 years, drawn from the National Population Register, received a questionnaire. Men and women (n 29 378) participating in the surveys in 2000-2009. At the early 2000s, 48 % of men and 73 % of women reported to be familiar with the symbol. The corresponding rates were 66 % for men and 91 % for women in 2009. The reported use of products with the symbol increased from 29 % to 52 % in men and from 40 % to 72 % in women. In men, the awareness did not vary by age, whereas older women (45-64 years) were less likely to be aware of the symbol compared with younger women (25-34 years). Men and women with the highest education were best aware of the symbol and more likely to use the products in the early 2000s. The educational differences diminished or disappeared during the study period. The majority of Finnish adults are familiar with the Heart Symbol, and the reported use of such products increased in all age and educational groups, especially among the less educated. The symbol may work as an effective measure to diminish nutrition-related health inequalities.

  7. Lack of association between autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and germline polymorphisms of the thyrotropin receptor and Gαs genes in a mild to moderate iodine-deficient Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Teresa Manuela; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Certo, Rosaria; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Micali, Carmelo; Baldari, Sergio; Benvenga, Salvatore; Trimarchi, Francesco; Campennì, Alfredo; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena

    2014-07-01

    Mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and/or Gαs gene have been found in a number of, but not all, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). Recently, in a 15-year-old girl with a hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma, we found two somatic and germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): a SNP of the TSHR gene (exon 7, codon 187) and a SNP of Gαs gene (exon 8, codon 185). The same silent SNP of the TSHR gene had been reported in patients with AFTN or familial non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. No further data about the prevalence of the two SNPs in AFTNs as well as in the general population are available in the literature. To clarify the possible role of these SNPs in predisposing to AFTN. Germline DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes of 115 patients with AFTNs (43 males and 72 females, aged 31-85 years, mean ± SD = 64 ± 13) and 100 sex-matched healthy individuals from the same geographic area, which is marginally iodine deficient. The genotype distribution of the two SNPs was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of the two SNPs in our study population was low and not different to that found in healthy individuals: 8 % of patients vs. 9 % of controls were heterozygous for the TSHR SNP and 4 % patients vs. 6 % controls were heterozygous for the Gαs SNP. One patient harbored both SNPs. These results suggest that these two SNPs do not confer susceptibility for the development of AFTN.

  8. Americium in the Finnish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews studies on environmental americium,241 Am, in Finland. There are two sources of americium in the Finnish environment: fallouts from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the former constituting around 98% of the total environmental load. The weapons test fallout was distributed more or less uniformly over Finland, while the Chernobyl fallout was deposited on a sector from southwestern coast to northeast. The total deposition of 241 Am in Finland is approximately 20 Bq m-2 and the amount is still somewhat increasing due to decay of 241 Pu. In this paper, the distribution and migration of americium in forest and aquatic environments is described. Americium concentrations in natural waters, sediments, soils, vegetation and fishes are given. In addition, the behaviour of americium in the food chain from lichen via reindeer into man is discussed. Radiation doses to humans due to the environmental americium in Finland are of no practical importance (orig.)

  9. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm 3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm 3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm 2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm 2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm 3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm 3 , p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm 2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  10. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Suspicion in Healthy Young Asian and Caucasian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lauren Doss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.

  11. Burnout among Finnish and Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernesniemi, Elina; Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati; Cheng, Xuejiao; Hong, Jianzhong; Kuittinen, Matti

    2017-10-01

    In this study the levels of experienced burnout of Finnish and Chinese university students are compared using School Burnout Inventory (SBI). This study is motivated by earlier studies, which suggest that the level of student burnout is different in the culturally distinct Finnish and Chinese university systems, but which are based on different research instruments for the two groups. The sample studied consisted of 3,035 Finnish students and 2,309 Chinese students. Because of the cross-cultural nature of this study the level of structural equivalence of SBI between the cultural groups was examined and the effect of different response styles on the results was taken into account. Both standard and robust statistical methods were used for the analyses. The results showed that SBI with two extracted components is suitable for cross-cultural analysis between Finnish and Chinese university students. Virtually no difference was found in experienced overall burnout between the Finnish and Chinese students, which means that both university systems contain factors causing similar levels of student burnout. This study also verified that controlling for the response styles is important in cross-cultural studies as it was found to have a distinct effect on the results obtained from mean-level comparisons. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services

  13. A new Finnish nuclear power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, nuclear power is considered a natural part of a sustainable energy system. The Finnish Parliament has decided that development of nuclear power is consistent with the overall interests of society when climate issues, environmental targets, supply security and stable and competitive prices of electric power are considered as a whole. In 2002, the Finnish Parliament approved the Government's decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant. The new project is the most advanced energy project in the Nordic countries with respect to the availability of energy free of carbon dioxide. The decision is also welcomed by the EU. The new reactor will be of the EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) type. In addition to supplying power to the Finnish industries, the plant is considered necessary if Finland is to comply with international conventions on CO 2 emissions

  14. Electricity prices in the Finnish retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Eero

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. - Research highlights: → Ownership has a strong impact on retail prices in the Finnish electricity market. → Locally owned companies' rates are 5-15 per cent lower than investor owned companies' rates. → Own low cost acquisition of electricity helps local firms to keep prices at low levels.

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  16. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  17. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  20. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  8. Cancer Differences in the Black and Caucasian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jack E.

    1977-01-01

    Cancer mortality in U.S. blacks has greatly increased since 1950. This greater increase for blacks was found in 28 of the 56 most frequent cancers. Greater exposure to environmental carcinogens appears to be the main cause. This author recommends a thorough epidemiologic study of the rise in black cancer deaths. (Author/GC)

  9. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C. [Lab. of Neurogenetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  10. Management by Results at Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppala, Kari

    2005-01-01

    The funding of Finnish Universities has been based on a "management by results" strategy since 1991. This paper analyses the effects of this strategy on university management and administration. Empirically the study is based on material collected from four multidisciplinary universities. Theoretically it is based on organization theory…

  11. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  12. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  13. Are Students Customers in Finnish Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This study examines Finnish higher education students' perceptions of whether students are customers, based on qualitative interview data. The article contributes to the discussion on students as customers by giving attention to students' own voices from a country where tuition fees are not generally collected. The data are presented and analysed…

  14. Finnish Secondary School Students' Interreligious Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious Sensitivity,…

  15. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  17. A Finnish validation study of the SCL-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1998-01-01

    The Symptom Check-List-90 (SCL-90) is a widely used psychiatric questionnaire which has not yet been validated in Finland. We investigated the utility of the translated version of the SCL-90 in the Finnish population, and set community norms for it. The internal consistency of the original subscales was checked and found to be good. Discriminant function analysis, based on the nine original subscales, showed that the power of the SCL-90 to discriminate between patients and the community is good. Factor analysis of the items of the questionnaire yielded a very strong unrotated first factor, suggesting that a general factor may be present. This together with the fact that high intercorrelations were found between the nine original subscales suggests that the instrument is not multidimensional. The SCL-90 may be useful in a research setting as an instrument for measuring the change in symptomatic distress, or as a screening instrument. The American community norms should be used with caution, as the Finnish community sample scored consistently higher on all subscales.

  18. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  19. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education –How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  20. Oral health-related self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing: Finnish and Turkish pre-adolescents' and their mothers' responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Tseveenjav, Battsetseg; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive and behavioural factors of preadolescents and those of their mothers, assessed in terms of self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing among Turkish and Finnish population in the framework of Social Cognitive Theory. The speci....... The specific objective was to test if this possible association worked regardless of cultural differences.......The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive and behavioural factors of preadolescents and those of their mothers, assessed in terms of self-efficacy beliefs and toothbrushing among Turkish and Finnish population in the framework of Social Cognitive Theory...

  1. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    Full Text Available Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF and low frequency (LnLF powers, normalized high (nHF and low frequency (nLF powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD and R-R interval (RRI]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up. The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  2. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R-R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684.

  3. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  4. Is the Greulich and Pyle atlas still valid for Dutch Caucasian children today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, R.R. van; Lequin, M.H.; Robben, S.G.F.; Hop, W.C.J.; Kuijk, C. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: In our Paediatric Radiology Department, the Greulich and Pyle technique is used to assess skeletal age. Several authors have raised questions with regard to the applicability of this technique in a contemporary paediatric and adolescent population. Objective: To compare skeletal age and calendar age in a healthy Dutch Caucasian population in order to test the applicability in this specific population. Materials and methods: For this study we enrolled 278 Dutch Caucasian boys (age range 5.0-19.5 years, mean 12.6 years) and 294 Dutch Caucasian girls (age range 5.2-19.9 years, mean 12.2 years). Radiographs of the left hand were scored according to the Greulich and Pyle atlas by two investigators. Results: Intra-observer coefficient of variation of duplicate assessment of skeletal age for investigator 1 (resident) was 2.4 % and for investigator 2 (radiologist) was 1.5 %. We found no significant systematic differences between the two observers regarding variability and levels of measurement, and the agreement was good. There was a strongly significant correlation between skeletal and calendar age r girls = 0.974 and r boys = 0.979 (P < 0.001). On average, calendar age preceded skeletal age by a small amount (1.7 months in girls and 3.3 months in boys, both P < 0.001). Conclusions: The reliability of the Greulich and Pyle atlas in our study corresponds well with previously reported studies. Based on our data, we conclude that the Greulich and Pyle atlas is still applicable in Dutch Caucasian children and adolescents. (orig.)

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  8. Entrepreneurship in a Finnish public institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Burcea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the idea of entrepreneurship in public institutions has been the subject of intense debates, activities and academic research. The scopes of our article are to briefly underline the importance of developing an entrepreneurial spirit by presenting a case study from a Finnish local public administration and making aware the proactive aspect in the process of managing public institutions in Romania. Our hypotheses have been mainly of an interrogative nature. Hypothesis testing was achieved through the analysis of statistical data and conducting a set of sociological interviews with key people from Finnish institutions which were used in the survey. The results of the research emphasize that where there is an entrepreneurial behaviour with the local administration management, the community undergoes a process of conservation and development. The way in which they relate to community partners (such as entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, citizens is essential to the entrepreneurial spirit within the local public institution.

  9. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, C; Vozarova, B; Ravussin, E

    2001-01-01

    Differences in the metabolic response to overfeeding and starvation may confer susceptibility or resistance to obesity in humans. To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima...... Indians (I), a population with a very high propensity for obesity....

  10. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  11. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Open source in Finnish software companies

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, Arto

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores survey data focusing on open source software supply collected from 170 Finnish software firms using descriptive statistical analysis. The first half of the report contains general data about software companies and the differences between proprietary and open source firms. The second half focuses on open source firms. A subject of analysis are copyrights, products and services supply, the firms’ relationships with the open source community, and their views on opportunities ...

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-03-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such incidents and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, considers safety-related. During the third quarter of 1989 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 39.0% of the total Finnish electricity production in this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 78.9%. At Loviisa 1, two holes were found in the feedwater distributor of one steam generator. Corresponding wall thinning corrosion was also detected in the walls of two other distributors. The holes were found on the feedwater distributor upper surface in the joint of the secondary circuit feedwater pipe. One hole was about 20 mm x 50 mm in size and the other was a pit hole ca 5 mm in diameter. Metal power had entered the primary circuit at TVO I. This was observed during a post-scram plant start-up. Several control rod drive units had become jammed so tight that control rod withdrawal failed. Metal powder did not hamper reactor scram under the prevailing circumstances because the drive units are prone to jamming only after a control rod is almost fully inserted and because the forces which insert a control rod by various means (electrical, hydraulic) are 6-8 fold compared with the withdrawing force

  14. Why low doses at Finnish NPPs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Vaehaemaa, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear power units - two BWRs (ABB Atom) and two PWRs (VVER) -are known for their high load factors. Finland's reactors have topped the world ranking list for more than ten years. This explains why their collective radiation doses are among the lowest in the world. During normal operation a collective dose of less than ten millisieverts per month is received at one site

  15. Distributed leadership in Finnish and Shanghai schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present research employed mixed-methods approach to further theorise distributed leadership and to investigate its manifestations in Finnish and Shanghai schools. The whole research comprised two phases. The first phase contained a meta-analysis (Sub-study I), which systematically reviewed 85 key distributed leadership articles published between 2002 and 2013. The meta-analysis identified two main research paradigms: the descriptive-analytical paradigm and the prescrip...

  16. The Finnish EPR dependent on a bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    A new conflict has emerged between the main contractor Areva and its client TVO, the Finnish energy group. The qualification of a handling bridge has delayed the OL3 project of third EPR reactor at Olkiluoto, Finland. The disagreement concerns the testing procedure and may induce a two year delay in the completion of the project which is now planned for 2012 instead of 2010 initially. (J.S.)

  17. Chinese and Finnish Undergraduates’ Online Shopping Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the thesis was to recognise similar and different characteristics of online shopping behaviour between Chinese and Finnish undergraduates. Additionally, this thesis would give meaningful proposals for merchants and managers on offering better online marketing. This thesis report was conducted in both theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical parts include marketing research and online shopping consumption behaviour. The study describes the marketing research progre...

  18. Evaluation of the Finnish CERN activities panel report

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Peter; Juuti, Pauli; Kullander, Sven; Ikonen, Eeva; Maalampi, Jukka

    2001-01-01

    The Academy of Finland decided in November 2000 that Finnish CERN-activities should be evaluated. The first ten years of the Finnish membership in CERN have been successful. Also in the future, Finland has great opportunities and benefits of the collaboration with CERN. The Finnish presentations clearly show the rapid development in experimental physics since the joining of CERN. Still, Finland can be considered as a relatively young Member State in CERN, but one of the most dynamic new partners for CERN.

  19. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  20. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Filipino vs Caucasian Americans: a retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Filipino and Caucasian Americans in two clinic populations. Retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples. Five hundred twelve Filipino and 600 Caucasian patients aged 40 years or older examined by two community-based comprehensive ophthalmology clinics during a one-year period. The prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus among Filipino (F) and Caucasian Americans (C) was 40.6% and 24.8%, respectively (PFilipino; 149 Caucasian), there was a statistically insignificant higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Filipino diabetics compared to Caucasians (F vs C: all forms of diabetic retinopathy, 24.5% vs 16.8%, P=.08; non-proliferative retinopathy, 17.3% vs 12.8%, P=.24; proliferative retinopathy, 7.2% vs. 4.0%, P=.21). In multivariate analyses of the diabetic subpopulation, Filipino ethnicity was not a significant predictor of diabetic retinopathy. Filipino Americans may have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans. Among those with type 2 diabetes, however, Filipino Americans were not found to be more likely to show manifestations of diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans.

  1. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lallukka Tea; Sares-Jäske Laura; Kronholm Erkki; Sääksjärvi Katri; Lundqvist Annamari; Partonen Timo; Rahkonen Ossi; Knekt Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. METHODS: We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000-2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30-79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-rel...

  2. Psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Women's Health Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katainen, Riina E; Engblom, Janne R; Vahlberg, Tero J; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2017-08-01

    The Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) is a validated and commonly used instrument for measuring climacteric-related symptoms. A revised version was previously developed. However, validation in a Finnish population is lacking. As it is important to use qualified instruments, we performed a validation study of the WHQ in a Finnish population. In all, 3,421 women, aged 41 to 54 years, formed the study population. In the original 36-item WHQ, the items were rated on a 1 to 4 scale and on a binary scale (0-1). The scaling of the revised 23-item WHQ was 0 to 100. We evaluated the psychometric properties (internal consistency, correlations between the symptom domains, factor structure, and sampling adequacy) in all three versions. For the 1 to 4 scale and on the revised version of the WHQ, the internal consistency was acceptable (the Cronbach's α coefficients >0.70) for most of the domains. On the binary scale, the majority of the coefficient values were below the acceptable level. The original symptom domains, especially those on the revised version, were recognizable from the factors in the exploratory factor analysis, but there were some limitations. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin values were high. The WHQ is a valid instrument for measuring climacteric-related symptoms in Finnish middle-aged women. The psychometric properties of the revised 23-item WHQ were as good or even better than those of the original 36-item WHQ. Thus, we encourage use of the revised version.

  3. Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified Caucasian-Non-Hispanics and Caucasian-Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Comparisons of Latinos, African Americans, and Caucasians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert J; Zuniga, Miguel A; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Chakravorty, Bonnie J; Tyry, Tuula; Moreau, Rachel L; Huang, Chunfeng; Vollmer, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Identify racial/ethnic differences among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and health services received. We analyzed enrollment data from the Registry of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Project to compare 26,967 Caucasians, 715 Latinos, and 1,313 African Americans with MS. Racial/ethnic analyses of NARCOMS data focused on descriptive characteristics, using ANOVA and chi-square tests to identify significant differences in means and frequencies among Caucasians, Latinos, and African Americans. We identified significant racial/ethnic differences in demographics, MS disease characteristics, and treatments. Caucasians were older when first MS symptoms were experienced (30.1 years) and at MS diagnosis (37.4 years) than Latinos (28.6 years and 34.5 years) or African Americans (29.8 years and 35.8 years). Larger proportions of Latinos reported normal function for mobility and bladder/bowel function compared to Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos (44.2 percent) and African Americans (45.8 percent) reported at least mild depression compared to only 38.7 percent of Caucasians. Larger proportions of Latinos never received mental health care or care from rehabilitation specialists than Caucasians or African Americans. A larger proportion of African Americans had never been treated by a neurologist specializing in MS and a smaller proportion of African Americans received care at a MS clinic than Caucasians or Latinos. Our findings highlight the need for future analyses to determine if age, disease duration, MS symptoms, and disability levels provide additional insights into racial/ethic differences in the use of MS-related providers.

  5. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  6. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  7. Arnett′s soft-tissue cephalometric analysis norms for the North Indian population: A cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in certain parameters were found between North Indian population and Caucasian population and also between males and females of North Indian population.

  8. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  9. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  10. How Do Finnish Teacher Educators Implement Entrepreneurship Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana; Satuvuori, Timo; Ruskovaara, Elena; Hannula, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how the people who train Finnish teachers implement entrepreneurship education in the guidance they provide. The authors show how learning through, for and about entrepreneurship manifests in the self-evaluations of Finnish teacher educators. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in…

  11. Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirronen, Jarkko; Nokkala, Terhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of…

  12. Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, M.

    1995-05-01

    Implementation of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards (FINSP) during the calender year in question is summarized. FINSP is carried out trough separate tasks concentrating on verification of nuclear material, training and expert services to the IAEA. In addition to the Finnish summary, the report includes detailed description of each task in English

  13. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  14. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Sankila, E.M.; Tuppurainen, K.; Kleemola, L.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Deutman, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients.

  15. Specific airway resistance in healthy young Vietnamese and Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois

    2015-06-01

    In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  17. Occupational injuries in the Finnish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, M V

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the types of occupational injuries that occur in the Finnish furniture industry and to see whether they differ as regards production type and company size. During a one-year registration period accident events, the actual and potential severity of the injuries, the causes of the accidents, and the measures needed to prevent such accidents were examined in 18 Finnish furniture factories of different types. An analysis of covariance determined the variables affecting the actual and potential severity of the injuries. The 214 accidents registered were lost-time injuries; two of them resulted in slight partial loss of fingertips. The disabling injury rate was 14.4 per 100 workers per year. Wooden furniture production and kitchen cupboard production in large companies had the highest rate. Accidents involving machines comprised half of the material. Saws were the most common machine type. Forty-two percent of the injuries could have been more severe; one injury could have been fatal. The injured persons and their foremen identified the causal factors of the accidents and the needed safety countermeasures well. Sixty-six percent of the causes and 65% of the safety countermeasures were associated with the actions of the workers and the workplace procedures. Nevertheless, only 6% of the identified safety countermeasures were put into force. It was estimated that, in 1987, 2000 on-site accidents leading to at least first-aid at some health care center occurred in the Finnish furniture industry. Special efforts should be taken to improve safety in furniture production in Finland.

  18. Rational use of energy. Finnish technology cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This publication has been produced within the THERMIE B project `Interactive Promotion of Energy Technologies between Finland and Other EUCountries and to Estonia` (STR-0622-95-FI) as carried out for DG XVII of the European Commission. MOTIVA of Finntech Finnish Technology Ltd Oy has acted as the project co-ordinating body, with Ekono B.E., Ekono Energy Ltd and Friedemann and Johnson Consultants GmbH as partners. The main aim of the second phase of the project, as documented here, was to produce a publication in English on Finnish energy technologies, primarily in the building, industry and traffic sectors. The target distribution for this publication is primarily the EU countries through public and commercial information networks. During the work, the latest information on Finnish energy technologies has been collected, reviewed, screened and analysed in relation to the THERMIE programme. The following presentation consists of descriptions of case technologies; their background, technical aspects and energy saving potentials where applicable. The three RUE sectors; buildings, industry and traffic, are put forward in separate chapters. The building sector concentrates mostly in different control systems. New lighting and heating systems increase energy savings both in the large industrial sites and in private homes. In the industry sector new enhanced processes are introduced along with new products to increase energy efficiency. Traffic sector concentrates in traffic control and reducing exhaust gas emissions by new systems and programmes. The aim in Finland is to reduce exhaust gas emissions both by controlling the traffic efficiently and by developing fuels with lower emission levels. A lot is being done by educating the drivers and the public in efficient driving methods

  19. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  20. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.-L.; Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Arvela, H.; Blomqvist, L.

    1989-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes for monitoring radioactive contamination around Finnish nuclear power plants in 1987 are reported. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident, which took place in April 1986, was still dominating the artificial radiation situation in Finland. Thus, large amounts of 137 Cs and other long-lived fallout nuclides predominated in the environmental samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The extremely small airborne releases from Finnish nuclear power plants were almost totally covered by fallout nuclides. The somewhat higher aquatic releases were easier to distinguish, and it was possible to follow their spread in the marine environment. The contribution of locally discharged nuclides to radiation doses of the population was insignificant

  1. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  2. Peptides in fermented Finnish milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Kahala

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the rate of proteolysis and peptide profiles of different Finnish fermented milk products. The highest rate of proteolysis was observed in Biokefir, while the greatest change in the rate of proteolysis was observed in Gefilus®. Differences in starters and manufacturing processes reflected on the peptide profiles of the products. Most of the identified peptides originated from either the N- or C-terminal region of β-casein or from the N-terminal region of αs1-casein.

  3. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  5. The fifth Finnish national aerosol symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkanen, P.; Haemeri, K.; Kauppinen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Finnish Aerosol Symposium was held June 1-3, 1993. Symposium is jointly organized by FAAR, Aerosol Technology Group of Technical Research Centre of Finland and Helsinki University, Department of Physics. Aerosols, the suspensions of solid and liquid particles and gases, are receiving increasing importance in many areas of science and technology. These include industrial hygiene, ambient and indoor air pollution, pollution control technologies, cloud physics, nuclear safety engineering, combustion science and engineering, clean manufacturing technologies and material processing. The importance of aerosol issues during the development of advanced fuel conversion and material processing technologies can be realized when looking at the numerous papers presented on these topics at the Symposium

  6. Project Management in the Finnish Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hypén, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The term project is a widely used phrase in today’s working life. This thesis explains what project management theory is, how it has evolved through history and how it is applied in managing modern business projects in the contexts of the Finnish music business sector. The literature review contains a description of the key phases a project is typically organised in as well as the terms and tools used to plan and run a successful project. Through qualitative research means the thesis inves...

  7. Operating experiences at the Finnish TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenhaara, Seppo

    1988-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA reactor has been in operation since March 1962. There are still 57 original Al-clad fuel elements in the core. So far we have had only two fuel cladding failures in 1981 and 1988. The first one was an Al-clad element and the second one a SS-clad. The low rate of fuel cladding failures has made it possible to use continuously also the Al-clad fuel elements. Although some conventional irradiations of certain type have been repeated successfully tens of times, new and unexpected incidents can still take place. As an example an event of a leaking irradiation capsule is described

  8. Finnish perspectives of wireless in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaarela, Esko

    2009-01-01

    Wireless solutions are a good choice for healthcare development in Finland. A survey of 135 experts in Finland show that (1) the competences needed for developing wireless solutions exist (2) the Finnish healthcare system is integrated enough and (3) the technology industry in this area is too weak for global marketing. The following recommendations can be concluded: (1) Cooperate internationally (2) Develop integrated solutions and health managing concepts for the important health problems (such as diabetes), (3) Harness the healthcare system to act as a test bed for new solutions and (4) Help companies to grow and take global roles.

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  10. Finnish Play Becomes Chinese Local Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the fall of 1992 an unusualpremiere took place in Xi′an:Totisesti totisesti,adapted from aFinnish stage play,was performed asan opera in Chinese by the HuaOpera Troupe,a part of the ShaanxiOpera Research Institute.Ms.InkeriKilpinen,the playwright,and Ms.Leena Laulajainen,vice-chairman ofFinland Writers′Association,cameto see the performance.Hua opera,also known as“Wanwan Opera,”is one of the localforms of opera in Shaanxi Province.It was originally performed in theform of shadow play,and was for-

  11. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anturaniemi, Johanna; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms)' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322) as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers) and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds) showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current household. The

  12. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Anturaniemi

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322 as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current

  13. Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  15. Finnish Students’ Engagement in Science Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Linnansaari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing number of students who are engaged in science learning has been recognised as a problem. The pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement were examined using a novel research method to obtain detailed information on Finnish students’ engagement in different situations and to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. The study’s participants consisted of 68 students (31 girls, 37 boys from 9th grade and 67 students (46 girls, 21 boys from 1st grade in upper secondary school. The research aimed to answer the following question: How does Finnish students’ engagement occur in exact and life science lessons? Participants received smartphones equipped with a smartphone application that included an experience sampling method questionnaire. The smartphones were programmed to emit a signal during every science lesson and otherwise randomly during the day (from 8 am to 8 pm. The results reveal that situation and grade had significant effects on students’ pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement. Our results also show that girls had the highest interest in life science lessons and boys in exact science lessons.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  17. Finnish psychiatry--past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Kari

    2012-03-01

    The history of Finnish psychiatry has been characterized by polarizations: priority in hospitals vs. outpatient care, centralized vs. decentralized organization, independent vs. integrated administration, biological vs. psychological treatments, private vs. public production, special psychiatric policies vs. general health policies. The independent psychiatric organizations on District level lasted from the 1920s until 1990. Since then, the formerly independent psychiatry was subordinated to General Hospital administration and the centralized system of state planning and financing of healthcare was gradually decentralized and run down. During the heavy Finnish economic recession of the early 1990 s, the cuts of the public sector were unfortunately focused most heavily on psychiatric services. The main focus of research and teaching has shifted from earlier emphasis on psychoanalytical approach to biological psychiatry since the late 1980s. The administrative position of psychiatry has been repeatedly changing and unstable during the last 20 years. At the level of the contents of the services, however, there have been many very positive and promising developments. Psychiatry has come closer to other specialties from its formerly isolated position, when the separate administrations have been integrated. Provision of outpatient services has increased remarkably, while the number of hospital beds has decreased radically. Interest and resources in research have increased remarkably, and numerous new and good quality psychiatric research reports are being published.

  18. Coincidence of pollen season with the first fetal trimester together with early pet exposure is associated with sensitization to cat and dog allergens in early childhood: A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrhönen, K; Kulmala, P; Näyhä, S

    2018-03-01

    Children whose 11th fetal week falls in pollen season (spring) reportedly have an increased risk of sensitization to food allergens. No such finding has been reported for pet allergens. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the incidence of pet (dog and cat) sensitization according to the season of the 11th fetal week and (ii) whether the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization is modified by the coincidence of the 11th fetal week with pollen season. The study population comprised all children (born between 2001 and 2006) in the province of South Karelia, Finland (N = 5920). Their data of immunoglobulin E antibodies and skin prick tests to pet allergens (N = 538) were collected from patient records and linked with questionnaire data on pet exposure. The seasonal incidence peak of cat sensitization was observed in children whose 11th fetal week occurred in June (7.4%) and that of dog sensitization in April (3.8%) and June (4.7%). The relative rate (RR) for cat sensitization was 2.92 (95% CI 1.40-6.08) in children with cat exposure alone, 8.53 (4.07-17.86) in children with cat and fetal pollen exposures and 0.61 (0.20-1.83) in children exposed to pollen alone, compared with children without these exposures. The respective RRs for dog sensitization were 2.17 (1.13-4.19), 4.40 (2.19-8.83) and 1.65 (0.77-3.53). Coincidence of the first fetal trimester with pollen season strengthens the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization. Pollen exposure at early pregnancy may deviate immune system towards Th2-type reactivity promoting development of specific allergy in case allergen exposure occurred. Therefore, primary prevention of allergic diseases may need to begin during early pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Exporting Finnish teacher education: Transnational pressures on national models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses empirical data to assess the possible transfer of Finnish teacher education policy, and more specifically, the university training school, into another context. Transnational organisations increasingly pressure nation-states to carry out education policy change, especially due to dissatisfaction with international assessment outcomes. As a high performer in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, administered by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, Finland has been at the centre of international attention. PISA revealed that the high quality of Finnish teachers contributes to the overall calibre of the country’s education system. Thus, Finnish teacher education has become a model for other education systems. This article uses empirical research to explore the export possibilities of the Finnish normaalikoulu, or university training school. It implements qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with Finnish educationalists to explore the possible export of Finnish education, the implications in terms of policy transfer, and the migration of ideas, specifically the university-affiliated, teacher training school. The export and migration of Finnish education and its impact on education policy are discussed in this article, along with educational export’s position in transnational policy formation.

  20. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  1. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viitala Sirja M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd, quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaeae, T [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and for TVO II`s brief outage to repair a failed component, Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all plant units was 90.4 %. Events in this quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd, quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-05-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and for TVO II's brief outage to repair a failed component, Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all plant units was 90.4 %. Events in this quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) (4 figs., 4 tabs.)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1997-02-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the third quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to identify and repair malfunctions of a high pressure turbine control valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 77.2%. Events in the third quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The names of Teollisuuden Voima Oy's plant units have changed. Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 now replace the names TVO I and TVO II previously used in quarterly reports. (orig.)

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 4th quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-05-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants's production and load factors. In the fourth quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 2 and a shutdown at Olkiluoto 1 to repair a condensate system stop valve. The load factor average of all plant units was 96.5%. Events in the fourth quarter of 1996 were level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Fasety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the evironment and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors. Except for the annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units and for TVO II`s Midsummer outage which was due to low electricity demand, the Finnish nuclear power plants were in power operation during the second quarter of 1995. The load factor average of all four plant units was 91.2 %. Events during the second annual quarter were level 0 on the INES scale. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  7. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  8. Racial differences in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders among Caucasian and Asian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.

  9. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (pskin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L. E. H.; Boon, M. R.; Annema, W.; Dikkers, A.; van Eyk, H. J.; Verhoeven, A.; Mayboroda, O. A.; Jukema, J. W.; Havekes, L. M.; Meinders, A. E.; van Dijk, K. Willems; Jazet, I. M.; Tietge, U. J. F.; Rensen, P. C. N.

    Background and Aims: South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. Methods and

  11. Study of the international epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia in young caucasian men using photographs from the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shalom Avital

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  12. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  13. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  14. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STUK-B-YTO 7), which is supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  15. Safety-related occurrences at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitasaari, O.; Rantavaara, A.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Report for this period, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants (STL-B-RTO-83/7), which is supplemented by this report intended principally for experts. (author)

  16. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  17. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  18. Safety-related incidents at the Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains detailed descriptions of operating incidents and other safety-related matters at the Finnish nuclear power plants regarded as significant by the regulatory authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. In this connection, an account is given of the practical actions caused by the incidents, and their significance to reactor safety is evaluated. The main features of the incidents are also described in the general Quartely Reports, Operation of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants, which are supplemented by this report intended for experts. (author)

  19. The stubborn peasant and the Frenchmen of the North : Swedish and Finnish ethnicity and national historical writing in Swedish and Finland-Swedish textbooks 1866-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Spjut, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Sweden and Finland were one country for more than 600 years and there are many remaining links between the two countries. Throughout the period, but even today there are Swedish and Finnish populations on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. When Russia conquered the Finnish part of the country in 1809, the state and its population were separated and the situations for the language groups changed and developed differently in Sweden and Finland. During the period studied in this thesis, 1866-193...

  20. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina L; Palep-Singh, Manisha; Ledger, William L; Balen, Adam H; Jenkinson, Crispin; Campbell, Michael J; Lashen, Hany

    2010-12-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best health status for both groups

  1. Finnish energy technologies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these

  2. Production of the Finnish Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tammelin, Bengt; Vihma, Timo; Atlaskin, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    ) the parameterization method for gust factor was extended to be applicable at higher altitudes; and (vii) the dissemination of the Wind Atlas was based on new technical solutions. The AROME results were calculated for the heights of 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 300 and 400 m, and the WAsP results for the heights of 50......, 75, 100, 125 and 150 m. In addition to the wind speed, the results included the values of the Weibull distribution parameters, the gust factor, wind power content and the potential power production, which was calculated for three turbine sizes. The Wind Atlas data are available for each grid point......The Finnish Wind Atlas was prepared applying the mesoscale model AROME with 2.5 km horizontal resolution and the diagnostic downscaling method Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme (WAsP) with 250 m resolution. The latter was applied for areas most favourable for wind power production: a 30...

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  4. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  6. The interleukin-6 (-174) G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Knowler, William C

    2003-01-01

    Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interleukin-6 (IL6), a powerful inducer of hepatic acute phase response, has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and T2DM. Recently, an IL6 promoter...... polymorphism (G/C) at position -174 was found to be associated with measures of insulin sensitivity. Because we have previously found an association between high IL6 levels and insulin resistance in both Pima Indians - a population with high rates of insulin resistance and T2DM - and Caucasians, we aimed...... to assess whether the IL6 promoter polymorphism is associated with T2DM in these populations. We genotyped the IL6 (-174) G/C polymorphism using pyrosequencing in 463 Native Americans and by PCR-RFLP in 329 Spanish Caucasians. Among the Spanish Caucasian subjects, there was a significant difference...

  7. Speech perception and vocabulary growth: A longitudinal study of Finnish-Russian bilinguals and Finnish monolinguals from infancy to three years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvén, M.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Kouvo, A.M.; Lundén, M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level,

  8. Awareness of child sex tourism among young Finnish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon Nurmi, Sara Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about one of the dark sides of tourism: child sex tourism. It is commisioned by a Finnish NGO, Reilun Matkailun Yhdistys and the aim was to conduct a research in order to find out about the awareness and attitudes of young Finnish travelers about child sex tourism. The theoretical framework consists of theory about child sex tourism and abot the much wider problem from which child sex tourism is origined: commercial sexual exploitation of children. Furth...

  9. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  10. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  11. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  12. Natural gas - too expensive alternative for the Finnish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyytinen, A.-M.

    2001-01-01

    the environmental reasons. The fair division of emission quota between countries is discussed. Some time ago the per capita sharing of the emission quota was presented in a seminar of climatic equity, arranged by different civil organizations. This proposal would guarantee higher emissions quota for large countries with dense population. The Finnish Climate Strategy is based on national measures, so it relies neither on carbon sinks nor on the Kyoto mechanisms

  13. Vitamin D production in UK Caucasian and South Asian women following UVR exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ohood A; Hart, Kathryn; McCabe, Patrick; Berry, Jacqueline; Francesca, Robertson; Rhodes, Lesley E; Spyrou, Nicholas; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Lanham-New, Susan

    2016-11-01

    It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR. Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8min respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised. This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of different methods for imputing genome-wide marker genotypes in Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Qin, Zahng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the imputation accuracy of different methods, considering both the minor allele frequency and relatedness between individuals in the reference and test data sets. Two data sets from the combined population of Swedish and Finnish Red Cattle were used to test the influence...... coefficient was lower when the minor allele frequency was lower. The results indicate that Beagle and IMPUTE2 provide the most robust and accurate imputation accuracies, but considering computing time and memory usage, FImpute is another alternative method....

  15. Association between Sleep Disruption and Levels of Lipids in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wan Mahmood, Wan Aizad

    2013-08-29

    Aim. To investigate the association between sleep quality and duration with lipid and glycaemic control in Caucasian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in 114 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects. Comparisons were made between subjects with different sleep quality and sleep duration. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine contributors to metabolic parameters. Results. Subjects with poor sleep quality (PQ; PSQI ≥ 6) had higher systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, urine albumin : creatinine ratio (UAC), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05 for all) compared to those with good sleep quality (GQ; PSQI ≤ 5). Long sleep duration (LSD) subjects had higher TC and short sleep duration (SSD) subjects had higher TG compared to those with medium sleep duration. Sleep duration and PSQI score were independent predictors of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), contributing to 14.0% and 6.1% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions. In this Caucasian T2DM population, PQ is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk markers, and long and short sleep disruptions have an independent negative impact on lipids. Sleep assessment should be included as part of a diabetes clinic review.

  16. AHSG gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in Caucasian nuclear families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanjun; Wang Yanbo; Lei Shufeng; Long Jirong; Shen Hui; Zhao Lanjuan; Jiang Deke; Xiao Sumei; Chen Xiangding; Chen Yuan; Deng Hongwen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of alpha2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) gene on bone mineral density (BMD) variation. Methods. A total of 665 subjects from 157 Caucasian nuclear families were genotyped at the AHSG NlaIII, SacI sites. The association and linkage between the single SNP markers and haplotypes constructed by two markers in this gene and BMDs at the spine and hip were determined by using quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Results. Significant within-family associations were obtained for spine BMD at both of studied markers (P = 0.036 and 0.005 at the NlaIII and SacI sites, respectively). Significant (P = 0.008 at the NlaIII locus) (P = 0.004 at the SacI locus) total associations at spine BMD were detected. Haplotype analyses confirmed those within-family and total association. Conclusions. These data suggest the polymorphisms in the AHSG gene may have effects on BMD variation in Caucasian population

  17. Examining spiritual support among African American and Caucasian Alzheimer's caregivers: A risk and resilience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Spurlock, Wanda R; Brown, Sandra C; Teegen, Bettina C; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2018-05-25

    Research shows African Americans at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the Caucasian population, suggesting African American AD caregivers are rising in numbers at a greater rate than Caucasian counterparts. Over a decade ago, an article in Geriatric Nursing revealed spiritual well-being differences among these caregiver groups. The purpose of this study was a quasi-follow-up, utilizing a larger caregiver sample to test spiritual support as a moderator via a risk-and-resilience framework. Secondary data analysis from a sample of 691 AD caregivers examined data on demographics and standardized measures of spiritual support, caregiver burden, and psychological resilience. One-third of the sample reported as African American. Resilience negatively regressed, though not significantly, on caregiving burden among both groups. Spiritual support positively, significantly impacted resilience among both groups, slightly stronger among African Americans. Spiritual support did not significantly moderate risk with either group. Implications for professional healthcare practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  19. Problem gambling and drinking among Finnish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvinen-Tassopoulos Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This qualitative study expands on female problem gambling by examining short online narratives written by Finnish women. Problem gambling is analysed within the familial context in order to discover gendered roles and practices, and in relation to substance use and abuse in women’s lives. DESIGN - Two sets of qualitative data were used in this study. The first set was collected from two online discussion forums, and the second set was extracted from an online counselling service data in 2008. Chosen messages formed short narratives of women’s problem gambling trajectory (51 cases. The data were analysed in accordance with the content analysis method. RESULTS - Women had started gambling either in adolescence or in adulthood. Most of the women played on slot machines or gambled online. The lack of coping skills, stressful events in life and troubled relationships made the women more vulnerable to gambling harms and other addictions. In some couples, partners were either drinking or gambling. This made the women’s lives even more complicated, because they could not count on their partners’ help and support. The women tried to hide the consequences of their problem gambling for fear of losing their significant others. CONCLUSIONS - Female gambling and female problem gambling are complex concepts influenced by social, cultural and political factors. This study has shown in its limited framework that female problem gambling is related to the gambling environment, the social acceptance of gambling and the regulation of gambling operations within the place of jurisdiction.

  20. Risk analysis of Finnish peacekeeping in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtomäki, Kyösti; Pääkkönen, Rauno J; Rantanen, Jorma

    2005-04-01

    The research team interviewed over 90 Finnish battalion members in Kosovo, visited 22 units or posts, registered its observations, and made any necessary measurements. Key persons were asked to list the most important risks for occupational safety and health in their area of responsibility. Altogether, 106 accidents and 40 cases of disease resulted in compensation claims in 2000. The risks to the peacekeeping force were about twice those of the permanent staff of military trainees in Finland. Altogether, 21 accidents or cases of disease resulted in sick leave for at least 3 months after service. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion. Biological, chemical, and physical factors caused 8 to 9 occupational illnesses each. Traffic accidents, operational factors, and munitions and mines were evaluated to be the three most important risk factors, followed by occupational hygiene, living conditions (mold, fungi, dust), and general hygiene. Possible fatal risks, such as traffic accidents and munitions and explosives, received a high ranking in both the subjective and the objective evaluations. One permanent injury resulted from an explosion, and two traffic accidents involved a fatality, although not of a peacekeeper. The reduction of sports and military training accidents, risk-control programs, and, for some tasks, better personal protection is considered a development challenge for the near future.

  1. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanterä, Sari; Pölkki, Tarja; Ekström, Anette; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2010-12-02

    Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  2. Management of investment processes on Finnish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural change in agriculture means a continuous need for investing in farm production. It is essential for the sustainable operations and the economy of the farm that such investments are successful. In this research, different stages of the investment process of farms were studied as well as the use of information and the success perceived during the investment process. The study was carried out with mail surveys and telephone interviews on the Finnish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farms. The most challenging investments were in animal husbandry buildings and, as to these investments, the comparison of alternatives was the most challenging stage. For most investments, the planning phase was considered more challenging than the implementation. Before making the decision, farmers acquired information from many sources, of which the opinion of the main customer and the experiences of fellow farmers were the most valued. Some of the products considered were so new on the market that it was not easy to get adequate information and, furthermore, the information given by suppliers was not always accurate. Decision-making was supported by calculations, but qualitative factors had a dominating role. Large basic decisions were made relatively quickly, while details needed a longer time to process. In general, farm managers were satisfied with their investments. Improvements in work quality and quantity were especially mentioned and generally qualitative factors were the ones first in mind when evaluating the successfulness of the investment.;

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  4. Finnish nurses' views on their research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Tuomi, Jouni

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to describe Finnish nurses' research and publication activities, as well as their views on the availability and utilization of research results in nursing practice. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire in which obstacles to the utilization of research results were measured with a previously developed instrument. A total of 400 nurses from community health centres, a central hospital and a central university hospital took part. Most of the nurses had carried out research on their own. Age, experience, training in research and development and other further training, as well as reading the nursing literature, were associated with doing research. Some of the reasons why the nurses had not carried out research were revealed. Publication of results was very rare. There were problems with the availability of research results. The most common obstacles to research utilization had to do with the presentation of results and the setting. In research utilization, respondents received most support from the ward manager and least support from doctors. If we want to encourage nurses to do research and increase the utilization of research results, greater effort should be invested in teaching research methodology, in introducing more flexible working hours and in developing other support systems.

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  6. Bioenergy in the new Finnish energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, S.

    1997-01-01

    As discussed in this conference paper, the goal of Finnish energy strategy is to bring the growth of the total energy consumption to a halt in the next 10-15 years and to speed up the restructuring of the energy economy without hampering economic growth. By 2010 the emission of greenhouse gases should be down to the 1990 level. To reach the goals, various means are available: taxation, subsidies, energy efficiency measures, replacing fossil sources with renewable and low-emission energy sources. By 1999 Finland should be connected to the European gas network. The use of bioenergy, wood fuels and wind power is encouraged. Peat is a competitive fuel in areas where it is locally available. To cut down on CO 2 emission it is necessary to increase the use of bioenergy, and by 2025 the use of wood will have increased considerably from the present level. At present, the wood reserves increase by one percent per year. Public funds will be set aside for energy wood research, for product development and marketing. Peat is an important indigenous energy resource, accounting for about 5% of all energy use. The Government is committed to closely follow up the implementation of its energy strategy. 1 ref., 3 figs

  7. Control of radon in Finnish workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Natural radiation in Finland is regulated in the Finnish Radiation Act from 1992. Occupational exposure to natural radiation is regulated by an amendment of the Radiation Decree in 1998. The most important issues in Finland are radon in workplaces, radioactivity in drinking water and in building materials, and mining and industrial processes. Radon levels in mines have been measured regularly since 1972. Finland has an action level for radon in workplaces of 400 Bq/m 3 . Radon prone areas have been identified primarily from measurements of radon in dwellings. Radon measurements are compulsory in workplaces in radon prone areas unless it can be shown by other means that radon levels are low. A programme focusing on radon in workplaces was initiated in 1992. To date, radon measurements have been carried out in 10,000 workplaces and remedial actions have been taken in 200 of these. The average reduction in radon concentration in remediated buildings is about 1,500 Bq/m 3 . Identification of NORM industries is based on the radionuclide content of the materials used (>1.4 Bq/g U and >0.4 Bq/g Th). The occupational exposure should not exceed 1 mSv/y (excluding radon)

  8. Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvinen, M; Pukkala, E

    2016-04-01

    Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers. We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region. Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population. Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  9. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  10. Literacy Development among Language Minority Background and Dyslexic Children in Finnish Orthography Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of reading and writing from first to second grade in transparent orthography (Finnish) among three groups: language minority children (n = 49), Finnish children at risk of reading difficulties (n = 347), and Finnish speaking children (n = 1747). Findings indicated that reading and writing skills in the language…

  11. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  12. Finnish vocational education and training in comparison: Strengths and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Virolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four Nordic countries have wellorganised labour markets and universal types of welfare states. Priority is given to goals related to equal opportunities and social inclusion. At the same time, these countries have different models of IVET. While the study compares the Finnish model of organising IVET to those of other Nordic countries, it also examines the German and UK models, which represent differing societal approaches to IVET. The differences in the outcomes of the IVET systems are described and analysed through reviewing secondary data provided by Eurydice and Eurostat, along with country reports produced in a Nordic comparative project, Nord-VET.

  13. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA

  14. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietilä Anna-Maija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  15. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  16. Finnish participation in the European utility requirements work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish participation in the EUR process started already in April 1994 when IVO (Imatran Voima Oy presently Fortum Oyj) and TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) were asked to comment EUR Volume 1 and 2 Revision A in April 1994. A formal application for the Finnish membership in the EUR organisation was sent on 20 November 1995, and Finland was accepted as an associated member on the next day. The Finnish representatives in the various EUR bodies were appointed in March 1996, at which time the formal participation in these bodies commenced. On 7 November 1996, EUR Steering Committee approved a full membership of IVO and TVO that are joint EUR members representing Finland together. A major Finnish contribution was made in 1997 when IVO and TVO performed a comparison between the EUR document and YVL guides. The period of the Finnish membership has been characterised by the compilation of EUR Volume 3 subsets, in which process IVO/Fortum and TVO have been actively participating. From the Finnish point of view, the EUR work can also be seen as a part of getting prepared to proceed with a possible new NPP project. The EUR document is a substantial aid when preparing the technical specifications for a NPP bid inquiry. The information received in connection with the detailed assessment work for Volume 3 subsets is very valuable when considering the feasibility of NPP concepts. In addition. the experiences gained in the Volume 3 activities enable to develop even better requirements that are manifested by Revision C of Volumes 1 and 2. (author)

  17. Reference ranges of HOMA-IR in normal-weight and obese young Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaj, Blegina; Luciano, Rosa; Contoli, Benedetta; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Spreghini, Maria Rita; Rustico, Carmela; Sforza, Rita Wietrzycowska; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Manco, Melania

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may develop very early in life being associated with occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Aim of the present study was to identify in young Caucasians normative values of IR as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cutoffs diagnostic of CMRFs. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were assessed in 2753 Caucasians (age 2-17.8 years; 1204 F). Reference ranges of HOMA-IR were defined for the whole population and for samples of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to find cutoffs of HOMA-IR accurately identifying individuals with any CMRF among total cholesterol and/or triglycerides higher than the 95th percentile and/or HDL cholesterol lower than the 5th for age and sex, impaired glucose tolerance, and alanine aminotransferase levels ≥40 U/l. Overweight/obese individuals had higher HOMA-IR levels compared with normal-weight peers (p HOMA-IR index rose progressively with age, plateaued between age 13 and 15 years and started decreasing afterward. HOMA-IR peaked at age 13 years in girls and at 15 years in boys. The 75th percentile of HOMA-IR in the whole population (3.02; AUROC = 0.73, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.75), in normal-weight (1.68; AUROC = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.79), and obese (3.42; AUROC = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.69-0.72) individuals identified the cutoffs best classifying individuals with any CMRF. Percentiles of HOMA-IR varied significantly in young Caucasians depending on sex, age, and BMI category. The 75th percentile may represent an accurate cutoff point to suspect the occurrence of one or more CMRFs among high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and ALT ≥ 40 UI/l.

  18. Circulatory adaptation to long-term high altitude exposure in Aymaras and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Thomas; Scherrer, Urs

    2010-01-01

    About 30 million people live above 2500 m in the Andean Mountains of South America. Among them are 5.5 million Aymaras, an ethnic group with its own language, living on the altiplano of Bolivia, Peru, and northern Chile at altitudes of up to 4400 m. In this high altitude region traces of human population go back for more than 2000 years with constant evolutionary pressure on its residents for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Aymaras as the assumed direct descendents of the ancient cultures living in this region were the focus of much research interest during the last decades and several distinctive adaptation patterns to life at high altitude have been described in this ethnic group. The aim of this article was to review the physiology and pathophysiology of circulatory adaptation and maladaptation to longtime altitude exposure in Aymaras and Caucasians.

  19. Job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction among Finnish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, P M; Meretoja, O A; Töyry, S M; Luukkonen, R A; Elovainio, M J; Leino, T J

    2007-08-01

    Organizational changes and relative growth of the ageing population together with related health problems seem to have increased stressfulness in the work of anaesthesiologists. However, little is known about their work-related well-being and the factors through which their situation could be improved. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the level and the determinants of job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction among female and male anaesthesiologists involved 258 Finnish anaesthesiologists working full time (53% men). The respondents had fairly high job satisfaction, work ability and life satisfaction. No gender differences appeared in these well-being indicators, but their determinants differed by gender. Job satisfaction was only associated with work-related factors in both genders: with job control in women and with job control and organizational justice in men. Work ability correlated with job control and health in both genders and with family life in women. Life satisfaction correlated with individual- and family related factors such as social support and family problems in both genders. Life satisfaction correlated with physical workload in men and health in women. Women had less job control, fewer permanent job contracts and more domestic workload than men. Job control and organizational justice were the most important determinants in work-related well-being. Work-related factors were slightly more important correlates of well-being in males, and family life seems to play a larger role in the well-being of female anaesthesiologists. Organizational and gender issues need to be addressed in order to maintain a high level of well-being among anaesthesiologists.

  20. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  1. Recent fertility patterns of Finnish women by union status: A descriptive account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Remarkably little is known about the significance of consensual unions for fertility. This is true everywhere, but the lacuna is more important in the Nordic countries where there is so much childbearing outside of marriage, mostly in consensual unions. The purpose of this paper is to help fill this hole in our knowledge for Finland. OBJECTIVE Unusually good register data enable us to study recent fertility trends by union status (married, cohabiting, neither using records for some 112,000 Finnish women, or 11Š of all women at fertile ages. METHODS Our description of fertility is based on group-specific duration-based TFRs, which is the number of children borne by a woman who remains in the group throughout her reproductive life, as computed from the fertility rates for a synthetic cohort. This is an intuitively appealing metric that has been taken into systematic use only recently. RESULTS We find substantial fertility differences between women who cohabit, women who marry directly (i.e., without pre-marital cohabitation, and women who marry their cohabitational partner. As one would also expect in Finland, cohabiting women have much lower fertility than married women. The marital TFR is highest among the directly-married and declines monotonically as the length of pre-marital cohabitation increases, even when premarital childbearing is included in the count. As far as we know the latter relationship has not been shown before, because extensive data for complete cohabitational unions have not been available for other populations. CONCLUSIONS The Finnish data are unique, even among the Nordic countries, in that they contain individual-level life histories of family dynamics that cover consensual unions from their very start. Fertility analysis would benefit if data similar to the Finnish were to become available, because analyses that rely on civil status as an indicator of union status barely add anything to what we already know

  2. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1999-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. All Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole second quarter of 1999, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Olkiluoto plant units. The load factor average of the plant units in this quarter was 93.1%. Two events in this quarter were classified Level 1 on the INKS Scale. At Olkiluoto 1, a valve of the containment gas treatment system had been in an incorrect position for almost a month, owing to which the system would not have been available as planned in an accident. At Olkiluoto 2, main circulation pump work was done during the annual maintenance outage and a containment personnel air lock was briefly open in violation of the Technical Specifications. Water leaking out of the reactor in an accident could not have been directed to the emergency cooling system because it would have leaked out from the containment via the open personnel air lock. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on the nuclear or radiation safety of the plant units. The individual doses of NPP personnel and also radioactive releases off-site were well below authorised limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  3. 'From Start to Finnish': Handbook For Exporting A Theatre Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen, Milka; Mäkinen, Annemari

    2014-01-01

    Exporting Finnish culture is one of the themes the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture has carried out over the last few years. ‘From Start to Finnish’ project was a mission to strenghten the state of theatre export in Finland. In the project, government subsidised theatres in Finland export their plays to the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the largest arts festival in the world. The thesis is product-based as the authors created a handbook to combine all the steps to be taken when expo...

  4. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  5. Analysis of Osteocalcin as a Candidate Gene for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D and Intermediate Traits in Caucasians and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan K. Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in mice and human identified osteocalcin (OCN as a bone-derived hormone that modulates insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. OCN is synthesized by the bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP gene located in the well replicated region of type 2 diabetes (T2D linkage on chromosome 1q22. We resequenced BGLAP gene in 192 individuals with T2D and performed case-control studies in 766 Caucasian (461 T2D and 305 controls and 563 African American individuals (371 T2D and 192 controls. Metabolic effects of BGLAP variants were examined in 127 nondiabetic members of Caucasian T2D families and in 498 unrelated nondiabetic African American and Caucasian individuals. BGLAP expression was tested in transformed lymphocytes from 60 Caucasian individuals. We identified 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in African Americans, but observed only the two known SNPs in Caucasians. No SNP was associated with T2D. Promoter SNP rs1800247 was not associated with metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity (SI or fasting glucose in either population, but nonsynonymous SNP rs34702397 (R94Q was nominally associated with SI (uncorrected p = 0.05 and glucose-mediated glucose disposal (SG; uncorrected p = 0.03 in African Americans. No SNP altered measures of insulin secretion or obesity, nor was BGLAP expression associated with rs1800247. Our study was sufficiently powered to exclude BGLAP variants as a major risk factor (OR > 1.5 for T2D in Caucasians, but coding variants in exon 4 may alter glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk in African Americans.

  6. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2014-01-27

    Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples' PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7-7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel perspective. The method provides information on the

  7. Effect of Adolescent Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk in African-Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...

  8. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  9. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    extracted by 0.03 N NH4F-0.025 N HCI, distinctly indicated the addition of superphosphate, and also to some extent the presence of hyperphosphate phosphorus. Thus, even these results furnish a supplement to the data (11, 19 which prove that acids are not recommendable for the estimation of »available» phosphorus in Finnish soils. Probably, the use of ammonium fluoride would give a more reliable picture, provided, it is on the whole possible to characterize the phosphorus condition of soil with this kind of test values.

  10. The styles of the Finnish nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish government determined the aims and schedule for nuclear waste management in 1983. Nearly three decades later spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management is approaching the construction licensing phase of the repository, on schedule. The parliamentary decision on the final disposal of SNF was taken almost unanimously in 2001. The location of the SNF facility was chosen at the same time. The smoothness of this raises questions about the main factors behind the progress in Finland. The aim of the paper is to analyse the Finnish nuclear waste policy from the point of view of policy style. In the paper policy style is defined as 'the interaction between (a) the government's approach to problem-solving and (b) the relationship between government and the other actors in policy process'. According to this definition by Richardson, Gustafsson and Jordan, the focus of style is both on policymaking and on implementation. The policy style approach is used to identify the standard operating procedures of Finnish nuclear waste policy. The paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the formation of national nuclear waste policy and its institutions by analysing the Finnish case

  11. Primers As Socializing Agents in American and Finnish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyona, Jukka; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Content analysis of 12 Finnish and 18 American primers for grades 3 through 6 published primarily during the 1980s examined story type, plot setting, protagonist's characteristics, dramatic tasks, portrayals of family structure and parental responsibility, and extrafamilial peer and adult relationships. Results suggest that a nation's cultural…

  12. "Virtuoso Ideal Daddy": Finnish Children's Perceptions of Good Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Riika; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Changes in family structures, such as the increase in the number of cohabiting couples, divorces, and blended families pose new challenges for fatherhood and research on fatherhood has been mainly adult-centred. This research studied how Finnish children perceive good fatherhood and what expectations they set for fathers. The following research…

  13. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs

  14. Dematerialization in Finnish energy use, 1972-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W. [Turku School of Economics, P.O. Box 110, FIN-20521, Turku (Finland)

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes dematerialization, particularity decarbonization and energy saving with regard to Finnish energy use. The results show that Finland has achieved good results in decarbonization and energy saving. However, the results are not as impressive when compared to other developed countries.

  15. The XXXV annual conference of the Finnish physical society. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhinen, V.; Eskola, K.J.; Ruuskanen, V.; Tuominen, K.

    2001-01-01

    The 35th Physics Days of the Finnish Physical Society will have the traditional structure with plenary lectures, short contributions of young researchers, poster sessions, and social events. The number of members of the society has exceeded 1000 and nearly half of them, more than 400, are expected to participate the Physics Days. The Finnish physicists and the Society can be proud of keeping up this tradition. The annual meeting of the Finnish Physical Society will take place during the Physics Days. I wish all the members of the Finnish Physical Society to attend the meeting and continue the discussions more informally at the conference dinner following the annual meeting. The fifth Magnus Ehrnrooth Price for Physics will be given during the opening ceremony of the Physics Days. Also the winners of the SOLIS competition for high school students will be announced. Traditionally, the Days will end by giving prices for the best poster and the best talk. The 35th Physics Days are held in the new congress center Jyvaeskylae Paviljonki and arranged by the University of Jyvaeskylae. The proceedings includes all the abstracts of the presentations given during the 35th Physics Days

  16. Finnish HLW disposal programme : site selection in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryhsnen, Veijo [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the technical concepts for final disposal in the Finnish geological conditions, the approach for site selection and implementation, the safety assessments and development of criteria, the environmental impact assessment, the licensing stages and acceptance, and the financial provisions, the project organization in 1997 - 2000. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  18. Finnish Cooperating Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Physics Teachers' Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Finnish cooperating physics teachers' conceptions of teacher knowledge in physics. Six experienced teachers were interviewed. The data was analyzed to form categories concerning the basis of teacher knowledge, and the tradition of German Didaktik and Shulman's theory of teacher knowledge were used in order to understand the…

  19. Exploring Finnish university students' perceived level of critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is believed to be a 21 st century skill that many employers consider crucial when hiring recent graduates. However, it is debated whether critical thinking should be taught in academic foreign language courses at the tertiary level, which primarily aim to develop students’ language and communication skills. This localized, exploratory research examines Finnish university students’ self-reported critical thinking skills a...

  20. ADHD in the Context of Finnish Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkasilta, J.; Sandberg, E.; Närhi, V.; Jahnukainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are a growing group served under special education services in many western societies. This article describes the history and current state of the services, as well as the assessment procedure. Our conclusion is that the status of students with ADHD in Finnish basic education (Grades 1…

  1. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  2. Exports of Finnish wind power technology gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, Finnish companies in the wind power sector focused on supplying advanced components and materials. This capability has now extended to cover entire turbines and wind farms. Winwind Oy, based in northern Finland, has developed a new type of solution for the export market, combining the advantages of modem direct drives with those of traditional high-speed gear systems

  3. Outsourcing Equality: Migrant Care Worker Imaginary in Finnish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nordberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implications from the restructuring of Nordic eldercare include the incorporation of new categories of care workers and a redefinition of the terms of citizenship and participation in working life. Drawing on the idea that policy actors script care worker subjectivities, this article examines print media as a key arena where the cultural imaginary of care work is played out. The media has the potential to accommodate ideological complexity through the possible range of participatory actors. From the scripts promoted through the mediascape, we can learn about the positions understood as being (inappropriate for migrant care workers. This study draws on the analysis of news and feature stories from 2003 to 2013 in the largest Finnish daily, Helsingin Sanomat, and in the periodical Kuntalehti, published by the Finnish Association of Local and Regional Authorities. The article points to tensions in Finnish media discourse, identifying ambiguous occupational scripts for migrant care workers—rooted in neoliberal repertoires of self-sufficiency and normative individualism on the one hand and helplessness and naivety on the other hand. It draws attention to an unsettling construction whereby migrant care workers are excluded from a long-term contract with the Finnish care labor market, and where social equality is conditioned to global redistribution.

  4. Teaching Islamic Education in Finnish Schools: A Field of Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Inkeri

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of contemporary multicultural societies have resulted in changing aims for religious education and the necessity to adjust teacher education accordingly. The processes of negotiation related to the coexistence of different religious and cultural groups are intertwined in the Finnish curriculum for religious education. This case…

  5. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  6. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  7. Job boredom and its correlates in 87 Finnish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harju, Lotta; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlates of job boredom in 87 Finnish workplaces (N = 11,468) and to examine the associations between job boredom, health outcomes, and job attitudes. METHODS: We applied the Dutch Boredom Scale to measure job boredom. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis and

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 1st quarter 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-11-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish NPPs describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish NPP units were in power operation for the whole first quarter of 1998. All the units were in long-term test operation at uprated power level authorised by STUK. The load factor average of the plant units was 100.8%. An oil leak at Olkiluoto NPP Unit 2 caused an ignition that was promptly extinguished. A subsequent appraisal of the event disclosed deficiencies in the functioning of the plant unit's operating organization and the event was classified INES level 1. Other events in this quarter had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy's application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 4th quarter, 1994 and annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K [ed.

    1995-05-01

    The Loviisa NPP units were in power operation the whole last quarter, with the exception of a reactor scram at Loviisa 1. The load factor average of all Finnish plant units was 100.2 %. The annual average was 90.0 %. All events in the fourth annual quarter were assigned level 0 (no safety significance) on the international INES scale. Four events in 1994 were classified level 1 (an anomaly). The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in December approved Imatran Voima Oy`s application to extend the operation of the reactor pressure vessel of Loviisa 2 until the annual maintenance outage of 2010. During this quarter, a batch of spent fuel from Loviisa power plant was transported to Russia. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorised limits. Only such quantities of plant-based radioactive materials were measurable in samples collected around the plants as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes a summary of all the items described in the Quarterly Reports of 1994. (8 figs., 4 tabs.).

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  13. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  14. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene analysis indicates a restricted genetic background in Finnish noble crayfish (Astacus astacus stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkonen J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IUCN Red List indexes the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus as vulnerable, with a declining population trend. The main threats to the species are the crayfish plague caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces astaci and the introduced North American crayfish that act as the carriers of this disease. In Finland, the noble crayfish is considered as a native species, which original distribution area covers the southern part of the country, but the species distribution has been dispersed to cover almost the whole country. The aim of this study was to survey the genetic diversity among the Finnish noble crayfish populations. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI-gene was sequenced from 742 individuals representing 59 populations from Finland and Estonia. As a result, only a single haplotype was found. Based on these results, the genetic diversity of noble crayfish in its Northern distribution range is remarkably low. The observed lack of variation can result from several mechanisms including small size of the founder population and the intense spreading of the species by manmade stockings. The restricted diversity can also be caused by eradication of the original populations due to crayfish plague epidemics and spreading of the invasive crayfish species carrying the crayfish plague. It is also possible that all contemporary Finnish noble crayfish populations originate from stockings with no variation in respect to COI-gene.

  15. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  16. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  17. Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Ban, Matthew R

    2008-01-01

    for the NCEP ATP III-defined MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was particularly strong in men. The association was related to a higher proportion of rs9939609 A allele carriers meeting the waist circumference criterion; a higher proportion also met the HDL cholesterol criterion compared...... with wild-type homozygotes. CONCLUSION: Thus, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for MetS in this multi-ethnic sample, confirming that the association extends to non-Caucasian population samples....

  18. Do differences in age specific androgenic steroid hormone levels account for differing prostate cancer rates between Arabs and Caucasians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Akanji, Abayomi O; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Memon, Anjum; Luqmani, Yunus; Al-Awadi, Khaleel A; Varghese, Ramani; Bashir, Abdul Aziz; Daar, Abdallah S

    2006-04-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to differences in androgenic steroid hormone metabolism between Arabs and other populations, especially as prostate cancer is believed to be androgen dependent. We therefore measured the levels of serum androgenic steroids and their binding proteins in Arab men and compared results obtained with values reported for Caucasian populations to determine if any differences could at least partially account for differences in incidence of prostate cancer rates between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 327 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-79 years. Samples were also obtained from 30 Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), derived free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19 -steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Age specific reference intervals, mean and median for each analyte were determined. Frequency distribution pattern for each hormone was plotted. The reference range for hormones with normal distribution was mean +/- 2SD and 2.5-97.5% for those with non-normal distribution. The mean serum levels of the hormones in Arab men with prostate cancer were compared with values in healthy age-matched Arab men. There was a significant decrease between the 21-29 years age group and the 70-79 years age group for TT (-38.77%), DHEAS (-70%), ADT (-36%) and FAI (-63.25%), and an increase for SHBG (+64%). The calculated reference ranges are TT (2.73-30.45 nmol/L), SHBG (6.45-65.67 nmol/L), FAI (14.51-180.34), DHEAS (0.9-11.0 micromol/L) and ADT (0.54-4.26 ng/mL). The mean TT, SHBG, DHEAS and ADT in Arab men were significantly lower than those reported for Caucasians especially in the 21-29 years age group. Arab men with

  19. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  1. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  2. Association of the World War II Finnish Evacuation of Children With Psychiatric Hospitalization in the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen E

    2018-01-01

    Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive's registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Offspring's initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in

  3. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  4. Comparing HLA shared epitopes in French Caucasian patients with scleroderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doua F Azzouz

    Full Text Available Although many studies have analyzed HLA allele frequencies in several ethnic groups in patients with scleroderma (SSc, none has been done in French Caucasian patients and none has evaluated which one of the common amino acid sequences, (67FLEDR(71, shared by HLA-DRB susceptibility alleles, or (71TRAELDT(77, shared by HLA-DQB1 susceptibility alleles in SSc, was the most important to develop the disease. HLA-DRB and DQB typing was performed for a total of 468 healthy controls and 282 patients with SSc allowing FLEDR and TRAELDT analyses. Results were stratified according to patient's clinical subtypes and autoantibody status. Moreover, standardized HLA-DRß1 and DRß5 reverse transcriptase Taqman PCR assays were developed to quantify ß1 and ß5 mRNA in 20 subjects with HLA-DRB1*15 and/or DRB1*11 haplotypes. FLEDR motif is highly associated with diffuse SSc (χ(2 = 28.4, p<10-6 and with anti-topoisomerase antibody (ATA production (χ(2 = 43.9, p<10-9 whereas TRAELDT association is weaker in both subgroups (χ(2 = 7.2, p = 0.027 and χ(2 = 14.6, p = 0.0007 respectively. Moreover, FLEDR motif- association among patients with diffuse SSc remains significant only in ATA subgroup. The risk to develop ATA positive SSc is higher with double dose FLEDR than single dose with respectively, adjusted standardised residuals of 5.1 and 2.6. The increase in FLEDR motif is mostly due to the higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and DRB1*15 haplotypes. Furthermore, FLEDR is always carried by the most abundantly expressed ß chain: ß1 in HLA DRB1*11 haplotypes and ß5 in HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes.In French Caucasian patients with SSc, FLEDR is the main presenting motif influencing ATA production in dcSSc. These results open a new field of potential therapeutic applications to interact with the FLEDR peptide binding groove and prevent ATA production, a hallmark of severity in SSc.

  5. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3, indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01. On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p

  6. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25-30 and 30-35 years) and both sexes were tested. Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all page or sex effect. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing.

  7. Evaluation of the Finnish nuclear waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In response to a request from Finland in November 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set up a Team of four experts (representatives from Belgium, Canada, Germany and Switzerland) to review the Finnish nuclear waste management programme within the auspices of IAEA's Waste Management programme (WATRP). During the early summer of 1993, the Team reviewed a large amount of documentation supplied by the Finnish industry, government and research organizations. The radioactive waste management programme areas within the Team's terms of reference included: (1) work being done in siting and building a conditional facility for spent nuclear fuel and siting and constructing a co-located repository, (2) the plans and activities for conditioning and disposing of the low and intermediate level waste from Finland's NPPs and (3) the plans for decommissioning Finland's reactors when that becomes necessary. The evaluation work and the recommendations of the Team are detailed in the report

  8. Airborne fallout mapping of 137Cs Finnish defence forces team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)

  9. HOLIDAY FROM HELL : Bad travel experiences of Finnish people

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Milja

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the bad travel experiences of Finnish people. This thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical framework consists of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, tourism consumer behaviour, experience and experience economy. In the empirical part, a survey was used and answers were collected by a questionnaire on the Internet. The link to the questionnaire was published in Facebook and also on Suomi24 forum’s travel section. It was possible to answer to the questionnai...

  10. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  11. Cyber risk management in the Finnish healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstén, Hanne

    2018-01-01

    Advances in technology and digitalization have been widely adopted by Finnish healthcare organizations. This development has led to improvements in the efficiency and outcomes of patient care, but has also exposed healthcare providers to new kinds of risks. Cyber risks are becoming an increasingly common occurrence in the healthcare sector, and can lead to serious consequences for patients and organizations alike. The significance of cyber risks within healthcare has been projected to grow...

  12. Internationalization of Finnish Technology Startups : Case: Goodwille Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom is a large European market that offers vast market potential for companies that enter it. Finnish start-up companies are especially drawn to this market by the venture capital opportunities. A presence in the United Kingdom is necessary for companies that want to become truly international. The sponsor of the thesis is Goodwille Ltd., a British company that provides services to foreign companies who want to start or expand their business in the UK. Goodwille’s newly se...

  13. The Finnish research programme on climate change SILMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikinheimo, P.; Kanninen, M.

    1995-01-01

    SILMU, which runs from 1990 to 1995, aims at studying climate change and its impacts. It also seeks to provide information to Finnish policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The topics range from air chemistry to sociology, and the total number of projects is 74. Interim evaluation of the programme was carried out in 1992. During the second half of SILMU, 10% of the total budget (total: 14 Million ECU) has been devoted to programme integration. 8 refs

  14. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  15. Biotechnology as a competitive edge for the Finnish forest cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  16. Biotechnology as a Competitive Edge for the Finnish Forest Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Hakala, Terhi; Haltia, Olli; Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti; Nikinmaa, Hanna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Pursula, Tiina

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have collected information by interviewing all identified parties within the Finnish forest sector who might have a potential biotechnology connection : university research groups, research institutions, small and medium-sized biotechnology-companies and up to the largest forest companies. The ultimate goal was to assess how resources have been allocated and biotechnologies utilized within the value chain of the entire forest sector. This study aimed at providing answers to t...

  17. Creating visual guidelines for a Finnish fashion brand

    OpenAIRE

    Morozova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    Visual communication is an essential part of branding. Visual elements like logo, brand colours, and typography create associations with a brand and make it distinctive. Graphic design is a tool for visual communication that allows creating aesthetic and functional visual elements that convey some messages. The client of this thesis is a Finnish fashion company that does not have clear and consistent visual image, and the goal is to create it based on company’s values and desired image...

  18. Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between firms’ foreign and domestic investments using a panel dataset containing 218 Finnish manufacturing firms during the years 1998-2002. The study examines whether foreign investments increase or decrease domestic investments and whether the effect varies between investments directed to developed markets or emerging markets. Financial constraints’ effect on the relationship is also investigated. The empirical part estimates an empirical investment equa...

  19. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian woman: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellani Debora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient LV regional wall motion abnormalities (with peculiar apical ballooning appearance, chest pain or dyspnea, ST-segment elevation and minor elevations of cardiac enzyme levels Case presentation A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department because of sudden onset chest pain occurred while transferring her daughter, who had earlier suffered a major seizure, to the hospital. The EKG showed sinus tachycardia with ST-segment elevation in leads V2–V3 and ST-segment depression in leads V5–V6, she was, thus, referred for emergency coronary angiography. A pre-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram revealed regional systolic dysfunction of the LV walls with hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Coronary angiography showed patent epicardial coronary arteries; LV angiography demonstrated the characteristic morphology of apical ballooning with hyperkinesis of the basal segments and hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments. The post-procedural course was uneventful; on day 5 after admission the echocardiogram revealed full recovery of apical and mid-ventricular regional wall-motion abnormalities. Conclusion Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare, unique entity that has only recently been widely appreciated. Acute stress has been indicated as a common trigger for the transient LV apical ballooning syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women. The present report is a typical example of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian postmenopausal woman.

  20. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  2. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) studies Finnish bedrock for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study is in accordance with the decision in principle by Finnish government in 1983. The report is the summary of the preliminary site investigations carried out during the years 1987-1992. On the basis of these investigations a few areas will be selected for detailed site investigation. The characterization comprises five areas selected from the shortlist of potential candidate areas resulted in the earlier study during 1983-1985. Areas are located in different parts of Finland and they represent the main formations of the Finnish bedrock. Romuvaara area in Kuhmo and Veitsivaara area in Hyrynsalmi represent the Archean basement. Kivetty area in Konginkangas consists of mainly younger granitic rocks. Syyry in Sievi is located in transition area of Svecofennidic rocks and granitic rocks. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki represents migmatites in southern Finland. For the field investigations area-specific programs were planned and executed. The field investigations have comprised airborne survey by helicopter, geophysical surveys, geological mappings and samplings, deep and shallow core drillings, geophysical and hydrological borehole measurements and groundwater samplings

  3. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  4. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  5. Reform, change, and continuity in Finnish health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Unto; Lehto, Juhani

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some essential aspects of the Finnish political and governmental system and the evolution of the basic institutional elements of the health care system. We examine the developments that gave rise to a series of health care reforms and reform proposals in the late 1980s and early 1990s and relate them to changes in health care expenditure, structure, and performance. Finally, we discuss the relationship between policy changes, reforms, and health system changes and the strength of neo-institutional theory in explaining both continuity and change. Much of the change in Finnish health care can be explained by institutional path dependency. The tradition of strong but small local authorities and the lack of legitimate democratic regional authorities as well as the coexistence of a dominant Beveridge-style health system with a marginal Bismarckian element explain the specific path of Finnish health care reform. Public responsibility for health care has been decentralized to smaller local authorities (known as municipalities) more than in any other country. Even an exceptionally deep economic recession in the early 1990s did not lead to systems change; rather, the economic imperative was met by the traditional centralized policy pattern. Some of the developments of the 1990s are, however, difficult to explain by institutional theory. Thus, there is a need for testing alternative theories as well.

  6. Ensuring the operational safety of finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear energy programme has been successful both from the safety and economical point of view. These achievements are based on different factors which are discussed in the paper. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has specified the technical requirements and procedures to be followed in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs in a series of guides. The guides are quite demanding and latest results of safety research and technical development are taken into account. Regulatory supervision of Finnish NPPs is comprehensive. As an example of this the regulatory inspection program for operational phase is presented. An important way to ensure operational safety of a NPP is to define a set of limits and conditions to identify limiting safety envelope for plant operation. Practices in Finland are reviewed in the paper. The strategy of Defence in Depth is amongst the fundamental principles of nuclear safety. Two corollary principles of defence of depth are accident prevention and accident mitigation. Means used in following these principles are discussed. (author)

  7. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  8. Visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Tuppurainen, Kaija; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Cremers, Cor W R J; Deutman, August F

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate visual impairment in Finnish Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) and compare this with visual impairment in Usher syndrome types 1b (USH1b) and 2a (USH2a). We carried out a retrospective study of 28 Finnish USH3 patients, 24 Dutch USH2a patients and 17 Dutch USH1b patients. Cross-sectional regression analyses of the functional acuity score (FAS), functional field score (FFS*) and functional vision score (FVS*) related to age were performed for all patients. The FFS* and FVS* were calculated using the isoptre V-4 test target instead of the usual III-4 target. Statistical tests relating to regression lines and Student's t-test were used to compare between USH3 patients and the other genetic subtypes of Usher syndrome. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant deterioration in the FAS (1.3% per year), FFS* (1.4% per year) and FVS* (1.8% per year) with advancing age in the USH3 patient group. At a given age the USH3 patients showed significantly poorer visual field function than the USH2a patients. The rate of deterioration in visual function in Finnish USH3 patients was fairly similar to that in Dutch USH1b or USH2a patients. At a given age, visual field impairment in USH3 patients was similar to that in USH1b patients but poorer than in USH2a patients.

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ in 590 Professional Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Vastamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. Objective: To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%.The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Results: Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the “job demand” construct, the “conflicting demands” (question 5 explained most of the total variance in this construct (79% demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of “job control,” “repetitive work” (question 10 demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items “little decision freedom” (question 14 and “allows own decisions” (question 6 showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The “conflicting demands,” “repetitive work,” “little decision freedom,” and “allows own decisions” items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) in 590 Professional Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastamäki, Heidi; Vastamäki, Martti; Laimi, Katri; Saltychev, Michail

    2017-07-01

    Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%).The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the "job demand" construct, the "conflicting demands" (question 5) explained most of the total variance in this construct (79%) demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of "job control," "opinions influential" (question 10) demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items "little decision freedom" (question 14) and "allows own decisions" (question 6) showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The "conflicting demands," "opinions influential," "little decision freedom," and "allows own decisions" items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  11. Comparison of factors associated with occludable angle between american Caucasians and ethnic Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2013-11-21

    To determine if factors associated with gonioscopy-determined occludable angle among American Caucasians are similar to those found in ethnic Chinese. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 120 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese, and 116 mainland Chinese subjects. All three groups were matched for sex and age (40-80 years). Gonioscopy was performed for each subject (occludable angles = posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and customized software was used to measure anterior segment biometry and iris parameters, including anterior chamber depth/width (ACD, ACW), lens vault (LV), and iris thickness/area/curvature. In both Chinese and Caucasians, eyes with occludable angles had smaller ACD and ACW, and larger LV and iris curvature than eyes with open angles (all P gonioscopy-determined occludable angle was significantly associated with LV, iris area, and sex (all P < 0.03) in Chinese; and with LV, ACD, iris thickness, age, and sex (all P < 0.04) in Caucasians. Several factors associated with occludable angle differed between Caucasians and Chinese, suggesting potentially different mechanisms in occludable angle development in the two racial groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that lens vault is an important anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter in the screening for angle closure in Caucasians. In addition, iris thickness was a significant predictor for occludable angles in Caucasians but was not in ethnic Chinese.

  12. GEOINFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHANGING BOUNDARIES OF FOREST TRACTS OF THE REGION OF CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS OF STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Anikeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the state of forests and illegal logging are a global problem of our time. The region of the Caucasian Mineral Waters has a small number of forest areas, so the need to introduce new methods for analyzing the state of forests is an important task in the conservation of forests in this area. One such method is geoinformational analysis. For the survey, the geoinformation systems ScanEx Image Processor 4.0, Mapinfo Professional 12, QGIS 2.8 have been used.The species composition of the largest forest tracts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters is considered. The main reasons for changing the boundaries of forest areas have been determined. A geoinformational analysis of the changes in the boundaries of the forest tracts of the region has been carried out using remote sensing data for the period from 1987 to 2014. For the analysis, space images of the Landsat 5 and 8 system were used for the period from 1987 to 2014.A classification of multi-temporal optical images has been made, which allowed obtaining the values of forest areas in different years and to calculate their percentage of forest cover. In 1987, the forest area of the region was 35.2 thousand hectares; in 1998, 41.99 thousand hectares, and by 2014 it was reduced to 33.16 thousand hectares.On the basis of the data obtained, a series of maps characterizing the forests of the Caucasian Mineral Waters in different years has been constructed.The conducted study led to the conclusion that the main changes in the forest boundaries occurred in the Mashuk, Lysoy, Zheleznaya, Beshtau, Verblud and Bik mountains. This is due primarily to the proximity to the most densely populated cities in the region: Pyatigorsk, Zheleznovodsk, Essentuki and the city of Mineralnye Vody.

  13. Hyperglycemia and a Common Variant of GCKR Are Associated With the Levels of Eight Amino Acids in 9,369 Finnish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Stan??kov?, Alena; Civelek, Mete; Saleem, Niyas K.; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Cederberg, Henna; Paananen, Jussi; Pihlajam?ki, Jussi; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Morken, Mario A.; Boehnke, Michael; Pajukanta, P?ivi; Lusis, Aldons J.; Collins, Francis S.; Kuusisto, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association of glycemia and 43 genetic risk variants for hyperglycemia/type 2 diabetes with amino acid levels in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) Study, including 9,369 nondiabetic or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic Finnish men. Plasma levels of eight amino acids were measured with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Increasing fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels were associated with increasing levels of several amino acids and decreasi...

  14. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  15. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL.

  16. Experience with S-1 in older Caucasian patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine Braendegaard; Zubcevic, Kanita; Qvortrup, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aging population will increase the number of older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, there is limited knowledge about treatment in older patients as they are under-represented in clinical trials. The oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 is associated with a lower rate...... of adverse events than capecitabine and may therefore be a suitable drug for elderly. However, data on the use of S-1 in Caucasian mCRC patients are lacking/scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study we evaluated safety and the efficacy of S-1 alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (SOx......) or irinotecan (IRIS) in older mCRC patients. Patients who received at least one cycle of S-1 (first-line therapy), SOx (mainly first-line therapy) or IRIS (second-line therapy) were included. RESULTS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 71 older patients received ≥1 cycle of either S-1 (n = 9), SOx (n = 44...

  17. Genetic and Molecular Differences in Prostate Carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Srivastava

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Prostate cancer incidence and associated mortality are highest in African American men in comparison to other races. The observed differences in incidence and disease aggressiveness at presentation support a potential role for different pathways of prostate carcinogenesis between African American and Caucasian men. This review focuses on some of the recent molecular biology discoveries, which have been investigated in prostate carcinogenesis and their likely contribution to the known discrepancies across race and ethnicity. Key discussion points include the androgen receptor gene structure and function, genome-wide association studies and epigenetics. The new observations of the ethnic differences of the ERG oncogene, the most common prostate cancer gene, are providing new insights into ERG based stratification of prostate cancers in the context of ethnically diverse patient populations. This rapidly advancing knowledge has the likely potential to benefit clinical practice. Current and future work will improve the ability to sub-type prostate cancers by molecular alterations and lead to targeted therapy against this common malignancy.

  18. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  19. Serum TSH reference interval in healthy Finnish adults using the Abbott Architect 2000i Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Tanner, Pirjo; Välimäki, Matti J; Hämäläinen, Esa

    2011-07-01

    Current serum TSH reference intervals have been criticized as they were established from unselected background populations. A special concern is that the upper limit, which defines subclinical hypothyroidism, is too high. The objective was to redefine the TSH reference interval in the adult Finnish population. The current reference interval for the widely used Abbott Architect method in Finland is 0.4-4.0 mU/L. Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations were derived from 606 healthy, non-pregnant, 18-91-year-old Finns from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) and the possible effects of age, sex and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status were evaluated. After excluding TPOAb-positive subjects and outliers, a reference population of 511 subjects was obtained. In the reference population, no statistically significant gender- or age-specific differences in mean TSH (1.55 ± 3.30 mU/L) or TSH reference intervals were observed. The new reference interval was 0.5-3.6 mU/L (2.5th-97.5th percentiles). The current upper TSH reference limit is 10% too high. A TSH > 3.6 mU/L, confirmed with a repeat TSH sampling, may indicate subclinical hypothyroidism. Differences in ethnicity, regional iodine-intake and analytical methods underline the need for redefining the TSH reference interval in central laboratories in different countries.

  20. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors.

  1. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  2. A Comparison of Child-Rearing Practices among Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated differences and similarities in child-rearing practices among three groups of parents. Chinese and immigrant Chinese parents rated higher than Caucasian-American parents on parental control, encouragement of independence, and emphasis on achievement. (PCB)

  3. Decreased live births among women of Middle Eastern/North African ethnicity compared to Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, W H; Abdullah, A; Abuzeid, O; Bendikson, K; Sharara, F I; Abuzeid, M

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if IVF outcome disparities exist among MENA women in the USA in comparison to a control group of Caucasian women. A retrospective cohort study comparing MENA (N = 190) and Caucasian (N = 200) women undergoing their first IVF cycle between 5/2006 and 5/2014 was carried out at an academically affiliated fertility practice. All MENA cycles during that time period undergoing IVF/ICSI using autologous embryos and blastocyst transfers were compared to a control group of Caucasian women. MENA women were significantly younger (32.9 vs 34.5, P Middle Eastern/North African women have worse IVF outcomes with decreased live birth rates per blastocyst transfer and increased miscarriage rates compared to Caucasian women.

  4. Parent training in head start: a comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M J; Webster-Stratton, C; Beauchaine, T P

    2001-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting Program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior intervention studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly to either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups). Families in both conditions were assessed using home observations of parent-child interactions and parent reports of parenting style and discipline strategies and child behavior problems in the fall (baseline) and spring (postintervention) of the children's Head Start year. Families were reassessed 1 year later. Following treatment, intervention mothers were observed to be more positive, less critical, more consistent, and more competent in their parenting than were control mothers. Additionally, children of intervention parents were observed to exhibit fewer behavior problems than were control children. Differences in treatment response across ethnic groups were few, and did not exceed the number expected by chance. Parents from all groups reported high satisfaction levels following the parenting program. Results indicate that the Incredible Years Program is accepted by and effective with diverse populations.

  5. A family-based association study identified CYP17 as a candidate gene for obesity susceptibility in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Guo, Y; Yang, T-L; Zhao, L-J; Deng, H-W

    2012-08-06

    The cytochrome P450c17α gene (CYP17) encodes a key biosynthesis enzyme of estrogen, which is critical in regulating adipogenesis and adipocyte development in humans. We therefore hypothesized that CYP17 is a candidate gene for predicting obesity. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed a family-based association test to investigate the relationship between the CYP17 gene and obesity phenotypes in a large sample comprising 1873 subjects from 405 Caucasian nuclear families of European origin recruited by the Osteoporosis Research Center of Creighton University, USA. Both single SNPs and haplotypes were tested for associations with obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. We identified three SNPs to be significantly associated with BMI, including rs3740397, rs6163, and rs619824. We further characterized the linkage disequilibrium structure for CYP17 and found that the whole CYP17 gene was located in a single-linkage disequilibrium block. This block was observed to be significantly associated with BMI. A major haplotype in this block was significantly associated with both BMI and fat mass. In conclusion, we suggest that the CYP17 gene has an effect on obesity in the Caucasian population. Further independent studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.

  7. Search for intracranial aneurysm susceptibility gene(s using Finnish families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryynänen Markku

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States, and about one-fourth of cerebrovascular deaths are attributed to ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IA. Epidemiological evidence suggests that IAs cluster in families, and are therefore probably genetic. Identification of individuals at risk for developing IAs by genetic tests will allow concentration of diagnostic imaging on high-risk individuals. We used model-free linkage analysis based on allele sharing with a two-stage design for a genome-wide scan to identify chromosomal regions that may harbor IA loci. Methods We previously estimated sibling relative risk in the Finnish population at between 9 and 16, and proceeded with a genome-wide scan for loci predisposing to IA. In 85 Finnish families with two or more affected members, 48 affected sibling pairs (ASPs were available for our genetic study. Power calculations indicated that 48 ASPs were adequate to identify chromosomal regions likely to harbor predisposing genes and that a liberal stage I lod score threshold of 0.8 provided a reasonable balance between detection of false positive regions and failure to detect real loci with moderate effect. Results Seven chromosomal regions exceeded the stage I lod score threshold of 0.8 and five exceeded 1.0. The most significant region, on chromosome 19q, had a maximum multipoint lod score (MLS of 2.6. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the locations of genes predisposing to IA. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the genes and their role in the pathophysiology of IA, and to design genetic tests.

  8. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  9. Sexuality education: Finnish and Chilean experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Dan; Molina Cartes, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    All children and young people have the right to age-appropriate sexuality education regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ability or faith. Sexuality education provides knowledge, skills and positive values to determine and enjoy their sexuality, have safe, fulfilling relationships if one so wishes and decides, and to take responsibility for their own and for a possible partner's sexual health and well-being. Several international programs have been developed and recently published by the Population Council, IPPF and other coworkers, by UNICEF, and by WHO Europe. This chapter will briefly describe recent global development in sexuality education, and then, as examples, experience from two countries, Finland and Chile. The experiences from these school based programs suggest an important role of sexuality education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Brief Report: Syndromes in Autistic Children in a Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Vanhala, Raija; Malm, Heli; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan; Sourander, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We studied the association between specific congenital syndromes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the large Finnish Register material. Our data include all children diagnosed with ASD (n = 4441) according to Finnish Hospital Discharge Register in 1987-2000. Four controls per each case were matched to sex, birthplace, date of birth (±30 days)…

  11. Spiritually Ours, Factually Yours: Karelia and Russia in Finnish Public Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, J.; Velde, B.M.R. van der

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the leading Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, this paper explores Finnish attitudes towards and understandings of Russia. It pays special attention to the so-called Karelia Question and the way it has shaped public discussion in Finland. The article seeks to investigate

  12. Engines without Fuel?--Empirical Findings on Finnish Higher Education Institutions as Education Exporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture formulated Finland's first education export strategy. This policy document attributed Finnish Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) a significant role in the emerging sector by declaring them as "engines" of education export. Situated in a phenomenological approach towards…

  13. Cross-language similarity and difference in quantity categorization of Finnish and Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Kenji; J de Jong, Kenneth; Kruschke, John K

    2015-01-01

    quantity categorization was conducted with 22 Finnish and 20 Japanese listeners, using natural speech stimuli with systematically manipulated closure durations. Stimuli were created from Finnish and Japanese productions of both long and short plosives. In the naturally produced stimuli, the duration...... to be language specific, and such durational differences may interfere with categorization in an unfamiliar language....

  14. East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2014-01-01

    abstractResearch on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace

  15. Finnish and English Children's Color Use to Depict Affectively Characterized Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Tala, Katri; Low, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children use colors systematically in relation to how they feel about certain colors and the figures that they draw. This study explored cultural differences between Finnish and English children's use of color to represent figures with contrasting emotional characters. One hundred and eight children (54 Finnish, 54…

  16. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Milani,1 Amedeo Massacesi,1 Stefania Moschini,1 Marco Setaccioli,1 Ennio Bulone,1 Gemma Tremolada,1 Stefano Ciaccia,1 Elena Mantovani,1 Daniela Morale,2 Fulvio Bergamini1 1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Auxologico, 2Institute of Mathematics, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Purpose: To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV by fluorescein angio­graphy (FA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, near-infrared (NIR reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF. Methods: This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years and a mean refraction of -9.72 diopters (95% CI -8.74 to -10.70 diopters. Results: Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%, with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3% and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%. No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2% eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4% eyes. Papillary chorio­retinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%, a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%, and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4% eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P<0.001. In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P<0.005. NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2% and 27 (41.5% eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3% and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed on AF (25/65, 38.4%. FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3% and 48 (73.8% eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P<0.001, absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P<0.05, and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P<0.01. Conclusion: Tomographic, angiographic, AF

  17. Calcification of the intervertebral discs and curvature of the radius and ulna: A radiographic survey of Finnish miniature dachshunds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappalainen, A.; Norrgaard, M.; Alm, K.; Snellman, M.; Laitinen, O.

    2001-01-01

    The vertebral column of 124 randomly selected miniature dachshunds, representing 4.5% of the population registered by the Finnish Kennel Club during the years 1988 to 1996, were radiographed. The front legs were also radiographed in order to evaluate the curvature of the radius and ulna. Calcified discs were found in 75.9% of the longhaired miniature dachshunds and in 86.7% of the wirehaired ones. The occurrence of signs associated with IDD was 16.5% in longhaired and 15.6% in wirehaired miniature dachshunds. The occurrence of signs of IDD in dogs with calcified discs was 20.0% and 17.9% in longhaired and wirehaired miniature dachshunds, respectively. In dogs without calcifications only one dog showed signs of IDD. The curvature of the radius and the ulna did not differ between the dogs with signs of IDD and the healthy ones, or between the dogs with and without intervertebral calcifications. Our results indicate that radiographic eradication based on the presence of intervertebral calcifications is not suitable for breeding purposes for the Finnish miniature dachshund population because the percentage of dogs without calcifications is small

  18. Reference values of inspiratory spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijärvi, Anssi R

    2018-03-07

    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults. Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83 years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen et al. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik et al. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik et al. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen et al. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.

  19. Systolic blood pressure target in systemic arterial hypertension: Is lower ever better? Results from a community-based Caucasian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nora, Concetta; Cioffi, Giovanni; Iorio, Annamaria; Rivetti, Luigi; Poli, Stefano; Zambon, Elena; Barbati, Giulia; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Di Lenarda, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists about the prognostic role of systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction ≤140mmHg. Recently, the SPRINT trial successfully tested the strategy of lowering SBP<120mmHg in patients with arterial hypertension (AH). To assess whether the SPRINT results are reproducible in a real world community population. Cross-sectional, population-based study analyzing data of 24,537 Caucasian people with AH from the Trieste Observatory of CV disease, 2010 to 2015. We selected and divided 2306 subjects with AH according to the SPRINT trial criteria; similarly, SPRINT clinical outcomes were considered. Study patients median age was 75±8years, two third male, one third had ischemic heart disease. They were older, with lower body mass index, higher SBP and Framingham CV risk score than the SPRINT patients. Three-hundred-sixty-eight patients (16%) had SBP<120mmHg. During 48 [36-60] months of follow-up, 751 patients (32%) experienced a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). The SBP <120mmHg group had higher incidence of MACE, CV deaths and all-cause death than SBP≥120mmHg group (37% vs 31%; 10% vs 4%; 19% vs 10%, all p<0.05). The condition of SBP<120mmHg was an independent predictor of MACE in multivariate Cox analysis together with older age, male gender, higher Charlson score. In our experience, the SBP<120mmHg condition is associated with worse clinical outcomes, suggesting the SPRINT results are not reproducible tout court in Caucasian community populations. These differences should be taken as a warning against aggressive reducing of SBP<120mmHg. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Finnish research programmes on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puska, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    The current Finnish national research programme on nuclear power plant safety SAFIR2010 for the years 2007-2010 as well as the coming SAFIR2014 programme for the years 2011-2014 are based on the chapter 7a, 'Ensuring expertise', of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. The objective of this chapter is realised in the research work and education of experts in the projects of these research programmes. SAFIR2010 research programme is divided in eight research areas that are Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). All the research areas include both projects in their own area and interdisciplinary co-operational projects. Research projects of the programme are chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. In 2010 research is carried out in 33 projects in SAFIR2010. VTT is the responsible research organisation in 26 of these projects and VTT is also the coordination unit of SAFIR2010 and SAFIR2014. In 2007-2009 SAFIR2010 produced 497 Specified research results (Deliverables), 618 Publications, and 33 Academic degrees. SAFIR2010 programme covers approximately half of the reactor safety research volume in Finland currently. In 2010 the programme volume is EUR 7.1 million and 47 person years. The major funding partners are VYR with EUR 2.96 million, VTT with EUR 2.66 million, Fortum with EUR 0.28 million, TVO with EUR 0.19 million, NKS with EUR 0.15 million, EU with only EUR 0.03 million and other partners with EUR 0.85 million. The new decisions-in-principle on Olkiluoto unit 4 for Teollisuuden Voima and new nuclear power plant for Fennovoima ratified by the Finnish Parliament on 1 July 2010 increase the annual funding collected according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act from Fennovoima, Fortum and Teollisuuden Voima for the SAFIR2014 programme to EUR 5.2 million from the current level of EUR 3

  1. Topical review of the Finnish forest sector 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuluvainen, K.

    1996-01-01

    The present report is e review of the Finnish forest sector, made by several authors. The topics reviewed are: Economic trends of forest sector; The operational conditions of the forest sector; Development of the forest sector; Conjuncture reviews; Special topics including the certification of the forests, the forest reserves in Finland, the financial support forest economy, export prices of sawn timber and cellulose, raw-wood markets, forests and forest industry shares as targets for investments, recreational use of the state owned areas. (8 refs.)

  2. Ordinance on the Finnish Centre of Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr

  3. MAURITIUS: A SUNNY HOLIDAY DESTINATION FOR FINNISH PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Goburdhun Bhurtun, Ishina

    2016-01-01

    The tourism market of Mauritius is booming as tourists are nowadays coming from many countries, thus improving the economy of the island. However, few Finnish tourists travel to Mauritius as it is still not well-known among Finns. The aim of this study is to find out how Mauritius can be promoted as a holiday destination in Finland. This study was conducted via an analysis of the tourism business environment and interviews. The analytical tools used were a SWOT analysis and Porter’s five ...

  4. Airline Merchandising: Focus on leisure travel on the Finnish market

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one of current trends: merchandising. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the experiences and opinions of leisure travellers and leisure travel agents in terms of booking ancillaries for flights. Based on those findings, the aim is to find out alternative ways to boost the sales of ancillaries. The commis-sioner for this thesis is Amadeus Finland Oy and the target group is the Finnish leisure travel market. The research was conducted by creating two online su...

  5. Observing relationships in Finnish adoptive families: Oulu Family Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienari, Pekka; Wynne, Lyman C; Sorri, Anneli; Lahti, Ilpo; Moring, Juha; Nieminen, Pentti; Joukamaa, Matti; Naarala, Mikko; Seitamaa, Markku; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Miettunen, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    Adoption studies were intended to separate genetic from environmental "causal" factors. In earlier adoption studies, psychiatric diagnostic labels for the adoptive parents were used as a proxy for the multiple dimensions of the family rearing environment. In the Finnish Adoption Study, research design provided the opportunity to study directly the adoptive family rearing environment. For this purpose 33 sub-scales were selected creating what we call Oulu Family Rating Scale (OPAS, Oulun PerheArviointiSkaala). In this paper, the manual for scoring of these sub-scales is presented.

  6. Association study of common variants in the sFRP1 gene region and parameters of bone strength and body composition in two independent healthy Caucasian male cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudin, Eveline; Piters, Elke; Fransen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    has an influence on bone formation. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effect of common genetic variation on BMD and bone strength in Caucasian men of different ages. Using HapMap we selected 13 tagSNPs which tag most common genetic variation in and around sFRP1 and we genotyped these SNPs...... parameters. Based on the results of the young cohort we selected three SNPs for further analysis in the complete OAS population. To conclude we tried to replicate the results of two SNPs in an independent population of 994 Belgian men. We found a strong association for rs9694405 with BMI as well in both...

  7. Comparison of craniofacial characteristics of typical Chinese and Caucasian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cephalometric norms of typical Chinese young adult subjects with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces and to compare these norms with those derived from a matched Caucasian sample. Lateral cephalograms of 65 untreated Chinese adults (25 males, mean age 19.3 ± 3.0 years and 40 females, mean age 20.3 ± 3.4 years) were compared with a sample of 90 untreated Caucasian adults (30 males, mean age 24.1 ± 5.7 years and 60 females, mean age 22.9 ± 5.2 years). Each lateral cephalogram was traced and digitized, and conventional cephalometric analyses were applied. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the values between the two ethic samples. Smaller midfaces and shorter mandibles were observed in Chinese young adults compared with those of Caucasians. The average value of lower anterior face height (ANS-Me) was longer in the Chinese females than that in the Caucasian females (P < 0.001). A greater vertical dimension also was seen in Chinese males compared with Caucasian males when evaluated by analysis of the facial axis angle (P < 0.05). The upper and lower lips were more protrusive in the Chinese, and a more convex facial profile was seen compared with the Caucasian sample. Significant differences in hard and soft tissue characteristics were found between Chinese and Caucasian young adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. Gender and racial/ethnic differences must be taken into consideration during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for the individual patient.

  8. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  9. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    Indoor radon concentration was measured in 2882 dwellings randomly selected by the Population Register Centre of Finland. Radon measurements were made in two half-year periods, the first one lasting from April to November 2006 and the second one from November 2006 to April 2007. Measurements were made using STUK's alpha track detectors. According to the decree 944 / 92 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed the 400 Bq /m 3 , whereas new buildings should be built so that 200 Bq /m 3 is not exceeded. In addition, the part D2 of the National Building Code of Finland (Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings) sets 200 Bq /m 3 as a reference value for planning of new buildings. Since 2004, according to the regulation B3 (Foundations), radon should be taken into account in new building in the whole country. A radon technical plan should be included into the building licence application. This plan can be exceptionally ignored only when building in areas where exceeding of 200 Bq / m 3 seldom occurs. In this study the nationwide means weighted by number of inhabitants in provinces in houses and flats were 121 Bq /m 3 and 49 Bq /m 3 , and 96 Bq /m 3 for all dwellings. The percentages of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 for houses and flats were 15.1% and 1.5%, and 10.4% for all dwellings. The respective values for the reference value 400 Bq/m 3 were 3.8%, 0.7%, and 2.7%. The numbers of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 were 204 000 for houses and 16 000 for flats, respectively. The respective numbers of dwellings exceeding 400 Bq /m 3 were 51 000 and 8.000. The highest radon concentrations were measured in the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland, in the provinces Eastern Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Paeijaenne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa and South Karelia. In these provinces 29 - 51 per cent of small houses exceed 200 Bq /m 3 . The lowest radon concentrations were achieved with a crawl space foundation. Radon

  10. The finnish guide to radon-resistant homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Building statistics show that the prevalent practices in foundation construction promote the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. In wide areas more than 50% of houses exceed the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 given for new buildings. The new guide published in 2003 requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. A protective sheet of durable reinforced bitumen felt with a width of 50 - 100 cm should be installed in the slab-foundation wall joint. Careful sealing of lead-troughs plays also an important role. In the case the sealing work does not result in low indoor radon concentration, the radon piping should be activated through radon-fan installation. Careful implementation of the sealing work reduces indoor radon concentration to a level of less than 50 Bq/m 3 , also in areas where the normal building practices result in indoor radon concentrations exceeding the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 in more than 50% of new houses. Recent experiences from the implementation of the guide will be considered. (author)

  11. Procurement of timber for the Finnish forest industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    1995-01-01

    The procurement of timber to the forest industries in the Nordic countries is based on the log-length or shortwood system, and employs load-carrying forwarders and chainsaw of single-grip harvesters. This technology is characterized by high productivity, safety, suitability for small-sized trees, high recovery of timber, and environmental friendliness. About one fourth of the industrial timber in the whole world is harvested using the log-length system. The challenge of ecological sustainability, multiple use of forests, adoption of thinnings as a tool of management, trend toward improved utilization of forest biomass, and shift from natural forests to plantations all increase the global interest in the log-length system. The paper presents a review of the Finnish forest sector, the technology of timber harvesting and transport, productivity of logging work, and costs of timber at the mill. The highly mechanized logging systems of the forest industries and the lighter technology of self-employed forest owners are discussed separately. Furthermore, the use of residual biomass as a source of clean and renewable energy, the Finnish logging machine industry, and forest operations research in Finland are also reviewed. (46 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.)

  12. Leadership styles of Finnish nurse managers and factors influencing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions of their leadership styles and factors influencing it. It is a challenge for nurse managers to retain nurses in hospitals and to ensure a high quality of care in nursing practice. Leadership style is an important part of leadership. Knowledge concerning nurse managers' resonant and non-resonant leadership styles provides nurse managers with tools to reflect on their own leadership style. Open-ended, tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers from five Finnish hospitals and two long-term care facilities. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories of leadership style were discerned: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding. Factors that influence leadership style were identified: earlier superiors, values, information, cooperation, employees and education. The results of this study show that Finnish nurse managers use both resonant and non-resonant leadership styles. The findings of this study show that nurse managers use a variety of leadership styles. The study demonstrates the importance of knowledge about leadership styles and factors influencing it among nurse managers providing future leadership and management education.

  13. Indoor climate and the performance of ventilation in Finnish residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, R.; Roennberg, R.; Saeteri, J.; Majanen, A.; Seppaenen, O.; Jaakkola, J.J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the actual ventilation and indoor air quality and to evaluate the differences between houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. A sample of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area was studied over periods of two weeks during the 1988-1989 heating season. The mean air-exchange rates had a high variation (average 0.52 l/h, range 0.07-1.55 l/h). The ASHRAE minimum value of 0.35 l/h was not achieved in 28% of the dwellings. The air-exchange rates were significantly lower in the houses than in the apartments (averages 0.45/0.64 l/h, p 3 (range 5-866 Bq/m 3 ); the Finnish target value of 200 Bq/m 3 was exceeded in 17% of the houses but in none of the apartments. The measurements indicate that the indoor air quality in Finnish dwellings is not always satisfactory with reference to human health and comfort. (au)

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young Finnish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Rimpelä, A; Jormanainen, V; Sahi, T; Pihlajamäki, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lifetime occurrence and associated factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among young Finnish males. Of the 10 829 male conscripts (median age 19), 10 396 (96%) answered a questionnaire during the first days of their conscription in the years 2001-2007. The main outcome was lifetime AAS use. We also studied associations between 13 socioeconomic, health, and health behavioral background variables and AAS use by logistic regression. Eighty-nine (0.9%) respondents reported having used AAS. In addition, 26 (0.3%) respondents reported that they would use AAS if they could obtain them. In multivariate analysis, which included all significant variables and age, the strongest associated factors were weight training at fitness centers more than three times a week [odds ratio (OR) 11.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-19.6], low educational status (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-7.0), and weekly drunkenness as drinking style (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Sports other than weight training were not associated with AAS in our sample. The use of AAS is relatively uncommon among Finnish males. It is strongly associated with weight training at fitness centers but also with lower educational status and a drunkenness-oriented lifestyle. Prevention should be targeted at those males participating in weight training.

  15. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae diversity in Finnish arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. HELENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabid data compiled from six independent studies, consisting of 97 799 individuals trapped by pitfalls from Finnish agricultural fields and identified to 111 species were analyzed. Shannon-Wiener H' diversity index was typically around 2.5 and expected species number rarefied to 600 trapped individuals was typically around 30 species. The five most abundant species accounted for 42% of the total catch, and the thirty most abundant species made up 98% of the total catch. Percentage similarities among the assemblages by PS-index were from 16% to 48%. In comparison to published data about carabid diversity in boreal forests, which form the dominating habitat matrix in which Finnish farmland is embedded as relatively small patches, arable fields harbor more species rich assemblages, with more even rank-abundance distributions but variable species composition. Importance of landscape (regional level, instead of spatial level of crop fields, in understanding carabid diversity in farmland is discussed. Inclusion of carabids into monitoring schemes of agro-biodiversity at landscape level is suggested.

  16. Finnish Baby Boomers and the Emergence of the Third Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Karisto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the lives of baby boomers in Finland, and is based on several studies previously published in Finnish. The article considers the particular characteristics of this group of baby boomers. It then discusses whether the baby boom cohorts can also be called a generation. Following this, the life course of the boomer generation is contrasted with various images that have appeared in the media and elsewhere about their lives. Boomers have been presented as a radical’ or ‘selfish’ generation. This article proposes two new themes: boomers as a crossroads generation and boomers as a bridging generation. The paper also considers the emergence of the third age as approached from a generational perspective. The third age has been defined as a generational field underpinned by agency and consumption, with its roots in the youth culture of the post-war decades. This characterization is also highly relevant to the Finnish case, but needs to be elaborated by taking into account socio-historical knowledge of the distinctive life course of the boomer generation.

  17. Healthcare professionals' work engagement in Finnish university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Alanen, Seija; Aalto, Pirjo; Järvinen, Päivi; Leino, Kaija; Mattila, Elina; Kaunonen, Marja

    2017-10-10

    Concerns about the sufficiency and dedication of the healthcare workforce have arisen as the baby boomer generation is retiring and the generation Y might have different working environment demands. To describe the association between work engagement of healthcare professionals' and its background factors at five Finnish university hospitals. Survey data were collected from nurses, physicians and administrative staff (n = 561) at all five university hospitals in Finland. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire that comprised the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9 items) and 13 questions regarding the respondents' backgrounds. Descriptive and correlational analyses were used to examine the data. Most respondents were female (85%) and nursing staff (72%). Baby boomers (49%) were the largest generational cohort. The work engagement composite mean for the total sample was 5.0, indicating high work engagement. Significant differences in work engagement existed only among sex and age groups. The highest work engagement scores were among administrative staff. Work engagement among healthcare professionals in Finnish university hospitals is high. High work engagement might be explained by suitable job resources and challenges, as well as opportunities provided by a frontline care environment. Attention should especially be paid to meeting the needs of young people entering the workforce to strengthen their dedication and absorption. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Yews (Taxus) along the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region: exploring the ethnopharmacological relevance among communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C; Gao, Lian-Ming; Möller, Michael; Baral, Sushim R; Uprety, Yadav; Liu, Jie; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-05-02

    Three species of yews Taxus contorta Griff., Taxus mairei (Lemée & Lév.) S.Y. Hu ex T.S. Liu and Taxus wallichiana Zucc. distributed in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region have been commercially exploited in recent decades to extract an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug 'Taxol'. Additionally, indigenous people of this region are using yews for several other purposes including gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory problems, skeletal system disorders, and as edible fruit, fodder, fish poison, traditional veterinary medicine, among others. The study was designed to document and evaluate knowledge concerning uses of yews among indigenous communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins. Ethnobotanical knowledge from 10 major ethnic/caste groups of Mongol and Caucasian origins in the Nepal Himalayas was documented in 2010 and 2011 from 27 sites covering the extant distribution range of the three species of Taxus. A total of 72 key informants (60 men, 12 women), recommended by the majority of people in informal group discussions at each study site, were interviewed to collect information on the importance of yews. This study reports multidimensional uses of yews commonly practiced by different indigenous communities of Nepal and compared those with published uses along the HKH region. The key informants cited a total 45 uses under 21 categories. A greater use diversity and high consensus value for use types were recorded for medicinal uses (gastro-intestinal ailments, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular system problem and others medicinal importance) followed by fruit consumption, household tools, agriculture implements and timber. A decline of yew populations and associated traditional knowledge among the younger generations of indigenous people was found. The present study shows a strong agreement of ethnobotanical knowledge on yews between communities of Mongols and Caucasian origins. Our findings further revealed the potential for additional therapeutic applications in

  19. Associations between ghrelin and ghrelin receptor polymorphisms and cancer in Caucasian populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabalan, Noel A; Seim, Inge; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Chopin, Lisa K

    2014-11-07

    There is growing evidence that the ghrelin axis, including ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), play a role in cancer progression. Ghrelin gene and ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms have been reported to have a range of effects in cancer, from increased risk, to protection from cancer, or having no association. In this study we aimed to clarify the role of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor polymorphisms in cancer by performing a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. In the overall analysis, homozygous and recessive associations indicated that the minor alleles of rs696217 and rs2075356 GHRL polymorphisms conferred reduced cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.61-0.78). The risk was unchanged for breast cancer patients when analysed separately (OR 0.73-0.83). In contrast, the rs4684677 GHRL and the rs572169 GHSR polymorphisms conferred increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.97-1.98, p = 0.08 and OR 1.42-1.43, p = 0.08, respectively). All dominant and co-dominant effects showed null effects (OR 0.96-1.05), except for the rs572169 co-dominant effect, with borderline increased risk (OR 1.08, p = 0.05). This study suggests that the rs696217 and rs2075356 ghrelin gene (GHRL) polymorphisms may protect carriers against breast cancer, and the rs4684677 GHRL and rs572169 GHSR polymorphisms may increase the risk among carriers. In addition, larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  20. Associations between ghrelin and ghrelin receptor polymorphisms and cancer in Caucasian populations: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pabalan, Noel A; Seim, Inge; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Chopin, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that the ghrelin axis, including ghrelin (GHRL) and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), play a role in cancer progression. Ghrelin gene and ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms have been reported to have a range of effects in cancer, from increased risk, to protection from cancer, or having no association. In this study we aimed to clarify the role of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor polymorphisms in cancer by performing a meta-analys...

  1. High-risk HPV is not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper Hjorth; Hogdall, Estrid; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suspected to play a role in the carcinogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, results from previous studies are conflicting. In most of these studies, the number of tissue samples was small. The current study was therefore...... undertaken to examine the prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA in EOC in a large series of patients. METHOD: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded tumor tissue samples from 198 cases consecutively included in the Danish Pelvic Mass Study were analyzed. The material included 163 serous adenocarcinomas, 15 endometrioid...

  2. Plasma sulfur amino acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in two caucasian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinknes, K.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Drevon, C.A.; Refsum, H.; Nurk, E.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Teerlink, T.; Tell, G.S.; Nygard, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Ueland, P.M.; Elshorbagy, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    In rats, dietary restriction of the cysteine precursor methionine suppresses hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 expression and activity, whereas cysteine supplementation reverses these effects. In 2 independent cohorts: Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; N=2021, aged 71-74. y), Norway, and Hoorn

  3. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  4. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: Allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachse, C.; Brockmoeller, J.; Bauer, S.; Roots, I. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes many important drugs. CYP2D6 activity ranges from complete deficiency to ultrafast metabolism, depending on at least 16 different known alleles. Their frequencies were determined in 589 unrelated German volunteers and correlated with enzyme activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan or debrisoquine. For genotyping, nested PCR-RFLP tests from a PCR amplificate of the entire CYP2D6 gene were developed. The frequency of the CYP2D6*1 allele coding for extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype was .364. The alleles coding for slightly (CYP2D6*2) or moderately (*9 and *10) reduced activity (intermediate metabolizer phenotype [IM]) showed frequencies of .324, .018, and .015, respectively. By use of novel PCR tests for discrimination, CYP2D6 gene duplication alleles were found with frequencies of.005 (*1 x 2), .013 (* 2 x 2), and .001 (*4 x 2). Frequencies of alleles with complete deficiency (poor metabolizer phenotype [PM]) were .207 (*4), .020 (*3 and *5), .009 (*6), and .001 (*7, *15, and *16). The defective CYP2D6 alleles *8, *11, *12, *13, and *14 were not found. All 41 PMs (7.0%) in this sample were explained by five mutations detected by four PCR-RFLP tests, which may suffice, together with the gene duplication test, for clinical prediction of CYP2D6 capacity. Three novel variants of known CYP2D6 alleles were discovered: *1C (T{sub 1957}C), *2B (additional C{sub 2558}T), and *4E (additional C{sub 2938}T). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in enzymatic activity measured by the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (MR) between carriers of EN/PM (mean MR = .006) and IM/PM (mean MR = .014) alleles and between carriers of one (mean MR = .009) and two (mean MR = .003) functional alleles. The results of this study provide a solid basis for prediction of CYP2D6 capacity, as required in drug research and routine drug treatment. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Assessment of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single Doses of TV-1106, a Long-Acting Growth Hormone, in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Barkay, Hadas; Rasamoelisolo, Michele; Butler, Kathleen; Yamada, Kazumasa; Bassan, Merav; Yoon, Esther; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2017-07-01

    TV-1106 is a human serum albumin genetically fused to recombinant human growth hormone, designed to provide a long-acting alternative to daily growth hormone (GH) injections in patients with GH deficiency. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of single subcutaneous doses of TV-1106 (7.5, 15, 50, and 100 mg) in Japanese (n = 44) and caucasian (n = 44) healthy subjects. TV-1106 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were comparable in Japanese and caucasian populations. TV-1106 demonstrated relatively slow absorption (median t max , 10-30 hours) and a mean elimination half-life of 26-36 hours. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution decreased with increasing TV-1106 doses in both populations and appeared to increase more than dose proportionality across the tested doses. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) increased in a dose-related manner, with maximum responses observed at 33-96 and 42-109 hours, respectively. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 returned to baseline values at 168 hours following 7.5 and 15 mg of TV-1106, and 336 hours following 50 and 100 mg of TV-1106. TV-1106 appeared safe in both populations. There was no evidence of differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or safety of TV-1106 between Japanese and caucasian populations. The data also demonstrate long-acting growth hormone properties of TV-1106 and support its potential for once-weekly dosing. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Body-Surface Compounds in Buckfast and Caucasian Honey Bee Workers (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Body-surface chemical compounds were studied in 1-day-old nest workers and foragers both in Buckfast and Caucasian bees. The workers of these two age-castes were sampled twice in each of two consecutive years. Body-surface lipids were determined by means of gas chromatography, with a GCQ mass spectrometer. Protein concentrations and activities on the body surface were examined in bee cuticle rinsings obtained from worker bees according to the methods of Lowry, of Anson, and of Lee and Lin. Protease and protease inhibitor activities were determined. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Caucasian bees, particularly foragers, had more lipids, but Buckfast bees (two age-castes had more proteins on their body surfaces. A total of 17 alkane types (C17 - C33, 13 alkene types (C21 - C33, 21 esters (C12 - C32, and a phenol (C14 were detected in both races. Alkene C33 was detected only in Caucasian bees. More alkanes, esters, and phenols were found in Caucasian 1-day-old nest workers and foragers than in these age-castes of Buckfast bees. The protein concentration and protease inhibitor activities were lower in Caucasian bees that had higher protease activities. These values corresponded with specific numbers and widths of the electrophoretic bands.

  7. Double product and end-organ damage in African and Caucasian men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A J; Schutte, A E; Schutte, R

    2013-08-10

    Increasing urbanisation in sub-Saharan African countries is causing a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that Africans have higher blood pressures and a higher prevalence of hypertension-related cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared to Caucasians. We investigated double product (systolic blood pressure × heart rate), a substantial measure of cardiac workload, as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in African and Caucasian men. The study consisted of 101 urbanised African and 101 Caucasian male school teachers. We measured 24h ambulatory blood pressure and the carotid cross-sectional wall area, and determined left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographically by means of the Cornell product. Urinary albumin and creatinine were analysed to obtain the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Africans had higher 24h, daytime and nighttime systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and resultant double product compared to the Caucasians. In addition, markers of end-organ damage, albumin-to-creatinine ratio and left ventricular hypertrophy were higher in the Africans while cross-sectional wall area did not differ. In Africans after single partial and multiple regression analysis, 24h systolic blood pressure, but not double product or heart rate, correlated positively with markers of end-organ damage (cross-sectional wall area: β=0.398, P=0.005; left ventricular hypertrophy: β=0.455, Pproduct may not be a good marker of increased cardiovascular risk when compared to systolic blood pressure in African and Caucasian men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  9. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  10. Towards automated processing of clinical Finnish: sublanguage analysis and a rule-based parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laippala, Veronika; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Salakoski, Tapio

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present steps taken towards more efficient automated processing of clinical Finnish, focusing on daily nursing notes in a Finnish Intensive Care Unit (ICU). First, we analyze ICU Finnish as a sublanguage, identifying its specific features facilitating, for example, the development of a specialized syntactic analyser. The identified features include frequent omission of finite verbs, limitations in allowed syntactic structures, and domain-specific vocabulary. Second, we develop a formal grammar and a parser for ICU Finnish, thus providing better tools for the development of further applications in the clinical domain. The grammar is implemented in the LKB system in a typed feature structure formalism. The lexicon is automatically generated based on the output of the FinTWOL morphological analyzer adapted to the clinical domain. As an additional experiment, we study the effect of using Finnish constraint grammar to reduce the size of the lexicon. The parser construction thus makes efficient use of existing resources for Finnish. The grammar currently covers 76.6% of ICU Finnish sentences, producing highly accurate best-parse analyzes with F-score of 91.1%. We find that building a parser for the highly specialized domain sublanguage is not only feasible, but also surprisingly efficient, given an existing morphological analyzer with broad vocabulary coverage. The resulting parser enables a deeper analysis of the text than was previously possible.

  11. Analysis of large deletions in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes in Finnish breast and ovarian cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pylkäs, Katri; Erkko, Hannele; Nikkilä, Jenni; Sólyom, Szilvia; Winqvist, Robert

    2008-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two most important genes associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. In addition, PALB2 has recently been identified as a breast cancer susceptibility gene in several populations. Here we have evaluated whether large genomic rearrangement in these genes could explain some of Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families. Altogether 61 index patients of Northern Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families were analyzed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method in order to identify exon deletions and duplications in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. The families have been comprehensively screened for germline mutation in these genes by conventional methods of mutation analysis and were found negative. We identified one large deletion in BRCA1, deleting the most part of the gene (exon 1A-13) in one family with family history of ovarian cancer. No large genomic rearrangements were identified in either BRCA2 or PALB2. In Finland, women eligible for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation screening, when found negative, could benefit from screening for large genomic rearrangements at least in BRCA1. On the contrary, the genomic rearrangements in PALB2 seem not to contribute to the hereditary breast cancer susceptibility

  12. Role of environmental factors and history of low back pain in sciatica symptoms among Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Ulla; Paananen, Markus; Okuloff, Annaleena; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Männikkö, Minna; Karppinen, Jaro

    2013-06-01

    Cross-sectional study in a subcohort of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (n = 1987). To investigate the role of environmental factors and LBP history in sciatica symptoms among Finnish young adults. History of low back pain (LBP), smoking, and male sex are associated with sciatica in adult populations. The role of the environmental determinants of sciatica has not been evaluated in populations consisting of only adolescents. Sciatic symptoms and environmental exposures were elicited by a mailed questionnaire and the associations were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Female sex was associated with severe sciatica at 18 years (OR, 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-9.3). Both reported LBP at 16 years and LBP requiring consultation of a health care professional were associated with mild sciatica at 18 years (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.9; and OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2-11.9). In addition, LBP at 16 years requiring consultation of a health care professional was associated with severe sciatica at 18 years (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.7-15.3). Smoking, obesity, physical workload, and level of physical activity were not associated with sciatica. Females reported sciatic pain more often than males. LBP at 16 years predicted sciatica at 18 years. 2.

  13. Finnish Official Development Aid for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP, Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Vestliitto engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finlands total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009, mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soini Heidi K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic background of type 2 diabetes is complex involving contribution by both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. There is an excess of maternal inheritance in patients with type 2 diabetes and, furthermore, diabetes is a common symptom in patients with mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Polymorphisms in mtDNA have been reported to act as risk factors in several complex diseases. Findings We examined the nucleotide variation in complete mtDNA sequences of 64 Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes. We used conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and sequencing to detect sequence variation. We analysed the pathogenic potential of nonsynonymous variants detected in the sequences and examined the role of the m.16189 T>C variant. Controls consisted of non-diabetic subjects ascertained in the same population. The frequency of mtDNA haplogroup V was 3-fold higher in patients with diabetes. Patients harboured many nonsynonymous mtDNA substitutions that were predicted to be possibly or probably damaging. Furthermore, a novel m.13762 T>G in MTND5 leading to p.Ser476Ala and several rare mtDNA variants were found. Haplogroup H1b harbouring m.16189 T > C and m.3010 G > A was found to be more frequent in patients with diabetes than in controls. Conclusions Mildly deleterious nonsynonymous mtDNA variants and rare population-specific haplotypes constitute genetic risk factors for maternally inherited diabetes.

  15. Police-registered offenses and psychiatric disorders among young males : the Finnish "From a boy to a man" birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemelä, Solja; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Helenius, Hans; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Sourander, Andre

    2007-06-01

    To study associations between crime and psychiatric disorders among adolescent males in a representative population-based cohort study. The sample includes 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information on criminality consists of offenses registered in the Finnish National Police Register 1998-2001. Crime was classified according to frequency and type (drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offenses). Information on psychiatric diagnoses between 1999 and 2004 was collected from the Finnish National Military Register. Of the 2,712 boys, 22% had a crime registration during the 4-year period, and 10% had at least one psychiatric disorder according to the Military Register. Those with psychiatric disorders accounted for 49% of all crimes. Of those with more than five crimes (n = 98), 59% had psychiatric diagnoses. After adjusting for other crime types and childhood socio-economic status, property crime was independently associated with several diagnoses: antisocial personality (APD), substance use (SUD), psychotic, anxiety, and adjustment disorders. Drug offending was independently associated with APD, SUD, and psychotic disorder, and traffic offenses with APD. Youth crime is predominantly associated with antisocial personality and substance use disorders. Crime prevention efforts should focus on boys showing a risk for antisocial and substance use problems. In particular, property, drug, and repeat offenders need mental health and substance use assessment. There is a need to develop integrated mental health and substance use treatment services for young offenders within or alongside the criminal justice system.

  16. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  17. Communications highlights of the Finnish nuclear industry in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininen-Ojanperae, Marke

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Poster will contain two major issues i.e. description of the information Centre Renovation Project at Loviisa Power Plant and a presentation with material of the Sunray III Project. The Sunray Project: The Sunray Project is a national radiation project intended for all ninth graders in the Finnish school system. The project started two years ago. Attention has been focused on the topic of radiation. The topic has been dealt with in connection with different subject as history, English, Swedish, French, Finnish, mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, health and home economics, as well as vocational counselling. The aim of the project is to provide extensive information on the subject of radiation and radioactivity, to investigate benefits and disadvantages and to help pupils understand units and see things in correct proportions. Sunray I focused on radon, Sunray II on light. Sunray III will start this autumn and its main theme will be risk perception. The programme of the Sunray III is structured as follows: Part One: Articles on risk provided by experts from different fields. Part Two: A risk management game Part Three: A special view on natural radiation. The project is coordinated by Economic Information Bureau in cooperation with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and two major power companies Imatran Voima and Teollisuuden Voima. The coordinator of the Sunray III Project is Mr. Matti Lattu. The Information Centre Renovation Project (ICRP) The ICRP has been a two-year project which was completed for the 20th anniversary celebration of Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant in February 1997. The main emphasis was to harness the local natural environment as much as possible. The focal point of the project was presented by a new, large-sized map as a water-colour painting (a printed version), a bird-eye view of the Haestholinen Island environment. The information signs system was completely renewed. A large sea-water aquarium containing

  18. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sathler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40, Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32 and Mongoloid (n = 33. The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. RESULTS: Statistical differences (P < 0.05 indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. CONCLUSION: The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  19. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Central corneal thickness of Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, Filipinos, African Americans, and Japanese in a glaucoma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaian, Elsa; Choe, Joyce E; Lin, Shan; Stamper, Robert L

    2004-12-01

    To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. Retrospective study (chart review). Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco glaucoma clinic from June 2002 to April 2004 who met inclusion criteria were included in the study. The 6 racial (ethnic) groups represented in the study were Caucasian (n = 186, 23.2%), Chinese (n = 157, 19.6%), Japanese (n = 121, 15.1%), Hispanic (n = 116, 14.5%), Filipino (n = 114, 14.2%), and African American (n = 107, 13.4%). Central corneal thickness was measured by means of ultrasound pachymetry in Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American participants with glaucomatous and normal eyes. The relationship between CCT and race was investigated using multivariate regression analyses, controlling for confounders. One eye of each of 801 participants was included for analysis. Correlation of mean CCT with race, glaucoma diagnosis, age, spherical equivalent, gender, and history of ocular surgery. The mean CCT of all participants was 542.9 mum. Central corneal thicknesses of Chinese (555.6 microm), Caucasian (550.4 microm), Filipino (550.6 microm), and Hispanic (548.1 microm) participants did not significantly differ. The CCT of Japanese participants (531.7 microm) was significantly less than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Hispanics (all, Pvalues of CCT were significantly related to older age (PFilipinos. Caucasians, Chinese, Hispanics, and Filipinos have comparable CCT measurements, whereas the corneas of African Americans are significantly thinner. Additionally, older individuals; glaucoma suspects; and participants with NTG, POAG, PEX, and CACG have thinner corneas. Ocular hypertensives, however, have thicker corneas.

  1. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  2. Minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in treatment naïve East-African and Caucasian patients detected by allele-specific real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Ekici

    Full Text Available To assess the presence of two major non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs, Y181C and K103N, in minor viral quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected East-African and Swedish patients by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR.Treatment naïve adults (n=191 with three epidemiological backgrounds were included: 92 Ethiopians living in Ethiopia; 55 East-Africans who had migrated to Sweden; and 44 Caucasians living in Sweden. The pol gene was analysed by standard population sequencing and by AS-PCR for the detection of Y181C and K103N.The Y181C was detected in the minority quasispecies of six Ethiopians (6.5%, in two Caucasians (4.5%, and in one East-African (1.8%. The K103N was detected in one East- African (1.8%, by both methods. The proportion of mutants ranged from 0.25% to 17.5%. Additional DRMs were found in all three treatment naïve patient groups by population sequencing.Major NNRTI mutations can be found by AS-PCR in minor quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, in East-African and Caucasian patients living in Sweden in whom population sequencing reveal wild-type virus only. Surveys with standard sequencing are likely to underestimate transmitted drug resistance and the presence of resistant minor quasispecies in treatment naïve patients should be topic for future large scale studies.

  3. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  4. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  5. Decarbonising the Finnish Transport Sector by 2050: Electricity or Biofuels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bramstoft Pedersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    for the transport sector by 2050—one with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) and another with a high percentage of biofuels (BIO), and compares the scenario results with a known Carbon-Neutral Scenario (CNS) which is adopted from the Nordic Energy Technology Perspective (IEA in Nordic energy technology...... perspective—pathways to a carbon-neutral energy future, 2013a). The socio-economic value of the total system cost is computed and the system integration of the transport sector with the electricity and heating sectors is simulated with an hourly time resolution. This study finds that a Finnish transport...... of the results is tested through a sensitivity analysis which shows that the costs (investment and maintenance) of biodiesel cars and EV are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios....

  6. The Finnish customs to introduce more efficient radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevon, H.

    1995-01-01

    The customs authorities have started to control the import of radioactive substances and nuclear materials. Regular radiation measurements will be introduced at various frontier crossing points. Cooperation with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has also been intensified. The control measures apply primarily to goods traffic coming from - or through - Russia and the Baltic countries. The first stationary radiation measuring equipment for vehicles and their loads is in use at Vaalimaa customs station. All the busiest customs stations on Finland's eastern frontier will be provided with stationary radiation meters. The measurements will focus on scrap metal loads and loads that come either from the environs of certain nuclear facilities in the area of former Soviet Union or from areas that are particularly polluted. (orig.) (2 figs.)

  7. The role of peat in finnish greenhouse gas balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Hargreaves, K.; Korhola, A.

    2000-06-01

    Over the past, total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Finland, not considering land use change, forestry or peatlands, have remained between 70 000 and 80 000 Gg of CO 2 equivalents. A large portion of which (84% in 1998) is from energy and energy related sources. Signatory members to the 1997 Kyoto protocol of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change convention, which includes Finland, are compelled to assess their emissions at the national level. This study was undertaken to examine the issues of the role of Finnish peatlands in the national greenhouse gas inventory specifically within the context of the utilization of peatlands for energy production. Our analysis is essentially a literature review and assessment of what has been measured from Finnish peatlands. We are particularly fortunate that there have been a series of recent Ph.D. theses published at the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu and graduate work at the University of Kuopio on carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas exchange in Finnish peatlands that have both expanded our database and our understanding of peatland processes. Chapter 1 provides a background of the role of peatlands in carbon cycling within the context of changing climate and land use. In Finland about 56 x 103 ha of peatland area were being harvested in 1997, 94% for energy. Even though this is a relatively small area, the implications, on a national scale, for GHG fluxes and carbon balance can be significant The magnitude of GHG fluxes and a qualitative assessment of extant data quality and quantity under different Finnish land use forms and activities is considered in chapter 2. CO 2 fluxes derived from long term C accumulation rates indicate that 3 010 Gg CON and 9 400 Gg CO 2 are sequestered annually from the atmosphere into undrained and peatlands drained for forestry, respectively. Peatlands drained for agriculture emit CO 2 at a rate of 3 200-7 800 Gg annually. Peat harvesting activities and

  8. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P. [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  9. Finnish Nuclear Power Development - Experiences and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, M.; Mattila, L.

    1996-01-01

    A small nation planning to make use of nuclear energy technology faces an important question: Is a nuclear energy programme just buying a rector and fuel from abroad? The Finnish experience says no. Making the best economic and technical choices depends on circumstances and good decisions can be based only on adequate research. Carrying out a successful nuclear energy programme demands high quality standards and, most importantly, nuclear safety is a national responsibility. Through training of personal and a deep understanding of the technology are necessary to meet these challenges. In Finland, comprehensive coverage of important scientific and technical aspects has been achieved economically by pooling the resources of all domestic parties having relevant expertise and by extensive international collaboration. (author)

  10. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  11. The occurrence of rare earth elements in some Finnish mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yliruokanen, I.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the more abundant rare earths (RE (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in the ash of 399 peat samples from 26 Finnish mires was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The content of all rare earths (La-Lu, Y in 29 samples was also determined by spark source mass spectrometry. The median RE contents in peat ashes from areas where the bedrock consists of rapakivi granite, granite or archean gneiss are reported. Detailed data concerning the individual mires are also presented. The highest RE contents were found in samples from rapakivi granite areas where a strong negative Eu anomaly was also observed. The RE contents were in general highest at the basal peat layers.

  12. Hypertension guideline implementation: experiences of Finnish primary care nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanen, Seija; Ijäs, Jarja; Kaila, Minna

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based guidelines on hypertension have been developed in many western countries. Yet, there is little evidence of their impact on the clinical practices of primary care nurses. METHOD: We assessed the style of implementation and adoption of the national...... Hypertension Guideline (HT Guideline) in 32 Finnish health centres classified in a previous study as 'disseminators' (n = 13) or 'implementers' (n = 19). A postal questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n = 409) working in the outpatient services in these health centres. Additionally, senior nursing officers...... were telephoned to enquire if the implementation of the HT Guideline had led to a new division of labour between nurses and doctors. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 327 nurses (80.0%), while all senior nursing officers (n = 32) were contacted. The majority of nurses were of the opinion...

  13. Divorce Risk Factors Across Finnish Marriage cohorts, 1954-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there has been a change in the effects of three divorce risk factors, female educational attainment, cohabitation, and parity. Several theoretical reasons suggest such a change, but the existing evidence gives mixed results. First marriages of Finnish women married between 1954 and 1989 are analysed using data from the Fertility and Family Surveys (FFS, collected in 1989 and 1990. The results from the discrete-time event history models show that the effect of having children on marital stability has changed: the impact of having two children has become less evident, while the effect of having three children or more has increased. These trends hold after controlling for young children and premarital children. Some explanations for this shift are discussed.

  14. Young People’s Attitudes towards Entrepreneurship in Finnish Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Rantanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze youngpeople’sattitudes towards entrepreneurship in theHelsinki-Uusimaa region of Finland.First, ourtheoretical framework links withattitude research, in particular, Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Our secondperspective derives from the theory of representations. Third, our analysis is basedon discussionsofthe welfare state and democratic values. We ask what socialpsychological factors explain young people’s entrepreneurial intentions. Surveydata (N=873was collected in electronic formatfromsecondary and vocationalschools. The questions were mainly multiple choiceLikert-scalequestions. Theanalysis was undertaken using simple statistical methods. Our results demonstratethat the relationship betweensocial values, representations concerningentrepreneurship,and entrepreneurial intention is complex in the Finnish context.Whilewe further argue thatthetheory of planned behavior is valid in thisinstance, the representations and social values serve to explain entrepreneurialintentiononly weakly.

  15. On the acquisition of temporal conjunctions in Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M

    2001-03-01

    This study concerns the acquisition of complex sentence structures in Finnish. Specifically, three simultaneous and sequential events were acted out with toys in an elicitation task, and the production of "and," "and then," "when," and "after" were observed. There were 48 children in a cross-sectional design at the age levels 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Immediately after the complex event was presented, the child was asked the initial request "What happened?" If the child did not produce the whole event spontaneously, she or he was prompted by "What else happened?" Finally, the prompted request "When did X?" was asked (X referring to the second action component of the event). The results showed that prompting better revealed the ability of the children, especially that of the younger ones, to use temporal conjunctions in complex sentences, as well as the delicate interplay of language skills and their flexible use.

  16. Finnish-Karelian symposium on mire conservation and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, H.

    1995-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers based on presentations in a Finnish-karelischen symposium on the classification and conservation of mires, held in 1992. The symposium was arranged according to the contract of cooperation between the ministries of environment of Finland and Karelia, about mire conservation research. The aim of the cooperation is to improve the conservation of mires in the biogeographically uniform area of Eastern Fennoscandia, taking into account the great differences in mire utilization in Finland and Karelia. Another aim is to develop and unify the research methods. Paludification and development of mires is treated in three papers. Lake terrestrialization in Finland has been studied. Mires in fault valleys on the northwestern side of Lake Onega in Karelia have interesting stratigraphical features. The nutrient status of mires at different stages of development has been studied in Karelia, and the usability of the method is studied. The annual growth of hummock and lawn layer Sphagna and its dependence on the weather of the growth period as been studied in Karelia. The relationships of carbon balance, growth and different forms of mire utilization in Finland have been studied. The vegetation of the mires in Vodlozersky national park in Karelia has been studied in Finnish-Karelian cooperation. The main features of the vegetation are presented in one paper. For articles deal with mire conservation. Threatened mire plants and their conservation are treated in one paper. Another deals with the present state of mires in the raised bog zone in Finland, and the success of mire reservation. Gaps in mire conservation and possibilities to improve the protection of mires in Finland have been studied

  17. Email medication counseling services provided by Finnish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2008-12-01

    The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.

  18. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  19. Highly significant association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia in Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Stepanian

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a frequent medical complication during pregnancy. Corin, a serine protease which activates pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to search for CORIN gene variations and their association to preeclampsia in Caucasian and African women. Our study population was composed of 571 pregnant women (295 with preeclampsia and 276 normotensive controls matched for maternal and gestational age, and ethnic origin. The 22 exons of the CORIN gene were sequenced in a discovery sample (n = 260, where 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. In a replication sample (n = 311, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. Two minor alleles (C for rs2271036 and G for rs2271037 were significantly associated to preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence interval] were 2.5 [1.2-3.8] (p = 0.007 and 2.3 [1.5-3.5] (p = 1.3 × 10(-4, respectively. These associations were ethnic-specific, as only found in the Caucasian of subjects (odds ratio = 3.5 [1.8-6.6], p = 1.1 × 10(-4; odds ratio = 3.1 [1.7-5.8], p = 2.1 × 10(-4, for each single nucleotide polymorphism, respectively. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms are in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium (r(2 = 0.93. No specific association was found with severe preeclampsia, early-onset preeclampsia nor fetal growth retardation. In conclusion, this is the first report of a highly significant association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms in CORIN gene and preeclampsia. Our findings further support the probability of a critical role of corin in preeclamspia pathophysiology at the uteroplacental interface.

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Finnish fish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Hanninen, M.L.; Hirvela-Koski, V.

    2001-01-01

    Finnish isolates (n = 37) of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from farmed salmonids were studied using phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the characteristics of Swedish and Estonian F. psychrophilum isolates and the type strain, F...

  1. Ozone and UV research at Finnish Meteorological Inst.: review of selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P; Koskela, T; Damski, J; Supperi, A [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E [Finnish Meteorologican Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory; Ginzburg, M [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dijkhuis, J L [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). EUMETSAT

    1996-12-31

    Ozone and UV radiation research have become an important part of atmospheric research at Finnish Meteorological Institute after the discovery of chlorine based ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere

  2. Ozone and UV research at Finnish Meteorological Inst.: review of selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorologican Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory; Ginzburg, M. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dijkhuis, J.L. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). EUMETSAT

    1995-12-31

    Ozone and UV radiation research have become an important part of atmospheric research at Finnish Meteorological Institute after the discovery of chlorine based ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR THE FINNISH TOURIST COMPANY BASED ON SAINT PETERSBURG MARKET RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to get a marketing strategy for proposed tourist business through the field-work marketing research. The purpose of this marketing research was to investigate the attitudes of Russian tourists in Saint Pe-tersburg towards Finland as a destination. The research examines the respondents’ own evaluation of the Finnish tourism possibilities, as well as the expert evaluation (made by the professionals of tourist agencies in Saint Petersburg) of the Finnish tourist ma...

  4. The Future of the Retail Advertising: Implications for the Finnish Newspaper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    FLINK, SOILE-MARI

    2011-01-01

    Starting point for this research was the future changes Internet will cause to Finnish newspaper economies. When evaluating the economic importance of future development to newspapers? economies, one of the most important areas is retail advertising and its shifting to online environment. So far Finnish retail advertising has been very much focused on printed newspapers and retailers? online investments have been moderate and conservative. The change is about to happen and this research answe...

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants` production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.).

  6. Guidelines for Finnish start-ups on how to utilize crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhiainen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to show how a Finnish start-up could benefit from crowdfunding.Other funding methods are explained shortly in the beginning and the rest of the thesis focusing on crowdfunding. The current Finnish legislation does not yet include anything aimed directly at crowdfunding, but a proposal is to be presented in spring 2016 to the ministry of Finance. There are some crowdfunding websites operating in Finland, including Mesenaatti.me and Invesdor.com. Other more popular we...

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report 3rd quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1995-03-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. (4 figs., 4 tabs.)

  8. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  9. Internationalizing Services : Market research on exporting Finnish educational solutions to Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asemokha, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to bring clarity to the concept of internationalization and service (education) exports as an International Business tool. The study is commissioned by Finpros’ (The Finnish export organization) Future Learning Finland project an umbrella programme whose objective is internationalizing and exporting Finnish educational solutions to other countries. The commissioning party aims to use the study in its marketing activities. Therefore, this paper is built based on a hypothet...

  10. Japanese scoring systems to predict resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease were unreliable for Caucasian Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Mendelsohn, Kerry; Mimouni, Michael; Mimouni, Francis; Koren, Yael; Simon, Dafna Brik; Bahat, Hilla; Helou, Mona Hanna; Mendelson, Amir; Hezkelo, Nofar; Glatstein, Miguel; Berkun, Yackov; Eisenstein, Eli; Aviel, Yonatan Butbul; Brik, Riva; Hashkes, Philip J; Uziel, Yosef; Harel, Liora; Amarilyo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    This study assessed the validity of using established Japanese risk scoring methods to predict intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance to Kawasaki disease in Israeli children. We reviewed the medical records of 282 patients (70% male) with Kawasaki disease from six Israeli medical centres between 2004-2013. Their mean age was 2.5 years. The risk scores were calculated using the Kobayashi, Sano and Egami scoring methods and analysed to determine if a higher risk score predicted IVIG resistance in this population. Factors that predicted a lack of response to the initial IVIG dose were identified. We found that 18% did not respond to the first IVIG dose. The three scoring methods were unable to reliably predict IVIG resistance, with sensitivities of 23-32% and specificities of 67-87%. Calculating a predictive score that was specific for this population was also unsuccessful. The factors that predicted a lacked of response to the first IVIG dose included low albumin, elevated total bilirubin and ethnicity. The established risk scoring methods created for Japanese populations with Kawasaki disease were not suitable for predicting IVIG resistance in Caucasian Israeli children and we were unable to create a specific scoring method that was able to do this. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    the costs and morbidity of asthma. The time, in the wake of the Asthma Programme, is now opportune for a national allergy programme, particularly as in the past few years, fundamentally more essential data on tolerance and its mechanisms have been published. In this review, the scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 is outlined. The focus is on tolerance and how to endorse tolerance at the population level.

  12. Hip fracture prevention with a multifactorial educational program in elderly community-dwelling Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, T; Löyttyniemi, E; Välimäki, M

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines suggest identification of women at fracture risk by bone density measurement and subsequently pharmacotherapy. However, most women who sustain a hip fracture do not have osteoporosis in terms of bone density. The present non-pharmacological intervention among elderly women unselected for osteoporosis reduced hip fracture risk by 55 % providing an alternative approach to fracture prevention. Hip fractures are expensive for society and cause disability for those who sustain them. We studied whether a multifactorial non-pharmacological prevention program reduces hip fracture risk in elderly women. A controlled trial concerning 60- to 70-year-old community-dwelling Finnish women was undertaken. A random sample was drawn from the Population Information System and assigned into the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Of the 2,547 women who were invited to the IG, 1,004 (39 %) and of the 2,120 invited to the CG, 1,174 (55 %) participated. The IG participated in a fracture prevention program for 1 week at a rehabilitation center followed by review days twice. The CG received no intervention. During the 10-year follow-up, both groups participated in survey questionnaire by mail. Outcome of interest was occurrence of hip fractures and changes in bone-health-related lifestyle. During the follow-up, 12 (1.2 %) women in the IG and 29 (2.5 %) in the CG sustained a hip fracture (P = 0.039). The determinants of hip fractures by stepwise logistic regression were baseline smoking (odds ratio (OR) 4.32 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.14-8.71), age OR 1.15/year (95 % CI 1.03-1.28), fall history OR 2.7 (95 % CI 1.24-5.9), stroke history OR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.19-7.54) and participating in this program OR 0.45 (95 % CI 0.22-0.93). Starting vitamin D and calcium supplement use was more common in the IG compared with the CG. The results suggest that this non-pharmacological fracture prevention program may reduce the risk of hip fractures in elderly

  13. Language profiles of monolingual and bilingual Finnish preschool children at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment (SLI) or language-related problems to be increased by bilingualism. The topic of bilingualism and its effects has high actuality in Finland, where increasing numbers of children in the country's 6% Swedish-speaking minority grow up in bilingual families, where one parent's primary language is Swedish and the other's Finnish. The present study aimed at exploring the influence of such bilingualism on the language profiles of children from this population at risk for language impairment (LI). Participants were recruited from a language screening of 339 children from kindergartens with instruction only in Swedish, from the Swedish-speaking parts of Finland. Of these children, 33 (9.7%) were defined as a Risk Group for LI, whereas 48 non-risk children were randomly selected to form a control group. When subdividing the children according to home language, 35 were found to be monolingual, Swedish-speaking, and 46 were Swedish-Finnish bilingual. The children underwent neuropsychological assessment during their preschool year. Assessment methods included subtests from the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence - Revised and the NEPSY Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. A repeated-measures multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a significant effect of risk of LI on the NEPSY language scores. The effect of home language was not significant and there was no interaction between home language and risk for LI. Non-verbal IQ was controlled for. Across groups, bilingual children scored lower than monolingual children only on measures of vocabulary and sentence repetition. Although a slight general cost of

  14. Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Dalla Man, Chiara; Overgaard, Rune V

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ethnic differences have previously been reported for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at assessing the potential differences between Caucasian and Japanese subjects ranging from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: This wa...

  15. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erica T; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly androgen excess, differ between Caucasian and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. 121 Caucasian and 28 Asian women, aged 18-44, examined between 2006 and 2011 with PCOS verified by a reproductive endocrinologist and dermatologist according to the Rotterdam criteria. Transvaginal ultrasounds, comprehensive dermatologic exams, and serum testing. Hirsutism defined as a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score ≥ 8, acne, androgenic alopecia, and biochemical hyperandrogenism. Caucasian and Asian women had a similar prevalence of all measures of androgen excess. Both groups had similar total mFG scores and site-specific mFG scores, except Asian women had a lower site-specific mFG score for the chest. Although Asian women were more likely to use laser hair removal, the results were unchanged when the women with a history of laser hair removal were excluded. Caucasian and Asian women with PCOS living in the same geographic region had a similar prevalence of hirsutism as well as other markers for androgen excess. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the need for ethnic-specific mFG scores in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  18. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  19. Takayasu's arteritis: A rare cause of cardiac death in a Caucasian teenage female patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A.M. Saïd (Salah); J.C. Koetsveld-Baart (J.); J.C. den Hollander (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA Caucasian teenage Dutch schoolgirl with known chronic low visual acuity and albinism, presented with frank acute pulmonary oedema, died after 1 h of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation for bradyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest. Two weeks prior to presentation, during sport training, she

  20. Evaluation of expressed emotion in schizophrenia: a comparison of Caucasians and Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelowicz, Alex; Zarate, Roberto; Gonzalez, Veronica; Lopez, Steven R; Ortega, Paula; Obregon, Nora; Mintz, Jim

    2002-05-01

    Social desirability, while a recognized source of respondent bias among Mexican-Americans, has not been evaluated as an explanation for the lower rate of high expressed emotion (EE) found in the family members of Mexican-Americans versus Caucasians with schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the lower rate of high EE (hostility and criticism) among Mexican-Americans was the result of cultural factors impacting on how information was reported by the Mexican-American relative of a patient with schizophrenia. We compared the ratings of EE between Caucasian (N = 17) and Mexican-American (N = 44) patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and their key relatives using the level of expressed emotion (LEE) scale (paper and pencil instrument rated by the patient and relative separately) and the Five Minute Speech Sample (observational experimenter rated). The ability of the various measures to predict relapse over two years was also examined. Contrary to our hypothesis, there were no differences between patient and family measures within ethnic group. Mexican-American patients and relatives reported lower rates of high EE than Caucasians across all measures. High EE predicted relapse across measures for Caucasian participants, but did not predict relapse for Mexican-Americans on any of the measurement instruments. We discuss the implications of these findings on cross-cultural research and family interventions for individuals with psychotic disorders.

  1. Cultural Differences in Child Rearing: A Comparison of Immigrant Chinese and Caucasian American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Tseng, Hui-Mei

    1992-01-01

    Studies cultural differences in child rearing practices of 38 middle-class Chinese immigrant mothers and 38 middle-class Caucasian-American mothers of 3-8 year olds. Results suggest similarity in child-rearing goals of both groups, although Chinese-American immigrant mothers rely on traditional Chinese methods of socialization to achieve these…

  2. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (poverprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  4. The association between team climate at work and mental health in the Finnish Health 2000 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinokki, M; Hinkka, K; Ahola, K; Koskinen, S; Klaukka, T; Kivimäki, M; Puukka, P; Lönnqvist, J; Virtanen, M

    2009-08-01

    Depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders are common mental health problems in the working population. However, the team climate at work related to these disorders has not been studied using standardised interview methods and it is not known whether poor team climate predicts antidepressant use. This study investigated whether team climate at work was associated with DSM-IV depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders and subsequent antidepressant medication in a random sample of Finnish employees. The nationally representative sample comprised 3347 employees aged 30-64 years. Team climate was measured with a self-assessment scale. Diagnoses of depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data on the purchase of antidepressant medication in a 3-year follow-up period were collected from a nationwide pharmaceutical register of the Social Insurance Institution. In the risk factor adjusted models, poor team climate at work was significantly associated with depressive disorders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.36) but not with alcohol use disorders. The significance of the association between team climate and anxiety disorders disappeared when the model was adjusted for job control and job demands. Poor team climate also predicted antidepressant medication (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.30). A poor team climate at work is associated with depressive disorders and subsequent antidepressant use.

  5. Retrospective reports of parental physical affection and parenting style: a study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors.

  6. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium

  7. Genome-wide association study in Finnish twins highlights the connection between nicotine addiction and neurotrophin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällfors, Jenni; Palviainen, Teemu; Surakka, Ida; Gupta, Richa; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Raevuori, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Korhonen, Tellervo; Jousilahti, Pekka; Madden, Pamela A F; Kaprio, Jaakko; Loukola, Anu

    2018-03-13

    The heritability of nicotine dependence based on family studies is substantial. Nevertheless, knowledge of the underlying genetic architecture remains meager. Our aim was to identify novel genetic variants responsible for interindividual differences in smoking behavior. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1715 ever smokers ascertained from the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort enriched for heavy smoking. Data imputation used the 1000 Genomes Phase I reference panel together with a whole genome sequence-based Finnish reference panel. We analyzed three measures of nicotine addiction-smoking quantity, nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal. We annotated all genome-wide significant SNPs for their functional potential. First, we detected genome-wide significant association on 16p12 with smoking quantity (P = 8.5 × 10 -9 ), near CLEC19A. The lead-SNP stands 22 kb from a binding site for NF-κB transcription factors, which play a role in the neurotrophin signaling pathway. However, the signal was not replicated in an independent Finnish population-based sample, FINRISK (n = 6763). Second, nicotine withdrawal showed association on 2q21 in an intron of TMEM163 (P = 2.1 × 10 -9 ), and on 11p15 (P = 6.6 × 10 -8 ) in an intron of AP2A2, and P = 4.2 × 10 -7 for a missense variant in MUC6, both involved in the neurotrophin signaling pathway). Third, association was detected on 3p22.3 for maximum number of cigarettes smoked per day (P = 3.1 × 10 -8 ) near STAC. Associating CLEC19A and TMEM163 SNPs were annotated to influence gene expression or methylation. The neurotrophin signaling pathway has previously been associated with smoking behavior. Our findings further support the role in nicotine addiction. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Connelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ2=7.72, P=0.02. PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P=0.0001, HDL cholesterol (P=0.009, LDL cholesterol (P=0.02, and diabetes status (P<0.05. Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P=0.003. Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  10. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Philip W; Maguire, Graham F; Nash, Michelle M; Rapi, Lindita; Yan, Andrew T; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ(2) = 7.72, P = 0.02). PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P = 0.0001), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.009), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.02), and diabetes status (P < 0.05). Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P = 0.003). Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  11. Analysis of autism susceptibility gene loci on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q in Finnish multiplex families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, M; Nieminen, T; Majuri, S; Vanhala, R; Peltonen, L; Järvelä, I

    2000-05-01

    The role of genetic factors in the etiology of the autistic spectrum of disorders has clearly been demonstrated. Ten chromosomal regions, on chromosomes 1p, 4p, 6q, 7q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17q, 19q and 22q have potentially been linked to autism.1-8 We have analyzed these chromosomal regions in a total of 17 multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish population by pairwise linkage analysis and sib-pair analysis. Mild evidence for putative contribution was found only with the 1p chromosomal region in the susceptibility to autism. Our data suggest that additional gene loci exist for autism which will be detectable in and even restricted to the isolated Finnish population.

  12. Electricity and emission allowance markets from Finnish viewpoint. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, M.

    2006-05-01

    During 1995.2005 the Nordic energy system has experienced two major changes, the opening of the electricity market for competition and emissions trading within the EU. The European Union's emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) that began operating at the beginning of 2005 has weakened the competitiveness of Finnish electricity production and raised electricity prices. Most electricity producers have accumulated large profits thanks to higher prices. The payers have been nearly all electricity users. This report studies the effects of emissions trading on the electricity market and the functionality of the power market. Very little investment has been made in power production capacity in the Nordic countries over the past ten years. Considerable increases have mainly been made in Danish wind power capacity. Simultaneously, the total consumption of electricity and maximum system load have increased more than installed capacity has grown. In the next few years the power and energy balances may be threatened. In previous years, Finland has often been separated as its own market price area on the Nordic power exchange. The formation of price areas has been affected by the limited capacity in transmission interconnectors, network reparation work and the operating method of the Swedish national system operator, Svenska Kraftnaet (transferring domestic bottlenecks to the borders). This study reviews the scale of price differences and the effect on market activities. On the common Nordic electricity market, Finnish coal and peat condensing power capacity is mainly used during poor precipitation years. These plants were once built for base load production. Carbon dioxide emissions trading has further weakened the competitiveness of these plants. The biggest problem for the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool, is regarded to be that market concentration in electricity production is high. Market concentration decreases the investment willingness of existing players as new power

  13. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  14. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1 80G>A Polymorphism to Alzheimer’s Disease in Italian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Coppedè

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266 in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population of Italian origin composed of 192 sporadic AD patients and 186 healthy matched controls, for the presence of the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism, and searched for correlation with circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12. No difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between AD patients and controls. No correlation was observed among the genotypes generated by the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 either in the whole cohort of subjects or after stratification into clinical subtypes. Present results do not support a role for the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism as independent risk factor for sporadic AD in Italian Caucasians.

  15. Mutations in CARD15 and smoking confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Anja; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Østergaard, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Three CAspase Recruitment Domain (CARD15) mutations have shown to predispose to Crohn's disease in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation frequency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in healthy controls in Denmark....

  16. The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 polymorphism may be associated with focal arteriolar narrowing in Caucasians with hypertension or without diabetes: the ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boerwinkle Eric

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 has emerged as a consistently replicated susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes, however, whether the TCF7L2 gene also has similar effects on the retinal microvasculature is less clear. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and retinal microvascular phenotypes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study (1993-1995. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 10,320 middle-aged African American (n = 2,199 and Caucasian (n = 8,121 men and women selected from four United States communities to examine the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and retinal microvascular signs (retinopathy, focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, arteriolar and venular calibers. Photographs on one randomly selected eye were graded for presence of retinal microvascular signs and used to measure retinal vessel calibres. Results After adjusting for age, sex, study center, mean arterial blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and other covariates, few associations of TCF7L2 rs7903146 and retinal microvascular signs were noted. TCF7L2 rs7903146 T risk allele was significantly associated with focal arteriolar narrowing in Caucasians with hypertension [odds ratio (ORCT vs. CC (95% CI = 1.25 (1.09-1.44; ORTT vs. CC = 1.56 (1.18-2.06; P = 0.002] and in Caucasians without diabetes [OR CT vs. CC = 1.18 (1.06-1.32; OR TT vs. CC = 1.40 (1.12, 1.75; P = 0.003]. No significant association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and retinal vascular signs was noted among African American individuals. Conclusions TCF7L2 rs7903146 is not consistently associated with retinal microvascular signs. However, we report an association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and focal arteriolar narrowing in Caucasians with hypertension or without diabetes. Further research in other

  17. Colour differences in Caucasian and Oriental women's faces illuminated by white LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgosa, M; Richard, N; Fernández-Maloigne, C; Xiao, K; de Clermont-Gallerande, H; Jost-Boissard, S; Okajima, K

    2018-04-10

    To provide an approach to facial contrast, analysing CIELAB colour differences (ΔE* ab,10 ) and its components in women's faces from two different ethnic groups, illuminated by modern white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or traditional illuminants recommended by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE). We performed spectrophotometric measurements of spectral reflectance factors on forehead and cheek of 87 young healthy women (50 Caucasians and 37 Orientals), plus 5 commercial red lipsticks. We considered a set of 10 white LED illuminants, representative of technologies currently available on the market, plus 8 main illuminants currently recommended by the CIE, representative of conventional incandescent, daylight, and fluorescent light sources. Under each of these 18 illuminants we analysed the magnitude and components of ΔE* ab,10 between Caucasian and Oriental women (considering cheek and forehead), as well as for cheek-forehead and cheek-lipsticks in Caucasian and Oriental women. Colour-inconstancy indices for cheek, forehead, and lipsticks were computed, assuming D65 and A as reference illuminants. ΔE* ab,10 between forehead and cheek were quantitatively and qualitatively different in Orientals and Caucasians, but discrepancies with respect to average values for 18 illuminants were small (1.5% and 5.0% for Orientals and Caucasians, respectively). ΔE* ab,10 between Caucasians and Orientals were also quantitatively and qualitatively different both for forehead and cheek, and discrepancies with respect to average values were again small (1.0% and 3.9% for forehead and cheek, respectively). ΔE* ab,10 between lipsticks and cheek were at least 2 times higher than those between forehead and cheek. Regarding ΔE* ab,10 between lipsticks and cheeks, discrepancies with respect to average values were in the range 1.5% - 12.3%, although higher values of up to 54.2% were found for a white RGB LED. This white RGB LED provided the highest average colour

  18. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  19. Shaping professional identity for sustainability. Evidence in Finnish public catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Minna

    2009-08-01

    Catering for sustainability is often presented as a legitimate perspective for caterers to promote more equitable economic development locally and across distances through food procurement, integrated with environmental protection and concern for the welfare of customers and staff. Caterers are thus seen as agents responsible for sustainable food systems within their reach. This paper explores how public caterers use their position and productive intelligence in promoting a sustainable food system within the power field of their contextual networks. This article crystallises this 'agency for sustainability' as professional identity for sustainability, the shaping of which is analysed in Finnish public catering. The paper identifies eased and positive, troubled and critical as well as delimited and distancing approaches for sustainability, with respective views and efforts for sustainable food systems. The shaping of professional identity for sustainability could serve as co-operative platform for future contextual developments towards more sustainable food systems. Such progress could result in better alignment with political guidelines for sustainability and caterers' satisfaction due to their heightened professional position reaching beyond 'kitchen walls' to construct everyday sustainability.

  20. Distribution and content of ellagitannins in Finnish plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Johanna; Koskinen, Piia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    The results of a screening study, in which a total of 82 Finnish plant species were studied for their ellagitannin composition and content, are presented. The total ellagitannin content was determined by HPLC-DAD, the detected ellagitannins were further characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and divided into four structurally different sub-groups. Thirty plant species were found to contain ellagitannins and the ellagitannin content in the crude extracts varied from few mgg(-1) to over a hundred mgg(-1). Plant families that were rich in ellagitannins (>90mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were Onagraceae, Lyhtraceae, Geraniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fagaceae and some species from Rosaceae. Plant species that contained moderate amounts of ellagitannins (31-89mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the family Rosaceae. Plant species that contained low amounts of ellagitannins (1-30mgg(-1) of the crude extract) were representatives of the families Betulaceae and Myricaceae. The specific ellagitannin composition of the species allowed their chemotaxonomic classification and the comparison between the older Cronquist's classification and the nowadays preferred Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.