WorldWideScience

Sample records for finite random dynamical

  1. Finite Random Domino Automaton

    CERN Document Server

    Bialecki, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Finite version of Random Domino Automaton (FRDA) - recently proposed a toy model of earthquakes - is investigated. Respective set of equations describing stationary state of the FRDA is derived and compared with infinite case. It is shown that for the system of big size, these equations are coincident with RDA equations. We demonstrate a non-existence of exact equations for size N bigger then 4 and propose appropriate approximations, the quality of which is studied in examples obtained within Markov chains framework. We derive several exact formulas describing properties of the automaton, including time aspects. In particular, a way to achieve a quasi-periodic like behaviour of RDA is presented. Thus, based on the same microscopic rule - which produces exponential and inverse-power like distributions - we extend applicability of the model to quasi-periodic phenomena.

  2. Dynamic Monte Carlo simulation on behavior of phase transition of a random magnetic system in finite observation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazaki, Tamotsu; Kato, Tomohiko, E-mail: katou@fit.ac.jp

    2014-03-15

    Random magnets generally exhibit gradual phase transitions more or less. The origin of the phenomena has been controversial for a long time: intrinsic phenomena of disordered magnets or non-equilibrium effect due to finite observation time. We now support the latter, but there have not been clear evidences experimentally and theoretically. We show that the behavior of phase transition of a simple random magnetic system differs in the observation time by using a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The target of the simulation is experiments of the line width of NMR spin-echo spectra, a type of the order parameter, on Mn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x} (HCOO){sub 2}·2(NH{sub 2})2CO. The calculated results indicate that, as the averaging time becomes shorter, the phase transition becomes more gradual. This tendency is most pronounced around the percolation concentration. The calculated results coincide well with the characteristic features of the experimental results. This coincidence supports that the smearing behavior of the order parameter is a non-equilibrium effect, though Ising model employed in the simulation is different with Heisenberg system of the target substance.

  3. Language dynamics in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-04-01

    Any mechanism of language acquisition can only learn a restricted set of grammars. The human brain contains a mechanism for language acquisition which can learn a restricted set of grammars. The theory of this restricted set is universal grammar (UG). UG has to be sufficiently specific to induce linguistic coherence in a population. This phenomenon is known as "coherence threshold". Previously, we have calculated the coherence threshold for deterministic dynamics and infinitely large populations. Here, we extend the framework to stochastic processes and finite populations. If there is selection for communicative function (selective language dynamics), then the analytic results for infinite populations are excellent approximations for finite populations; as expected, finite populations need a slightly higher accuracy of language acquisition to maintain coherence. If there is no selection for communicative function (neutral language dynamics), then linguistic coherence is only possible for finite populations.

  4. Finite state verifiers with constant randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Say, A C Cem

    2011-01-01

    We give a new certificate-based characterization of $\\mathsf{NL}$, as the class of languages whose members have certificates that can be verified with small error in polynomial time by probabilistic finite automata (2pfa's) which have access to only a constant number of random bits. We obtain this result by demonstrating that verifiers which are restricted to have this property are equivalent in language recognition power to multihead finite automata. The cases where the verifier is restricted in different manners in its input and certificate head movements are also examined.

  5. Dynamical CP violation at finite temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SUN Xiao-Yu; LIANG Chao

    2012-01-01

    By using the generalized Yang-Mills model,CP violation behavior at finite temperature is investigated,and it is shown that dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperature.

  6. Dynamic Pricing and Learning with Finite Inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.P.; Boer, A.V. den

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  7. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud V.; Zwart, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  8. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud; Zwart, Bert

    2013-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season, perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy

  9. A finite-time exponent for random Ehrenfest gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudgalya, Sanjay; Chandra, Sarthak [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Jain, Sudhir R., E-mail: srjain@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-10-15

    We consider the motion of a system of free particles moving on a plane with regular hard polygonal scatterers arranged in a random manner. Calling this the Ehrenfest gas, which is known to have a zero Lyapunov exponent, we propose a finite-time exponent to characterize its dynamics. As the number of sides of the polygon goes to infinity, when polygon tends to a circle, we recover the usual Lyapunov exponent for the Lorentz gas from the exponent proposed here. To obtain this result, we generalize the reflection law of a beam of rays incident on a polygonal scatterer in a way that the formula for the circular scatterer is recovered in the limit of infinite number of vertices. Thus, chaos emerges from pseudochaos in an appropriate limit. - Highlights: • We present a finite-time exponent for particles moving in a plane containing polygonal scatterers. • The exponent found recovers the Lyapunov exponent in the limit of the polygon becoming a circle. • Our findings unify pseudointegrable and chaotic scattering via a generalized collision rule. • Stretch and fold:shuffle and cut :: Lyapunov:finite-time exponent :: fluid:granular mixing.

  10. Random Matrix Theory in molecular dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Luigi Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that, in some situations, principal component analysis (PCA) carried out on molecular dynamics data results in the appearance of cosine-shaped low index projections. Because this is reminiscent of the results obtained by performing PCA on a multidimensional Brownian dynamics, it has been suggested that short-time protein dynamics is essentially nothing more than a noisy signal. Here we use Random Matrix Theory to analyze a series of short-time molecular dynamics experiments which are specifically designed to be simulations with high cosine content. We use as a model system the protein apoCox17, a mitochondrial copper chaperone. Spectral analysis on correlation matrices allows to easily differentiate random correlations, simply deriving from the finite length of the process, from non-random signals reflecting the intrinsic system properties. Our results clearly show that protein dynamics is not really Brownian also in presence of the cosine-shaped low index projections on principal axes.

  11. Finite Dynamic Elements and Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Fergusson

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A general modal analysis scheme is derived for forced response that makes use of high accuracy modes computed by the dynamic element method. The new procedure differs from the usual modal analysis in that the modes are obtained from a power series expansion for the dynamic stiffness matrix that includes an extra dynamic correction term in addition to the static stiffness matrix and the consistent mass matrix based on static displacement. A cantilevered beam example is used to demonstrate the relative accuracies of the dynamic element and the traditional finite element methods.

  12. Efficient Generation of Random Bits from Finite State Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hongchao

    2010-01-01

    The problem of random number generation from an uncorrelated random source (of unknown probability distribution) dates back to von Neumann's 1951 work. Elias (1972) generalized von Neumann's scheme and showed how to achieve optimal efficiency in unbiased random bits generation. Hence, a natural question is what if the sources are correlated? Both Elias and Samuelson proposed methods for generating unbiased random bits in the case of correlated sources (of unknown probability distribution), specifically, they considered finite Markov chains. However, their proposed methods are not efficient or have implementation difficulties. Blum (1986) devised an algorithm for efficiently generating random bits from degree-2 finite Markov chains in expected linear time, however, his beautiful method is still far from optimality on information-efficiency. In this paper, we generalize Blum's algorithm to arbitrary degree finite Markov chains and combine it with Elias's method for efficient generation of unbiased bits. As a re...

  13. Finite Element Computational Dynamics of Rotating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element analysis of rotor dynamics problems that were published in 1994–1998. It contains 319 citations. Also included, as separate subsections, are finite element analyses of rotor elements – discs, shafts, spindles, and blades. Topics dealing with fracture mechanics, contact and stability problems of rotating machinery are also considered in specific sections. The last part of the bibliography presents papers dealing with specific industrial applications.

  14. Recurrence for random dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marie, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a first step in the study of the recurrence behavior in random dynamical systems and randomly perturbed dynamical systems. In particular we define a concept of quenched and annealed return times for systems generated by the composition of random maps. We moreover prove that for super-polynomially mixing systems, the random recurrence rate is equal to the local dimension of the stationary measure.

  15. Quantum chaotic dynamics and random polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomolny, E.; Bohigas, O.; Leboeuf, P.

    1995-11-01

    The distribution of roots of polynomials of high degree with random coefficients is investigated which, among others, appear naturally in the context of `quantum chaotic dynamics`. It is shown that under quite general conditions their roots tend to concentrate near the unit circle in the complex plane. In order to further increase this tendency, the particular case of self-inverse random polynomials is studied, and it is shown that for them a finite portion of all roots lies exactly on the unit circle. Correlation functions of these roots are also computed analytically, and compared to the correlations of eigenvalues of random matrices. The problem of ergodicity of chaotic wavefunctions is also considered. Special attention is devoted to the role of symmetries in the distribution of roots of random polynomials. (author). 32 refs.

  16. Approximating common random fixed point for two finite families of asymptotically nonexpansive random mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Rashwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study weak and strong convergence of an implicit random iterative process with errors to a common random fixed point of two finite families of asymptotically nonexpansive random mappings in a uniformly convex separable Banach space.

  17. Continuum Random Phase Approximation with finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co' , Giampaolo [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); De Donno, Viviana [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); Anguiano, Marta; Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We rewrite the Random Phase Approximation secular equations in a form which allows the treatment of the continuum part of the single-particle spectrum without approximations. Within this formalism finite-range interactions can be used without restrictions. We present some results, obtained with Gogny interactions, where the role of the continuum is relevant. (orig.)

  18. The Finite Deformation Dynamic Sphere Test Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versino, Daniele [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brock, Jerry Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    In this manuscript we describe test cases for the dynamic sphere problem in presence of finite deformations. The spherical shell in exam is made of a homogeneous, isotropic or transverse isotropic material and elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviors are considered. Twenty cases, (a) to (t), are thus defined combining material types and boundary conditions. The inner surface radius, the outer surface radius and the material's density are kept constant for all the considered test cases and their values are ri = 10mm, ro = 20mm and p = 1000Kg/m3 respectively.

  19. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  1. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-03-01

    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  2. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We analyze time-discrete and continuous `fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...

  3. Random Dieudonne modules, random p-divisible groups, and random curves over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cais, Bryden; Zureick-Brown, David

    2012-01-01

    We describe a probability distribution on isomorphism classes of principally quasi-polarized p-divisible groups over a finite field k of characteristic p which can reasonably be thought of as "uniform distribution," and we compute the distribution of various statistics (p-corank, a-number, etc.) of p-divisible groups drawn from this distribution. It is then natural to ask to what extent the p-divisible groups attached to a randomly chosen hyperelliptic curve (resp. curve, resp. abelian variety) over k are uniformly distributed in this sense. For instance, one can ask whether the proportion of genus-g curves over F_p whose Jacobian is ordinary approaches the limit that such a heuristic would predict. This heuristic is analogous to conjectures of Cohen-Lenstra type for fields k of characteristic other than p, in which case the random p-divisible group is defined by a random matrix recording the action of Frobenius. Extensive numerical investigation reveals some cases of agreement with the heuristic and some int...

  4. Dynamical correlations among vicious random walkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Taro; Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

    2003-01-20

    Nonintersecting motion of Brownian particles in one dimension is studied. The system is constructed as the diffusion scaling limit of Fisher's vicious random walk. N particles start from the origin at time t=0 and then undergo mutually avoiding Brownian motion until a finite time t=T. In the short time limit t<random matrices. At the end time t=T, it is identical to that of Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE). We show that the most general dynamical correlations among arbitrary number of particles at arbitrary number of times are written in the forms of quaternion determinants. Asymptotic forms of the correlations in the limit N{yields}{infinity} are evaluated and a discontinuous transition of the universality class from GUE to GOE is observed.

  5. Some case studies of random walks in dynamic random environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares dos Santos, Renato

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of random walks in dynamic random environments. These are models for the motion of a tracer particle in a disordered medium, which is called a static random environment if it stays constant in time, or dynamic otherwise. The evolution of the random walk is defi

  6. Dynamical invariance for random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, Jeremie

    2016-01-01

    We consider a general Langevin dynamics for the one-dimensional N-particle Coulomb gas with confining potential $V$ at temperature $\\beta$. These dynamics describe for $\\beta=2$ the time evolution of the eigenvalues of $N\\times N$ random Hermitian matrices. The equilibrium partition function -- equal to the normalization constant of the Laughlin wave function in fractional quantum Hall effect -- is known to satisfy an infinite number of constraints called Virasoro or loop constraints. We introduce here a dynamical generating function on the space of random trajectories which satisfies a large class of constraints of geometric origin. We focus in this article on a subclass induced by the invariance under the Schr\\"odinger-Virasoro algebra.

  7. Randomized Oversampling for Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2016-03-23

    In this paper, we develop efficient multiscale methods for flows in heterogeneous media. We use the generalized multiscale finite element (GMsFEM) framework. GMsFEM approximates the solution space locally using a few multiscale basis functions. This approximation selects an appropriate snapshot space and a local spectral decomposition, e.g., the use of oversampled regions, in order to achieve an efficient model reduction. However, the successful construction of snapshot spaces may be costly if too many local problems need to be solved in order to obtain these spaces. We use a moderate quantity of local solutions (or snapshot vectors) with random boundary conditions on oversampled regions with zero forcing to deliver an efficient methodology. Motivated by the randomized algorithm presented in [P. G. Martinsson, V. Rokhlin, and M. Tygert, A Randomized Algorithm for the approximation of Matrices, YALEU/DCS/TR-1361, Yale University, 2006], we consider a snapshot space which consists of harmonic extensions of random boundary conditions defined in a domain larger than the target region. Furthermore, we perform an eigenvalue decomposition in this small space. We study the application of randomized sampling for GMsFEM in conjunction with adaptivity, where local multiscale spaces are adaptively enriched. Convergence analysis is provided. We present representative numerical results to validate the method proposed.

  8. Finitely approximable random sets and their evolution via differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, B. I.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, random closed sets (RCS) in Euclidean space are considered along with their distributions and approximation. Distributions of RCS may be used for the calculation of expectation and other characteristics. Reachable sets on initial data and some ways of their approximate evolutionary description are investigated for stochastic differential equations (SDE) with initial state in some RCS. Markov property of random reachable sets is proved in the space of closed sets. For approximate calculus, the initial RCS is replaced by a finite set on the integer multidimensional grid and the multistage Markov chain is substituted for SDE. The Markov chain is constructed by methods of SDE numerical integration. Some examples are also given.

  9. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dima, Germán C., E-mail: gdima@df.uba.ar; Mindlin, Gabriel B. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  10. Finite temperature reservoir engineering and entanglement dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fedortchenko, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose experimental methods to engineer reservoirs at arbitrary temperature which are feasible with current technology. Our results generalize to mixed states the possibility of quantum state engineering through controlled decoherence. Finite temperature engineered reservoirs can lead to the experimental observation of thermal entanglement --the appearance and increase of entanglement with temperature-- to the study of the dependence of finite time disentanglement and revival with tempera...

  11. A Finite Element Solution for Barrel Dynamic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhi-yin; NING Bian-fang; WANG Zai-sen

    2007-01-01

    With the APDL language of ANSYS finite element analysis software, the solution program for barrel dynamic stress is developed. The paper describes the pivotal problems of dynamic strength design and provides a foundation for realizing the engineering and programming of barrel dynamic strength design.

  12. Relative weights approach to dynamical fermions at finite densities

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The method of relative weights, coupled with mean field theory, is applied to the problem of simulating gauge theories with dynamical staggered fermions at finite densities. We present initial results and discuss issues so far encountered.

  13. Dynamic properties of epidemic spreading on finite size complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Liu Yang; Shan Xiu-Ming; Ren Yong; Jiao Jian; Qiu Ben

    2005-01-01

    The Internet presents a complex topological structure, on which computer viruses can easily spread. By using theoretical analysis and computer simulation methods, the dynamic process of disease spreading on finite size networks with complex topological structure is investigated. On the finite size networks, the spreading process of SIS (susceptibleinfected-susceptible) model is a finite Markov chain with an absorbing state. Two parameters, the survival probability and the conditional infecting probability, are introduced to describe the dynamic properties of disease spreading on finite size networks. Our results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks. Also, knowledge about the dynamic character of virus spreading is helpful for adopting immunity policy.

  14. Dynamic finite-size scaling at first-order transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of finite-size systems close to a first-order transition (FOT). We develop a dynamic finite-size scaling (DFSS) theory for the dynamic behavior in the coexistence region where different phases coexist. This is characterized by an exponentially large time scale related to the tunneling between the two phases. We show that, when considering time scales of the order of the tunneling time, the dynamic behavior can be described by a two-state coarse-grained dynamics. This allows us to obtain exact predictions for the dynamical scaling functions. To test the general DFSS theory at FOTs, we consider the two-dimensional Ising model in the low-temperature phase, where the external magnetic field drives a FOT, and the 20-state Potts model, which undergoes a thermal FOT. Numerical results for a purely relaxational dynamics fully confirm the general theory.

  15. Role of finite populations in determining evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tane S.; Payne, Karl A.; Moseley, L. Leo

    2008-02-01

    The connection between the finite size of an evolving population and its dynamical behavior is examined through analytical and computational studies of a simple model of evolution. The infinite population limit of the model is shown to be governed by a special case of the quasispecies equations. A flat fitness landscape yields identical results for the dynamics of infinite and finite populations. On the other hand, a monotonically increasing fitness landscape shows “epochs” in the dynamics of finite populations that become more pronounced as the rate of mutation decreases. The details of the dynamics are profoundly different for any two simulation runs in that events arising from the stochastic noise in the pseudorandom number sequence are amplified. As the population size is increased or, equivalently, the mutation rate is increased, these epochs become smaller but do not entirely disappear.

  16. Compatible finite element spaces for geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Compatible finite elements provide a framework for preserving important structures in equations of geophysical fluid dynamics, and are becoming important in their use for building atmosphere and ocean models. We survey the application of compatible finite element spaces to geophysical fluid dynamics, including the application to the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations, and the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations. We summarise analytic results about dispersion relations and conservation properties, and present new results on approximation properties in three dimensions on the sphere, and on hydrostatic balance properties.

  17. Controlling complex Langevin dynamics at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, Gert; Bongiovanni, Lorenzo [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea (United Kingdom); Seiler, Erhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Sexty, Denes [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); FEST, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    At nonzero chemical potential the numerical sign problem in lattice field theory limits the use of standard algorithms based on importance sampling. Complex Langevin dynamics provides a possible solution, but it has to be applied with care. In this review, we first summarise our current understanding of the approach, combining analytical and numerical insight. In the second part we study SL(N,C) gauge cooling, which was introduced recently as a tool to control complex Langevin dynamics in nonabelian gauge theories. We present new results in Polyakov chain models and in QCD with heavy quarks and compare various adaptive cooling implementations. (orig.)

  18. Study on high order perturbation-based nonlinear stochastic finite element method for dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yao, Jing-Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Several algorithms were proposed relating to the development of a framework of the perturbation-based stochastic finite element method (PSFEM) for large variation nonlinear dynamic problems. For this purpose, algorithms and a framework related to SFEM based on the stochastic virtual work principle were studied. To prove the validity and practicality of the algorithms and framework, numerical examples for nonlinear dynamic problems with large variations were calculated and compared with the Monte-Carlo Simulation method. This comparison shows that the proposed approaches are accurate and effective for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures with random parameters.

  19. Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.

  20. Universality for the Distance in Finite Variance Random Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Esker, H.; Van der Hofstad, R.; Hooghiemstra, G.

    2008-01-01

    We generalize the asymptotic behavior of the graph distance between two uniformly chosen nodes in the configuration model to a wide class of random graphs. Among others, this class contains the Poissonian random graph, the expected degree random graph and the generalized random graph (including the

  1. Mean square convergent three points finite difference scheme for random partial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy A. El-Tawil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the random finite difference method with three points is used in solving random partial differential equations problems mainly: random parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The conditions of the mean square convergence of the numerical solutions are studied. The numerical solutions are computed through some numerical case studies.

  2. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...... lightweight structures without noise and disturbing vibrations between storeys and rooms. The dynamic response of floor and wall structures may be investigated using finite element models with three-dimensional solid elements [1]. In order to analyse the global response of complete buildings, finite element...

  3. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  4. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Fang, Wen, E-mail: fangwen@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Economics and Management, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  5. Numerical analysis for finite-range multitype stochastic contact financial market dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets, a random agent-based financial price model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in which the interaction and dispersal of different types of investment attitudes in a stock market are imitated by viruses spreading. With different parameters of birth rates and finite-range, the normalized return series are simulated by Monte Carlo simulation method and numerical studied by power-law distribution analysis and autocorrelation analysis. To better understand the nonlinear dynamics of the return series, a q-order autocorrelation function and a multi-autocorrelation function are also defined in this work. The comparisons of statistical behaviors of return series from the agent-based model and the daily historical market returns of Shanghai Composite Index and Shenzhen Component Index indicate that the proposed model is a reasonable qualitative explanation for the price formation process of stock market systems.

  6. Random Finite Set Based Bayesian Filtering with OpenCL in a Heterogeneous Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biao Hu; Uzair Sharif; Rajat Koner; Guang Chen; Kai Huang; Feihu Zhang; Walter Stechele; Alois Knoll

    2017-01-01

    ... applications such as pedestrian detection. Towards this goal, this paper investigates the use of OpenCL to accelerate the computation of random finite set-based Bayesian filtering in a heterogeneous system...

  7. The expected variation of random bounded integer sequences of finite length

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfo Angeles; Don Rawlings; Lawrence Sze; Mark Tiefenbruck

    2005-01-01

    From the enumerative generating function of an abstract adjacency statistic, we deduce the mean and variance of the variation on random permutations, rearrangements, compositions, and bounded integer sequences of finite length.

  8. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ITS VERIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study aims at developing a new method-Random M icrostructure Finite Element Method (RMFEM)for the effective properties of composite materials . In this method, a random microstructure model is used to simulate the microstructure of the real composite materials. The physical fields in such a randm microstructure model under specified boundary and initial conditions are analyzed by finite element method. The effective properties of composite materials can be obtained from the analysis results. As verification, some effective properties of composite materials, such as elastic module,thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and elastoplastic properties, are investigated by random microstructure finite element method. The numerical results are given together with the experimental data. It i- revealed that the random microstructure finite element method is a very valid method for the determination of the effective properties of composite materials.

  9. The expected variation of random bounded integer sequences of finite length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolfo Angeles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available From the enumerative generating function of an abstract adjacency statistic, we deduce the mean and variance of the variation on random permutations, rearrangements, compositions, and bounded integer sequences of finite length.

  10. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS AND RANDOM ATTRACTOR FOR DISSIPATIVE RANDOM DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuhong; Zdzistaw Brze(z)niak; Zhou Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand better the long time behaviour of asymptotically compact random dynamical systems (RDS), which can be generated by solutions of some stochastic partial differential equations on unbounded domains. The conceptual analysis for the long time behavior of RDS will be done through some examples. An application of those analysis will be demonstrated through the proof of the existence of random attractors for asymptotically compact dissipative RDS.

  11. Positive role of glassy dynamics in finite-time optimization by threshold algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, M.

    2011-01-01

    The optimization mechanism of threshold algorithms is investigated in the solving process of a random Euclidean traveling salesman problem. A series of computer experiments previously designed for simulated annealing is conducted with algorithms such as generalized simulated annealing. The results show that if the threshold function decays fast enough, a previous positive view of slow relaxation dynamics in finite-time optimization by simulated annealing is still applicable regardless of the algorithm. These dynamics work effectively as an optimizer at around an intermediate temperature, which can be identified by using the Deborah number.

  12. Large deviations of the finite-time magnetization of the Curie-Weiss random-field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paga, Pierre; Kühn, Reimer

    2017-08-01

    We study the large deviations of the magnetization at some finite time in the Curie-Weiss random field Ising model with parallel updating. While relaxation dynamics in an infinite-time horizon gives rise to unique dynamical trajectories [specified by initial conditions and governed by first-order dynamics of the form mt +1=f (mt) ] , we observe that the introduction of a finite-time horizon and the specification of terminal conditions can generate a host of metastable solutions obeying second-order dynamics. We show that these solutions are governed by a Newtonian-like dynamics in discrete time which permits solutions in terms of both the first-order relaxation ("forward") dynamics and the backward dynamics mt +1=f-1(mt) . Our approach allows us to classify trajectories for a given final magnetization as stable or metastable according to the value of the rate function associated with them. We find that in analogy to the Freidlin-Wentzell description of the stochastic dynamics of escape from metastable states, the dominant trajectories may switch between the two types (forward and backward) of first-order dynamics. Additionally, we show how to compute rate functions when uncertainty in the quenched disorder is introduced.

  13. Dynamics of excitable nodes on random graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Manchanda; T Umeshkanta Singh; R Ramaswamy

    2011-11-01

    We study the interplay of topology and dynamics of excitable nodes on random networks. Comparison is made between systems grown by purely random (Erd˝os–Rényi) rules and those grown by the Achlioptas process. For a given size, the growth mechanism affects both the thresholds for the emergence of different structural features as well as the level of dynamical activity supported on the network.

  14. Dynamic monopolies with randomized starting configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Kulich, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Properties of systems with majority voting rules have been exhaustingly studied. In this work we focus on the randomized case - where the system is initialized by randomized initial set of seeds. Our main aim is to give an asymptotic estimate for sampling probability, such that the initial set of seeds is (is not) a dynamic monopoly almost surely. After presenting some trivial examples, we present exhaustive results for toroidal mesh and random 4-regular graph under simple majority scenario.

  15. Finite Temperature Quasicontinuum: Molecular Dynamics without all the Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, L; Tadmor, E B; Miller, R E; Phillips, R

    2005-02-02

    Using a combination of statistical mechanics and finite-element interpolation, the authors develop a coarse-grained (CG) alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) for crystalline solids at constant temperature. The new approach is significantly more efficient than MD and generalizes earlier work on the quasi-continuum method. The method is validated by recovering equilibrium properties of single crystal Ni as a function of temperature. CG dynamical simulations of nanoindentation reveal a strong dependence on temperature of the critical stress to nucleate dislocations under the indenter.

  16. An introduction to finite volumes for gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, François

    2011-01-01

    We propose an elementary introduction to the finite volume method in the context of gas dynamics conservation laws. Our approach is founded on the advection equation, the exact integration of the associated Cauchy problem, and the so-called upwind scheme in one space dimension. It is then extended in three directions: hyperbolic linear systems and particularily the system of acoustics, gas dynamics with the help of the Roe matrix and two space dimensions by following the approach proposed by Van Leer. A special emphasis on boundary conditions is proposed all along the text.

  17. Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics at finite temperature: Thermo field dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Gelin, Maxim F.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum electron-vibrational dynamics in molecular systems at finite temperature is described using an approach based on the thermo field dynamics theory. This formulation treats temperature effects in the Hilbert space without introducing the Liouville space. A comparison with the theoretically equivalent density matrix formulation shows the key numerical advantages of the present approach. The solution of thermo field dynamics equations with a novel technique for the propagation of tensor trains (matrix product states) is discussed. Numerical applications to model spin-boson systems show that the present approach is a promising tool for the description of quantum dynamics of complex molecular systems at finite temperature.

  18. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  19. Finite element dynamic analysis on CDC STAR-100 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Computational algorithms are presented for the finite element dynamic analysis of structures on the CDC STAR-100 computer. The spatial behavior is described using higher-order finite elements. The temporal behavior is approximated by using either the central difference explicit scheme or Newmark's implicit scheme. In each case the analysis is broken up into a number of basic macro-operations. Discussion is focused on the organization of the computation and the mode of storage of different arrays to take advantage of the STAR pipeline capability. The potential of the proposed algorithms is discussed and CPU times are given for performing the different macro-operations for a shell modeled by higher order composite shallow shell elements having 80 degrees of freedom.

  20. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics: Nonlinear finite elements and finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E; Broughton, J Q

    2005-05-30

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) is a technique developed as a concurrent multiscale model that couples conventional molecular dynamics (MD) to a more coarse-grained description of the periphery. The coarse-grained regions are modeled on a mesh in a formulation that generalizes conventional finite element modeling (FEM) of continuum elasticity. CGMD is derived solely from the MD model, however, and has no continuum parameters. As a result, it provides a coupling that is smooth and provides control of errors that arise at the coupling between the atomistic and coarse-grained regions. In this article, we elaborate on the formulation of CGMD, describing in detail how CGMD is applied to anharmonic solids and finite temperature simulations. As tests of CGMD, we present in detail the calculation of the phonon spectra for solid argon and tantalum in 3D, demonstrating how CGMD provides a better description of the elastic waves than that provided by FEM. We also present elastic wave scattering calculations that show the elastic wave scattering is more benign in CGMD than FEM. We also discuss the dependence of scattering on the properties of the mesh. We introduce a rigid approximation to CGMD that eliminates internal relaxation, similar to the Quasicontinuum technique, and compare it to the full CGMD.

  1. On the pertinence to Physics of random walks induced by random dynamical systems: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritis, Dimitri

    2016-08-01

    Let be an abstract space and a denumerable (finite or infinite) alphabet. Suppose that is a family of functions such that for all we have and a family of transformations . The pair ((Sa)a , (pa)a ) is termed an iterated function system with place dependent probabilities. Such systems can be thought as generalisations of random dynamical systems. As a matter of fact, suppose we start from a given ; we pick then randomly, with probability pa (x), the transformation Sa and evolve to Sa (x). We are interested in the behaviour of the system when the iteration continues indefinitely. Random walks of the above type are omnipresent in both classical and quantum Physics. To give a small sample of occurrences we mention: random walks on the affine group, random walks on Penrose lattices, random walks on partially directed lattices, evolution of density matrices induced by repeated quantum measurements, quantum channels, quantum random walks, etc. In this article, we review some basic properties of such systems and provide with a pathfinder in the extensive bibliography (both on mathematical and physical sides) where the main results have been originally published.

  2. Diffusion in randomly perturbed dissipative dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Christian S; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso; Klages, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical systems having many coexisting attractors present interesting properties from both fundamental theoretical and modelling points of view. When such dynamics is under bounded random perturbations, the basins of attraction are no longer invariant and there is the possibility of transport among them. Here we introduce a basic theoretical setting which enables us to study this hopping process from the perspective of anomalous transport using the concept of a random dynamical system with holes. We apply it to a simple model by investigating the role of hyperbolicity for the transport among basins. We show numerically that our system exhibits non-Gaussian position distributions, power-law escape times, and subdiffusion. Our simulation results are reproduced consistently from stochastic Continuous Time Random Walk theory.

  3. Finite-size scaling approach to dynamic storage allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2003-09-01

    It is demonstrated how dynamic storage allocation algorithms can be analyzed in terms of finite-size scaling. The method is illustrated in the three simple cases of the first-fit, next-fit and best-fit algorithms, and the system works at full capacity. The analysis is done from two different points of view-running speed and employed memory. In both cases, and for all algorithms, it is shown that a simple scaling function exists and the relevant exponents are calculated. The method can be applied on similar problems as well.

  4. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  5. Automating the generation of finite element dynamical cores with Firedrake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, David; Mitchell, Lawrence; Homolya, Miklós; Luporini, Fabio; Gibson, Thomas; Kelly, Paul; Cotter, Colin; Lange, Michael; Kramer, Stephan; Shipton, Jemma; Yamazaki, Hiroe; Paganini, Alberto; Kärnä, Tuomas

    2017-04-01

    The development of a dynamical core is an increasingly complex software engineering undertaking. As the equations become more complete, the discretisations more sophisticated and the hardware acquires ever more fine-grained parallelism and deeper memory hierarchies, the problem of building, testing and modifying dynamical cores becomes increasingly complex. Here we present Firedrake, a code generation system for the finite element method with specialist features designed to support the creation of geoscientific models. Using Firedrake, the dynamical core developer writes the partial differential equations in weak form in a high level mathematical notation. Appropriate function spaces are chosen and time stepping loops written at the same high level. When the programme is run, Firedrake generates high performance C code for the resulting numerics which are executed in parallel. Models in Firedrake typically take a tiny fraction of the lines of code required by traditional hand-coding techniques. They support more sophisticated numerics than are easily achieved by hand, and the resulting code is frequently higher performance. Critically, debugging, modifying and extending a model written in Firedrake is vastly easier than by traditional methods due to the small, highly mathematical code base. Firedrake supports a wide range of key features for dynamical core creation: A vast range of discretisations, including both continuous and discontinuous spaces and mimetic (C-grid-like) elements which optimally represent force balances in geophysical flows. High aspect ratio layered meshes suitable for ocean and atmosphere domains. Curved elements for high accuracy representations of the sphere. Support for non-finite element operators, such as parametrisations. Access to PETSc, a world-leading library of programmable linear and nonlinear solvers. High performance adjoint models generated automatically by symbolically reasoning about the forward model. This poster will present

  6. Investigations on Actuator Dynamics through Theoretical and Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar S. Hiremath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a new approach for modeling the fluid-structure interaction of servovalve component-actuator. The analyzed valve is a precision flow control valve-jet pipe electrohydraulic servovalve. The positioning of an actuator depends upon the flow rate from control ports, in turn depends on the spool position. Theoretical investigation is made for No-load condition and Load condition for an actuator. These are used in finite element modeling of an actuator. The fluid-structure-interaction (FSI is established between the piston and the fluid cavities at the piston end. The fluid cavities were modeled with special purpose hydrostatic fluid elements while the piston is modeled with brick elements. The finite element method is used to simulate the variation of cavity pressure, cavity volume, mass flow rate, and the actuator velocity. The finite element analysis is extended to study the system's linearized response to harmonic excitation using direct solution steady-state dynamics. It was observed from the analysis that the natural frequency of the actuator depends upon the position of the piston in the cylinder. This is a close match with theoretical and simulation results. The effect of bulk modulus is also presented in the paper.

  7. Brownian motion on random dynamical landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñé Simon, Marc; Sancho, José María; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of overdamped Brownian particles moving on a random landscape of dynamic and deformable obstacles (spatio-temporal disorder). The obstacles move randomly, assemble, and dissociate following their own dynamics. This landscape may account for a soft matter or liquid environment in which large obstacles, such as macromolecules and organelles in the cytoplasm of a living cell, or colloids or polymers in a liquid, move slowly leading to crowding effects. This representation also constitutes a novel approach to the macroscopic dynamics exhibited by active matter media. We present numerical results on the transport and diffusion properties of Brownian particles under this disorder biased by a constant external force. The landscape dynamics are characterized by a Gaussian spatio-temporal correlation, with fixed time and spatial scales, and controlled obstacle concentrations.

  8. Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Simionato, M

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and applied it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form $e^{-\\alpha T t \\ln[t/t_0]}$ which prevents a quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that trascends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other type of resummation schemes. We derive a simple criterion for establishing the validity of the quasiparticle picture to lowest order.

  9. Finite size effects in the dynamics of opinion formation

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, R; Tessone, Claudio J.; Toral, Raul

    2006-01-01

    For some models of relevance in the social sciences we review some examples in which system size plays an important role in the final outcome of the dynamics. We discuss the conditions under which changes of behavior can appear only when the number of agents in the model takes a finite value. Those changes of behavior can be related to the apparent phase transitions that appear in some physical models. We show examples in the Galam's model of opinion transmission and the Axelrod's model of culture formation stressing the role that the network of interactions has on the main results of both models. Finally, we present the phenomenon of system-size stochastic resonance by which a forcing signal (identified as an advertising agent) is optimally amplified by a population of the right (intermediate) size. Our work stresses the role that the system size has in the dynamics of social systems and the inappropriateness of taking the thermodynamic limit for these systems.

  10. Analysis of regular and chaotic dynamics of the Euler-Bernoulli beams using finite difference and finite element methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Awrejcewicz; A.V. Krysko; J. Mrozowski; O.A. Saltykova; M.V. Zhigalov

    2011-01-01

    Chaotic vibrations of flexible non-linear EulerBernoulli beams subjected to harmonic load and with various boundary conditions (symmetric and non-symmetric) are studied in this work. Reliability of the obtained results is verified by the finite difference method (FDM) and the finite element method (FEM) with the Bubnov-Galerkin approximation for various boundary conditions and various dynamic regimes (regular and non-regular). The influence of boundary conditions on the Euler-Bernoulli beams dynamics is studied mainly, dynamic behavior vs. control parameters {ωp, q0} is reported, and scenarios of the system transition into chaos are illustrated.

  11. Random weighting error estimation for the inversion result of finite-fault rupture history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yin-Shuang; Zheng, Tian-Yu; He, Yu-Mei

    1999-07-01

    Since the non-unique solution exists in the inversion for finite-fault rupture history, the random weighting method has been used to estimate error of the inversion results in this paper. The resolution distributions of slip amplitude, rake, rupture time and rise time on the finite fault were deduced quantitatively by model calculation. By using the random weighting method, the inversion results of Taiwan Strait earthquake and Myanmar-China boundary earthquake show that the parameters related to the rupture centers of two events have the highest resolution, and the solution are the most reliable; otherwise the resolution of the slip amplitudes and rise time on the finite-fault boundary is low.

  12. Stochastic finite element analysis of coupled heat and mass transfer problems with random field parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, N.; Verboven, P.; Stigter, J.D.; Baerdenmaeker, de J.; Impe, van J.F.; Nicolai, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    A first-order perturbation algorithm for the computation of mean values and variances of transient temperature and moisture fields during coupled heat and mass transfer problems with random field parameters has been developed and implemented. The algorithm is based on the Galerkin finite-element dis

  13. A comparison between dynamic implicit and explicit finite element simulations of the native knee joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beidokhti, H.N.; Janssen, D.W.; Khoshgoftar, M.; Sprengers, A.M.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Boogaard, T. van de; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    The finite element (FE) method has been widely used to investigate knee biomechanics. Time integration algorithms for dynamic problems in finite element analysis can be classified as either implicit or explicit. Although previously both static/dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit method have been u

  14. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2006-04-01

    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  15. Dynamics of Bubbles Rising in Finite and Infinite Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.C. Maneri; P.F. Vassallo

    2000-10-27

    The dynamic behavior of single bubbles rising in quiescent liquid Suva (R134a) in a duct has been examined through the use of a high speed video system. Size, shape and velocity measurements obtained with the video system reveal a wide variety of characteristics for the bubbles as they rise in both finite and infinite media. This data, coupled with previously published data for other working fluids, has been used to assess and extend a rise velocity model given by Fan and Tsuchiya. As a result of this assessment, a new rise velocity model has been developed which maintains the physically consistent characteristics of the surface tension in the distorted bubbly regime. In addition, the model is unique in that it covers the entire range of bubble sizes contained in the spherical, distorted and planar slug regimes.

  16. Model Reduction in Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodén, Ola; Persson, Kent; Sjöström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    . The objective of the analyses presented in this paper is to evaluate methods for model reduction of detailed finite element models of floor and wall structures and to investigate the influence of reducing the number of degrees of freedom and computational cost on the dynamic response of the models in terms....... The drawback of component mode synthesis compared to modelling with structural elements is the increased computational cost, although the number of degrees of freedom is small in comparison, as a result of the large bandwidth of the system matrices.......The application of wood as a construction material when building multi-storey buildings has many advantages, e.g., light weight, sustainability and low energy consumption during the construction and lifecycle of the building. However, compared to heavy structures, it is a greater challenge to build...

  17. Finite Element Modeling and Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Beams Reinforced by Randomly Oriented Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the finite element modeling and free vibration analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite beams reinforced by randomly oriented straight single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. Nanostructural materials can be used to alter mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of polymer-based composite materials, because of their superior properties and perfect atom arrangement. Timoshenko beam theory is used to evaluate dynamic characteristics of the beam. The Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach based on an equivalent fiber is used to investigate the material properties of the beam. The equations of motion are derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The finite element method is employed to discretize the model and obtain a numerical approximation of the motion equation. Different SWCNTs distributions in the thickness direction are introduced to improve fundamental natural frequency and dynamic behavior of uniform functionally graded nanocomposite beam. Results are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of various material distributions, carbon nanotube orientations, shear deformation, slenderness ratios and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of the beam. The first five normalized mode shapes for functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC beams with different boundary conditions and different carbon nanotubes (CNTs orientation are presented. The results show that the above mentioned effects play very important role on the dynamic behavior of the beam.

  18. Dynamic random walks theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guillotin-Plantard, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this book is to report on the progress realized in probability theory in the field of dynamic random walks and to present applications in computer science, mathematical physics and finance. Each chapter contains didactical material as well as more advanced technical sections. Few appendices will help refreshing memories (if necessary!).· New probabilistic model, new results in probability theory· Original applications in computer science· Applications in mathematical physics· Applications in finance

  19. A Random Laser as a Dynamical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Höfner, M; Henneberger, F

    2013-01-01

    The mode dynamics of a random laser is investigated in experiment and theory. The laser consists of a ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum well with air-holes that provide the necessary feedback. Time-resolved measurements reveal multimode spectra with individually developing features but no variation from shot to shot. These findings are qualitatively reproduced with a model that exploits the specifics of a dilute system of weak scatterers and can be interpreted in terms of a lasing network. Introducing the phase-sensitive node coherence reveals new aspects of the self-organization of the laser field. Lasing is carried by connected links between a subset of scatterers, the fields on which are oscillating coherently in phase. In addition, perturbing feedback with possibly unfitting phases from frustrated other scatterers is suppressed by destructive superposition. We believe that our findings are representative at least for weakly scattering random lasers. A generalization to random laser with dense and strong scattere...

  20. Symmetry in Critical Random Boolean Networks Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Hossein, Shabnam

    2014-03-01

    Using Boolean networks as prototypical examples, the role of symmetry in the dynamics of heterogeneous complex systems is explored. We show that symmetry of the dynamics, especially in critical states, is a controlling feature that can be used to both greatly simplify analysis and to characterize different types of dynamics. Symmetry in Boolean networks is found by determining the frequency at which the various Boolean output functions occur. Classes of functions occur at the same frequency. These classes are orbits of the controlling symmetry group. We find the nature of the symmetry that controls the dynamics of critical random Boolean networks by determining the frequency of output functions utilized by nodes that remain active on dynamical attractors. This symmetry preserves canalization, a form of network robustness. We compare it to a different symmetry known to control the dynamics of an evolutionary process that allows Boolean networks to organize into a critical state. Our results demonstrate the usefulness and power of using symmetry to characterize complex network dynamics, and introduce a novel approach to the analysis of heterogeneous complex systems. This work was supported by the NSF through grants DMR-0908286 and DMR-1206839, and by the AFSOR and DARPA through grant FA9550-12-1-0405.

  1. Symmetry in critical random Boolean network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Shabnam; Reichl, Matthew D.; Bassler, Kevin E.

    2014-04-01

    Using Boolean networks as prototypical examples, the role of symmetry in the dynamics of heterogeneous complex systems is explored. We show that symmetry of the dynamics, especially in critical states, is a controlling feature that can be used both to greatly simplify analysis and to characterize different types of dynamics. Symmetry in Boolean networks is found by determining the frequency at which the various Boolean output functions occur. There are classes of functions that consist of Boolean functions that behave similarly. These classes are orbits of the controlling symmetry group. We find that the symmetry that controls the critical random Boolean networks is expressed through the frequency by which output functions are utilized by nodes that remain active on dynamical attractors. This symmetry preserves canalization, a form of network robustness. We compare it to a different symmetry known to control the dynamics of an evolutionary process that allows Boolean networks to organize into a critical state. Our results demonstrate the usefulness and power of using the symmetry of the behavior of the nodes to characterize complex network dynamics, and introduce an alternative approach to the analysis of heterogeneous complex systems.

  2. Symmetry in critical random Boolean network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Shabnam; Reichl, Matthew D; Bassler, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    Using Boolean networks as prototypical examples, the role of symmetry in the dynamics of heterogeneous complex systems is explored. We show that symmetry of the dynamics, especially in critical states, is a controlling feature that can be used both to greatly simplify analysis and to characterize different types of dynamics. Symmetry in Boolean networks is found by determining the frequency at which the various Boolean output functions occur. There are classes of functions that consist of Boolean functions that behave similarly. These classes are orbits of the controlling symmetry group. We find that the symmetry that controls the critical random Boolean networks is expressed through the frequency by which output functions are utilized by nodes that remain active on dynamical attractors. This symmetry preserves canalization, a form of network robustness. We compare it to a different symmetry known to control the dynamics of an evolutionary process that allows Boolean networks to organize into a critical state. Our results demonstrate the usefulness and power of using the symmetry of the behavior of the nodes to characterize complex network dynamics, and introduce an alternative approach to the analysis of heterogeneous complex systems.

  3. Stochastic finite element method for random harmonic analysis of composite plates with uncertain modal damping parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, K.

    2017-07-01

    Damping parameters of fiber-reinforced composite possess significant uncertainty due to the structural complexity of such materials. Considering the parameters as random variables, this paper uses the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion to capture the uncertainty in the damping and frequency response function of composite plate structures. A spectral stochastic finite element formulation for damped vibration analysis of laminate plates is employed. Experimental modal data for samples of plates is used to identify and realize the range and probability distributions of uncertain damping parameters. The constructed gPC expansions for the uncertain parameters are used as inputs to a deterministic finite element model to realize random frequency responses on a few numbers of collocation points generated in random space. The realizations then are employed to estimate the unknown deterministic functions of the gPC expansion approximating the responses. Employing modal superposition method to solve harmonic analysis problem yields an efficient sparse gPC expansion representing the responses. The results show while the responses are influenced by the damping uncertainties at the mid and high frequency ranges, the impact in low frequency modes can be safely ignored. Utilizing a few random collocation points, the method indicates also a very good agreement compared to the sampling-based Monte Carlo simulations with large number of realizations. As the deterministic finite element model serves as black-box solver, the procedure can be efficiently adopted to complex structural systems with uncertain parameters in terms of computational time.

  4. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Its Restoration at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures.

  5. Extremal dynamics in random replicator ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P., E-mail: petri.karenlampi@uef.fi

    2015-10-02

    The seminal numerical experiment by Bak and Sneppen (BS) is repeated, along with computations with replicator models, including a greater amount of features. Both types of models do self-organize, and do obey power-law scaling for the size distribution of activity cycles. However species extinction within the replicator models interferes with the BS self-organized critical (SOC) activity. Speciation–extinction dynamics ruins any stationary state which might contain a steady size distribution of activity cycles. The BS-type activity appears as a dissimilar phenomenon in comparison to speciation–extinction dynamics in the replicator system. No criticality is found from the speciation–extinction dynamics. Neither are speciations and extinctions in real biological macroevolution known to contain any diverging distributions, or self-organization towards any critical state. Consequently, biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon. - Highlights: • Extremal Dynamics organizes random replicator ecosystems to two phases in fitness space. • Replicator systems show power-law scaling of activity. • Species extinction interferes with Bak–Sneppen type mutation activity. • Speciation–extinction dynamics does not show any critical phase transition. • Biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon.

  6. FINITE VARIANCE OF THE NUMBER OF STATIONARY POINTS OF A GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Estrade, Anne; Fournier, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Let X be a real-valued stationary Gaussian random field defined on $R^d$ (d ≥ 1), with almost every realization of class $C^2$. This paper is concerned with the random variable giving the number of points in $T$ (a compact set of $R^d$) where the gradient $X'$ takes a fixed value $v\\in R^d$, $N_{X'}(T, v) = \\{t \\in T : X'(t) = v\\}$. More precisely, it deals with the finiteness of the variance of $N_{X'} (T, v)$, under some non-degeneracy hypothesis on $X$. For d = 1, the so-called " Geman con...

  7. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Ruhman, Jonathan; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the "entanglement tsunami" in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time )1/3 and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time )2/3. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii) a "minimal cut" picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii) a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the "velocity" of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  8. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nahum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  9. Exact Distributions of Finite Random Matrices and Their Applications to Spectrum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Tao, Xiaofeng; Patcharamaneepakorn, Piya

    2016-07-29

    The exact and simple distributions of finite random matrix theory (FRMT) are critically important for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we unify some existing distributions of the FRMT with the proposed coefficient matrices (vectors) and represent the distributions with the coefficient-based formulations. A coefficient reuse mechanism is studied, i.e., the same coefficient matrices (vectors) can be exploited to formulate different distributions. For instance, the same coefficient matrices can be used by the largest eigenvalue (LE) and the scaled largest eigenvalue (SLE); the same coefficient vectors can be used by the smallest eigenvalue (SE) and the Demmel condition number (DCN). A new and simple cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the DCN is also deduced. In particular, the dimension boundary between the infinite random matrix theory (IRMT) and the FRMT is initially defined. The dimension boundary provides a theoretical way to divide random matrices into infinite random matrices and finite random matrices. The FRMT-based spectrum sensing (SS) schemes are studied for CRNs. The SLE-based scheme can be considered as an asymptotically-optimal SS scheme when the dimension K is larger than two. Moreover, the standard condition number (SCN)-based scheme achieves the same sensing performance as the SLE-based scheme for dual covariance matrix K = 2 . The simulation results verify that the coefficient-based distributions can fit the empirical results very well, and the FRMT-based schemes outperform the IRMT-based schemes and the conventional SS schemes.

  10. Agreement dynamics on directed random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, Antonio L

    2016-01-01

    When agreement-dynamics models are placed on a directed random graph, a fraction of sites $\\exp(-z)$, where $z$ is the average degree, becomes permanently fixed or flickering. In the Voter model, which has no surface tension, such zealots or flickers freely spread their opinions and that makes the system disordered. For models with a surface tension, like the Ising model or the Naming Game model, their role is limited and such systems are ordered at large~$z$. However, when $z$ decreases, the density of zealots or flickers increases, and below a certain threshold ($z\\sim 1.9-2.0$) the system becomes disordered. Our results show that the agreement dynamics on directed networks is much different from their undirected analogues.

  11. Stationary Stability for Evolutionary Dynamics in Finite Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Harper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a vast expansion of the theory of evolutionary stability to finite populations with mutation, connecting the theory of the stationary distribution of the Moran process with the Lyapunov theory of evolutionary stability. We define the notion of stationary stability for the Moran process with mutation and generalizations, as well as a generalized notion of evolutionary stability that includes mutation called an incentive stable state (ISS candidate. For sufficiently large populations, extrema of the stationary distribution are ISS candidates and we give a family of Lyapunov quantities that are locally minimized at the stationary extrema and at ISS candidates. In various examples, including for the Moran and Wright–Fisher processes, we show that the local maxima of the stationary distribution capture the traditionally-defined evolutionarily stable states. The classical stability theory of the replicator dynamic is recovered in the large population limit. Finally we include descriptions of possible extensions to populations of variable size and populations evolving on graphs.

  12. Dynamics of polynomials in finite and infinite Benz planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Artzy

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical Benz planes, that is, Möbius, Minkowski, and Laguerre planes, can be coordinatized [cf. 1], respectively, by the field C of complex numbers, the ring of “double numbers” z=x+jy (x,y ∊ R where an element j  not in R, with j2=1 is adjoined, and the ring of “dual numbers” z=x+ye where an element e not in R with e2=0 is adjoined to R. When the field R is replaced by another field, in our case finite prime fields Fp (p a prime, one also obtains coordinate structures for corresponding Benz planes. The dynamics of polynomials of degree at least 2 in the classical Möbius plane has attracted much attention recently because there fractal structures make their appearance. The question posed in this context has been for which values of z the sequence Pn+1(z=PO(Pn(z is bounded if PO(z is a function. This gave rise to the determination of Julia and Mandelbrot sets for such functions [cf. 2]. In this paper we will restrict ourselves to the case of Minkowski and Laguerre planes and to functions PO that are polynomials of degree at least 2, with coefficients from the ground field.

  13. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents in time-delayed nonlinear dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a method for the calculation of finite-time Lyapunov exponents in time-delayed nonlinear dynamical systems. We apply the method to the Mackey-Glass model with time-delayed feedback. We investigate the standard deviation of the probability distribution of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents when the finite time or the delay time is changed. It is found that the standard deviation decreases in a power-law scaling with the exponent ∼0.5 as the finite time or the delay time is increased. Similar results are obtained for the finite-time Lyapunov spectrum.

  14. Adaptive Finite-Time Stabilization of High-Order Nonlinear Systems with Dynamic and Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Meng Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the weaker assumption on nonlinear functions, the adaptive finite-time stabilization of more general high-order nonlinear systems with dynamic and parametric uncertainties is solved in this paper. To solve this problem, finite-time input-to-state stability (FTISS is used to characterize the unmeasured dynamic uncertainty. By skillfully combining Lyapunov function, sign function, backstepping, and finite-time input-to-state stability approaches, an adaptive state feedback controller is designed to guarantee high-order nonlinear systems are globally finite-time stable.

  15. Quantum Entanglement Growth Under Random Unitary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example after a quantum quench, is a key problem in non-equilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time--dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the `entanglement tsunami' in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar--Parisi--Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like $(\\text{time})^{1/3}$ and are spatially correlated over a distance $\\propto (\\text{time})^{2/3}$. We derive KPZ universal behaviour in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to: (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface; (ii) a `minimal cut' picture, reminisce...

  16. Parabolic Anderson Model in a Dynamic Random Environment: Random Conductances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, D.; den Hollander, F.; Maillard, G.

    2016-06-01

    The parabolic Anderson model is defined as the partial differential equation ∂ u( x, t)/ ∂ t = κ Δ u( x, t) + ξ( x, t) u( x, t), x ∈ ℤ d , t ≥ 0, where κ ∈ [0, ∞) is the diffusion constant, Δ is the discrete Laplacian, and ξ is a dynamic random environment that drives the equation. The initial condition u( x, 0) = u 0( x), x ∈ ℤ d , is typically taken to be non-negative and bounded. The solution of the parabolic Anderson equation describes the evolution of a field of particles performing independent simple random walks with binary branching: particles jump at rate 2 d κ, split into two at rate ξ ∨ 0, and die at rate (- ξ) ∨ 0. In earlier work we looked at the Lyapunov exponents λ p(κ ) = limlimits _{tto ∞} 1/t log {E} ([u(0,t)]p)^{1/p}, quad p in {N} , qquad λ 0(κ ) = limlimits _{tto ∞} 1/2 log u(0,t). For the former we derived quantitative results on the κ-dependence for four choices of ξ : space-time white noise, independent simple random walks, the exclusion process and the voter model. For the latter we obtained qualitative results under certain space-time mixing conditions on ξ. In the present paper we investigate what happens when κΔ is replaced by Δ𝓚, where 𝓚 = {𝓚( x, y) : x, y ∈ ℤ d , x ˜ y} is a collection of random conductances between neighbouring sites replacing the constant conductances κ in the homogeneous model. We show that the associated annealed Lyapunov exponents λ p (𝓚), p ∈ ℕ, are given by the formula λ p({K} ) = {sup} {λ p(κ ) : κ in {Supp} ({K} )}, where, for a fixed realisation of 𝓚, Supp(𝓚) is the set of values taken by the 𝓚-field. We also show that for the associated quenched Lyapunov exponent λ 0(𝓚) this formula only provides a lower bound, and we conjecture that an upper bound holds when Supp(𝓚) is replaced by its convex hull. Our proof is valid for three classes of reversible ξ, and for all 𝓚

  17. Finite size corrections in the random energy model and the replica approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Mottishaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic and exact way of computing finite size corrections for the random energy model, in its low temperature phase. We obtain explicit (though complicated) expressions for the finite size corrections of the overlap functions. In its low temperature phase, the random energy model is known to exhibit Parisi's broken symmetry of replicas. The finite size corrections given by our exact calculation can be reproduced using replicas if we make specific assumptions about the fluctuations (with negative variances!) of the number and sizes of the blocks when replica symmetry is broken. As an alternative we show that the exact expression for the non-integer moments of the partition function can be written in terms of coupled contour integrals over what can be thought of as ‘complex replica numbers’. Parisi's one step replica symmetry breaking arises naturally from the saddle point of these integrals without making any ansatz or using the replica method. The fluctuations of the ‘complex replica numbers’ near the saddle point in the imaginary direction correspond to the negative variances we observed in the replica calculation. Finally our approach allows one to see why some apparently diverging series or integrals are harmless.

  18. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF FUZZY- STOCHASTIC TRUSS STRUCTURES BASED ON FUZZY FACTOR METHOD AND RANDOM FACTOR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Juan; CHEN Jian-jun; XU Ya-lan; JIANG Tao

    2006-01-01

    A new fuzzy stochastic finite element method based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method is given and the analysis of structural dynamic characteristic for fuzzy stochastic truss structures is presented. Considering the fuzzy randomness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions simultaneously, the structural stiffness and mass matrices are constructed based on the fuzzy factor method and random factor method; from the Rayleigh's quotient of structural vibration, the structural fuzzy random dynamic characteristic is obtained by means of the interval arithmetic;the fuzzy numeric characteristics of dynamic characteristic are then derived by using the random variable's moment function method and algebra synthesis method. Two examples are used to illustrate the validity and rationality of the method given. The advantage of this method is that the effect of the fuzzy randomness of one of the structural parameters on the fuzzy randomness of the dynamic characteristic can be reflected expediently and objectively.

  19. A general finite element model for numerical simulation of structure dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fujun; LI Yaojun; Han K.; Feng Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    A finite element model used to simulate the dynamics with continuum and discontinuum is presented. This new approach is conducted by constructing the general contact model. The conventional discrete element is treated as a standard finite element with one node in this new method. The one-node element has the same features as other finite elements, such as element stress and strain. Thus, a general finite element model that is consistent with the existed finite element model is set up. This new model is simple in mathematical concept and is straightforward to be combined into the existing standard finite element code. Numerical example demonstrates that this new approach is more effective to perform the dynamic process analysis in which the interactions among a large number of discrete bodies and continuum objects are included.

  20. Correlation of finite element free vibration predictions using random vibration test data. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Finite element analysis is regularly used during the engineering cycle of mechanical systems to predict the response to static, thermal, and dynamic loads. The finite element model (FEM) used to represent the system is often correlated with physical test results to determine the validity of analytical results provided. Results from dynamic testing provide one means for performing this correlation. One of the most common methods of measuring accuracy is by classical modal testing, whereby vibratory mode shapes are compared to mode shapes provided by finite element analysis. The degree of correlation between the test and analytical mode shapes can be shown mathematically using the cross orthogonality check. A great deal of time and effort can be exhausted in generating the set of test acquired mode shapes needed for the cross orthogonality check. In most situations response data from vibration tests are digitally processed to generate the mode shapes from a combination of modal parameters, forcing functions, and recorded response data. An alternate method is proposed in which the same correlation of analytical and test acquired mode shapes can be achieved without conducting the modal survey. Instead a procedure is detailed in which a minimum of test information, specifically the acceleration response data from a random vibration test, is used to generate a set of equivalent local accelerations to be applied to the reduced analytical model at discrete points corresponding to the test measurement locations. The static solution of the analytical model then produces a set of deformations that once normalized can be used to represent the test acquired mode shapes in the cross orthogonality relation. The method proposed has been shown to provide accurate results for both a simple analytical model as well as a complex space flight structure.

  1. Dynamic test and finite element model updating of bridge structures based on ambient vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of bridge structures are the basis of structural dynamic response and seismic analysis,and are also an important target of health condition monitoring.In this paper,a three-dimensional finite-element model is first established for a highway bridge over a railroad on No.312 National Highway.Based on design drawings,the dynamic characteristics of the bridge are studied using finite element analysis and ambient vibration measurements.Thus,a set of data is selected based on sensitivity analysis and optimization theory;the finite element model of the bridge is updated.The numerical and experimental results show that the updated method is more simple and effective,the updated finite element model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the bridge better,and it can be used to predict the dynamic response under complex external forces.It is also helpful for further damage identification and health condition monitoring.

  2. Application of a novel finite difference method to dynamic crack problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. M.; Wilkins, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    A versatile finite difference method (HEMP and HEMP 3D computer programs) was developed originally for solving dynamic problems in continuum mechanics. It was extended to analyze the stress field around cracks in a solid with finite geometry subjected to dynamic loads and to simulate numerically the dynamic fracture phenomena with success. This method is an explicit finite difference method applied to the Lagrangian formulation of the equations of continuum mechanics in two and three space dimensions and time. The calculational grid moves with the material and in this way it gives a more detailed description of the physics of the problem than the Eulerian formulation.

  3. Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical potential: Characteristic determinant and edge universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Nowak, Maciej A., E-mail: maciej.a.nowak@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics and Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Center, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We derive an exact formula for the stochastic evolution of the characteristic determinant of a class of deformed Wishart matrices following from a chiral random matrix model of QCD at finite chemical potential. In the WKB approximation, the characteristic determinant describes a sharp droplet of eigenvalues that deforms and expands at large stochastic times. Beyond the WKB limit, the edges of the droplet are fuzzy and described by universal edge functions. At the chiral point, the characteristic determinant in the microscopic limit is universal. Remarkably, the physical chiral condensate at finite chemical potential may be extracted from current and quenched lattice Dirac spectra using the universal edge scaling laws, without having to solve the QCD sign problem.

  4. Chiral Random Matrix Model at Finite Chemical Potential: Characteristic Determinant and Edge Universality

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    We derive an exact formula for the stochastic evolution of the characteristic determinant of a class of deformed Wishart matrices following from a chiral random matrix model of QCD at finite chemical potential. In the WKB approximation, the characteristic determinant describes a sharp droplet of eigenvalues that deforms and expands at large stochastic times. Beyond the WKB limit, the edges of the droplet are fuzzy and described by universal edge functions. At the chiral point, the characteristic determinant in the microscopic limit is universal. Remarkably, the physical chiral condensate at finite chemical potential may be extracted from current and quenched lattice Dirac spectra using the universal edge scaling laws, without having to solve the QCD sign problem.

  5. Stellar electron-capture rates calculated with the finite-temperature relativistic random-phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, YiFei; Vretenar, Dario; Meng, Jie

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a self-consistent microscopic theoretical framework for modelling the process of electron capture on nuclei in stellar environment, based on relativistic energy density functionals. The finite-temperature relativistic mean-field model is used to calculate the single-nucleon basis and the occupation factors in a target nucleus, and $J^{\\pi} = 0^{\\pm}$, $1^{\\pm}$, $2^{\\pm}$ charge-exchange transitions are described by the self-consistent finite-temperature relativistic random-phase approximation. Cross sections and rates are calculated for electron capture on 54,56Fe and 76,78Ge in stellar environment, and results compared with predictions of similar and complementary model calculations.

  6. Random Matrix Theory for Transition Strength Densities in Finite Quantum Systems: Results from Embedded Unitary Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2015-01-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. For the simplest spinless systems, with say $m$ particles in $N$ single particle states and interacting via $k$-body interactions, we have EGUE($k$) and the embedding algebra is $U(N)$. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (same initial and final systems), nuclear beta and double beta decay (different initial and final systems), particle addition to/removal from a given system and so on. Towards developing a complete statistical theory for transition strength densities, we have derived formulas for lower order bivariate moments of the strength densities generated by a variety of transition operators. For a spinless fermion system, using EGUE($k$) representation for Hamiltonian and an independent EGUE($...

  7. Chiral random matrix model at finite chemical potential: Characteristic determinant and edge universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhuang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We derive an exact formula for the stochastic evolution of the characteristic determinant of a class of deformed Wishart matrices following from a chiral random matrix model of QCD at finite chemical potential. In the WKB approximation, the characteristic determinant describes a sharp droplet of eigenvalues that deforms and expands at large stochastic times. Beyond the WKB limit, the edges of the droplet are fuzzy and described by universal edge functions. At the chiral point, the characteristic determinant in the microscopic limit is universal. Remarkably, the physical chiral condensate at finite chemical potential may be extracted from current and quenched lattice Dirac spectra using the universal edge scaling laws, without having to solve the QCD sign problem.

  8. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact ``randomized`` upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using ``nonrandomized`` methods.

  9. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact randomized'' upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using nonrandomized'' methods.

  10. Independent Particles in a Dynamical Random Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Mathew; Seppäläinen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion of independent particles in a dynamical random environment on the integer lattice. The environment has a product distribution. For the multidimensional case, we characterize the class of spatially ergodic invariant measures. These invariant distributions are mixtures of inhomogeneous Poisson product measures that depend on the past of the environment, and we also investigate the correlations in this measure. For dimensions one and two, we also prove convergence to equilibrium from spatially ergodic initial distributions. In the one-dimensional situation we study fluctuations of net current seen by an observer traveling at a deterministic speed. When this current is centered by its quenched mean its limit distributions are the same as for classical independent particles.

  11. Random graph models for dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M E J

    2016-01-01

    We propose generalizations of a number of standard network models, including the classic random graph, the configuration model, and the stochastic block model, to the case of time-varying networks. We assume that the presence and absence of edges are governed by continuous-time Markov processes with rate parameters that can depend on properties of the nodes. In addition to computing equilibrium properties of these models, we demonstrate their use in data analysis and statistical inference, giving efficient algorithms for fitting them to observed network data. This allows us, for instance, to estimate the time constants of network evolution or infer community structure from temporal network data using cues embedded both in the probabilities over time that node pairs are connected by edges and in the characteristic dynamics of edge appearance and disappearance. We illustrate our methods with a selection of applications, both to computer-generated test networks and real-world examples.

  12. Memory in random bouncing ball dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouabi, C.; Scheibert, J.; Perret-Liaudet, J.

    2016-09-01

    The bouncing of an inelastic ball on a vibrating plate is a popular model used in various fields, from granular gases to nanometer-sized mechanical contacts. For random plate motion, so far, the model has been studied using Poincaré maps in which the excitation by the plate at successive bounces is assumed to be a discrete Markovian (memoryless) process. Here, we investigate numerically the behaviour of the model for continuous random excitations with tunable correlation time. We show that the system dynamics are controlled by the ratio of the Markovian mean flight time of the ball and the mean time between successive peaks in the motion of the exciting plate. When this ratio, which depends on the bandwidth of the excitation signal, exceeds a certain value, the Markovian approach is appropriate; below, memory of preceding excitations arises, leading to a significant decrease of the jump duration; at the smallest values of the ratio, chattering occurs. Overall, our results open the way for uses of the model in the low-excitation regime, which is still poorly understood.

  13. Memory in random bouncing ball dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zouabi, C; Perret-Liaudet, J

    2016-01-01

    The bouncing of an inelastic ball on a vibrating plate is a popular model used in various fields, from granular gases to nanometer-sized mechanical contacts. For random plate motion, so far, the model has been studied using Poincar{\\'e} maps in which the excitation by the plate at successive bounces is assumed to be a discrete Markovian (memoryless) process. Here, we investigate numerically the behaviour of the model for continuous random excitations with tunable correlation time. We show that the system's dynamics are controlled by the ratio of the Markovian mean flight time of the ball and the mean time between successive peaks in the motion of the exciting plate. When this ratio, which depends on the bandwidth of the excitation signal, exceeds a certain value, the Markovian approach is appropriate; below, memory of preceding excitations arises, leading to a significant decrease of the jump duration; at the smallest values of the ratio, chattering occurs. Overall, our results open the way for uses of the mo...

  14. Dynamics on geometrically finite hyperbolic manifolds with applications to Apollonian circle packings and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Hee

    2010-01-01

    We present recent results on counting and distribution of circles in a given circle packing invariant under a geometrically finite Kleinian group and discuss how the dynamics of flows on geometrically finite hyperbolic $3$ manifolds are related. Our results apply to Apollonian circle packings, Sierpinski curves, Schottky dances, etc.

  15. Finite BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with second-class constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.; Tyutin, Igor V.

    2015-06-01

    We study finite field-dependent BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints within the generalized Hamiltonian formalism. We find explicitly their Jacobians and the form of a solution to the compensation equation necessary for generating an arbitrary finite change of gauge-fixing functionals in the path integral.

  16. Finite BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with second-class constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A; Tyutin, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We study finite field dependent BRST-BFV transformations for dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints within the generalized Hamiltonian formalism. We find explicitly their Jacobians and the form of a solution to the compensation equation necessary for generating an arbitrary finite change of gauge-fixing functionals in the path integral.

  17. Mesoscale dynamic coupling of finite- and discrete-element methods for fluid-particle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Yazdchi, K; Luding, S

    2014-08-06

    A new method for two-way fluid-particle coupling on an unstructured mesoscopically coarse mesh is presented. In this approach, we combine a (higher order) finite-element method (FEM) on the moving mesh for the fluid with a soft sphere discrete-element method for the particles. The novel feature of the proposed scheme is that the FEM mesh is a dynamic Delaunay triangulation based on the positions of the moving particles. Thus, the mesh can be multi-purpose: it provides (i) a framework for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations, (ii) a simple tool for detecting contacts between moving particles, (iii) a basis for coarse-graining or upscaling, and (iv) coupling with other physical fields (temperature, electromagnetic, etc.). This approach is suitable for a wide range of dilute and dense particulate flows, because the mesh resolution adapts with particle density in a given region. Two-way momentum exchange is implemented using semi-empirical drag laws akin to other popular approaches; for example, the discrete particle method, where a finite-volume solver on a coarser, fixed grid is used. We validate the methodology with several basic test cases, including single- and double-particle settling with analytical and empirical expectations, and flow through ordered and random porous media, when compared against finely resolved FEM simulations of flow through fixed arrays of particles.

  18. Multiscale stochastic finite element method on random field modeling of geotechnical problems- a fast computing procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi F. XU

    2015-01-01

    The Green-function-based multiscale stochastic finite element method (MSFEM) has been formulated based on the stochastic variational principle. In this study a fast computing procedure based on the MSFEM is developed to solve random field geotechnical problems with a typical coefficient of variance less than 1. A unique fast computing advantage of the procedure enables computation performed only on those locations of interest, therefore saving a lot of computation. The numerical example on soil settlement shows that the procedure achieves significant computing efficiency compared with Monte Carlo method.

  19. Evaluation of Strip Footing Bearing Capacity Built on the Anthropogenic Embankment by Random Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynska-Kozlowska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    One of a geotechnical problem in the area of Wroclaw is an anthropogenic embankment layer delaying to the depth of 4-5m, arising as a result of historical incidents. In such a case an assumption of bearing capacity of strip footing might be difficult. The standard solution is to use a deep foundation or foundation soil replacement. However both methods generate significant costs. In the present paper the authors focused their attention on the influence of anthropogenic embankment variability on bearing capacity. Soil parameters were defined on the basis of CPT test and modeled as 2D anisotropic random fields and the assumption of bearing capacity were made according deterministic finite element methods. Many repeated of the different realizations of random fields lead to stable expected value of bearing capacity. The algorithm used to estimate the bearing capacity of strip footing was the random finite element method (e.g. [1]). In traditional approach of bearing capacity the formula proposed by [2] is taken into account. qf = c'Nc + qNq + 0.5γBN- γ (1) where: qf is the ultimate bearing stress, cis the cohesion, qis the overburden load due to foundation embedment, γ is the soil unit weight, Bis the footing width, and Nc, Nq and Nγ are the bearing capacity factors. The method of evaluation the bearing capacity of strip footing based on finite element method incorporate five parameters: Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), dilation angle (ψ), cohesion (c), and friction angle (φ). In the present study E, ν and ψ are held constant while c and φ are randomized. Although the Young's modulus does not affect the bearing capacity it governs the initial elastic response of the soil. Plastic stress redistribution is accomplished using a viscoplastic algorithm merge with an elastic perfectly plastic (Mohr - Coulomb) failure criterion. In this paper a typical finite element mesh was assumed with 8-node elements consist in 50 columns and 20 rows. Footings width B

  20. Encounter distribution of two random walkers on a finite one-dimensional interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, Vincent; Schad, Michaela; Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Benichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael, E-mail: metz@ph.tum.de [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee (UMR 7600), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75255 Paris Cedex (France)

    2011-09-30

    We analyse the first-passage properties of two random walkers confined to a finite one-dimensional domain. For the case of absorbing boundaries at the endpoints of the interval, we derive the probability that the two particles meet before either one of them becomes absorbed at one of the boundaries. For the case of reflecting boundaries, we obtain the mean first encounter time of the two particles. Our approach leads to closed-form expressions that are more easily tractable than a previously derived solution in terms of the Weierstrass' elliptic function. (paper)

  1. Dynamic design of stiffeners for a typical panel using topology optimization and finite element analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Yadong; Fei, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    .... In order to improve the stiffness–mass efficiency, this article presents a combined use of topology optimization and finite element analysis to the dynamic design of stiffeners for a typical panel...

  2. Full reduction of large finite random Ising systems by real space renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Avishay; Schwartz, Moshe

    2003-08-01

    We describe how to evaluate approximately various physical interesting quantities in random Ising systems by direct renormalization of a finite system. The renormalization procedure is used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom to a number that is small enough, enabling direct summing over the surviving spins. This procedure can be used to obtain averages of functions of the surviving spins. We show how to evaluate averages that involve spins that do not survive the renormalization procedure. We show, for the random field Ising model, how to obtain Gamma(r)=-, the "connected" correlation function, and S(r)=, the "disconnected" correlation function. Consequently, we show how to obtain the average susceptibility and the average energy. For an Ising system with random bonds and random fields, we show how to obtain the average specific heat. We conclude by presenting our numerical results for the average susceptibility and the function Gamma(r) along one of the principal axes. (In this work, the full three-dimensional (3D) correlation is calculated and not just parameters such nu or eta). The results for the average susceptibility are used to extract the critical temperature and critical exponents of the 3D random field Ising system.

  3. Probabilistic Design and Random Optimization of Aerofoil Wing by Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sachin M. Shinde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study represents simulation of aerofoil composite beam by using Monte Carlo method i.e.direct sampling. A three dimensional transient analysis of large displacement type has been carried out.Finite element analysis of NACA0012 aerofoil composite structure has been carried out and uncertainty in bending stress is analyzed. More over optimization of selected design variables has been carried out by using random optimization method. Bending stress was objective function.Chord length , elastic modulus of epoxy graphite, ply angle of aerofoil section, Beam length , moment of inertia and force are randomly varied within effective range and their effect on bending stress has been analyzed.In order to validate the results, one loop of simulation is benchmarked from results in literature. Ultimately, best set of optimized design variable is proposed to reduce bending stress under different loading condition.

  4. Levitation of Extended States in a Random Magnetic Field with a Finite Mean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Sheng; LEI Xiao-Lin

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization properties of electrons in a two-dimensional system in a random magnetic field B(r) = Bo + δB(r) with the average Bo and the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations δB. The localization length of the system is calculated by using the finite-size scaling method combined with the transfer-matrix technique.Inthe case of weak δB, we find that the random magnetic field system is equivalent to the integer quantum Hall effect system, namely, the energy band splits into a series of disorder broadened Landau bands, at the centers of which states are extended with the localization length exponent v = 2.34 ± 0.02. With increasing δB, the extended states float up in energy, which is similar to the levitation scenario proposed for the integer quantum Hall effect.

  5. Exact Modeling of the Performance of Random Linear Network Coding in Finite-buffer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Torabkhani, Nima; Beirami, Ahmad; Fekri, Faramarz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact model for the analysis of the performance of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in wired erasure networks with finite buffers. In such networks, packets are delayed due to either random link erasures or blocking by full buffers. We assert that because of RLNC, the content of buffers have dependencies which cannot be captured directly using the classical queueing theoretical models. We model the performance of the network using Markov chains by a careful derivation of the buffer occupancy states and their transition rules. We verify by simulations that the proposed framework results in an accurate measure of the network throughput offered by RLNC. Further, we introduce a class of acyclic networks for which the number of state variables is significantly reduced.

  6. Universality of the emergent scaling in finite random binary percolation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply lattice models of finite binary percolation networks to examine the effects of network configuration on macroscopic network responses. We consider both square and rectangular lattice structures in which bonds between nodes are randomly assigned to be either resistors or capacitors. Results show that for given network geometries, the overall normalised frequency-dependent electrical conductivities for different capacitor proportions are found to converge at a characteristic frequency. Networks with sufficiently large size tend to share the same convergence point uninfluenced by the boundary and electrode conditions, can be then regarded as homogeneous media. For these networks, the span of the emergent scaling region is found to be primarily determined by the smaller network dimension (width or length). This study identifies the applicability of power-law scaling in random two phase systems of different topological configurations. This understanding has implications in the design and testing of disordered systems in diverse applications. PMID:28207872

  7. On potential kernels associated with random dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hmissi

    2015-01-01

    In particular, we provide a constructive method for global Lyapunov functions for gradient-like random dynamical systems. This result generalizes an analogous theorem known for deterministic dynamical systems.

  8. Introduction to the Explicit Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Transient Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shen R

    2012-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the theories and formulations of the explicit finite element method As numerical technology continues to grow and evolve with industrial applications, understanding the explicit finite element method has become increasingly important, particularly in the areas of crashworthiness, metal forming, and impact engineering. Introduction to the Explicit FiniteElement Method for Nonlinear Transient Dynamics is the first book to address specifically what is now accepted as the most successful numerical tool for nonlinear transient dynamics. The book aids readers in master

  9. Finite element analysis of sliding distance and contact mechanics of hip implant under dynamic walking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongchang; Jin, Zhongmin; Wang, Ling; Wang, Manyi

    2015-06-01

    An explicit finite element method was developed to predict the dynamic behavior of the contact mechanics for a hip implant under normal walking conditions. Two key parameters of mesh sensitivity and time steps were examined to balance the accuracy and computational cost. Both the maximum contact pressure and accumulated sliding distance showed good agreement with those in the previous studies using the implicit finite element analysis and analytical methods. Therefore, the explicit finite element method could be used to predict the contact pressure and accumulated sliding distance for an artificial hip joint simultaneously in dynamic manner.

  10. Random Finite Set Based Bayesian Filtering with OpenCL in a Heterogeneous Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While most filtering approaches based on random finite sets have focused on improving performance, in this paper, we argue that computation times are very important in order to enable real-time applications such as pedestrian detection. Towards this goal, this paper investigates the use of OpenCL to accelerate the computation of random finite set-based Bayesian filtering in a heterogeneous system. In detail, we developed an efficient and fully-functional pedestrian-tracking system implementation, which can run under real-time constraints, meanwhile offering decent tracking accuracy. An extensive evaluation analysis was carried out to ensure the fulfillment of sufficient accuracy requirements. This was followed by extensive profiling analysis to spot the potential bottlenecks in terms of execution performance, which were then targeted to come up with an OpenCL accelerated application. Video-throughput improvements from roughly 15 fps to 100 fps (6× were observed on average while processing typical MOT benchmark videos. Moreover, the worst-case frame processing yielded an 18× advantage from nearly 2 fps to 36 fps, thereby comfortably meeting the real-time constraints. Our implementation is released as open-source code.

  11. Random Finite Set Based Bayesian Filtering with OpenCL in a Heterogeneous Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Sharif, Uzair; Koner, Rajat; Chen, Guang; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Feihu; Stechele, Walter; Knoll, Alois

    2017-04-12

    While most filtering approaches based on random finite sets have focused on improving performance, in this paper, we argue that computation times are very important in order to enable real-time applications such as pedestrian detection. Towards this goal, this paper investigates the use of OpenCL to accelerate the computation of random finite set-based Bayesian filtering in a heterogeneous system. In detail, we developed an efficient and fully-functional pedestrian-tracking system implementation, which can run under real-time constraints, meanwhile offering decent tracking accuracy. An extensive evaluation analysis was carried out to ensure the fulfillment of sufficient accuracy requirements. This was followed by extensive profiling analysis to spot the potential bottlenecks in terms of execution performance, which were then targeted to come up with an OpenCL accelerated application. Video-throughput improvements from roughly 15 fps to 100 fps (6×) were observed on average while processing typical MOT benchmark videos. Moreover, the worst-case frame processing yielded an 18× advantage from nearly 2 fps to 36 fps, thereby comfortably meeting the real-time constraints. Our implementation is released as open-source code.

  12. Random walks on finite lattices with multiple traps: Application to particle-cluster aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.W.; Nord, R.S.

    1985-11-01

    For random walks on finite lattices with multiple (completely adsorbing) traps, one is interested in the mean walk length until trapping and in the probability of capture for the various traps (either for a walk with a specific starting site, or for an average over all nontrap sites). We develop the formulation of Montroll to enable determination of the large-lattice-size asymptotic behavior of these quantities. (Only the case of a single trap has been analyzed in detail previously.) Explicit results are given for the case of symmetric nearest-neighbor random walks on two-dimensional (2D) square and triangular lattices. Procedures for exact calculation of walk lengths on a finite lattice with a single trap are extended to the multiple-trap case to determine all the above quantities. We examine convergence to asymptotic behavior as the lattice size increases. Connection with Witten-Sander irreversible particle-cluster aggregation is made by noting that this process corresponds to designating all sites adjacent to the cluster as traps. Thus capture probabilities for different traps determine the proportions of the various shaped clusters formed. (Reciprocals of) associated average walk lengths relate to rates for various irreversible aggregation processes involving a gas of walkers and clusters. Results are also presented for some of these quantities.

  13. Passive target tracking with intermittent measurement based on random finite set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小波; 范红旗; 宋志勇; 付强

    2014-01-01

    In the tracking problem for the maritime radiation source by a passive sensor, there are three main difficulties, i.e., the poor observability of the radiation source, the detection uncertainty (false and missed detections) and the uncertainty of the target appearing/disappearing in the field of view. These difficulties can make the establishment or maintenance of the radiation source target track invalid. By incorporating the elevation information of the passive sensor into the automatic bearings-only tracking (BOT) and consolidating these uncertainties under the framework of random finite set (RFS), a novel approach for tracking maritime radiation source target with intermittent measurement was proposed. Under the RFS framework, the target state was represented as a set that can take on either an empty set or a singleton; meanwhile, the measurement uncertainty was modeled as a Bernoulli random finite set. Moreover, the elevation information of the sensor platform was introduced to ensure observability of passive measurements and obtain the unique target localization. Simulation experiments verify the validity of the proposed approach for tracking maritime radiation source and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach in comparison with the traditional integrated probabilistic data association (IPDA) method. The tracking performance under different conditions, particularly involving different existence probabilities and different appearance durations of the target, indicates that the method to solve our problem is robust and effective.

  14. Probabilistic analysis of embankment slope stability in frozen ground regions based on random finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Chen; JianKun Liu; Nan Xie; HuiJing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Prediction on the coupled thermal-hydraulic fields of embankment and cutting slopes is essential to the assessment on evolution of melting zone and natural permafrost table, which is usually a key factor for permafrost embankment design in frozen ground regions. The prediction may be further complicated due to the inherent uncertainties of material properties. Hence, stochastic analyses should be conducted. Firstly, Karhunen-Loeve expansion is applied to attain the random fields for hydraulic and thermal conductions. Next, the mixed-form modified Richards equation for mass transfer (i.e., mass equation) and the heat transport equation for heat transient flow in a variably saturated frozen soil are combined into one equation with temperature unknown. Furthermore, the finite element formulation for the coupled thermal-hydraulic fields is derived. Based on the random fields, the stochastic finite element analyses on stability of embankment are carried out. Numerical results show that stochastic analyses of embankment stability may provide a more rational picture for the distribution of factors of safety (FOS), which is definitely useful for embankment design in frozen ground regions.

  15. A large deviation principle for Minkowski sums of heavy-tailed random compact convex sets with finite expectation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Pawlas, Zbynek; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    We prove large deviation results for Minkowski sums Sn of independent and identically distributed random compact sets where we assume that the summands have a regularly varying distribution and finite expectation. The main focus is on random convex compact sets. The results confirm the heavy...

  16. Random variable transformation for generalized stochastic radiative transfer in finite participating slab media

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakil, S. A.; Sallah, M.; El-Hanbaly, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The stochastic radiative transfer problem is studied in a participating planar finite continuously fluctuating medium. The problem is considered for specular- and diffusly-reflecting boundaries with linear anisotropic scattering. Random variable transformation (RVT) technique is used to get the complete average for the solution functions, that are represented by the probability-density function (PDF) of the solution process. In the RVT algorithm, a simple integral transformation to the input stochastic process (the extinction function of the medium) is applied. This linear transformation enables us to rewrite the stochastic transport equations in terms of the optical random variable (x) and the optical random thickness (L). Then the transport equation is solved deterministically to get a closed form for the solution as a function of x and L. So, the solution is used to obtain the PDF of the solution functions applying the RVT technique among the input random variable (L) and the output process (the solution functions). The obtained averages of the solution functions are used to get the complete analytical averages for some interesting physical quantities, namely, reflectivity and transmissivity at the medium boundaries. In terms of the average reflectivity and transmissivity, the average of the partial heat fluxes for the generalized problem with internal source of radiation are obtained and represented graphically.

  17. Law of large numbers for non-elliptic random walks in dynamic random environments

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den; Sidoravicius, Vladas

    2011-01-01

    We prove a law of large numbers for a class of $\\Z^d$-valued random walks in dynamic random environments, including \\emph{non-elliptic} examples. We assume that the random environment has a mixing property called \\emph{conditional cone-mixing} and that the random walk tends to stay inside space-time cones. The proof is based on a generalization of the regeneration scheme developed by Comets and Zeitouni for static random environments, which was adapted by Avena, den Hollander and Redig to dynamic random environments. We exhibit some one-dimensional examples to which our result applies. In some cases, the sign of the speed can be determined.

  18. An Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Impact Dynamics of a Thin Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Chen; Yanchun Yu

    2012-01-01

    The examination of an unstructured finite volume method for structural dynamics is assessed for simulations of systematic impact dynamics.A robust display dual-time stepping method is utilized to obtain time accurate solutions.The study of impact dynamics is a complex problem that should consider strength models and state equations to describe the mechanical behavior of materials.The current method has several features.1) Discrete equations of unstructured finite volume method naturally follow the conservation law.2)Display dual-time stepping method is suitable for the analysis of impact dynamic problems of time accurate solutions.3) The method did not produce grid distortion when large deformation appeared.The method is validated by the problem of impact dynamics of an elastic plate with initial conditions and material properties.The results validate the finite element numerical data.

  19. Finite element analysis of dynamic response and structure borne noise of gearbox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen; LIN Teng-jiao; LI Run-fang; DU Xue-song

    2007-01-01

    A dynamic finite element method combined with finite element mixed formula for contact problem is used to analyze the dynamic characteristics of gear system. Considering the stiffness excitation, error excitation and meshing shock excitation, the dynamic finite element model is established for the entire gear system which includes gears, shafts, bearings and gearbox housing. By the software of I-DEAS, the natural frequency, normal mode, dynamic time-domain response, frequency-domain response and one-third octave velocity grade structure borne noise of gear system are studied by the method of theoretical modal analysis and dynamic response analysis. The maximum values of vibration and structure borne noise are occurred at the mesh frequency of output grade gearing.

  20. Continuity and anomalous fluctuations in random walks in dynamic random environments: numerics, phase diagrams and conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Avena, L

    2012-01-01

    We perform simulations for one dimensional continuous-time random walks in two dynamic random environments with fast (independent spin-flips) and slow (simple symmetric exclusion) decay of space-time correlations, respectively. We focus on the asymptotic speeds and the scaling limits of such random walks. We observe different behaviors depending on the dynamics of the underlying random environment and the ratio between the jump rate of the random walk and the one of the environment. We compare our data with well known results for static random environment. We observe that the non-diffusive regime known so far only for the static case can occur in the dynamic setup too. Such anomalous fluctuations emerge in a new phase diagram. Further we discuss possible consequences for general static and dynamic random environments.

  1. Finite-element method for calculation of the effective permittivity of random inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myroshnychenko, Viktor; Brosseau, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The challenge of designing new solid-state materials from calculations performed with the help of computers applied to models of spatial randomness has attracted an increasing amount of interest in recent years. In particular, dispersions of particles in a host matrix are scientifically and technologically important for a variety of reasons. Herein, we report our development of an efficient computer code to calculate the effective (bulk) permittivity of two-phase disordered composite media consisting of hard circular disks made of a lossless dielectric (permittivity ɛ2 ) randomly placed in a plane made of a lossless homogeneous dielectric (permittivity ɛ1 ) at different surface fractions. Specifically, the method is based on (i) a finite-element description of composites in which both the host and the randomly distributed inclusions are isotropic phases, and (ii) an ordinary Monte Carlo sampling. Periodic boundary conditions are employed throughout the simulation and various numbers of disks have been considered in the calculations. From this systematic study, we show how the number of Monte Carlo steps needed to achieve equilibrated distributions of disks increases monotonically with the surface fraction. Furthermore, a detailed study is made of the dependence of the results on a minimum separation distance between disks. Numerical examples are presented to connect the macroscopic property such as the effective permittivity to microstructural characteristics such as the mean coordination number and radial distribution function. In addition, several approximate effective medium theories, exact bounds, exact results for two-dimensional regular arrays, and the exact dilute limit are used to test and validate the finite-element algorithm. Numerical results indicate that the fourth-order bounds provide an excellent estimate of the effective permittivity for a wide range of surface fractions, in accordance with the fact that the bounds become progressively narrower as

  2. An 8-node tetrahedral finite element suitable for explicit transient dynamic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Stone, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable effort has been expended in perfecting the algorithmic properties of 8-node hexahedral finite elements. Today the element is well understood and performs exceptionally well when used in modeling three-dimensional explicit transient dynamic events. However, the automatic generation of all-hexahedral meshes remains an elusive achievement. The alternative of automatic generation for all-tetrahedral finite element is a notoriously poor performer, and the 10-node quadratic tetrahedral finite element while a better performer numerically is computationally expensive. To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation extant today, the authors have explored the creation of a quality 8-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four midface nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular, they examine the 80node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element only samples constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hourglass modes. In this regard, it bears similarities to the 8-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the 8-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the 8-node hexahedral finite element and handbuilt meshes.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of planetary gears using analytical and finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarisha, Vijaya Kumar; Parker, Robert G.

    2007-05-01

    Vibration-induced gear noise and dynamic loads remain key concerns in many transmission applications that use planetary gears. Tooth separations at large vibrations introduce nonlinearity in geared systems. The present work examines the complex, nonlinear dynamic behavior of spur planetary gears using two models: (i) a lumped-parameter model, and (ii) a finite element model. The two-dimensional (2D) lumped-parameter model represents the gears as lumped inertias, the gear meshes as nonlinear springs with tooth contact loss and periodically varying stiffness due to changing tooth contact conditions, and the supports as linear springs. The 2D finite element model is developed from a unique finite element-contact analysis solver specialized for gear dynamics. Mesh stiffness variation excitation, corner contact, and gear tooth contact loss are all intrinsically considered in the finite element analysis. The dynamics of planetary gears show a rich spectrum of nonlinear phenomena. Nonlinear jumps, chaotic motions, and period-doubling bifurcations occur when the mesh frequency or any of its higher harmonics are near a natural frequency of the system. Responses from the dynamic analysis using analytical and finite element models are successfully compared qualitatively and quantitatively. These comparisons validate the effectiveness of the lumped-parameter model to simulate the dynamics of planetary gears. Mesh phasing rules to suppress rotational and translational vibrations in planetary gears are valid even when nonlinearity from tooth contact loss occurs. These mesh phasing rules, however, are not valid in the chaotic and period-doubling regions.

  4. Knudsen gas in a finite random tube: transport diffusion and first passage properties

    CERN Document Server

    Comets, Francis; Schütz, Gunter M; Vachkovskaia, Marina

    2010-01-01

    We consider transport diffusion in a stochastic billiard in a random tube which is elongated in the direction of the first coordinate (the tube axis). Inside the random tube, which is stationary and ergodic, non-interacting particles move straight with constant speed. Upon hitting the tube walls, they are reflected randomly, according to the cosine law: the density of the outgoing direction is proportional to the cosine of the angle between this direction and the normal vector. Steady state transport is studied by introducing an open tube segment as follows: We cut out a large finite segment of the tube with segment boundaries perpendicular to the tube axis. Particles which leave this piece through the segment boundaries disappear from the system. Through stationary injection of particles at one boundary of the segment a steady state with non-vanishing stationary particle current is maintained. We prove (i) that in the thermodynamic limit of an infinite open piece the coarse-grained density profile inside the...

  5. Rigid Finite Element Method in Analysis of Dynamics of Offshore Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wittbrodt, Edmund; Maczyński, Andrzej; Wojciech, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    This book describes new methods developed for modelling dynamics of machines commonly used in the offshore industry. These methods are based both on the rigid finite element method, used for the description of link deformations, and on homogeneous transformations and joint coordinates, which is applied to the modelling of multibody system dynamics. In this monograph, the bases of the rigid finite element method  and homogeneous transformations are introduced. Selected models for modelling dynamics of offshore devices are then verified both by using commercial software, based on the finite element method, as well as by using additional methods. Examples of mathematical models of offshore machines, such as a gantry crane for Blowout-Preventer (BOP) valve block transportation, a pedestal crane with shock absorber, and pipe laying machinery are presented. Selected problems of control in offshore machinery as well as dynamic optimization in device control are also discussed. Additionally, numerical simulations of...

  6. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Geometric random walk of finite number of agents under constant variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2017-05-01

    The characteristics of the 1D geometric random walk of a finite number of agents are investigated by assuming constant variance. Firstly, the characteristics of the steady state solution of the distribution function, which is obtained using the extended geometric Brownian motion (EGBM), are investigated in the framework of the 1D Fokker-Planck type equation. The uniqueness and existence of the steady state solution of the distribution function requires the number of particles to be finite. To avoid the divergence of the steady state solution of the distribution function at the mean value in the 1D Fokker-Planck type equation, the hybrid model, which is a combination of EGBM and normal BM, is proposed. Next, the steady state solution of the distribution function, which is obtained using the geometric Lévy flight, is investigated under constant variance in the framework of the space fractional 1D Fokker-Planck type equation. Additionally, we confirm that the solution of the distribution function obtained using the super-elastic and inelastic (SI-) Boltzmann equation under constant variance approaches the Cauchy distribution, when the power law number of the relative velocity increases. Finally, dissipation processes of the pressure deviator and heat flux are numerically investigated using the 2D space fractional Fokker-Planck type equations for Lévy flight and SI-Boltzmann equation by assuming their linear response relations.

  8. Finite current stationary states of random walks on one-dimensional lattices with aperiodic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Stationary states of random walks with finite induced drift velocity on one-dimensional lattices with aperiodic disorder are investigated by scaling analysis. Three aperiodic sequences, the Thue-Morse (TM), the paperfolding (PF), and the Rudin-Shapiro (RS) sequences, are used to construct the aperiodic disorder. These are binary sequences, composed of two symbols A and B, and the ratio of the number of As to that of Bs converges to unity in the infinite sequence length limit, but their effects on diffusional behavior are different. For the TM model, the stationary distribution is extended, as in the case without current, and the drift velocity is independent of the system size. For the PF model and the RS model, as the system size increases, the hierarchical and fractal structure and the localized structure, respectively, are broken by a finite current and changed to an extended distribution if the system size becomes larger than a certain threshold value. Correspondingly, the drift velocity is saturated in a large system while in a small system it decreases as the system size increases.

  9. A Finite Mixture of Nonlinear Random Coefficient Models for Continuous Repeated Measures Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear random coefficient models (NRCMs) for continuous longitudinal data are often used for examining individual behaviors that display nonlinear patterns of development (or growth) over time in measured variables. As an extension of this model, this study considers the finite mixture of NRCMs that combine features of NRCMs with the idea of finite mixture (or latent class) models. The efficacy of this model is that it allows the integration of intrinsically nonlinear functions where the data come from a mixture of two or more unobserved subpopulations, thus allowing the simultaneous investigation of intra-individual (within-person) variability, inter-individual (between-person) variability, and subpopulation heterogeneity. Effectiveness of this model to work under real data analytic conditions was examined by executing a Monte Carlo simulation study. The simulation study was carried out using an R routine specifically developed for the purpose of this study. The R routine used maximum likelihood with the expectation-maximization algorithm. The design of the study mimicked the output obtained from running a two-class mixture model on task completion data.

  10. Magnetic dynamo action in random flows with zero and finite correlation times

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Hydromagnetic dynamo theory provides the prevailing theoretical description for the origin of magnetic fields in the universe. Here we consider the problem of kinematic, small-scale dynamo action driven by a random, incompressible, non-helical, homogeneous and isotropic flow. In the Kazantsev dynamo model the statistics of the driving flow are assumed to be instantaneously correlated in time. Here we compare the results of the model with the dynamo properties of a simulated flow that has equivalent spatial characteristics as the Kazantsev flow but different temporal statistics. In particular, the simulated flow is a solution of the forced Navier-Stokes equations and hence has a finite correlation time. We find that the Kazantsev model typically predicts a larger magnetic growth rate and a magnetic spectrum that peaks at smaller scales. However, we show that by filtering the diffusivity spectrum at small scales it is possible to bring the growth rates into agreement and simultaneously align the magnetic spectr...

  11. Parametric Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Strain Ratcheting in Pressurized Elbows Based on Random Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The large strain ratcheting in cyclic plasticity of a typical pressurized pipe elbow in a realistic nuclear piping system was investigated in a more quantitative manner than previously. The elbow was modeled using a fine mesh of shell elements that can provide the completed information of detailed time varying strain distributions in the whole elbow area. The nonlinear time history stress analyses performed were based on a pseudostatic concept using the vector-valued stochastic displacement response time series loaded at the elbow ends. The response time series were synthesized using a simulation approach based on the random vibration analyses of the piping system and its supporting building. After a finite element mesh convergence study, parametric analyses were conducted that included the effects due to the magnitude changes in excitation level, internal pressure, material yield stress, and material strain hardening.

  12. Bounded dynamics in finite PT-symmetric magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Mario I

    2014-03-01

    We examine the PT-symmetry-breaking transition for a magnetic metamaterial of a finite extent, modeled as an array of coupled split-ring resonators in the equivalent circuit model approximation. Small-size arrays are solved completely in closed form, while for arrays larger than N=5 results were computed numerically for several gain and loss spatial distributions. In all cases, it is found that the parameter stability window decreases rapidly with the size of the array, until at N=20 approximately it is not possible to support a stable PT-symmetric phase.

  13. Finite baryon density effects on gauge field dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bödeker, Dietrich

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the effective action for QCD gauge fields at finite temperatures and densities, obtained after integrating out the hardest momentum scales from the system. We show that a non-vanishing baryon density induces a charge conjugation (C) odd operator to the gauge field action, proportional to the chemical potential. Even though it is parametrically smaller than the leading C even operator, it could have an important effect on C odd observables. The same operator appears to be produced by classical kinetic theory, allowing in principle for a non-perturbative study of such processes.

  14. Robust Finite-Time Control for Spacecraft with Coupled Translation and Attitude Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust finite-time control for spacecraft with coupled translation and attitude dynamics is investigated in the paper. An error-based spacecraft motion model in six-degree-of-freedom is firstly developed. Then a finite-time controller based on nonsingular terminal sliding mode control technique is proposed to achieve translation and attitude maneuvers in the presence of model uncertainties and environmental perturbations. A finite-time observer is designed and a modified controller is then proposed to deal with uncertainties and perturbations and alleviate chattering. Numerical simulations are finally provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed controllers.

  15. The constraint method: A new finite element technique. [applied to static and dynamic loads on plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Szabo, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approch to the finite element method which utilizes families of conforming finite elements based on complete polynomials is presented. Finite element approximations based on this method converge with respect to progressively reduced element sizes as well as with respect to progressively increasing orders of approximation. Numerical results of static and dynamic applications of plates are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. Comparisons are made with plate elements in NASTRAN and the high-precision plate element developed by Cowper and his co-workers. Some considerations are given to implementation of the constraint method into general purpose computer programs such as NASTRAN.

  16. Research on dynamic model of printed circuit board based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Xu, Liangjun

    2017-08-01

    The vibration characteristics of printed circuit boards are related to the reliability of electronic components installed on their surface. Finite element software is a powerful tool to analyze the vibration characteristics of printed circuit boards, and the correct establishment of finite element model is very important. In this paper, the dynamic model of anisotropic printed circuit board is established by analyzing the material properties of printed circuit board. The influence of boundary condition and lumped mass on the vibration characteristics of printed circuit board is analyzed. In order to establish a more realistic printed circuit The finite element model of the plate provides the necessary basis.

  17. Finite-time stochastic outer synchronization between two complex dynamical networks with different topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongzheng; Li, Wang; Zhao, Donghua

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the finite-time stochastic outer synchronization between two different complex dynamical networks with noise perturbation is investigated. By using suitable controllers, sufficient conditions for finite-time stochastic outer synchronization are derived based on the finite-time stability theory of stochastic differential equations. It is noticed that the coupling configuration matrix is not necessary to be symmetric or irreducible, and the inner coupling matrix need not be symmetric. Finally, numerical examples are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical results. The effect of control parameters on the settling time is also numerically demonstrated.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of the Random Response Suppression of Composite Panels at Elevated Temperatures using Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Zhong, Z. W.; Mei, Chuh

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) for suppression of the random response of composite panels due to acoustic loads at elevated temperatures is presented. The constitutive relations for a composite lamina with embedded SMA fibers are developed. The finite element governing equations and the solution procedures for a composite plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads are presented. Solutions include: 1) Critical buckling temperature; 2) Flat panel random response; 3) Thermal postbuckling deflection; 4) Random response of a thermally buckled panel. The preliminary results demonstrate that the SMA fibers can completely eliminate the thermal postbuckling deflection and significantly reduce the random response at elevated temperatures.

  19. Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Problems with Random Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehikoinen Antti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In electromagnetic problems, the problem geometry may not always be exactly known. One example of such a case is a rotating machine with random-wound windings. While spectral stochastic finite element methods have been used to solve statistical electromagnetic problems such as this, their use has been mainly limited to problems with uncertainties in material parameters only. This paper presents a simple method to solve both static and time-harmonic magnetic field problems with source currents in random positions. By using an indicator function, the geometric uncertainties are effectively reduced to material uncertainties, and the problem can be solved using the established spectral stochastic procedures. The proposed method is used to solve a demonstrative single-conductor problem, and the results are compared to the Monte Carlo method. Based on these simulations, the method appears to yield accurate mean values and variances both for the vector potential and current, converging close to the results obtained by time-consuming Monte Carlo analysis. However, further study may be needed to use the method for more complicated multi-conductor problems and to reduce the sensitivity of the method on the mesh used.

  20. Law of large numbers for a class of random walks in dynamic random environments

    CERN Document Server

    Avena, L; Redig, F

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a class of one-dimensional interacting particle systems in equilibrium, constituting a dynamic random environment, together with a nearest-neighbor random walk that on occupied/vacant sites has a local drift to the right/left. We adapt a regeneration-time argument originally developed by Comets and Zeitouni for static random environments to prove that, under a space-time mixing property for the dynamic random environment called cone-mixing, the random walk has an a.s. constant global speed. In addition, we show that if the dynamic random environment is exponentially mixing in space-time and the local drifts are small, then the global speed can be written as a power series in the size of the local drifts. From the first term in this series the sign of the global speed can be read off. The results can be easily extended to higher dimensions.

  1. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  2. STUDY ON DYNAMIC CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS FOR CONCRETE WITH FINITE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书宇; 沈成康; 金吾根

    2004-01-01

    The differences between finite deformation and infinitesimal deformation are discussed. They are exercised on elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations of concrete.Then, a rate-dependent mechanics model was presented on the basis of Ottosen' s fourparameter yield criterion, where different loading surface transferring laws were taken into account, when material was in hardening stage or in softening stage, respectively. The model is well established, so that it can be applied to simulate the response of concrete subject to impact loading. Green-Naghdi stress rate was introduced as objective stress rate.Appropriate hypothesis was postulated in accordance with many experimental results, which could reflect the mechanical behaviour of concrete with large deformation. Available thoughts as well as effective methods are also provided for the research on related engineering problems.

  3. Effective Polyakov Loop Dynamics for Finite Temperature G(2) Gluodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wellegehausen, Bjoern H; Wozar, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the strong coupling expansion we obtain effective 3-dimensional models for the Polyakov loop in finite-temperature G_2 gluodynamics. The Svetitsky-Jaffe conjecture relates the resulting continuous spin models with G_2 gluodynamics near phase transition points. In the present work we analyse the effective theory in leading order with the help of a generalised mean field approximation and with detailed Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition we derive a Potts-type discrete spin model by restricting the characters of the Polyakov loops to the three extremal points of the fundamental domain of G_2. Both the continuous and discrete effective models show a rich phase structure with a ferromagnetic, symmetric and several anti-ferromagnetic phases. The phase diagram contains first and second order transition lines and tricritical points. The modified mean field predictions compare very well with the results of our simulations.

  4. Instanton dynamics in finite temperature QCD via holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hanada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate instantons in finite temperature QCD via Witten's holographic QCD. To study the deconfinement phase, we use the setup proposed in [1]. We find that the sizes of the instantons are stabilized at certain values both in the confinement and deconfinement phases. This agrees with the numerical result in the lattice gauge theory. Besides we find that the gravity duals of the large and small instantons in the deconfinement phase have different topologies. We also argue that the fluctuation of the topological charges is large in confinement phase while it is exponentially suppressed in deconfinement phase, and a continuous transition occurs at the Gross–Witten–Wadia (GWW point. It would be difficult to observe the counterpart of this transition in lattice QCD, since the GWW point in QCD may stay at an unstable branch.

  5. New approach of financial volatility duration dynamics by stochastic finite-range interacting voter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochao; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We make an approach on investigating the fluctuation behaviors of financial volatility duration dynamics. A new concept of volatility two-component range intensity (VTRI) is developed, which constitutes the maximal variation range of volatility intensity and shortest passage time of duration, and can quantify the investment risk in financial markets. In an attempt to study and describe the nonlinear complex properties of VTRI, a random agent-based financial price model is developed by the finite-range interacting biased voter system. The autocorrelation behaviors and the power-law scaling behaviors of return time series and VTRI series are investigated. Then, the complexity of VTRI series of the real markets and the proposed model is analyzed by Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) and Lempel-Ziv complexity. In this process, we apply the cross-Fuzzy entropy (C-FuzzyEn) to study the asynchrony of pairs of VTRI series. The empirical results reveal that the proposed model has the similar complex behaviors with the actual markets and indicate that the proposed stock VTRI series analysis and the financial model are meaningful and feasible to some extent.

  6. Comparison of finite difference and pseudo-spectral methods in forward modelling based on metal ore model of random media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongyu,HAN Liguo,ZHANG Pan; XU Dexin

    2016-01-01

    With more applications of seismic exploration in metal ore exploration,forward modelling of seismic wave has become more important in metal ore.Finite difference method and pseudo-spectral method are two im-portant methods of wave-field simulation.Results of previous studies show that both methods have distinct ad-vantages and disadvantages:Finite difference method has high precision but its dispersion is serious;pseudo-spectral method considers both computational efficiency and precision but has less precision than finite-diffe-rence.The authors consider the complex structural characteristics of the metal ore,furthermore add random media in order to simulate the complex effects produced by metal ore for wave field.First,the study introduced the theories of random media and two forward modelling methods.Second,it compared the simulation results of two methods on fault model.Then the authors established a complex metal ore model,added random media and compared computational efficiency and precision.As a result,it is found that finite difference method is better than pseudo-spectral method in precision and boundary treatment,but the computational efficiency of pseudo-spectral method is slightly higher than the finite difference method.

  7. Large-deviation probabilities for maxima of sums of subexponential random variables with application to finite-time ruin probabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d. standard uniform random variables. This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov. As an application, we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability, to the whole strongly subexponential class.

  8. Large-deviation probabilities for maxima of sums of subexponential random variables with application to finite-time ruin probabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d.standard uniform random variables.This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov.As an application,we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability,to the whole strongly subexponential class.

  9. Finite-temperature perturbation theory for the random directed polymer problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, S. E., E-mail: dimagesh@phys.ethz.ch [Russian Academy of Sciences, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    We study the random directed polymer problem-the short-scale behavior of an elastic string (or polymer) in one transverse dimension subject to a disorder potential and finite temperature fluctuations. We are interested in the polymer short-scale wandering expressed through the displacement correlator Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , with {delta}u(X) being the difference in the displacements at two points separated by a distance X. While this object can be calculated at short scales using the perturbation theory in higher dimensions d > 2, this approach becomes ill-defined and the problem turns out to be nonperturbative in the lower dimensions and for an infinite-length polymer. In order to make progress, we redefine the task and analyze the wandering of a string of a finite length L. At zero temperature, we find that the displacement fluctuations Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} LX{sup 2} depend on L and scale with the square of the segment length X, which differs from a straightforward Larkin-type scaling. The result is best understood in terms of a typical squared angle Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} L, where {alpha} = {partial_derivative}{sub x}u, from which the displacement scaling for the segment X follows naturally, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket [{delta}u(X)]{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {proportional_to} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {alpha}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket X{sup 2}. At high temperatures, thermal fluctuations smear the disorder potential and the lowest-order results for disorder-induced fluctuations in both the displacement field and the angle vanish in the thermodynamic limit L {yields} {infinity}. The calculation up to the second order allows us to identify the regime of validity of the perturbative approach and provides a finite expression for the displacement

  10. Dynamic finite element analysis of third size charpy specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansberry, M.R.; Kumar, A.S.; Mueller, G.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A 2-D finite element analysis was performed on precracked, one third scale CVN specimens to investigate the sensitivity of model results to key material parameters such as yield strength, failure strain and work hardening characteristics. Calculations were carried out at temperatures of -196{degree}C and 50{degree}C. The dynamic finite element analyses were conducted using ABAQUS/Explicit V5.4. The finite element results were compared to experimental results for the production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (ANL Heat No. 832665) as a benchmark. Agreement between the finite element model and experimental data was very good at -196{degree}C, whereas at 50{degree}C the model predicted a slightly lower absorbed energy than actually measured.

  11. Random field estimation approach to robot dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1990-01-01

    The difference equations of Kalman filtering and smoothing recursively factor and invert the covariance of the output of a linear state-space system driven by a white-noise process. Here it is shown that similar recursive techniques factor and invert the inertia matrix of a multibody robot system. The random field models are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. They are easier to describe than the models based on classical mechanics, which typically require extensive derivation and manipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems. With the spatially random models, more primitive locally specified computations result in a global collective system behavior equivalent to that obtained with deterministic models. The primary goal of applying random field estimation is to provide a concise analytical foundation for solving robot control and motion planning problems.

  12. Subsystem's dynamics under random Hamiltonian evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Vinayak,

    2011-01-01

    We study time evolution of a subsystem's density matrix under a unitary evolution, generated by a sufficiently complex, say quantum chaotic, Hamiltonian. We exactly calculate all coherences, purity and fluctuations. The reduced density matrix is described in terms of a noncentral correlated Wishart ensemble. Our description accounts for a transition from an arbitrary initial state towards a random state at large times, enabling us to determine the convergence time after which random states are reached. We identify and describe a number of other interesting features, like a series of collisions between the largest eigenvalue and the bulk, accompanied by a phase transition in its distribution function.

  13. 75 FR 16507 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory... certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and products... section 337 by importing certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access...

  14. 75 FR 44989 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products... chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and product containing the same by... importing certain semiconductor chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and...

  15. Asymptotic Analysis of Invariant Density of Randomly Perturbed Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikami, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    The invariant density of diffusion processes which are small random perturbations of dynamical systems can be expanded in W.K.B. type, as the random effect disappears, in the set in which the Freidlin-Wentzell quasipotential $V(\\cdot)$ is of $C^\\infty$-class and each coefficient which appears in the expansion is of $C^\\infty$-class.

  16. Dynamic Stability of Viscoelastic Plates with Finite Deformation and Shear Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 程昌钧; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on Reddy's theory of plates with higher-order shear deformations and the Boltzmann superposition principles,the governing equations were established for dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates with finite deformations taking account of shear effects,The Galerkin method was applied to simplify the set of equations.The numerical methods in nonlinear dynamics were used to solve the simplified system.It could e seen that there are plenty of dynamic properties for this kind of viscoelastic plates under transverse harmonic loads.The influences of the transverse shear deformations and material parameter on the dynamic behavior of nonlinear viscoelatic plates were investigated.

  17. Linearization of dynamic equations of flexible mechanisms - a finite element approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Ben

    1991-01-01

    A finite element based method is presented for evaluation of linearized dynamic equations of flexible mechanisms about a nominal trajectory. The coefficient matrices of the linearized equations of motion are evaluated as explicit analytical expressions involving mixed sets of generalized co-ordinate

  18. Space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for inviscid gas dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, H.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bouwman, E.G.; Bathe, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the solution of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. This technique is well suited for problems which require moving meshes to deal with changes in the domain boundary. The method is demonstrated

  19. Dynamics of parabolic equations via the finite element method I. Continuity of the set of equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-López, R. N.; Lozada-Cruz, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of parabolic semilinear differential equations with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions via the discretization of finite element method. We provide an appropriate functional setting to treat this problem and, as a first step, we show the continuity of the set of equilibria and of its linear unstable manifolds.

  20. Phase 1 user instruction manual. A geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite element program (GEODYN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinianow, M.A.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Baird, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    User instructions for the GEODYN Interactive Finite Element Computer Program are presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit - Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates non-linear, time dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  1. An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, Jobie M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some

  2. Dynamics of finite size neutrally buoyant particles in isotropic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhimer, M; Jean, A; Praud, O; Bazile, R; Marchal, M; Couteau, G, E-mail: elhimer@imft.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT - Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-12-22

    The dynamics of neutrally buoyant particles suspended in a turbulent flow is investigated experimentally, with particles having diameters larger than the Kolmogorov length scale. To that purpose, a turbulence generator have been constructed and the resulting flow characterized. The fluid was then seeded with polystyrene particles of diameter about 1 mm and their velocity measured separately and simultaneously with the surrounding fluid. Comparison of the velocities statistics between the two phases shows no appreciable discrepancy. However, simultaneous velocity measurement shows that particles may move in different direction from the underlying flow.

  3. Study of Electromagnetic Scattering From Material Object Doped Randomly With Thin Metallic Wires Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.

    2005-01-01

    A new numerical simulation method using the finite element methodology (FEM) is presented to study electromagnetic scattering due to an arbitrarily shaped material body doped randomly with thin and short metallic wires. The FEM approach described in many standard text books is appropriately modified to account for the presence of thin and short metallic wires distributed randomly inside an arbitrarily shaped material body. Using this modified FEM approach, the electromagnetic scattering due to cylindrical, spherical material body doped randomly with thin metallic wires is studied.

  4. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yichen, E-mail: ychuang@caltech.edu

    2017-05-15

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique. - Highlights: • We study the dynamical quantum phase transition between many-body localized phases. • We simulate the dynamics of a very long random spin chain with matrix product states. • We observe numerically super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time.

  5. Nonlinear Legendre Spectral Finite Elements for Wind Turbine Blade Dynamics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Sprague, M. A.; Jonkman, J.; Johnson, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical implementation and examination of new wind turbine blade finite element model based on Geometrically Exact Beam Theory (GEBT) and a high-order spectral finite element method. The displacement-based GEBT is presented, which includes the coupling effects that exist in composite structures and geometric nonlinearity. Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are high-order finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto points. LSFEs can be an order of magnitude more efficient that low-order finite elements for a given accuracy level. Interpolation of the three-dimensional rotation, a major technical barrier in large-deformation simulation, is discussed in the context of LSFEs. It is shown, by numerical example, that the high-order LSFEs, where weak forms are evaluated with nodal quadrature, do not suffer from a drawback that exists in low-order finite elements where the tangent-stiffness matrix is calculated at the Gauss points. Finally, the new LSFE code is implemented in the new FAST Modularization Framework for dynamic simulation of highly flexible composite-material wind turbine blades. The framework allows for fully interactive simulations of turbine blades in operating conditions. Numerical examples showing validation and LSFE performance will be provided in the final paper.

  6. Dynamics and processing in finite self-similar networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDeo, Simon; Krakauer, David C

    2012-09-07

    A common feature of biological networks is the geometrical property of self-similarity. Molecular regulatory networks through to circulatory systems, nervous systems, social systems and ecological trophic networks show self-similar connectivity at multiple scales. We analyse the relationship between topology and signalling in contrasting classes of such topologies. We find that networks differ in their ability to contain or propagate signals between arbitrary nodes in a network depending on whether they possess branching or loop-like features. Networks also differ in how they respond to noise, such that one allows for greater integration at high noise, and this performance is reversed at low noise. Surprisingly, small-world topologies, with diameters logarithmic in system size, have slower dynamical time scales, and may be less integrated (more modular) than networks with longer path lengths. All of these phenomena are essentially mesoscopic, vanishing in the infinite limit but producing strong effects at sizes and time scales relevant to biology.

  7. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the X-56A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of the Multi Utility Technology Test-bed, X-56A aircraft, is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of the X-56A aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A aircraft have been improved in a single optimization run. Frequency and the cross-orthogonality (mode shape) matrix were the primary focus for improvement, while other properties such as center of gravity location, total weight, and offdiagonal terms of the mass orthogonality matrix were used as constraints. The end result was a more improved and desirable structural dynamic finite element model configuration for the X-56A aircraft. Improved frequencies and mode shapes in this study increased average flutter speeds of the X-56A aircraft by 7.6% compared to the baseline model.

  8. Finite-time Consensus of Heterogeneous Multi-agent Systems with Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ya-Kun; GUAN Xin-Ping; LUO Xiao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the finite-time consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems composed of both linear and nonlinear dynamics agents are investigated. Nonlinear consensus protocols are proposed for the heterogeneous multi-agent systems. Some sufficient conditions for the finite-time consensus are established in the leaderless and leader-following cases. The results are also extended to the case where the communication topology is directed and satisfies a detailed balance condition on coupling weights. At last, some simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  9. An Extended Finite Element Method Formulation for Modeling the Response of Polycrystalline Materials to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.

    2007-12-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite-element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static meso-scale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Vitali and Benson [2] and Song et al. [3] to model dynamic loading of a polycrystalline material. We use demonstration problems to examine the method's efficacy for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline materials at the meso-scale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries.

  10. Unconstrained Finite Element for Geometrical Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Breves Coda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a positional FEM formulation to deal with geometrical nonlinear dynamics of shells. The main objective is to develop a new FEM methodology based on the minimum potential energy theorem written regarding nodal positions and generalized unconstrained vectors not displacements and rotations. These characteristics are the novelty of the present work and avoid the use of large rotation approximations. A nondimensional auxiliary coordinate system is created, and the change of configuration function is written following two independent mappings from which the strain energy function is derived. This methodology is called positional and, as far as the authors' knowledge goes, is a new procedure to approximated geometrical nonlinear structures. In this paper a proof for the linear and angular momentum conservation property of the Newmark algorithm is provided for total Lagrangian description. The proposed shell element is locking free for elastic stress-strain relations due to the presence of linear strain variation along the shell thickness. The curved, high-order element together with an implicit procedure to solve nonlinear equations guarantees precision in calculations. The momentum conserving, the locking free behavior, and the frame invariance of the adopted mapping are numerically confirmed by examples.

  11. A comparison between dynamic implicit and explicit finite element simulations of the native knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Beidokhti, Hamid; Janssen, Dennis; Khoshgoftar, Mehdi; Sprengers, Andre; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Van den Boogaard, Ton; Verdonschot, Nico

    2016-10-01

    The finite element (FE) method has been widely used to investigate knee biomechanics. Time integration algorithms for dynamic problems in finite element analysis can be classified as either implicit or explicit. Although previously both static/dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit method have been used, a comparative study on the outcomes of both methods is of high interest for the knee modeling community. The aim of this study is to compare static, dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit solutions in analyses of the knee joint to assess the prediction of dynamic effects, potential convergence problems, the accuracy and stability of the calculations, the difference in computational time, and the influence of mass-scaling in the explicit formulation. The heel-strike phase of fast, normal and slow gait was simulated for two different body masses in a model of the native knee. Our results indicate that ignoring the dynamic effect can alter joint motion. Explicit analyses are suitable to simulate dynamic loading of the knee joint in high-speed simulations, as this method offers a substantial reduction of the computational time with a similar prediction of cartilage stresses and meniscus strains. Although mass-scaling can provide even more gain in computational time, it is not recommended for high-speed activities, in which inertial forces play a significant role. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite-size scaling study of dynamic critical phenomena in a vapor-liquid transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Jiarul; Das, Subir K.

    2017-01-01

    Via a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis, we study dynamic critical phenomena for the vapor-liquid transition in a three dimensional Lennard-Jones system. The phase behavior of the model has been obtained via the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport properties, viz., the bulk viscosity and the thermal conductivity, are calculated via the Green-Kubo relations, by taking inputs from the MD simulations in the microcanonical ensemble. The critical singularities of these quantities are estimated via the FSS method. The results thus obtained are in nice agreement with the predictions of the dynamic renormalization group and mode-coupling theories.

  13. Anisotropic finite-size scaling of an elastic string at the depinning threshold in a random-periodic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Bustingorry

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study the geometry of a driven elastic string at its sample-dependent depinning threshold in random-periodic media. We find that the anisotropic finite-size scaling of the average square width $overline{w^2}$ and of its associated probability distribution are both controlled by the ratio $k=M/L^{zeta_{dep}}$, where $zeta_{dep}$ is the random-manifold depinning roughness exponent, $L$ is the longitudinal size of the string and $M$ the transverse periodicity of the random medium. The rescaled average square width $overline{w^2}/L^{2zeta_{dep}}$ displays a non-trivial single minimum for a finite value of $k$. We show that the initial decrease for small $k$ reflects the crossover at $k sim 1$ from the random-periodic to the random-manifold roughness. The increase for very large $k$ implies that the increasingly rare critical configurations, accompanying the crossover to Gumbel critical-force statistics, display anomalous roughness properties: a transverse-periodicity scaling in spite that $overline{w^2} ll M$, and subleading corrections to the standard random-manifold longitudinal-size scaling. Our results are relevant tounderstanding the dimensional crossover from interface to particle depinning. Received: 20 October 2010, Accepted: 1 December 2010; Edited by:  A. Vindigni; Reviewed by: A. A. Fedorenko, CNRS-Lab. de Physique, ENS de Lyon, France; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.020008

  14. A two-scale finite element formulation for the dynamic analysis of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionita, Axinte [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In the analysis of heterogeneous materials using a two-scale Finite Element Method (FEM) the usual assumption is that the Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the micro-scale is much smaller than the finite element discretization of the macro-scale. However there are situations in which the RVE becomes comparable with, or even bigger than the finite element. These situations are considered in this article from the perspective of a two-scale FEM dynamic analysis. Using the principle of virtual power, new equations for the fluctuating fields are developed in terms of velocities rather than displacements. To allow more flexibility in the analysis, a scaling deformation tensor is introduced together with a procedure for its determination. Numerical examples using the new approach are presented.

  15. TIME DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSES IN SATURATED PORO-ELASTO-PLASTIC MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xikui; YAO Dongmei

    2004-01-01

    A time-discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for dynamic analyses in saturated poro-elasto-plastic medium is proposed. As compared with the existing discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, the distinct feature of the proposed method is that the continuity of the displacement vector at each discrete time instant is automatically ensured, whereas the discontinuity of the velocity vector at the discrete time levels still remains. The computational cost is then obviously reduced,particularly, for material non-linear problems. Both the implicit and explicit algorithms to solve the derived formulations for material non-linear problems are developed. Numerical results show a good performance of the present method in eliminating spurious numerical oscillations and providing with much more accurate solutions over the traditional Galerkin finite element method using the Newmark algorithm in the time domain.

  16. Convergence of Common Random Fixed Point of Finite Family of Asymptotically Quasi-Nonexpansive-Type Mappings by an Implicit Random Iterative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Saluja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new implicit random iteration process generated by a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive-type mappings and study necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of this process in a uniformly convex Banach space. The results presented in this paper extend and improve the recent ones announced by Plubtieng et al. (2007, Beg and Thakur (2009, and Saluja and Nashine (2012.

  17. Envelope Synthesis In Random Media - Radiative Transfer Versus Finite Difference Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybilla, J.; Korn, M.; Wegler, U.

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of the coda portion of seismograms is an effective strategy to investigate the heterogeneous structure of the Earth at small scales. Usually the shape of seismogram envelopes at high frequencies are studied. A powerful method to synthesize envelopes is based on the radiative transfer theory, which describes energy transport through a scattering medium. The radiative transfer equations can conveniently be solved by a Monte Carlo simulation of random walks of energy particles through such a medium. Between single scattering events each particle moves through the background medium along ray paths. The probability of a scattering event is determined by the mean free path length depending on the total scattering coefficient of the medium. Monte Carlo simulations have so far mostly assumed isotropic scattering and acoustic approximations, as well as isotropic source radiation. Here we present an extension of this method to the full elastic case including P and S waves, and for angular dependent scattering coefficients according to the Born approximation. In order to validate this procedure, the results of the simulations are compared to envelopes obtained from full wave field modeling in 2D employing a finite difference method. Envelope shapes agree remarkably well for both short and long lapse times and for a broad range of scattering parameters. This leads to the conclusion that the use of Born scattering coefficients does not pose severe limits to the validity range of Monte Carlo method. From the comparison between elastic and acoustic simulations it becomes apparent that wave type conversions should not be neglected, especially when both P and S coda are interpreted simultaneously. Additionally, the influence of density fluctuations on envelope shapes has also been studied. It appears that the amount of density variations has a large effect on the level of the late coda only, thus showing a possibility to discriminate between velocity and density

  18. Application of scaled boundary finite element method in static and dynamic fracture problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang

    2006-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is a recently developed numerical method combining advantages of both finite element methods (FEM)and boundary element methods (BEM) and with its own special features as well. One of the most prominent advantages is its capability of calculating stress intensity factors (SIFs) directly from the stress solutions whose singularities at crack tips are analytically represented. This advantage is taken in this study to model static and dynamic fracture problems. For static problems, a remeshing algorithm as simple as used in the BEM is developed while retaining the generality and flexibility of the FEM. Fully-automatic modelling of the mixed-mode crack propagation is then realised by combining the remeshing algorithm with a propagation criterion.F0r dynamic fracture problems, a newly developed series-increasing solution to the SBFEM governing equations in the frequency domain is applied to calculate dynamic SIFs. Three plane problems are modelled. The numerical results show that the SBFEM can accurately predict static and dynamic SIFs, cracking paths and load-displacement curves, using only a fraction of degrees of freedom generally needed by the traditional finite element methods.

  19. The influence of temperature dynamics and dynamic finite ion Larmor radius effects on seeded high amplitude plasma blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, J.; Kendl, A.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic finite Larmor radius effects. We find that the maximal radial blob velocity increases with the square root of the initial pressure perturbation and that a finite Larmor radius contributes to highly compact blob structures that propagate in the poloidal direction. An extensive parameter study reveals that a smooth transition to this compact blob regime occurs when the finite Larmor radius effect strength, defined by the ratio of the magnetic field aligned component of the ion diamagnetic to the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} vorticity, exceeds unity. The maximal radial blob velocities agree excellently with the inertial velocity scaling law over more than an order of magnitude. We show that the finite Larmor radius effect strength affects the poloidal and total particle transport and present an empirical scaling law for the poloidal and total blob velocities. Distinctions to the blob behaviour in the isothermal limit with constant finite Larmor radius effects are highlighted.

  20. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2002-02-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  1. Simulation and Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics of3D Assembly Circuit Module with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春跃; 周德俭; 黄红艳

    2004-01-01

    Based on the modal analysis theory and by using the dynamics finite element analysis model of a three-dimensional assembly circuit module, dynamic characteristics of circuit module have been studied, including both natural characteristics analysis and dynamic responses analysis. Using a subspace method, modal analysis is first carried out. The first 6 orders of natural frequencies and vibration modes are obtained. Influence of the number of the Z-shaped metal slices on dynamic characteristics of the entire structure is also studied.Harmonic response analysis is then conducted. The steady-state response when the circuit module is subjected to harmonic excitation is determined. A curve of the response values against frequencies is obtained. As a result, the optimal number of Z-shaped metal slices can be determined, and it can be assured that the three-dimensional assembly circuit module has good performance in terms of the dynamic characteristics.

  2. Random walks in nonuniform environments with local dynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher M.; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2013-10-01

    We consider a class of lattice random walk models in which the random walker is initially confined to a finite connected set of allowed sites but has the opportunity to enlarge this set by colliding with its boundaries, each such collision having a given probability of breaking through. The model is motivated by an analogy to cell motility in tissue, where motile cells have the ability to remodel extracellular matrix, but is presented here as a generic model for stochastic erosion. For the one-dimensional case, we report some exact analytic results, some mean-field type analytic approximate results and simulations. We compute exactly the mean and variance of the time taken to enlarge the interval from a single site to a given size. The problem of determining the statistics of the interval length and the walker's position at a given time is more difficult and we report several interesting observations from simulations. Our simulations include the case in which the initial interval length is random and the case in which the initial state of the lattice is a random mixture of allowed and forbidden sites, with the walker placed at random on an allowed site. To illustrate the extension of these ideas to higher-dimensional systems, we consider the erosion of the simple cubic lattice commencing from a single site and report simulations of measures of cluster size and shape and the mean-square displacement of the walker.

  3. Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Ivan P., E-mail: ivan.christov@phys.uni-sofia.bg

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.

  4. Solution of the neutronics code dynamic benchmark by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvakumov, A. V.; Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasilev, A. O.; Strizhov, V. F.

    2016-10-01

    The objective is to analyze the dynamic benchmark developed by Atomic Energy Research for the verification of best-estimate neutronics codes. The benchmark scenario includes asymmetrical ejection of a control rod in a water-type hexagonal reactor at hot zero power. A simple Doppler feedback mechanism assuming adiabatic fuel temperature heating is proposed. The finite element method on triangular calculation grids is used to solve the three-dimensional neutron kinetics problem. The software has been developed using the engineering and scientific calculation library FEniCS. The matrix spectral problem is solved using the scalable and flexible toolkit SLEPc. The solution accuracy of the dynamic benchmark is analyzed by condensing calculation grid and varying degree of finite elements.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimura, Y. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Science Research Center, Tokai (Japan); Yoshinaga, N. [Saitama University, Department of physics, Sakura-Ku, Saitama City (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)

  6. Finite Element Modeling of Dynamic Properties of Power Supply for an Industrial Application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the dynamic properties of the mechanic structure of Power Supply for an Industrial Application, an Alstom company product, are considered. A finite element model of the Power Supply mechanic structure have been generated with the aid of the MSC Marc software. Based on the FE model; modal analysis have been carried out and the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes for the FE model have been calculated in a suitable frequency range. Relevant frequency response functions for the FE mod...

  7. Dynamics of a harmonic oscillator in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Leman (CCAST (World Lab.), Beijing, BJ (China) Dept. of Physics and Inst. of Physics, Hunan Normal Univ. (China)); Wang Fabo (Dept. of Physics, Hunan Normal Univ. (China)); Zhou Yanguo (Dept. of Physics, Hunan Normal Univ. (China))

    1993-11-29

    Some dynamical properties of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space harmonic oscillator (FDHSHO) are studied. The time evolution of the position and momentum operators and the second-order quadrature squeezing are investigated in detail. It is shown that the coherent states of the FDHSHO are not the minimum uncertainty states of the position and momentum operators of the FDHSHO. It is found that the second-order squeezing of the quadrature operators vanishes and reappears periodically in the time evolution. (orig.)

  8. 3-D finite element computation and dynamic modal analysis on ultrasonic vibration systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪金刚; 张学仁; 聂景旭(Department of Jet Propulsion 405; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Beijing 100083; China)

    1996-01-01

    Stress and modal analyses are performed on an ultrasonic vibration system by means of a 3-dimensional finite element computation and dynamic modal analysis code "Algor" The system consists of an edge-cracked specimen linked elastically with one or two amplifying horns which come into resonant longitudinal vibration at 20kHz.Operating principle of the ultrasonic fatigue machines and experimental procedures for ultrasonic fatigue crack growth studies are briefly presented.

  9. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Lei; Ding, Yun; Hutchinson, John R; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  10. A dynamic finite element analysis of human foot complex in the sagittal plane during level walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Qian

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a computational framework for investigating the dynamic behavior and the internal loading conditions of the human foot complex during locomotion. A subject-specific dynamic finite element model in the sagittal plane was constructed based on anatomical structures segmented from medical CT scan images. Three-dimensional gait measurements were conducted to support and validate the model. Ankle joint forces and moment derived from gait measurements were used to drive the model. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted, covering the entire stance phase from heel-strike impact to toe-off. The predicted ground reaction forces, center of pressure, foot bone motions and plantar surface pressure showed reasonably good agreement with the gait measurement data over most of the stance phase. The prediction discrepancies can be explained by the assumptions and limitations of the model. Our analysis showed that a dynamic FE simulation can improve the prediction accuracy in the peak plantar pressures at some parts of the foot complex by 10%-33% compared to a quasi-static FE simulation. However, to simplify the costly explicit FE simulation, the proposed model is confined only to the sagittal plane and has a simplified representation of foot structure. The dynamic finite element foot model proposed in this study would provide a useful tool for future extension to a fully muscle-driven dynamic three-dimensional model with detailed representation of all major anatomical structures, in order to investigate the structural dynamics of the human foot musculoskeletal system during normal or even pathological functioning.

  11. DYNAMIC MODELLING OF BAR-GEAR MIXED MULTIBODY SYSTEMS USING A SPECIFIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A new dynamic model for mixed, flexible bar and gear multibody systems is developed based on a specific finite element method, and a new gear-element is proposed. The gear-element can take into account the time variant stiffness, the gear errors and mass unbalance. The model for geared multibody systems can couple the gear meshing and the flexibility of all contained components. The kinematic and dynamic analyses of the geared multibody systems are expounded and illustrated on an example composed of three gears, two bars and one slider.

  12. Salinas - An implicit finite element structural dynamics code developed for massively parallel platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BHARDWAJ, MANLJ K.; REESE,GARTH M.; DRIESSEN,BRIAN; ALVIN,KENNETH F.; DAY,DAVID M.

    2000-04-06

    As computational needs for structural finite element analysis increase, a robust implicit structural dynamics code is needed which can handle millions of degrees of freedom in the model and produce results with quick turn around time. A parallel code is needed to avoid limitations of serial platforms. Salinas is an implicit structural dynamics code specifically designed for massively parallel platforms. It computes the structural response of very large complex structures and provides solutions faster than any existing serial machine. This paper gives a current status of Salinas and uses demonstration problems to show Salinas' performance.

  13. Dynamics of a thin film flowing down a heated wall with finite thermal diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael C.; Tseluiko, Dmitri; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Consider the dynamics of a thin film flowing down a heated substrate. The substrate heating generates a temperature distribution on the free surface, which in turn induces surface-tension gradients and corresponding thermocapillary stresses that affect the free surface and therefore the fluid flow. We study here the effect of finite substrate thermal diffusivity on the film dynamics. Linear stability analysis of the full Navier-Stokes and heat transport equations indicates if the substrate diffusivity is sufficiently small, the film becomes unstable at a finite wavelength and at a Reynolds number smaller than that predicted in the long-wavelength limit. This property is captured in a reduced-order system of equations derived using a weighted-residual integral-boundary-layer method. This reduced-order model is also used to compute the bifurcation diagrams of solution branches connecting the trivial flat film to traveling waves including solitary pulses. The effect of finite diffusivity is to separate a simultaneous Hopf-transcritical bifurcation into its individual component bifurcations. The appropriate Hopf bifurcation then connects only to the solution branch of negative-hump pulses, with wave speed less than the linear wave speed, while the branch of positive-single-hump pulses merges with the branch of positive-two-hump pulses at a supercritical Reynolds number. In the regime where finite-wavelength instability occurs, there exists a Hopf-bifurcation pair connected by a branch of periodic solutions, whose period cannot be increased indefinitely. Numerical simulation of the reduced-order system shows the development of a train of coherent structures, each of which resembles a stationary positive-hump pulse, and, in the regime of finite-wavelength instability, wavelength selection and saturation to periodic traveling waves.

  14. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yichen

    2017-05-01

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique.

  15. Finite-size scaling in Ising-like systems with quenched random fields: evidence of hyperscaling violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, R L C; Fischer, T; Binder, K

    2010-11-01

    In systems belonging to the universality class of the random field Ising model, the standard hyperscaling relation between critical exponents does not hold, but is replaced with a modified hyperscaling relation. As a result, standard formulations of finite-size scaling near critical points break down. In this work, the consequences of modified hyperscaling are analyzed in detail. The most striking outcome is that the free-energy cost ΔF of interface formation at the critical point is no longer a universal constant, but instead increases as a power law with system size, ΔF∝L(θ), with θ as the violation of hyperscaling critical exponent and L as the linear extension of the system. This modified behavior facilitates a number of numerical approaches that can be used to locate critical points in random field systems from finite-size simulation data. We test and confirm the approaches on two random field systems in three dimensions, namely, the random field Ising model and the demixing transition in the Widom-Rowlinson fluid with quenched obstacles.

  16. Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear System Using a Finite Element/Contact Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Agashe, Vinayak; Vijayakar, Sandeep M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of a helicopter planetary gear system is examined over a wide range of operating speeds and torques. The analysis tool is a unique, semianalytical finite element formulation that admits precise representation of the tooth geometry and contact forces that are crucial in gear dynamics. Importantly, no a priori specification of static transmission error excitation or mesh frequency variation is required; the dynamic contact forces are evaluated internally at each time step. The calculated response shows classical resonances when a harmonic of mesh frequency coincides with a natural frequency. However, peculiar behavior occurs where resonances expected to be excited at a given speed are absent. This absence of particular modes is explained by analytical relationships that depend on the planetary configuration and mesh frequency harmonic. The torque sensitivity of the dynamic response is examined and compared to static analyses. Rotation mode response is shown to be more sensitive to input torque than translational mode response.

  17. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youjin; Qian, Xiaofeng; Blöte, Henk W. J.

    2009-09-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q -state Potts model to noninteger values q>1 . Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those of the existing Swendsen-Wang-Chayes-Machta (SWCM) algorithm, which involves a full-cluster decomposition of random-cluster configurations. We explore the critical dynamics of this algorithm for several two-dimensional Potts and random-cluster models. For integer q , the single-cluster algorithm can be reduced to the Wolff algorithm, for which case we find that the autocorrelation functions decay almost purely exponentially, with dynamic exponents zexp=0.07 (1), 0.521 (7), and 1.007 (9) for q=2 , 3, and 4, respectively. For noninteger q , the dynamical behavior of the single-cluster algorithm appears to be very dissimilar to that of the SWCM algorithm. For large critical systems, the autocorrelation function displays a range of power-law behavior as a function of time. The dynamic exponents are relatively large. We provide an explanation for this peculiar dynamic behavior.

  18. Approximation of the Lévy Feller advection dispersion process by random walk and finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Liu, F.; Turner, I.; Anh, V.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we present a random walk model for approximating a Lévy-Feller advection-dispersion process, governed by the Lévy-Feller advection-dispersion differential equation (LFADE). We show that the random walk model converges to LFADE by use of a properly scaled transition to vanishing space and time steps. We propose an explicit finite difference approximation (EFDA) for LFADE, resulting from the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization of fractional derivatives. As a result of the interpretation of the random walk model, the stability and convergence of EFDA for LFADE in a bounded domain are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to show the application of the present technique.

  19. A finite element formulation for modeling dynamic wetting on flexible substrates and in deformable porous media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Cairncross, Richard A. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA); Madasu, S. (Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA)

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes research advances pursued with award funding issued by the DOE to Drexel University through the Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) program. Professor Rich Cairncross was the recipient of this award in 1997. With it he pursued two related research topics under Sandia's guidance that address the outstanding issue of fluid-structural interactions of liquids with deformable solid materials, focusing mainly on the ubiquitous dynamic wetting problem. The project focus in the first four years was aimed at deriving a predictive numerical modeling approach for the motion of the dynamic contact line on a deformable substrate. A formulation of physical model equations was derived in the context of the Galerkin finite element method in an arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The formulation was successfully integrated in Sandia's Goma finite element code and tested on several technologically important thin-film coating problems. The model equations, the finite-element implementation, and results from several applications are given in this report. In the last year of the five-year project the same physical concepts were extended towards the problem of capillary imbibition in deformable porous media. A synopsis of this preliminary modeling and experimental effort is also discussed.

  20. Simple finite element methods for approximating predator-prey dynamics in two dimensions using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Marcus R; Burkardt, John; Morgan, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    We describe simple finite element schemes for approximating spatially extended predator-prey dynamics with the Holling type II functional response and logistic growth of the prey. The finite element schemes generalize 'Scheme 1' in the paper by Garvie (Bull Math Biol 69(3):931-956, 2007). We present user-friendly, open-source MATLAB code for implementing the finite element methods on arbitrary-shaped two-dimensional domains with Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, mixed Robin-Neumann, mixed Dirichlet-Neumann, and Periodic boundary conditions. Users can download, edit, and run the codes from http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgarvie/ . In addition to discussing the well posedness of the model equations, the results of numerical experiments are presented and demonstrate the crucial role that habitat shape, initial data, and the boundary conditions play in determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of predator-prey interactions. As most previous works on this problem have focussed on square domains with standard boundary conditions, our paper makes a significant contribution to the area.

  1. Fast finite element calculation of effective conductivity of random continuum microstructures: The recursive Poincaré-Steklov operator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Thomas J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2017-08-01

    The effective conductivity of a block of composite can be extracted from the Dirichlet-to-Neumann Poincaré-Steklov operator (PSO) for that block. In this paper, a domain decomposition method for computing the PSO over a finite element mesh is discussed. A new numerical strategy is introduced to accelerate the computation of this operator, using the Schur complement to calculate the PSO for the smallest subdomains, then recursively merging subdomain PSOs up to the full domain. At each step of the algorithm, information extraneous to the PSO is discarded. The effective conductivity values computed by this method are identical to those obtained from a basic Finite Element Method, an order of magnitude faster and with much less computer memory consumed. As proof of concept, effective conductivity measurements are presented for a percolating random fractal-like microstructure across a range of phase fractions.

  2. Interacting spins in a cavity: Finite-size effects and symmetry-breaking dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    , and for small chains, we find significant and nontrivial finite-size effects. Below the first-order phase transition, even quite large spin chains of 30–40 spins give rise to a mean photon number and number fluctuations significantly above the mean-field vacuum result. Near the second-order phase critical point......-transition the random character of the measurement process causes a measurement-induced symmetry breaking in the system. This symmetry breaking occurs on the time scale needed for an observer to gather sufficient information to distinguish between the two possible (mean-field) symmetry-broken states....

  3. Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Mobile Bearing Type Knee Prosthesis under Deep Flexional Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Afzan Mohd Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to distinguish between mobile bearing and fixed bearing posterior stabilized knee prostheses in the mechanics performance using the finite element simulation. Quantifying the relative mechanics attributes and survivorship between the mobile bearing and the fixed bearing prosthesis remains in investigation among researchers. In the present study, 3-dimensional computational model of a clinically used mobile bearing PS type knee prosthesis was utilized to develop a finite element and dynamic simulation model. Combination of displacement and force driven knee motion was adapted to simulate a flexion motion from 0° to 135° with neutral, 10°, and 20° internal tibial rotation to represent deep knee bending. Introduction of the secondary moving articulation in the mobile bearing knee prosthesis has been found to maintain relatively low shear stress during deep knee motion with tibial rotation.

  4. Finite-element-model updating using computational intelligence techniques applications to structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2010-01-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) are widely used to understand the dynamic behaviour of various systems. FEM updating allows FEMs to be tuned better to reflect measured data and may be conducted using two different statistical frameworks: the maximum likelihood approach and Bayesian approaches. Finite Element Model Updating Using Computational Intelligence Techniques applies both strategies to the field of structural mechanics, an area vital for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Vibration data is used for the updating process. Following an introduction a number of computational intelligence techniques to facilitate the updating process are proposed; they include: • multi-layer perceptron neural networks for real-time FEM updating; • particle swarm and genetic-algorithm-based optimization methods to accommodate the demands of global versus local optimization models; • simulated annealing to put the methodologies into a sound statistical basis; and • response surface methods and expectation m...

  5. Stationary Large Amplitude Dynamics of the Finite Chain of Harmonically Coupled Pendulums

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Valeri V

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical description of the large-amplitude stationary oscillations of the finite discrete system of harmonically-coupled pendulums without any restrictions to their amplitudes (excluding a vicinity of $\\pi$). Although this model has numerous applications in different fields of physics it was studied earlier in the infinite limit only. The developed approach allows to find the dispersion relations for arbitrary amplitudes of the nonlinear normal modes. We underline that the long-wavelength approximation, which is described by well- known sine-Gordon equation leads to inadequate zone structure for the amplitude order of $\\pi/2$ even if the chain is long enough. The extremely complex zone structure at the large amplitudes corresponds to lot of resonances between nonlinear normal modes even with strongly different wave numbers. Due to complexity of the dispersion relations the more short wavelength modes can possess the smaller frequencies. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of the finite-l...

  6. An Improved Finite Difference Type Numerical Method for Structural Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hoon Kim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved finite difference type numerical method to solve partial differential equations for one-dimensional (1-D structure is proposed. This numerical scheme is a kind of a single-step, second-order accurate and implicit method. The stability, consistency, and convergence are examined analytically with a second-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Since the proposed numerical scheme automatically satisfies the natural boundary conditions and at the same time, all the partial differential terms at boundary points are directly interpretable to their physical meanings, the proposed numerical scheme has merits in computing 1-D structural dynamic motion over the existing finite difference numeric methods. Using a numerical example, the suggested method was proven to be more accurate and effective than the well-known central difference method. The only limitation of this method is that it is applicable to only 1-D structure.

  7. Effects of interactions on dynamic correlations of hard-core bosons at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate how dynamic correlations of hard-core bosonic excitation at finite temperature are affected by additional interactions besides the hard-core repulsion which prevents them from occupying the same site. We focus especially on dimerized spin systems, where these additional interactions between the elementary excitations, triplons, lead to the formation of bound states, relevant for the correct description of scattering processes. In order to include these effects quantitatively, we extend the previously developed Brückner approach to include also nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions correctly in a low-temperature expansion. This leads to the extension of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation to a matrix-valued equation. As an example, we consider the Heisenberg spin ladder to illustrate the significance of the additional interactions on the spectral functions at finite temperature, which are proportional to inelastic neutron scattering rates.

  8. Finite-time singularities in the dynamical evolution of contact lines

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, D E

    2013-01-01

    We study finite-time singularities in the linear advection-diffusion equation with a variable speed on a semi-infinite line. The variable speed is determined by an additional condition at the boundary, which models the dynamics of a contact line of a hydrodynamic flow at a 180 contact angle. Using apriori energy estimates, we derive conditions on variable speed that guarantee that a sufficiently smooth solution of the linear advection--diffusion equation blows up in a finite time. Using the class of self-similar solutions to the linear advection-diffusion equation, we find the blow-up rate of singularity formation. This blow-up rate does not agree with previous numerical simulations of the model problem.

  9. Traumatic impact loading on human maxillary incisor: A Dynamic finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayasudha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most vulnerable tooth is the maxillary incisor, which sustains 80% of dental injuries. Dynamic Finite element analysis is used to understand the biomechanics of fracture of maxillary incisor under traumatic impact loading. Aim: The aim was to investigate the stress patterns of an upper incisor in a three-dimensional (3D model under traumatic impact loading in various directions. Materials and Methods: A 3D finite element model of the upper incisor and surrounding tissues was established. A sinusoidal force of 800N was applied over a period of 4 ms. Results: Software performs a series of calculations and mathematical equations and yields the simulation results. During the horizontal impact (F1, stresses were concentrated in the cervical area of the crown, reaching peak stress of 125 MPa at 2 ms. Conclusion: A horizontal force exerted on the labial surface of the tooth tends to cause cervical crown fractures, oblique crown root fractures, and oblique root fractures.

  10. Random Group Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics problem solving is highly specific to the problem at hand and to develop the general mind framework to become an effective problem solver requires ingenuity and creativity on top of a solid grounding on theoretical and conceptual knowledge. A blended approach with prototype demo, problem-based learning, and an opinion questionnaire was used during first semester of 2013. Students working in randomly selected teams had to interact with classmates while solving a randomly selected problem. The approach helps improve awareness of what is important to learn in this class while reducing grading load. It also provides a more rewarding contact time for both pupils and instructor.

  11. First passage failure of dynamical power systems under random perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first-passage problem of dynamical power system of a single-machine-infinite-bus (SMIB) system under random perturbations is studied.First,the stochastic averaging method for quasi non-integrable generalized Hamiltonian systems is applied to reduce the equations of the SMIB system under random perturbations to a set of averaged It? equations.Then,the backward Kolmogorov equation governing the conditional reliability function and the Pontryagin equation governing the conditional mean of first passage time are established and solved numerically,respectively.Finally,the proposed method is verified by using the Monte Carlo simulation of the original system.

  12. Dynamical continuous time random Lévy flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    The Lévy flights' diffusive behavior is studied within the framework of the dynamical continuous time random walk (DCTRW) method, while the nonlinear friction is introduced in each step. Through the DCTRW method, Lévy random walker in each step flies by obeying the Newton's Second Law while the nonlinear friction f(v) = - γ0v - γ2v3 being considered instead of Stokes friction. It is shown that after introducing the nonlinear friction, the superdiffusive Lévy flights converges, behaves localization phenomenon with long time limit, but for the Lévy index μ = 2 case, it is still Brownian motion.

  13. How reliable are Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents for the assessment of ocean dynamics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; López, Cristóbal; Turiel, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Much of atmospheric and oceanic transport is associated with coherent structures. Lagrangian methods are emerging as optimal tools for their identification and analysis. An important Lagrangian technique which is starting to be widely used in oceanography is that of Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLEs). Despite this growing relevance there are still many open questions concerning the reliability of the FSLEs in order to analyse the ocean dynamics. In particular, it is still unclear how robust they are when confronted with real data. In this paper we analyze the effect on this Lagrangian technique of the two most important effects when facing real data, namely noise and dynamics of unsolved scales. Our results, using as a benchmarch data from a primitive numerical model of the Mediterranean Sea, show that even when some dynamics is missed the FSLEs results still give an accurate picture of the oceanic transport properties.

  14. Dynamic finite element model updating of prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiankun; Zhang Lingmi; Guo Qintao; Zhang Yufeng

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge, called the Tongyang Canal Bridge, is built and updated based on the results of ambient vibration testing (AVT) using a real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA). The objective functions are defined based on natural frequency and modal assurance criterion (MAC) metrics to evaluate the updated FEM. Two objective functions are defined to fully account for the relative errors and standard deviations of the natural frequencies and MAC between the AVT results and the updated FEM predictions. The dynamically updated FEM of the bridge can better represent its structural dynamics and serve as a baseline in long-term health monitoring, condition assessment and damage identification over the service life of the bridge.

  15. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF PLATES DUE TO MOVING VEHICLES USING FINITE STRIP METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远胜; 张佑啟; 区达光

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic response of beam-like structures to moving vehicles has been extensive-ly studied. However, the study on dynamic response of plates to moving vehicles has so farreceived but scant attention. A plate-vehicle strip for simulating the interaction between arectangular plate and moving vehicles was described. For the portion of strips that are in di-rect contact with the moving vehicles, the plate-vehicle strips were employed. Conventionalplate finite strips were used to model the portion of strips that are not directly under the ac-tion of moving vehicles. In the analysis, each moving vehicle is idealized as a one-foot dy-namic system with the unsprung mass and sprund mass interconnected by a spring and adashpot. The numerical results obtained from the proposed method agree well with availableresults.

  16. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION BASED FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING FOR STRAIN-RATE-DEPENDENCE NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qintao; ZHANG Lingmi; TAO Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Thin wall component is utilized to absorb impact energy of a structure. However, the dynamic behavior of such thin-walled structure is highly non-linear with material, geometry and boundary non-linearity. A model updating and validation procedure is proposed to build accurate finite element model of a frame structure with a non-linear thin-walled component for dynamic analysis. Design of experiments (DOE) and principal component decomposition (PCD) approach are applied to extract dynamic feature from nonlinear impact response for correlation of impact test result and FE model of the non-linear structure. A strain-rate-dependent non-linear model updating method is then developed to build accurate FE model of the structure. Computer simulation and a real frame structure with a highly non-linear thin-walled component are employed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Metastates in Finite-type Mean-field Models : Visibility, Invisibility, and Random Restoration of Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacobelli, Giulio; Kuelske, Christof

    We consider a general class of disordered mean-field models where both the spin variables and disorder variables eta take finitely many values. To investigate the size-dependence in the phase-transition regime we construct the metastate describing the probabilities to find a large system close to a

  18. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  19. Complex Langevin dynamics for chiral random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, A.; Splittorff, K.

    2013-12-01

    We apply complex Langevin dynamics to chiral random matrix theory at nonzero chemical potential. At large quark mass, the simulations agree with the analytical results while incorrect convergence is found for small quark masses. The region of quark masses for which the complex Langevin dynamics converges incorrectly is identified as the region where the fermion determinant frequently traces out a path surrounding the origin of the complex plane during the Langevin flow. This links the incorrect convergence to an ambiguity in the Langevin force due to the presence of the logarithm of the fermion determinant in the action.

  20. Complex Langevin Dynamics for chiral Random Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, A

    2013-01-01

    We apply complex Langevin dynamics to chiral random matrix theory at nonzero chemical potential. At large quark mass the simulations agree with the analytical results while incorrect convergence is found for small quark masses. The region of quark masses for which the complex Langevin dynamics converges incorrectly is identified as the region where the fermion determinant frequently traces out a path surrounding the origin of the complex plane during the Langevin flow. This links the incorrect convergence to an ambiguity in the Langevin force due to the presence of the logarithm of the fermion determinant in the action.

  1. Precision of recombination frequency estimates after random intermating with finite population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Matthias; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-01-01

    Random intermating of F2 populations has been suggested for obtaining precise estimates of recombination frequencies between tightly linked loci. In a simulation study, sampling effects due to small population sizes in the intermating generations were found to abolish the advantages of random intermating that were reported in previous theoretical studies considering an infinite population size. We propose a mating scheme for intermating with planned crosses that yields more precise estimates than those under random intermating.

  2. A multiscale modeling technique for bridging molecular dynamics with finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yongchang, E-mail: yl83@buffalo.edu; Basaran, Cemal

    2013-11-15

    In computational mechanics, molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) analysis are well developed and most popular on nanoscale and macroscale analysis, respectively. MD can very well simulate the atomistic behavior, but cannot simulate macroscale length and time due to computational limits. FE can very well simulate continuum mechanics (CM) problems, but has the limitation of the lack of atomistic level degrees of freedom. Multiscale modeling is an expedient methodology with a potential to connect different levels of modeling such as quantum mechanics, molecular dynamics, and continuum mechanics. This study proposes a new multiscale modeling technique to couple MD with FE. The proposed method relies on weighted average momentum principle. A wave propagation example has been used to illustrate the challenges in coupling MD with FE and to verify the proposed technique. Furthermore, 2-Dimensional problem has also been used to demonstrate how this method would translate into real world applications. -- Highlights: •A weighted averaging momentum method is introduced for bridging molecular dynamics (MD) with finite element (FE) method. •The proposed method shows excellent coupling results in 1-D and 2-D examples. •The proposed method successfully reduces the spurious wave reflection at the border of MD and FE regions. •Big advantages of the proposed method are simplicity and inexpensive computational cost of multiscale analysis.

  3. Dynamic and Quantitative Method of Analyzing Service Consistency Evolution Based on Extended Hierarchical Finite State Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA. Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service’s evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA, which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12% is the second biggest one, and the service version’s confusion (1.2% is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA.

  4. Ride Dynamics of a Tracked Vehicle with a Finite Element Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on tracked vehicle dynamics is by and large limited to multi-rigid body simulation. For realistic prediction of vehicle dynamics, it is better to model the vehicle as multi-flexible body. In this paper, tracked vehicle is modelled as a mass-spring system with sprung and unsprung masses of the physical tracked vehicle by Finite element method. Using the equivalent vehicle model, dynamic studies are carried out by imparting vertical displacement inputs to the road wheels. Ride characteristics of the vehicle are captured by modelling the road wheel arms as flexible elements using Finite element method. In this work, a typical tracked vehicle test terrain viz., Trapezoidal blocks terrain (APG terrain is considered. Through the simulations, the effect of the road wheel arm flexibility is monitored. Result of the analysis of equivalent vehicle model with flexible road wheel arms, is compared with the equivalent vehicle model with rigid road wheel arms and also with the experimental results of physical tracked vehicle. Though there is no major difference in the vertical bounce response between the flexible model and the rigid model, but there is a visible difference in the roll condition. Result of the flexible vehicle model is also reasonably matches with the experimental result.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 19-25, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9201

  5. Dynamical Stationarity as a Result of Sustained Random Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Biró, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    In sustained growth with random dynamics stationary distributions can exist without detailed balance. This suggests thermodynamical behavior in fast growing complex systems. In order to model such phenomena we apply both a discrete and a continuous master equation. The derivation of elementary rates from known stationary distributions is a generalization of the fluctuation--dissipation theorem. Entropic distance evolution is given for such systems. We reconstruct distributions obtained for growing networks, particle production, scientific citations and income distribution.

  6. Random Matrix Theory of Dynamical Cross Correlations in Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y.; Iyetomi, H.

    A new method taking advantage of the random matrix theory is proposed to extract genuine dynamical correlations between price fluctuations of different stocks. One-day returns of 557 Japanese major stocks for the 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 are used for this study. We carry out the discrete Fourier transform of the returns to construct a correlation matrix at each frequency. Also we prepare series of random numbers which are mutually uncorrelated and hence serve as a reference. Comparison of the eigenvalues of the empirical correlation matrix with the reference results of the random one enables us to distinguish between information and noise involved in complicated behavior of the stock returns. It is thus demonstrated that there exist collective motions of the stock prices with periods well over days. Finally we indicate a possible application of the present finding to the risk evaluation of portfolios.

  7. Effects of random noise in a dynamical model of love

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yong, E-mail: hsux3@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Gu Rencai; Zhang Huiqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > We model the complexity and unpredictability of psychology as Gaussian white noise. > The stochastic system of love is considered including bifurcation and chaos. > We show that noise can both suppress and induce chaos in dynamical models of love. - Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the stochastic model of love and the effects of random noise. We first revisit the deterministic model of love and some basic properties are presented such as: symmetry, dissipation, fixed points (equilibrium), chaotic behaviors and chaotic attractors. Then we construct a stochastic love-triangle model with parametric random excitation due to the complexity and unpredictability of the psychological system, where the randomness is modeled as the standard Gaussian noise. Stochastic dynamics under different three cases of 'Romeo's romantic style', are examined and two kinds of bifurcations versus the noise intensity parameter are observed by the criteria of changes of top Lyapunov exponent and shape of stationary probability density function (PDF) respectively. The phase portraits and time history are carried out to verify the proposed results, and the good agreement can be found. And also the dual roles of the random noise, namely suppressing and inducing chaos are revealed.

  8. Relative weights approach to SU(3) gauge theories with dynamical fermions at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwieser, Roman

    2016-01-01

    We derive effective Polyakov line actions for SU(3) gauge theories with staggered dynamical fermions, for a small sample of lattice couplings, lattice actions, and lattice extensions in the time direction. The derivation is via the method of relative weights, and the theories are solved at finite chemical potential by mean field theory. We find in some instances that the long-range couplings in the effective action are very important to the phase structure, and that these couplings are responsible for long-lived metastable states in the effective theory. Only one of these states corresponds to the underlying lattice gauge theory.

  9. Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peixun; Michael Wong, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.

  10. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Blood Flow: Coupling Finite Elements with Smoothed Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    A variational multi scale approach to model blood flow through arteries is proposed. A finite element discretization to represent the coarse scales (macro size), is coupled to smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that captures the fine scale features (micro scale). Blood is assumed to be incompressible, and flow is described through the Navier Stokes equation. The proposed cou- pling is tested with two benchmark problems, in fully coupled systems. Further refinements of the model can be incorporated in order to explicitly include blood constituents and non-Newtonian behavior. The suggested algorithm can be used with any particle-based method able to solve the Navier-Stokes equation.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation for baryon-quark phase transition at finite temperature and density

    CERN Document Server

    Akimura, Y; Yoshinaga, N; Chiba, S; Akimura, Yuka; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    We study the baryon-quark phase transition in a molecular dynamics (MD) of quark degrees of freedom at finite temperature and density. The baryon state at low density and temperature, and the deconfined quark state at high density and temperature are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different $u$-$d$-$s$ compositions. Then we draw phase diagrams in the temperature-density plane by this simulation. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width.

  13. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; MI Dong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple localgauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalarfields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential isgiven which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinementbehavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can bemelted away under high temperatures.

  14. Dynamical Model of QCD Vacuum and Color Thaw at Finite Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan; MIDong

    2004-01-01

    In terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a simple local gauge model is investigated. An important relation between the vacuum expectation value of gauge fields and scalar fields is derived by solving the Euler equation for the gauge fields. Based on this relation the SU(3) gauge potential is given which can be used to explain the asymptotic freedom and confinement of quarks in a hadron. The confinement behavior at finite temperatures is also investigated and it is shown that color confinement at zero temperature can be melted away under high temperatures.

  15. Spatial Finite Element Analysis for Dynamic Response of Curved Thin-Walled Box Girder Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the flexural and torsional characteristics of curved thin-walled box girder with the effect of initial curvature, 7 basic displacements of curved box girder are determined. And then the strain-displacement calculation correlations were established. Under the curvilinear coordinate system, a three-noded curved girder finite element which has 7 degrees of freedom per node for the vibration characteristic and dynamic response analysis of curved box girder is constructed. The shape functions are used as the interpolation functions of variable curvature and variable height to accommodate to the variation of curvature and section height. A MATLAB numerical analysis program has been implemented.

  16. A study of dynamic finite size scaling behavior of the scaling functions—calculation of dynamic critical index of Wolff algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüç, Semra; Dilaver, Mehmet; Aydın, Meral; Gündüç, Yiğit

    2005-02-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic scaling behavior of two scaling functions and we have shown that scaling functions obey the dynamic finite size scaling rules. Dynamic finite size scaling of scaling functions opens possibilities for a wide range of applications. As an application we have calculated the dynamic critical exponent (z) of Wolff's cluster algorithm for 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional Ising models. Configurations with vanishing initial magnetization are chosen in order to avoid complications due to initial magnetization. The observed dynamic finite size scaling behavior during early stages of the Monte Carlo simulation yields z for Wolff's cluster algorithm for 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional Ising models with vanishing values which are consistent with the values obtained from the autocorrelations. Especially, the vanishing dynamic critical exponent we obtained for d=3 implies that the Wolff algorithm is more efficient in eliminating critical slowing down in Monte Carlo simulations than previously reported.

  17. Dynamics study of a laser-induced bubble on a finite metallic surface in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics of a bubble induced on a finite rigid boundary in water, a simple experimental method based on laser beam transmission probe is developed to measure the time dependence of the bubble’s radius on a finite metallic surface under different incident laser energies, and a numerical method is employed to simulate the bubble’s first collapse. A correction factor based on the Raleigh collapse time formula is proposed to describe the collapse time of the bubble induced on a finite rigid boundary. The experimental and simulation results show that the correction factor is slightly different for the bubble’s first and subsequent two oscillations, and its detailed expression is obtained from the experimental and simulation results. The experimental results show that the conversion efficiency of the incident laser energy into bubble energy increases with the former, and the ratio of the energy left for subsequent bubble oscillation increases with the number of bubble oscillation.

  18. Dynamic Shape Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Frame Structures Using the Inverse Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A robust and efficient computational method for reconstructing the three-dimensional displacement field of truss, beam, and frame structures, using measured surface-strain data, is presented. Known as shape sensing , this inverse problem has important implications for real-time actuation and control of smart structures, and for monitoring of structural integrity. The present formulation, based on the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM), uses a least-squares variational principle involving strain measures of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shear. Two inverse-frame finite elements are derived using interdependent interpolations whose interior degrees-of-freedom are condensed out at the element level. In addition, relationships between the order of kinematic-element interpolations and the number of required strain gauges are established. As an example problem, a thin-walled, circular cross-section cantilevered beam subjected to harmonic excitations in the presence of structural damping is modeled using iFEM; where, to simulate strain-gauge values and to provide reference displacements, a high-fidelity MSC/NASTRAN shell finite element model is used. Examples of low and high-frequency dynamic motion are analyzed and the solution accuracy examined with respect to various levels of discretization and the number of strain gauges.

  19. Finite volume spectrum of 2D field theories from Hirota dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Nikolay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[St. Petersburg INP, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kazakov, Vladimir [Univ. Paris-IV, Paris (France). Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Theorique; Vieira, Pedro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany)]|[Univ. do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica e Centro de Fisica do Porto Faculdade de Ciencias

    2008-12-15

    We propose, using the example of the O(4) sigma model, a general method for solving integrable two dimensional relativistic sigma models in a finite size periodic box. Our starting point is the so-called Y-system, which is equivalent to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations of Yang and Yang. It is derived from the Zamolodchikov scattering theory in the cross channel, for virtual particles along the non-compact direction of the space-time cylinder. The method is based on the integrable Hirota dynamics that follows from the Y-system. The outcome is a nonlinear integral equation for a single complex function, valid for an arbitrary quantum state and accompanied by the finite size analogue of Bethe equations. It is close in spirit to the Destri-deVega (DdV) equation. We present the numerical data for the energy of various states as a function of the size, and derive the general Luescher-type formulas for the finite size corrections. We also re-derive by our method the DdV equation for the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. (orig.)

  20. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Stall on a Finite Span NACA 0012 Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Wyatt; Bohl, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    In this work the velocity and vorticity fields around finite and ``infinite'' span wings with a NACA 0012 profile undergoing constant rate pitching were quantified using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV). The ``infinite'' span wing was bounded by walls to reduce the effects of the wing tip vortex while the finite span wing was bounded by a wall on one end and unbounded on the other. The wings were pitched from α = 0 to 55° with a constant non-dimensional pitch rate of Ω* = 0.1 at Rec = 12000. The Dynamic Stall Vortex (DSV) was identified and tracked using the `` Γ criteria.'' The results showed that the formation and trajectory of the DSV for the finite wing case varied with the spanwise location, with the location of the DSV remaining progressively closer to the airfoil surface towards the wingtip. These results were consistent with the ``Omega'' vortex structure previously observed in flow visualization. The DSV was also found to remain closer, and convect away from the airfoil surface slower, at all spanwise measurement planes when compared to the infinite span results. This work was supported by NSF Grant #845882.

  1. Spatially random models, estimation theory, and robot arm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spatially random models provide an alternative to the more traditional deterministic models used to describe robot arm dynamics. These alternative models can be used to establish a relationship between the methodologies of estimation theory and robot dynamics. A new class of algorithms for many of the fundamental robotics problems of inverse and forward dynamics, inverse kinematics, etc. can be developed that use computations typical in estimation theory. The algorithms make extensive use of the difference equations of Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier smoothing to conduct spatial recursions. The spatially random models are very easy to describe and are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. The models can also be used to generate numerically the composite multibody system inertia matrix. This is done without resorting to the more common methods of deterministic modeling involving Lagrangian dynamics, Newton-Euler equations, etc. These methods make substantial use of human knowledge in derivation and minipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems.

  2. Randomized Dynamical Decoupling Techniques for Coherent Quantum Control

    CERN Document Server

    Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Santos, Lea F.

    2006-01-01

    The need for strategies able to accurately manipulate quantum dynamics is ubiquitous in quantum control and quantum information processing. We investigate two scenarios where randomized dynamical decoupling techniques become more advantageous with respect to standard deterministic methods in switching off unwanted dynamical evolution in a closed quantum system: when dealing with decoupling cycles which involve a large number of control actions and/or when seeking long-time quantum information storage. Highly effective hybrid decoupling schemes, which combine deterministic and stochastic features are discussed, as well as the benefits of sequentially implementing a concatenated method, applied at short times, followed by a hybrid protocol, employed at longer times. A quantum register consisting of a chain of spin-1/2 particles interacting via the Heisenberg interaction is used as a model for the analysis throughout.

  3. A New Concurrent Multiscale Methodology for Coupling Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, Vesselin; Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H/.

    2008-01-01

    The coupling of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with finite element methods (FEM) yields computationally efficient models that link fundamental material processes at the atomistic level with continuum field responses at higher length scales. The theoretical challenge involves developing a seamless connection along an interface between two inherently different simulation frameworks. Various specialized methods have been developed to solve particular classes of problems. Many of these methods link the kinematics of individual MD atoms with FEM nodes at their common interface, necessarily requiring that the finite element mesh be refined to atomic resolution. Some of these coupling approaches also require simulations to be carried out at 0 K and restrict modeling to two-dimensional material domains due to difficulties in simulating full three-dimensional material processes. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the standard boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method replaces a direct linkage of individual MD atoms and finite element (FE) nodes with a statistical averaging of atomistic displacements in local atomic volumes associated with each FE node in an interface region. The FEM and MD computational systems are effectively independent and communicate only through an iterative update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM). ESCM provides an enhanced coupling methodology that is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model to atomic scale resolution, and permits finite temperature states to be applied.

  4. An Embedded Statistical Method for Coupling Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.H.; Yamakov, V.

    2008-01-01

    The coupling of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with finite element methods (FEM) yields computationally efficient models that link fundamental material processes at the atomistic level with continuum field responses at higher length scales. The theoretical challenge involves developing a seamless connection along an interface between two inherently different simulation frameworks. Various specialized methods have been developed to solve particular classes of problems. Many of these methods link the kinematics of individual MD atoms with FEM nodes at their common interface, necessarily requiring that the finite element mesh be refined to atomic resolution. Some of these coupling approaches also require simulations to be carried out at 0 K and restrict modeling to two-dimensional material domains due to difficulties in simulating full three-dimensional material processes. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the standard boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method replaces a direct linkage of individual MD atoms and finite element (FE) nodes with a statistical averaging of atomistic displacements in local atomic volumes associated with each FE node in an interface region. The FEM and MD computational systems are effectively independent and communicate only through an iterative update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM). ESCM provides an enhanced coupling methodology that is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model to atomic scale resolution, and permits finite temperature states to be applied.

  5. Extension of the Finite Integration Technique including dynamic mesh refinement and its application to self-consistent beam dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M. Schnepp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extension of the framework of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT including dynamic and adaptive mesh refinement is presented. After recalling the standard formulation of the FIT, the proposed mesh adaptation procedure is described. Besides the linear interpolation approach, a novel interpolation technique based on specialized spline functions for approximating the discrete electromagnetic field solution during mesh adaptation is introduced. The standard FIT on a fixed mesh and the new adaptive approach are applied to a simulation test case with a known analytical solution. The numerical accuracy of the two methods is shown to be comparable. The dynamic mesh approach is, however, much more efficient. This is demonstrated with the full scale modeling of the complete rf gun at the Photo Injector Test Facility DESY Zeuthen (PITZ on a single computer. Results of a detailed design study addressing the effects of individual components of the gun onto the beam emittance using a fully self-consistent approach are presented.

  6. Extension of the Finite Integration Technique including dynamic mesh refinement and its application to self-consistent beam dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schnepp, Sascha M; Weiland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    An extension of the framework of the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) including dynamic and adaptive mesh refinement is presented. After recalling the standard formulation of the FIT, the proposed mesh adaptation procedure is described. Besides the linear interpolation approach, a novel interpolation technique based on specialized spline functions for approximating the discrete electromagnetic field solution during mesh adaptation is introduced. The standard FIT on a fixed mesh and the new adaptive approach are applied to a simulation test case with known analytical solution. The numerical accuracy of the two methods are shown to be comparable. The dynamic mesh approach is, however, much more efficient. This is also demonstrated for the full scale modeling of the complete RF gun at the Photo Injector Test Facility DESY Zeuthen (PITZ) on a single computer. Results of a detailed design study addressing the effects of individual components of the gun onto the beam emittance using a fully self-consistent approa...

  7. Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of Electric Power Steering Systems Using Dedicated Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, François; Ferraris, Guy; Guingand, Michèle; Vaujany, Jean-Pierre De

    During the last decade, many new technical solutions dedicated to the comfort of automotive vehicle's drivers have raised, like Electrical Power Steering (EPS). To fulfill the more and more demanding requirements in terms of vibration and acoustics, the dynamic behavior of the whole steering is studied. The system is divided into dedicated finite elements (FE) describing the whole steering. The stress was first put on the gears models (worm gear and rack-and-pinion) and their anti-backlash systems as they have been identified as potential vibration sources. Mechanical non-linearities (clearances, non-linear stiffness) of the mechanical system are taken into account in these models. Then, this model allows simulating the transient response of the system to an input excitation. Each developed element is validated using a fitted experimental test bench. Then, the general model is correlated the same way. Hence models can be used to study the dynamic behavior of EPS systems or sub-systems.

  8. Finite-element (FE modelling of bridge dynamics from exposure to moving load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Kadisov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solutions to the problem of cable-stayed bridge dynamics are received and analysed on the basis of two modelling options. According to the first one space-time finite-elements are used. The first three bridge vibration modes are shown to study cable-stayed bridge fluctuations when exposed to the vertical force moving at a constant speed and compile charts of time history strains in fixed sections of a deck. According to the second option a suspended superstructure is represented by a fold with absolutely rigid transverse membranes in joints of cables, a bridge tower is represented by a beam. Natural modes of the bridge are received by a solution of homogeneous system equations of the mixed method. Nodal lines of a fold for the first four natural modes are shown. The comparative description of applicability of the above-mentioned methods of solving problems of dynamics affected by moving load is given.

  9. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  10. Finite element analysis of dynamic stability of skeletal structures under periodic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THANA Hemantha Kumar; AMEEN Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the dynamic stability problem of columns and frames subjected to axially applied periodic loads. Such a structure can become unstable under certain combinations of amplitudes and frequencies of the imposed load acting on its columns/beams. These are usually shown in the form of plots which describe regions of instability. The finite element method (FEM) is used in this work to analyse dynamic stability problems of columns. Two-noded beam elements are used for this purpose.The periodic loading is decomposed into various harmonics using Fourier series expansion. Computer codes in C++ using object oriented concepts are developed to determine the stability regions of columns subjected to periodic loading. A number of numerical examples are presented to illustrate the working of the program. The direct integration of the equations of motions of the discretised system is carried out using Newmark's method to verify the results.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DYNAMICAL BUCKLING AND POST BUCKLING FOR BEAMS BY FINITE SEGMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-gang; DU Si-yi; HU Ji-yun; DING Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the multi-rigid body discretization model, namely, finite segment model,a chain multi-rigid-body-hinge-spring system model of a beam was presented,then a nonlinear parametrically exacted vibration equation of multi-degrees of freedom system was established using the coordination transformation method, and its resonance fields were derived by the restriction parameter method, that is, the dynamical buckling analysis of the beam. Because the deformation of a beam is not restricted by the discrete model and dynamic equation, the post buckling analysis can be done in above math model. The numerical solutions of a few examples were obtained by direct integrated method, which shows that the mechanical and math model gotten is correct.

  12. A topology-motivated mixed finite element method for dynamic response of porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Lotfian, Zahrasadat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical method for computing solutions to Biot's fully dynamic model of incompressible saturated porous media [Biot;1956]. Our spatial discretization scheme is based on the three-field formulation (u-w-p) and the coupling of a lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed element [Raviart,Thomas;1977] for fluid variable fields (w, p ) and a nodal Galerkin finite element for skeleton variable field (u). These mixed spaces are constructed based on the natural topology of the variables; hence, are physically compatible and able to exactly model the kind of continuity which is expected. The method automatically satisfies the well known LBB (inf-sup) stability condition and avoids locking that usually occurs in the numerical computations in the incompressible limit and very low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast to the majority of approaches, our three-field formulation can fully capture dynamic behavior of porous media even in high frequency loading phenomena with considerable fluid acceleratio...

  13. Finite Element Simulation of Dynamic Wetting Flows as an Interface Formation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Sprittles, James

    2012-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows -the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the `hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting', is discovered where the influence of the capillary's radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where...

  14. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure.......We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....

  16. Adaptive finite-volume WENO schemes on dynamically redistributed grids for compressible Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2016-08-01

    A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of finite populations in games with polymorphic fitness equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Sevan G; Pollack, Jordan B

    2007-08-07

    The hawk-dove (HD) game, as defined by Maynard Smith [1982. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge], allows for a polymorphic fitness equilibrium (PFE) to exist between its two pure strategies; this polymorphism is the attractor of the standard replicator dynamics [Taylor, P.D., Jonker, L., 1978. Evolutionarily stable strategies and game dynamics. Math. Biosci. 40, 145-156; Hofbauer, J., Sigmund, K., 1998. Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge] operating on an infinite population of pure-strategists. Here, we consider stochastic replicator dynamics, operating on a finite population of pure-strategists playing games similar to HD; in particular, we examine the transient behavior of the system, before it enters an absorbing state due to sampling error. Though stochastic replication prevents the population from fixing onto the PFE, selection always favors the under-represented strategy. Thus, we may naively expect that the mean population state (of the pre-absorption transient) will correspond to the PFE. The empirical results of Fogel et al. [1997. On the instability of evolutionary stable states. BioSystems 44, 135-152] show that the mean population state, in fact, deviates from the PFE with statistical significance. We provide theoretical results that explain their observations. We show that such deviation away from the PFE occurs when the selection pressures that surround the fitness-equilibrium point are asymmetric. Further, we analyze a Markov model to prove that a finite population will generate a distribution over population states that equilibrates selection-pressure asymmetry; the mean of this distribution is generally not the fitness-equilibrium state.

  18. A finite element approach for the dynamic analysis of joint-dominated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Shih-Chin

    1991-01-01

    A finite element method to model dynamic structural systems undergoing large rotations is presented. The dynamic systems are composed of rigid joint bodies and flexible beam elements. The configurations of these systems are subject to change due to the relative motion in the joints among interconnected elastic beams. A body fixed reference is defined for each joint body to describe the joint body's displacements. Using the finite element method and the kinematic relations between each flexible element and its corotational reference, the total displacement field of an element, which contains gross rigid as well as elastic effects, can be derived in terms of the translational and rotational displacements of the two end nodes. If one end of an element is hinged to a joint body, the joint body's displacements and the hinge degree of freedom at the end are used to represent the nodal displacements. This results in a highly coupled system of differential equations written in terms of hinge degrees of freedom as well as the rotational and translational displacements of joint bodies and element nodes.

  19. Mixed Finite Element Method for Static and Dynamic Contact Problems with Friction and Initial Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed finite element method is proposed for static and dynamic contact problems with friction and initial gaps. Based on the characteristic of local nonlinearity for the problem, the system of forces acting on the contactor is divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in contact region under local coordinate system is selected as the iteration variable to confine the nonlinear iteration process in the potential contact surface which is more numerically efficient. In this way, the sophisticated contact nonlinearity is revealed by the variety of the contact forces which are determined by the external load and the contact state stick, slip, or separation. Moreover, in the case of multibody contact problem, the flexibility matrix is symmetric and sparse; thus, the iterative procedure becomes easily carried out and much more economical. In the paper, both the finite element formulations and the iteration process are given in detail for static and dynamic contact problems. Four examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

  20. Correlated quantum dynamics of a single atom collisionally coupled to an ultracold finite bosonic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönke, Sven; Knörzer, Johannes; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We explore the correlated quantum dynamics of a single atom, regarded as an open system, with a spatio-temporally localized coupling to a finite bosonic environment. The single atom, initially prepared in a coherent state of low energy, oscillates in a one-dimensional harmonic trap and thereby periodically penetrates an interacting ensemble of NA bosons held in a displaced trap. We show that the inter-species energy transfer accelerates with increasing NA and becomes less complete at the same time. System-environment correlations prove to be significant except for times when the excess energy distribution among the subsystems is highly imbalanced. These correlations result in incoherent energy transfer processes, which accelerate the early energy donation of the single atom and stochastically favour certain energy transfer channels, depending on the instantaneous direction of transfer. Concerning the subsystem states, the energy transfer is mediated by non-coherent states of the single atom and manifests itself in singlet and doublet excitations in the finite bosonic environment. These comprehensive insights into the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of an open system are gained by ab initio simulations of the total system with the recently developed multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons.

  1. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  2. Sequential assimilation of multi-mission dynamical topography into a global finite-element ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Skachko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on an accurate estimation of ocean circulation via assimilation of satellite measurements of ocean dynamical topography into the global finite-element ocean model (FEOM. The dynamical topography data are derived from a complex analysis of multi-mission altimetry data combined with a referenced earth geoid. The assimilation is split into two parts. First, the mean dynamic topography is adjusted. To this end an adiabatic pressure correction method is used which reduces model divergence from the real evolution. Second, a sequential assimilation technique is applied to improve the representation of thermodynamical processes by assimilating the time varying dynamic topography. A method is used according to which the temperature and salinity are updated following the vertical structure of the first baroclinic mode. It is shown that the method leads to a partially successful assimilation approach reducing the rms difference between the model and data from 16 cm to 2 cm. This improvement of the mean state is accompanied by significant improvement of temporal variability in our analysis. However, it remains suboptimal, showing a tendency in the forecast phase of returning toward a free run without data assimilation. Both the mean difference and standard deviation of the difference between the forecast and observation data are reduced as the result of assimilation.

  3. Extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics in a random, convective environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by modeling the dynamics of a population living in a flowing medium where the environmental factors are random in space, we have studied an asymmetric variant of the one-dimensional contact process, where the quenched random reproduction rates are systematically greater in one direction than in the opposite one. The spatial disorder turns out to be a relevant perturbation but, according to results of Monte Carlo simulations, the behavior of the model at the extinction transition is different from the (infinite-randomness) critical behavior of the disordered symmetric contact process. Depending on the strength a of the asymmetry, the critical population drifts either with a finite velocity or with an asymptotically vanishing velocity as x(t) ∼ tμ(a), where μ(a) extinction transition; the survival probability, for instance, shows multiscaling, i.e. it is characterized by a broad spectrum of effective exponents. For a sufficiently weak asymmetry, a Griffiths phase appears below the extinction transition, where the survival probability decays as a non-universal power of the time while, above the transition, another extended phase emerges, where the front of the population advances anomalously with a diffusion exponent continuously varying with the control parameter.

  4. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2015-04-01

    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent α . Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of α , the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure.

  5. Failure of random matrix theory to correctly describe quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottos, T; Cohen, D

    2001-12-01

    Consider a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(0). At t=0 the Hamiltonian undergoes a sudden change (H)0-->H. We consider the quantum-mechanical spreading of the evolving energy distribution, and argue that it cannot be analyzed using a conventional random-matrix theory (RMT) approach. Conventional RMT can be trusted only to the extent that it gives trivial results that are implied by first-order perturbation theory. Nonperturbative effects are sensitive to the underlying classical dynamics, and therefore the Planck's over 2 pi-->0 behavior for effective RMT models is strikingly different from the correct semiclassical limit.

  6. Large deviation principle for one-dimensional random walk in dynamic random environment: attractive spin-flips and simple symmetric exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Avena, L; Redig, F

    2009-01-01

    Consider a one-dimensional shift-invariant attractive spin-flip system in equilibrium, constituting a dynamic random environment, together with a nearest-neighbor random walk that on occupied sites has a local drift to the right but on vacant sites has a local drift to the left. In previous work we proved a law of large numbers for dynamic random environments satisfying a space-time mixing property called cone-mixing. If an attractive spin-flip system has a finite average coupling time at the origin for two copies starting from the all-occupied and the all-vacant configuration, respectively, then it is cone-mixing. In the present paper we prove a large deviation principle for the empirical speed of the random walk, both quenched and annealed, and exhibit some properties of the associated rate functions. Under an exponential space-time mixing condition for the spin-flip system, which is stronger than cone-mixing, the two rate functions have a unique zero, i.e., the slow-down phenomenon known to be possible in ...

  7. Finite-size effects on the lattice dynamics in spin crossover nanomaterials. II. Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasek, Mirko; Nicolazzi, William; Terki, Férial; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2017-07-01

    In the first part of this work, an experimental study of the lattice dynamics of spin crossover nanoparticles was performed using the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS). A size dependence of low energy phonon modes appears under 10 nm, but its origin is not well understood. In this paper, we investigate the phonon confinement effects in the framework of molecular dynamics simulations by modeling three-dimensional nanoparticles considering a cubic lattice with an octahedral pattern. The vibrational density of states is computed and compared to the experiment. The simulations allow one to highlight both the role of the phonon quantification and the role of the size and shape distributions of particles on the extracted parameters leading to a better understanding of the experimental results.

  8. Simulation of the dynamic behavior of the coffee fruit-stem system using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lúcio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical harvesting can be considered an important factor to reduce the costs in coffee production and to improve the quality of the final product. Coffee harvesting machinery uses mechanical vibrations to accomplish the harvesting. Therefore, the determination of the natural frequencies of the fruit-stem systems is an essential dynamic parameter for the development of mechanized harvesting system by mechanical vibrations. The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the coffee fruit-stem systems, considering different fruit ripeness. Moreover, it was carried out a theoretical study, using the finite element three-dimensional model, based on the linear theory of elasticity, for determining the generated stress in a coffee fruit-stem system, during the harvesting process by mechanical vibration. The results showed that natural frequencies decrease as the ripeness condition of the fruit increases. Counter-phase mode shape can provide better detachment efficiency considering the stress generation on coffee fruit-stem system during the harvesting by mechanical vibrations and presented a difference greater than 40 Hz between the natural frequencies of the green and ripe fruit.

  9. Finite-time singularity in the dynamics of the world population, economic and financial indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Sornette, Didier

    2001-05-01

    Contrary to common belief, both the Earth's human population and its economic output have grown faster than exponential, i.e., in a super-Malthusian mode, for most of the known history. These growth rates are compatible with a spontaneous singularity occurring at the same critical time 2052±10 signaling an abrupt transition to a new regime. The degree of abruptness can be infered from the fact that the maximum of the world population growth rate was reached in 1970, i.e., about 80 years before the predicted singular time, corresponding to approximately 4% of the studied time interval over which the acceleration is documented. This rounding-off of the finite-time singularity is probably due to a combination of well-known finite-size effects and friction and suggests that we have already entered the transition region to a new regime. As theoretical support, a multivariate analysis coupling population, capital, R&D and technology shows that a dramatic acceleration in the population growth during most of the timespan can occur even though the isolated dynamics do not exhibit it. Possible scenarios for the cross-over and the new regime are discussed.

  10. On the nature of nuclear dissipation, as a hallmark for collective dynamics at finite excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, H; Yamaji, S; Hofmann, Helmut; Ivanyuk, Fedor A; Yamaji, Shuhei

    1995-01-01

    We study slow collective motion of isoscalar type at finite excitation. The collective variable is parameterized as a shape degree of freedom and the mean field is approximated by a deformed shell model potential. We concentrate on situations of slow motion, as guaranteed, for instance, by the presence of a strong friction force, which allows us to apply linear response theory. The prediction for nuclear dissipation of some models of internal motion are contrasted. They encompass such opposing cases as that of pure independent particle motion and the one of "collisional dominance". For the former the wall formula appears as the macroscopic limit, which is here simulated through Strutinsky smoothing procedures. It is argued that this limit hardly applies to the actual nuclear situation. The reason is found in large collisional damping present for nucleonic dynamics at finite temperature T. The level structure of the mean field as well as the T-dependence of collisional damping determine the T-dependence of fri...

  11. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A DOUBLE IMPACT TRIAXIAL TEST ON SAND BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Fattah,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Impact problems have recently been the subject of intense research. Impact tests have found a great interest by several researchers, and dynamic testing apparatus were developed in different laboratories. Inaddition, several theoretical models were developed to simulate impact tests theoretically and get the corresponding stress-strain relations. A general mixed finite element formulation (u – w – π is presented in this paper. This formulation includes the inertia effects and the materials (solid grains and water are considered compressible. The application of this formulation in solving impact problems of dry sand is made by restricting the boundary conditions concerning the pore fluid, and comparisons are made between laboratory tests conducted at the University of Baghdad in 1989 against elasto-plastic model named ALTERNAT are made herein. A comparison is made between the experimental results and theoretical ones which are obtained by simulating the impact tests using the finite element method. The ALTERNAT model gave very good predictions for displacements of dense (Dr = 75 % sands when subjected to double impacts.

  12. Finite strain formulation of viscoelastic damage model for simulation of fabric reinforced polymers under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treutenaere S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fabric reinforced polymers in the automotive industry is growing significantly. The high specific stiffness and strength, the ease of shaping as well as the great impact performance of these materials widely encourage their diffusion. The present model increases the predictability of explicit finite element analysis and push the boundaries of the ongoing phenomenological model. Carbon fibre composites made up various preforms were tested by applying different mechanical load up to dynamic loading. This experimental campaign highlighted the physical mechanisms affecting the initial mechanical properties, namely intra- and interlaminar matrix damage, viscoelasticty and fibre failure. The intralaminar behaviour model is based on the explicit formulation of the matrix damage model developed by the ONERA as the given damage formulation correlates with the experimental observation. Coupling with a Maxwell-Wiechert model, the viscoelasticity is included without losing the direct explicit formulation. Additionally, the model is formulated under a total Lagrangian scheme in order to maintain consistency for finite strain. Thus, the material frame-indifference as well as anisotropy are ensured. This allows reorientation of fibres to be taken into account particularly for in-plane shear loading. Moreover, fall within the framework of the total Lagrangian scheme greatly makes the parameter identification easier, as based on the initial configuration. This intralaminar model thus relies upon a physical description of the behaviour of fabric composites and the numerical simulations show a good correlation with the experimental results.

  13. An upwind vertex centred Finite Volume solver for Lagrangian solid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Miquel; Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier; Lee, Chun Hean

    2015-11-01

    A vertex centred Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) finite volume algorithm was recently introduced by the authors (Aguirre et al., 2014 [1]) in the context of fast solid isothermal dynamics. The spatial discretisation scheme was constructed upon a Lagrangian two-field mixed (linear momentum and the deformation gradient) formulation presented as a system of conservation laws [2-4]. In this paper, the formulation is further enhanced by introducing a novel upwind vertex centred finite volume algorithm with three key novelties. First, a conservation law for the volume map is incorporated into the existing two-field system to extend the range of applications towards the incompressibility limit (Gil et al., 2014 [5]). Second, the use of a linearised Riemann solver and reconstruction limiters is derived for the stabilisation of the scheme together with an efficient edge-based implementation. Third, the treatment of thermo-mechanical processes through a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state is incorporated in the proposed formulation. For completeness, the study of the eigenvalue structure of the resulting system of conservation laws is carried out to demonstrate hyperbolicity and obtain the correct time step bounds for non-isothermal processes. A series of numerical examples are presented in order to assess the robustness of the proposed methodology. The overall scheme shows excellent behaviour in shock and bending dominated nearly incompressible scenarios without spurious pressure oscillations, yielding second order of convergence for both velocities and stresses.

  14. Finite-temperature dynamics and thermal intraband magnon scattering in Haldane spin-one chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Köhler, T.; Tiegel, A. C.; Manmana, S. R.; Wessel, S.; Honecker, A.

    2017-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic spin-one chain is considerably one of the most fundamental quantum many-body systems, with symmetry-protected topological order in the ground state. Here, we present results for its dynamical spin structure factor at finite temperatures, based on a combination of exact numerical diagonalization, matrix-product-state calculations, and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Open finite chains exhibit a subgap band in the thermal spectral functions, indicative of localized edge states. Moreover, we observe the thermal activation of a distinct low-energy continuum contribution to the spin spectral function with an enhanced spectral weight at low momenta and its upper threshold. This emerging thermal spectral feature of the Haldane spin-one chain is shown to result from intraband magnon scattering due to the thermal population of the single-magnon branch, which features a large bandwidth-to-gap ratio. These findings are discussed with respect to possible future studies on spin-one chain compounds based on inelastic neutron scattering.

  15. The Young’s moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite element models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young’s modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young’s moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be acceptable to predict the Young’s moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforcement.

  16. The Young's moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; WANG RongXiu; WU Yong

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite ele-ment models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young's modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young's moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be ac-ceptable to predict the Young's moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforce-ment.

  17. Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Extensional-Torsional Coupled Vibration in Nonuniform Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed M.; Roach, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The application of a Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) technique to the extensional-torsional free vibration analysis of nonuniform composite beams, in the absence of flexural coupling, is presented. The proposed method is a fusion of the Galerkin weighted residual formulation and the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix (DSM) method, where the basis functions of approximation space are assumed to be the closed form solutions of the differential equations governing uncoupled extensional and torsional vibrations of the beam. The use of resulting dynamic trigonometric interpolation (shape) functions leads to a frequency dependent stiffness matrix, representing both mass and stiffness properties of the beam element. Assembly of the element matrices and the application of the boundary conditions then leads to a frequency dependent nonlinear eigenproblem, which is solved to evaluate the system natural frequencies and modes. Two illustrative examples of uniform and tapered cantilevered, Circumferentially Uniform Stiffness ( CUS), hollow, composite beams are presented. The influence of ply fibre-angle on the natural frequencies is also studied. The correctness of the theory and the superiority of the proposed DFE over the contrasting DSM and conventional FEM methods are confirmed by the published results and numerical checks. The discussion of results is followed by some concluding remarks.

  18. A Stochastic Finite Element Model for the Dynamics of Globular Macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, Robin; Harlen, Oliver G; Harris, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel coarse-grained simulation method for modelling the dynamics of globular macromolecules, such as proteins. The macromolecule is treated as a continuum that is subject to thermal fluctuations. The model includes a non-linear treatment of elasticity and viscosity with thermal noise that is solved using finite element analysis. We have validated the method by demonstrating that the model provides average kinetic and potential energies that are in agreement with the classical equipartition theorem. In addition, we have performed Fourier analysis on the simulation trajectories obtained for a series of linear beams to confirm that the correct average energies are present in the first two Fourier bending modes. We have then used the new modelling method to simulate the thermal fluctuations of a representative protein over 500ns timescales. Using reasonable parameters for the material properties, we have demonstrated that the overall deformation of the biomolecule is consistent with the results obt...

  19. Biomechanical analysis and design of a dynamic spinal fixator using topology optimization: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Pan, Yung-Ning; Huang, Chang-Hung; Shih, Shih-Liang; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Chen-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Surgeons often use spinal fixators to manage spinal instability. Dynesys (DY) is a type of dynamic fixator that is designed to restore spinal stability and to provide flexibility. The aim of this study was to design a new spinal fixator using topology optimization [the topology design (TD) system]. Here, we constructed finite element (FE) models of degenerative disc disease, DY, and the TD system. A hybrid-controlled analysis was applied to each of the three FE models. The rod structure of the topology optimization was modelled at a 39 % reduced volume compared with the rigid rod. The TD system was similar to the DY system in terms of stiffness. In contrast, the TD system reduced the cranial adjacent disc stress and facet contact force at the adjacent level. The TD system also reduced pedicle screw stresses in flexion, extension, and lateral bending.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of beam-plasma instability in a finite magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdankevich, I. L.; Goncharov, P. Yu.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Ignatov, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of beam-plasma instability in a finite magnetic field is investigated numerically. In particular, it is shown that decay instability can develop. Special attention is paid to the influence of the beam-plasma coupling factor on the spectral characteristics of a plasma relativistic microwave accelerator (PRMA) at different values of the magnetic field. It is shown that two qualitatively different physical regimes take place at two values of the external magnetic field: B 0 = 4.5 kG (Ω ω B p ) and 20 kG (Ω B ≫ ωp). For B 0 = 4.5 kG, close to the actual experimental value, there exists an optimal value of the gap length between the relativistic electron beam and the plasma (and, accordingly, an optimal value of the coupling factor) at which the PRMA output power increases appreciably, while the noise level decreases.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Boehmite Evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy Experiments and Molecular Dynamic Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fankhänel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boehmite nanoparticles show great potential in improving mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymers. In order to predict the properties of nanocomposites, knowledge about the material parameters of the constituent phases, including the boehmite particles, is crucial. In this study, the mechanical behavior of boehmite is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments and Molecular Dynamic Finite Element Method (MDFEM simulations. Young’s modulus of the perfect crystalline boehmite nanoparticles is derived from numerical AFM simulations. Results of AFM experiments on boehmite nanoparticles deviate significantly. Possible causes are identified by experiments on complementary types of boehmite, that is, geological and hydrothermally synthesized samples, and further simulations of imperfect crystals and combined boehmite/epoxy models. Under certain circumstances, the mechanical behavior of boehmite was found to be dominated by inelastic effects that are discussed in detail in the present work. The studies are substantiated with accompanying X-ray diffraction and Raman experiments.

  2. Stationary and dynamical properties of finite N-unit Langevin models subjected to multiplicative noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2007-02-01

    We have studied the finite N-unit Langevin model subjected to multiplicative noises, by using the augmented moment method (AMM), as a continuation of our previous paper [H. Hasegawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 75 (2006) 033001]. Effects of couplings on stationary and dynamical properties of the model have been investigated. The difference and similarity between the results of diffusive and sigmoid couplings are studied in details. Time dependences of average and fluctuations in local and global variables calculated by the AMM are in good agreement with those of direct simulations (DSs). We also discuss stationary distributions of local and global variables with the use of the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) method and DSs. It is demonstrated that stationary distributions show much variety when multiplicative noise and external inputs are taken into account.

  3. Dynamics of Finite Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Multilevel Atomic Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Wang, Shun; Hu, Weifei; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-10-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamics of inward circular finite-energy Airy beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) numbers in a close-Λ three-level atomic vapor with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. We report that due to the EIT induced by the microwave field, the transverse intensity distribution properties of Airy beam can be feasibly manipulated and modulated through adjusting OAM numbers l and the frequency detuning, as well as the propagation distance, in the multi-level atomic systems. What's more, the rotation of the beam also can be observed with different positions in atomic ensembles. The investigation may provide a useful tool for studying particle manipulation, signal processing and propagation in graded-index (GRIN) fibers.

  4. Dynamic simulation of free surfaces in capillaries with the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutschel, R.; Schellenberger, U.

    1998-02-01

    The mathematical formulation of the dynamics of free liquid surfaces including the effects of surface tension is governed by a non-linear system of elliptic differential equations. The major difficulty of getting unique closed solutions only in trivial cases is overcome by numerical methods. This paper considers transient simulations of liquid-gas menisci in vertical capillary tubes and gaps in the presence of gravity. Therefore the CFD code FIDAP 7.52 based on the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) is used. Calculations using the free surface model are presented for a variety of contact angles and cross-sections with experimental and theoretical verification. The liquid column oscillations are compared for numerical accuracy with a mechanical mathematical model, and the sensitivity with respect to the node density is investigated. The efficiency of the numerical treatment of geometric non-trivial problems is demonstrated by a prismatic capillary. Present restrictions limiting efficient transient simulations with irregularly shaped calculational domains are stated.

  5. 3D Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of the Nonuniform Residual Stress in Ultrasonic Impact Treatment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengsun; Guo, Chaobo; Wang, Dongpo; Wang, Zhijiang

    2016-09-01

    The nonuniform distributions of the residual stress were simulated by a 3D finite element model to analyze the elastic-plastic dynamic ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) process of multiple impacts on the 2024 aluminum alloy. The evolution of the stress during the impact process was discussed. The successive impacts during the UIT process improve the uniformity of the plastic deformation and decrease the maximum compressive residual stress beneath the former impact indentations. The influences of different controlled parameters, including the initial impact velocity, pin diameter, pin tip, device moving, and offset distances, on the residual stress distributions were analyzed. The influences of the controlled parameters on the residual stress distributions are apparent in the offset direction due to the different surface coverage in different directions. The influences can be used to understand the UIT process and to obtain the desired residual stress by optimizing the controlled parameters.

  6. Dynamic buckling analysis of delaminated composite plates using semi-analytical finite strip method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesy, H. R.; Totounferoush, A.; Ghannadpour, S. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The delamination phenomena can become of paramount importance when the design of the composite plates is concerned. In the current study, the effect of through-the-width delamination on dynamic buckling behavior of a composite plate is studied by implementing semi-analytical finite strip method. In this method, the energy and work integrations are computed analytically due to the implementation of trigonometric functions. Moreover, the method can lead to converged results with comparatively small number of degrees of freedom. These features have made the method quite efficient. To account for delamination effects, displacement field is enriched by adding appropriate terms. Also, the penetration of the delamination surfaces is prevented by incorporating an appropriate contact scheme into the time response analysis. Some selected results are validated against those available in the literature.

  7. Layerwise mechanics and finite element for the dynamic analysis of piezoelectric composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Heyliger, Paul R.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    Laminate and structural mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite plate structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. The theories implement layerwise representations of displacements and electric potential, and can model both the global and local electromechanical response of smart composite laminates. Finite-element formulations are developed for the quasi-static and dynamic analysis of smart composite structures containing piezoelectric layers. Comparisons with an exact solution illustrate the accuracy, robustness and capability of the developed mechanics to capture the global and local response of thin and/or thick laminated piezoelectric plates. Additional correlations and numerical applications demonstrate the unique capabilities of the mechanics in analyzing the static and free-vibration response of composite plates with distributed piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

  8. High-order finite difference methods for earthquake rupture dynamics in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, O.; Kozdon, J. E.; Dunham, E. M.; Nordström, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we continue our development of high-order summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference methods for earthquake rupture dynamics. SBP methods use centered spatial differences in the interior and one-sided differences near the boundary. The transition to one-sided differences is done in a particular manner that permits one to provably maintain stability and accuracy. In many methods the boundary conditions are strongly enforced by modifying the difference operator at the boundary so that the solution there exactly satisfies the boundary condition. Though conceptually straightforward, this approach can introduce instabilities. In contrast, when boundary conditions are enforced weakly by adding a penalty term to the spatial discretization, it is possible to prove that the method is strictly stable, dissipating energy slightly faster than the continuous problem (with the additional dissipation vanishing under grid refinement). Another benefit of SBP operators is their built-in inner product which, if correctly constructed, can be interpreted as a quadrature operator. Thus, important integrated quantities such as the total mechanical energy in the system, the energy dissipation rate along faults, and the radiated energy flux through exterior boundaries can be rigorously calculated. These numerically integrated quantities converge to their true values with the same order of accuracy as the difference approximation. Though standard SBP methods are based on uniform Cartesian grids, it is possible to use the methods for problems with nonplanar faults, free surface topography, and branching faults through the use of coordinate transforms. Recently, it has also been shown how second-order SBP methods can be extended to unstructured grids. Due to the SBP character of both the finite difference and node-centered finite volume method they can be used together in a stable and accurate way. Inclusion of these techniques will be important for problems that have regions

  9. Conformation and intramolecular relaxation dynamics of semiflexible randomly hyperbranched polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Rai, Gobind Ji; Biswas, Parbati

    2013-03-01

    The conformational and dynamic properties of semiflexible randomly hyperbranched polymers are investigated in dilute solutions within the framework of optimized Rouse-Zimm formalism. Semiflexibility is incorporated by restricting the directions and orientations of the respective bond vectors, while hydrodynamic interactions are modeled through the preaveraged Oseen tensor. The effect of semiflexibility is typically reflected in the intermediate frequency regime of the viscoelastic relaxation moduli where the bond orientation angle restores the characteristic power-law scaling in fractal structures, as in randomly hyperbranched polymers. Despite the absence of this power-law scaling regime in flexible randomly hyperbranched polymers and in earlier models of semiflexible randomly branched polymers due to weak disorder [C. von Ferber and A. Blumen, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8616 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1470198, this power-law behavior may be reinstated by explicitly modeling hyperbranched polymers as a Vicsek fractals. The length of this power-law zone in the intermediate frequency region is a combined function of the number of monomers and the degree of semiflexibility. A clear conformational transition from compact to open structures is facilitated by changing the bond orientation angle, where the compressed conformations are compact, while the expanded ones are relatively non-compact. The extent of compactness in the compressed conformations are much less compared to the semiflexible dendrimers, which resemble hard spheres. The fractal dimensions of the compressed and expanded conformations calculated from the Porod's scaling law vary as a function of the bond orientation angle, spanning the entire range of three distinct scaling regimes of linear polymers in three-dimensions. The results confirm that semiflexibility exactly accounts for the excluded volume interactions which are expected to be significant for such polymers with complex topologies.

  10. Dynamic finite element knee simulation for evaluation of knee replacement mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mark A; Clary, Chadd W; Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Deacy, James S; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2012-02-02

    In vitro pre-clinical testing of total knee replacement (TKR) devices is a necessary step in the evaluation of new implant designs. Whole joint knee simulators, like the Kansas knee simulator (KKS), provide a controlled and repeatable loading environment for comparative evaluation of component designs or surgical alignment under dynamic conditions. Experimental testing, however, is time and cost prohibitive for design-phase evaluation of tens or hundreds of design variations. Experimentally-verified computational models provide an efficient platform for analysis of multiple components, sizes, and alignment conditions. The purpose of the current study was to develop and verify a computational model of a dynamic, whole joint knee simulator. Experimental internal-external and valgus-varus laxity tests, followed by dynamic deep knee bend and gait simulations in the KKS were performed on three cadaveric specimens. Specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of posterior-stabilized TKR were created from magnetic resonance images and CAD geometry. The laxity data was used to optimize mechanical properties of tibiofemoral soft-tissue structures on a specimen-specific basis. Each specimen was subsequently analyzed in a computational model of the experimental KKS, simulating both dynamic activities. The computational model represented all joints and actuators in the experimental setup, including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to drive quadriceps actuation. The computational model was verified against six degree-of-freedom patellofemoral (PF) and tibiofemoral (TF) kinematics and actuator loading during both deep knee bend and gait activities, with good agreement in trends and magnitudes between model predictions and experimental kinematics; differences were less than 1.8 mm and 2.2° for PF and TF translations and rotations. The whole joint FE simulator described in this study can be applied to investigate a wide range of clinical and research questions.

  11. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same... random access memory semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason of... after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors or products containing the...

  12. On Nonlinear Complexity and Shannon’s Entropy of Finite Length Random Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudorandom binary sequences have important uses in many fields, such as spread spectrum communications, statistical sampling and cryptography. There are two kinds of method in evaluating the properties of sequences, one is based on the probability measure, and the other is based on the deterministic complexity measures. However, the relationship between these two methods still remains an interesting open problem. In this paper, we mainly focus on the widely used nonlinear complexity of random sequences, study on its distribution, expectation and variance of memoryless sources. Furthermore, the relationship between nonlinear complexity and Shannon’s entropy is also established here. The results show that the Shannon’s entropy is strictly monotonically decreased with nonlinear complexity.

  13. Beyond the random phase approximation: Stimulated Brillouin backscatter for finite laser coherence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Lushnikov, Pavel M., E-mail: plushnik@math.unm.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 2 Kosygin Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Rose, Harvey A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-B213, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    We developed a linear theory of backward stimulated Brillouin scatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally random laser beam relevant for laser fusion. Our analysis reveals a new collective regime of BSBS (CBSBS). Its intensity threshold is controlled by diffraction, once cT{sub c} exceeds a laser speckle length, with T{sub c} the laser coherence time. The BSBS spatial gain rate is approximately the sum of that due to CBSBS, and a part which is independent of diffraction and varies linearly with T{sub c}. The CBSBS spatial gain rate may be reduced significantly by the temporal bandwidth of KrF-based laser systems compared to the bandwidth currently available to temporally smoothed glass-based laser systems.

  14. Degree-correlation, omniscience, and randomized immunization protocols in finite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Alm, Jeremy F

    2016-01-01

    Many naturally occurring networks have a power-law degree distribution as well as a non-zero degree correlation. Despite this, most studies analyzing the efficiency of immunization strategies in networks have concentrated only on power-law degree distribution and ignored degree correlation. This study looks specifically at the effect degree-correlation has on the efficiency of several immunization strategies in scale-free networks. Generally, we found that positive degree correlation raises the number of immunized individuals needed to stop the spread of the infection. Importantly, we found that in networks with positive degree correlation, immunization strategies that utilize knowledge of initial popularity actually perform worse on average than random immunization strategies.

  15. Finite difference method for inner-layer equations in the resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko

    1996-08-01

    The matching problem in resistive MagnetoHydroDynamic stability analysis by the asymptotic matching method has been reformulated as an initial-boundary value problem for the inner-layer equations describing the plasma dynamics in the thin layer around a rational surface. The third boundary conditions at boundaries of a finite interval are imposed on the inner layer equations in the formulation instead of asymptotic conditions at infinities. The finite difference method for this problem has been applied to model equations whose solutions are known in a closed form. It has been shown that the initial value problem and the associated eigenvalue problem for the model equations can be solved by the finite difference method with numerical stability. The formulation presented here enables the asymptotic matching method to be a practical method for the resistive MHD stability analysis. (author)

  16. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

  17. Comparison between Fermion Bag Approach and Complex Langevin Dynamics for Massive Thirring Model at Finite Density in 0 + 1 Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daming

    2016-01-01

    We consider the massive Thirring model at finite density in 0+1 dimension. The fermion bag approach, Langevin dynamics and complex Langevin dynamics are adopted to attack the sign problem for this model. Compared with the complex Langevin dynamics, both fermion bag approach and Langvin dynamics avoid the sign problem. The fermion density and chiral condensate, which are obtained by these numerical methods, are compared with the exact results. The advantages of the fermion bag approach over the other numerical methods are also discussed.

  18. Elastoplastic dynamic analysis of strike-slip faults with bends using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, B.; Day, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Nonelastic off-fault response may play a role in rupture dynamics on geometrically complex faults, particularly in the vicinity of bends or other points of stress concentration. In this study, we have performed nonelastic dynamic analysis of strike-slip faults with bends by using a finite element method. The Coulomb yield criterion has been implemented in the code to model off-fault nonelastic response. We find that a smooth scheme (such as viscoplasticity) is required to regularize the numerical calculation of plastic yielding near a fault bend. The method is extensible to other material rheologies (e.g., damage mechanics models, tensile failure, etc), and amenable to parallel implementation. Compared with those from a calculation with elastic off-fault response, results from a calculation with nonelastic off-fault response show that (1) bends are locations of large plastic deformation; (2) stress near a bend is less heterogeneous; (3) less radiation is generated from a bend; (4) lower strong ground motion is produced.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of public goods games with diverse contributions in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Bin; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2010-05-01

    The public goods game is a powerful metaphor for exploring the maintenance of social cooperative behavior in a group of interactional selfish players. Here we study the emergence of cooperation in the public goods games with diverse contributions in finite populations. The theory of stochastic process is innovatively adopted to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the public goods games involving a diversity of contributions. In the limit of rare mutations, the general stationary distribution of this stochastic process can be analytically approximated by means of diffusion theory. Moreover, we demonstrate that increasing the diversity of contributions greatly reduces the probability of finding the population in a homogeneous state full of defectors. This increase also raises the expectation of the total contribution in the entire population and thus promotes social cooperation. Furthermore, by investigating the evolutionary dynamics of optional public goods games with diverse contributions, we find that nonparticipation can assist players who contribute more in resisting invasion and taking over individuals who contribute less. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to confirm our analytical results. Our results may provide insight into the effect of diverse contributions on cooperative behaviors in the real world.

  20. Effect of Large Finite-Size Wind Farms and Their Wakes on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Through the use of large-eddy simulation, the effect of large finite-size wind farms and their wakes on conventionally-neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and power extraction is investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on a wind farm that comprises 25 rows of wind turbines, spanning a distance of 10 km. It is shown that large wind farms have a significant effect on internal boundary layer growth both inside and downwind of the wind farms. If the wind farm is large enough, the internal boundary layer interacts with the thermally-stratified free atmosphere above, leading to a modification of the ABL height and power extraction. In addition, it is shown that large wind farms create extensive wakes, which could have an effect on potential downwind wind farms. Specifically, for the case considered here, a power deficit as large as 8% is found at a distance of 10 km downwind from the wind farm. Furthermore, this study compares the wind farm wake dynamics for cases in which the conventionally neutral ABLs are driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient and Coriolis forces.

  1. Finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sarto, D [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy University, Campus Victor Grignard - BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Marchetto, C [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pegoraro, F; Califano, F, E-mail: daniele.delsarto@ijl.nancy-universite.fr, E-mail: marchetto@ifp.cnr.it, E-mail: pegoraro@df.unipi.it, E-mail: califano@df.unipi.it [Physics Department and CNISM, Pisa University, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We provide numerical evidence of the role of finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of magnetic field line reconnection in high-temperature, strong guide field plasmas in a slab configuration, in the large {Delta}' regime. Both ion and electron temperature effects introduce internal energy variations related to mechanical compression terms in the energy balance, thus contributing to regularize the gradients of the ion density with respect to the cold regimes. For values of the Larmor radii that are not asymptotically small, the two temperature effects are no longer interchangeable, in contrast to what is expected from linear theory, and the differences are measurable in the numerical growth rates and in the nonlinear evolution of the density layers. We interpret such differences in terms of the change, due to ion temperature effects, of the Lagrangian advection of the 'plasma invariants' that are encountered in the cold-ion, warm-electron regime. The different roles of the ion and ion-sound Larmor radii in the reconnection dynamics near the X- and O-points are evidenced by means of a local quadratic expansion of the fields.

  2. Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Impulsive Stress Waves Propagating from Distal End of Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai,Takaaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human femur is subjected to an impulsive load at its distal end during daily life. Femoral bone fracture caused by impact loading is common in elderly women. It is important to clarify the dynamic response of the femur and to evaluate the change in its stress state during impact loading. A 3-dimensional model of the femur was prepared in the present study, and the impulsive stress waves propagating from the distal end of the femur were analyzed by the dynamic finite element method. This model showed that the von Mises equivalent stress is large on the anterior and posterior sides of the mid-diaphysis when the impact direction is different from that of the bone axis. As for the femoral neck, the absolute value of minimum principal stress initially increases on the medial side;slightly later the maximum principal stress increases on the lateral side. In this case, the absolute value of the maximum principal stress was found to be larger than that of the minimum principal stress, and the absolute value of the principal stress decreased as the impact angle increased. Further, the femoral neck and the trochanter were shown to have a higher risk of bone fracture when the impact direction is coincident with the bone axis.

  3. A Space-Time Finite Element Model for Design and Control Optimization of Nonlinear Dynamic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Moita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A design and control sensitivity analysis and multicriteria optimization formulation is derived for flexible mechanical systems. This formulation is implemented in an optimum design code and it is applied to the nonlinear dynamic response. By extending the spatial domain to the space-time domain and treating the design variables as control variables that do not change with time, the design space is included in the control space. Thus, one can unify in one single formulation the problems of optimum design and optimal control. Structural dimensions as well as lumped damping and stiffness parameters plus control driven forces, are considered as decision variables. The dynamic response and its sensitivity with respect to the design and control variables are discretized via space-time finite elements, and are integrated at-once, as it is traditionally used for static response. The adjoint system approach is used to determine the design sensitivities. Design optimization numerical examples are performed. Nonlinear programming and optimality criteria may be used for the optimization process. A normalized weighted bound formulation is used to handle multicriteria problems.

  4. Evaluating knee replacement mechanics during ADL with PID-controlled dynamic finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Clary, Chadd W; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Validated computational knee simulations are valuable tools for design phase development of knee replacement devices. Recently, a dynamic finite element (FE) model of the Kansas knee simulator was kinematically validated during gait and deep flexion cycles. In order to operate the computational simulator in the same manner as the experiment, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was interfaced with the FE model to control the quadriceps actuator excursion and produce a target flexion profile regardless of implant geometry or alignment conditions. The controller was also expanded to operate multiple actuators simultaneously in order to produce in vivo loading conditions at the joint during dynamic activities. Subsequently, the fidelity of the computational model was improved through additional muscle representation and inclusion of relative hip-ankle anterior-posterior (A-P) motion. The PID-controlled model was able to successfully recreate in vivo loading conditions (flexion angle, compressive joint load, medial-lateral load distribution or varus-valgus torque, internal-external torque, A-P force) for deep knee bend, chair rise, stance-phase gait and step-down activities.

  5. Self-Avoiding Random Dynamics on Integer Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamze, Firas; de Freitas, Nando

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new specialized algorithm for equilibrium Monte Carlo sampling of binary-valued systems, which allows for large moves in the state space. This is achieved by constructing self-avoiding walks (SAWs) in the state space. As a consequence, many bits are flipped in a single MCMC step. We name the algorithm SARDONICS, an acronym for Self-Avoiding Random Dynamics on Integer Complex Systems. The algorithm has several free parameters, but we show that Bayesian optimization can be used to automatically tune them. SARDONICS performs remarkably well in a broad number of sampling tasks: toroidal ferromagnetic and frustrated Ising models, 3D Ising models, restricted Boltzmann machines and chimera graphs arising in the design of quantum computers.

  6. Magnetic Fluctuations with a Zero Mean Field in a Random Fluid Flow with a Finite Correlation Time and a Small Magnetic Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeorin, N; Sokoloff, D D

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations with a zero mean field in a random flow with a finite correlation time and a small yet finite magnetic diffusion are studied. Equation for the second-order correlation function of a magnetic field is derived. This equation comprises spatial derivatives of high orders due to a non-local nature of magnetic field transport in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time. For a random Gaussian velocity field with a small correlation time the equation for the second-order correlation function of the magnetic field is a third-order partial differential equation. For this velocity field and a small magnetic diffusion with large magnetic Prandtl numbers the growth rate of the second moment of magnetic field is estimated. The finite correlation time of a turbulent velocity field causes an increase of the growth rate of magnetic fluctuations. It is demonstrated that the results obtained for the cases of a small yet finite magnetic diffusion and a zero magnetic diffusion are different. As...

  7. Conformal dynamics of fractal growth patterns without randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch; Feigenbaum; Hentschel; Procaccia

    2000-08-01

    Many models of fractal growth patterns (such as diffusion limited aggregation and dielectric breakdown models) combine complex geometry with randomness; this double difficulty is a stumbling block to their elucidation. In this paper we introduce a wide class of fractal growth models with highly complex geometry but without any randomness in their growth rules. The models are defined in terms of deterministic itineraries of iterated conformal maps, generating the function Phi((n))(omega) which maps the exterior of the unit circle to the exterior of an n-particle growing aggregate. The complexity of the evolving interfaces is fully contained in the deterministic dynamics of the conformal map Phi((n))(omega). We focus attention on a class of growth models in which the itinerary is quasiperiodic. Such itineraries can be approached via a series of rational approximants. The analytic power gained is used to introduce a scaling theory of the fractal growth patterns and to identify the exponent that determines the fractal dimension.

  8. Dynamical and quenched random matrices and homolumo gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrić, Ivan; Jonke, Larisa; Jurman, Danijel; Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2017-04-01

    We consider a rather general type of matrix model, where the matrix M represents a Hamiltonian of the interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. The fluctuations of the matrix are partly given by some fundamental randomness and partly dynamically, even quantum mechanically. We then study the homolumo-gap effect, which means that we study how the level density for the single-fermion Hamiltonian matrix M gets attenuated near the Fermi surface. In the case of the quenched randomness (the fundamental one) dominating the quantum mechanical one we show that in the first approximation the homolumo gap is characterized by the absence of single-fermion levels between two steep gap boundaries. The filled and empty level densities are in this first approximation just pushed, each to its side. In the next approximation these steep drops in the spectral density are smeared out to have an error-function shape. The studied model could be considered as a first step toward the more general case of considering a whole field of matrices — defined say on some phase space — rather than a single matrix.

  9. Dynamical and Quenched Random Matrices and Homolumo Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, Ivan; Jurman, Danijel; Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2014-01-01

    We consider a rather general type of matrix model, in which the fluctuations of the matrix are partly given by some fundamental randomness and partly dynamically, even quantum mechanically. We then study the homolumo-gap effect, which means that we study how the level density gets attenuated near the Fermi surface, while considering the matrix as the Hamiltonian matrix for a single fermion interacting with this matrix. In the case of the quenched randomness (the fundamental one) dominating the quantum mechanical one and not too small coupling to the fermions we calculate the homolumo gap that in the first approximation consists of there being essentially no levels for the a single fermion between two steep gap boundaries. The filled and empty level densities are in this first approximation just pushed, each to its side. In the next approximation these steep drops in the spectral density are smeared out to have an error-function shape. The studied model could be considered as a first step towards the more gene...

  10. Low-dimensional dynamics of structured random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadeff, Johnatan; Renfrew, David; Vegué, Marina; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2016-02-01

    Using a generalized random recurrent neural network model, and by extending our recently developed mean-field approach [J. Aljadeff, M. Stern, and T. Sharpee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 088101 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.088101], we study the relationship between the network connectivity structure and its low-dimensional dynamics. Each connection in the network is a random number with mean 0 and variance that depends on pre- and postsynaptic neurons through a sufficiently smooth function g of their identities. We find that these networks undergo a phase transition from a silent to a chaotic state at a critical point we derive as a function of g . Above the critical point, although unit activation levels are chaotic, their autocorrelation functions are restricted to a low-dimensional subspace. This provides a direct link between the network's structure and some of its functional characteristics. We discuss example applications of the general results to neuroscience where we derive the support of the spectrum of connectivity matrices with heterogeneous and possibly correlated degree distributions, and to ecology where we study the stability of the cascade model for food web structure.

  11. Effects of finiteness on the thermo-fluid-dynamics of natural convection above horizontal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Sengupta, Sayantan

    2016-06-01

    A rigorous and systematic computational and theoretical study, the first of its kind, for the laminar natural convective flow above rectangular horizontal surfaces of various aspect ratios ϕ (from 1 to ∞) is presented. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations (for ϕ → ∞) and three-dimensional CFD simulations (for 1 ≤ ϕ cases, with the complex three-dimensional solutions revealed here. The present computational study establishes the region of a high-aspect-ratio planform over which the results of the similarity theory are approximately valid, the extent of this region depending on the Grashof number. There is, however, a region near the edge of the plate and another region near the centre of the plate (where a plume forms) in which the similarity theory results do not apply. The sizes of these non-compliance zones decrease as the Grashof number is increased. The present study also shows that the similarity velocity profile is not strictly obtained at any location over the plate because of the entrainment effect of the central plume. The 3-D CFD simulations of the present paper are coordinated to clearly reveal the separate and combined effects of three important aspects of finiteness: the presence of leading edges, the presence of planform centre, and the presence of physical corners in the planform. It is realised that the finiteness due to the presence of physical corners in the planform arises only for a finite value of ϕ in the case of 3-D CFD simulations (and not in 2-D CFD simulations or similarity theory). The presence of physical corners is related here to several significant aspects of the solution - the conversion of in-plane velocity to out-of-plane velocity near the diagonals, the star-like non-uniform distribution of surface heat flux on heated planforms, the three-dimensionality of the temperature field, and the complex spatial structure of the velocity iso-surfaces. A generic theoretical correlation for the Nusselt

  12. Spinodals with Disorder: From Avalanches in Random Magnets to Glassy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Biroli, Giulio; Tarjus, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the phenomenon of spinodals in the presence of quenched disorder and develop a complete theory for it. We focus on the spinodal of an Ising model in a quenched random field (RFIM), which has applications in many areas from materials to social science. By working at zero temperature in the quasistatically driven RFIM, thermal fluctuations are eliminated and one can give a rigorous content to the notion of spinodal. We show that the latter is due to the depinning and the subsequent expansion of rare droplets. We work out the associated critical behavior, which, in any finite dimension, is very different from the mean-field one: the characteristic length diverges exponentially and the thermodynamic quantities display very mild nonanalyticities much like in a Griffith phenomenon. From the recently established connection between the spinodal of the RFIM and glassy dynamics, our results also allow us to conclusively assess the physical content and the status of the dynamical transition predicted by the mean-field theory of glass-forming liquids.

  13. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for Finite Element Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, D

    2012-04-02

    This thesis presents a two-grid algorithm based on Smoothed Aggregation Spectral Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid (SA-{rho}AMGe) combined with adaptation. The aim is to build an efficient solver for the linear systems arising from discretization of second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with stochastic coefficients. Examples include PDEs that model subsurface flow with random permeability field. During a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation process, that draws PDE coefficient samples from a certain distribution, the PDE coefficients change, hence the resulting linear systems to be solved change. At every such step the system (discretized PDE) needs to be solved and the computed solution used to evaluate some functional(s) of interest that then determine if the coefficient sample is acceptable or not. The MCMC process is hence computationally intensive and requires the solvers used to be efficient and fast. This fact that at every step of MCMC the resulting linear system changes, makes an already existing solver built for the old problem perhaps not as efficient for the problem corresponding to the new sampled coefficient. This motivates the main goal of our study, namely, to adapt an already existing solver to handle the problem (with changed coefficient) with the objective to achieve this goal to be faster and more efficient than building a completely new solver from scratch. Our approach utilizes the local element matrices (for the problem with changed coefficients) to build local problems associated with constructed by the method agglomerated elements (a set of subdomains that cover the given computational domain). We solve a generalized eigenproblem for each set in a subspace spanned by the previous local coarse space (used for the old solver) and a vector, component of the error, that the old solver cannot handle. A portion of the spectrum of these local eigen-problems (corresponding to eigenvalues close to zero) form the

  14. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid for Finite Element Elliptic Equations with Random Coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, D

    2012-04-02

    This thesis presents a two-grid algorithm based on Smoothed Aggregation Spectral Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid (SA-{rho}AMGe) combined with adaptation. The aim is to build an efficient solver for the linear systems arising from discretization of second-order elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with stochastic coefficients. Examples include PDEs that model subsurface flow with random permeability field. During a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation process, that draws PDE coefficient samples from a certain distribution, the PDE coefficients change, hence the resulting linear systems to be solved change. At every such step the system (discretized PDE) needs to be solved and the computed solution used to evaluate some functional(s) of interest that then determine if the coefficient sample is acceptable or not. The MCMC process is hence computationally intensive and requires the solvers used to be efficient and fast. This fact that at every step of MCMC the resulting linear system changes, makes an already existing solver built for the old problem perhaps not as efficient for the problem corresponding to the new sampled coefficient. This motivates the main goal of our study, namely, to adapt an already existing solver to handle the problem (with changed coefficient) with the objective to achieve this goal to be faster and more efficient than building a completely new solver from scratch. Our approach utilizes the local element matrices (for the problem with changed coefficients) to build local problems associated with constructed by the method agglomerated elements (a set of subdomains that cover the given computational domain). We solve a generalized eigenproblem for each set in a subspace spanned by the previous local coarse space (used for the old solver) and a vector, component of the error, that the old solver cannot handle. A portion of the spectrum of these local eigen-problems (corresponding to eigenvalues close to zero) form the

  15. λ-PDF AND GEGENBAUER POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION FOR DYNAMIC RESPONSE PROBLEMS OF RANDOM STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; LENG Xiaolei; MA Xiaoping; MENG Guang

    2004-01-01

    A bounded, mono-peak, and symmetrically distributed probability density function,called λ-PDF, together with the Gegenbauer polynomial approximation, is used in dynamic response problems of random structures. The λ-PDF can reasonably model a variety of random parameters in engineering random structures. The Gegenbauer polynomial approximation can be viewed as a new extension of the weighted residual method into the random space. Both of them can be easily used by scientists and engineers, and applied to a variety of response problems of random structures. The numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method to study dynamic phenomena in random structures.

  16. Dynamic Modelling of Tooth Deformation Using Occlusal Kinematics and Finite Element Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benazzi

    Full Text Available Dental biomechanics based on finite element (FE analysis is attracting enormous interest in dentistry, biology, anthropology and palaeontology. Nonetheless, several shortcomings in FE modeling exist, mainly due to unrealistic loading conditions. In this contribution we used kinematics information recorded in a virtual environment derived from occlusal contact detection between high resolution models of an upper and lower human first molar pair (M1 and M1, respectively to run a non-linear dynamic FE crash colliding test.MicroCT image data of a modern human skull were segmented to reconstruct digital models of the antagonistic right M1 and M1 and the dental supporting structures. We used the Occlusal Fingerprint Analyser software to reconstruct the individual occlusal pathway trajectory during the power stroke of the chewing cycle, which was applied in a FE simulation to guide the M1 3D-path for the crash colliding test.FE analysis results showed that the stress pattern changes considerably during the power stroke, demonstrating that knowledge about chewing kinematics in conjunction with a morphologically detailed FE model is crucial for understanding tooth form and function under physiological conditions.Results from such advanced dynamic approaches will be applicable to evaluate and avoid mechanical failure in prosthodontics/endodontic treatments, and to test material behavior for modern tooth restoration in dentistry. This approach will also allow us to improve our knowledge in chewing-related biomechanics for functional diagnosis and therapy, and it will help paleoanthropologists to illuminate dental adaptive processes and morphological modifications in human evolution.

  17. No-slip boundary condition in finite-size dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, S. Kumar; Patnaik, B. S. V.; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an efficient, particle based mesoscopic numerical scheme to simulate dynamics of complex fluids and micro-flows, with spatio-temporal scales in the range of micrometers and microseconds. While the traditional DPD method treated particles as point masses, a modified DPD scheme was introduced recently [W. Pan, I.V. Pivkin, G.E. Karniadakis, Single-particle hydrodynamics in DPD: a new formulation, Europhysics Letters 84 (2008) 10012] by including transverse forces between finite sized particles in addition to the central forces of the standard DPD. The capability of a DPD scheme to solve confined wall bounded flows, depends on its ability to model the flow boundaries and effectively impose the classical no-slip boundary condition. Previous simulations with the modified DPD scheme used boundary conditions from the traditional DPD schemes, resorting to the velocity reversal of re-inserted particles which cross the solid wall. In the present work, a new method is proposed to impose no-slip or tunable slip boundary condition by controlling the non-central dissipative components in the modified DPD scheme. The solid wall is modeled in such a way that the fluid particles feel the presence of a continuous wall rather than a few discrete frozen particles as in conventional wall models. The fluid particles interact with the walls using a modified central repulsive potential to reduce the spurious density fluctuations. Several different benchmark problems (Poiseuille flow, lid-driven cavity and flow past circular cylinder) were solved using the new approach to demonstrate its validity.

  18. High-Frequency Dynamic Analysis of Plates in Thermal Environments Based on Energy Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density governing equation to analyze the high-frequency dynamic behavior of plates in thermal environments is derived in this paper, in which the thermal effects are considered to change the membrane stress state and temperature dependent material properties of plates. Then the thermal effects on the energy reflection and transmission coefficients are dealt with hereof. Based on the above, an EFEM (energy finite element method based approximate approach for the energy analysis of coupled plates under nonuniform thermal environments is proposed. The approach could be conducted by three steps: (1 thermal analysis, (2 thermal stress analysis, and (3 forming element matrixes, joint matrixes, and the whole EFEM formulation for the energy analysis. The same mesh model is used for all the three steps. The comparison between EFEM results and classical modal superposition method results of simply supported plates in various uniform thermal environments and coupled plates in nonuniform thermal environments demonstrated that the derived energy governing equation and the proposed approach described well the smooth time- and locally space-averaged energy density. It is found that the distributions and levels of energy density are affected by thermal effects, and the variation trends are related to exciting frequency.

  19. Latest Developments With the Cubed-Sphere Finite-Volume Dynamical Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, W. M.; Lin, S.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrostatic finite-volume (FV) dycore [Lin (2004)] has been implemented on the cubed-sphere geometry [Putman and Lin (2007)]. This implementation was intended to address the scalability limitations of the original FV dycore developed for the latitude-longitude grid. The improved parallelism of the cubed-sphere dynamical core has poised the FV dycore to efficiently address high-resolution climate, weather and data- assimilation problems on today's emerging peta-scale computing platforms. In addition, the FV dycore has been extended to the fully compressible non-hydrostatic flow (essentially the un-approximated Euler equations on the sphere) [Lin (2008)]. We will provide an overview of the current state of development, and implementation within parent models at NOAA/GFDL and NASA/GMAO, including shared use of modeling frameworks including the Flexible Modeling System (FMS) at NOAA and the Earth System Modeling Framework at NASA. Further science enhancements to the FV dycore will be discussed, including high-order scale selective explicit diffusion options and vertical remapping options from the floating Lagrangian to Eulerian reference coordinates. Results will be based on idealized baroclinic tests, aqua-planet and AMIP simulations.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Honeycombs Subjected to Dynamic Indentation and Compression Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Ayman Ashab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.

  1. Structural Stability and Dynamics of FGM Plates Using an Improved 8-ANS Finite Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weon-Tae Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigate the vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded material (FGM structures, using a modified 8-node shell element. The properties of FGM vary continuously through the thickness direction according to the volume fraction of constituents defined by sigmoid function. The modified 8-ANS shell element has been employed to study the effect of power law index on dynamic analysis of FGM plates with various boundary conditions and buckling analysis under combined loads, and interaction curves of FGM plates are carried out. To overcome shear and membrane locking problems, the assumed natural strain method is employed. In order to validate and compare the finite element numerical solutions, the reference results of plates based on Navier’s method, the series solutions of sigmoid FGM (S-FGM plates are compared. Results of the present study show good agreement with the reference results. The solutions of vibration and buckling analysis are numerically illustrated in a number of tables and figures to show the influence of power law index, side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, types of loads, and boundary conditions in FGM structures. This work is relevant to the simulation of wing surfaces, aircrafts, and box structures under various boundary conditions and loadings.

  2. Linear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Rocket Engine Testing Bench Structure using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Fabrino Favato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of a testing bench structure for Rocket Engines, which is under development by the PUC-Minas Aerospace Research Group. The Bench is being built for civilian’s liquid bipropellant rocket engines up to 5 kN of thrust. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the bench structure using the Finite Element Method (FEM, by structural linear static and dynamic analysis. Performed to predict the behavior of the structure to the requests of the tests. The virtual simulations were performed using a CAE software with the Nastran solver. The structure is 979 x 1638 mm by 2629 mm, consisting of folded-plates (¼ "x 3¼" x 8" and plates of 1/4" and 1/2 ", both SAE 1020 Steel .The rocket engine is fixed on the structure through a set called engine mount. It was included in the analysis clearances or misalignments that may occur during tests. As well as, the load applied was evaluated with components in varying orientations and directions. It was considered the maximum size of the engine mount and the maximum inclination angle of load. At the end of this article it was observed that the worst stress and displacement values obtained were for the hypothesis with the inclination of five-degrees with load components in the positive directions of the axes defined and it was also obtained the first twenty frequency modes of the structure.

  3. Mechanical behavior of linear amorphous polymers: comparison between molecular dynamics and finite-element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Mathieu; Meyer, Hendrik; Gauthier, Christian; Fond, Christophe; Benzerara, Olivier; Schirrer, Robert; Baschnagel, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    This paper studies the rheology of weakly entangled polymer melts and films in the glassy domain and near the rubbery domain using two different methods: molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) simulations. In a first step, the uniaxial mechanical behavior of a bulk polymer sample is studied by means of particle-based MD simulations. The results are in good agreement with experimental data, and mechanical properties may be computed from the simulations. This uniaxial mechanical behavior is then implemented in FE simulations using an elasto-viscoelasto-viscoplastic constitutive law in a continuum mechanics (CM) approach. In a second step, the mechanical response of a polymer film during an indentation test is modeled with the MD method and with the FE simulations using the same constitutive law. Good agreement is found between the MD and CM results. This work provides evidence in favor of using MD simulations to investigate the local physics of contact mechanics, since the volume elements studied are representative and thus contain enough information about the microstructure of the polymer model, while surface phenomena (adhesion and surface tension) are naturally included in the MD approach.

  4. Dynamic Simulation of a CPV/T System Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of a concentrating thermo-photovoltaic (CPV/T system dynamic model by means of the finite element method (FEM. The system consist of triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (indium-gallium phosphide/indium-gallium-arsenide/germanium solar cells connected to a metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB placed on a coil circuit used for the thermal energy recovery. In particular, the main aim is to determine the fluid outlet temperature. It is evaluated corresponding both to a constant cell temperature equal to 120 °C, generally representing the maximum operating temperature, and to cell temperature values instantly variable with the direct normal irradiation (DNI. Hence, an accurate DNI analysis is realized adopting the Gordon-Reddy statistical model. Using an accurate electric model, the cell temperature and efficiency are determined together with the CPV/T module electric and thermal powers. Generally, the CPV system size is realized according to the user electric load demand and, then, it is important to evaluate the necessary minimum concentration ratio (Cmin, the limit of CPV system applicability, in order to determine the energy convenience profile. The fluid outlet temperature can be then obtained by the FEM analysis to verify if a CPV/T system can be used in solar heating and cooling applications.

  5. Using Plate Finite Elements for Modeling Fillets in Design, Optimization, and Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. M.; Seugling, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology has been developed that allows the use of plate elements instead of numerically inefficient solid elements for modeling structures with 90 degree fillets. The technique uses plate bridges with pseudo Young's modulus (Eb) and thickness (tb) values placed between the tangent points of the fillets. These parameters are obtained by solving two nonlinear simultaneous equations in terms of the independent variables rlt and twallt. These equations are generated by equating the rotation at the tangent point of a bridge system with that of a fillet, where both rotations are derived using beam theory. Accurate surface fits of the solutions are also presented to provide the user with closed-form equations for the parameters. The methodology was verified on the subcomponent level and with a representative filleted structure, where the technique yielded a plate model exhibiting a level of accuracy better than or equal to a high-fidelity solid model and with a 90-percent reduction in the number of DOFs. The application of this method for parametric design studies, optimization, and dynamic analysis should prove extremely beneficial for the finite element practitioner. Although the method does not attempt to produce accurate stresses in the filleted region, it can also be used to obtain stresses elsewhere in the structure for preliminary analysis. A future avenue of study is to extend the theory developed here to other fillet geometries, including fillet angles other than 90 and multifaceted intersections.

  6. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of pear under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salarikia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear fruit is susceptible to bruising from mechanical impact during field harvesting operations and at all stages of postharvest handling. The postharvest shelf life of bruised fruits were shorter, and they softened rapidly under cold storage compared with non-bruised samples. Developing strategies for reducing bruising during the supply chain requires an understanding of fruit dynamic behavior to different enforced loadings. Finite Element Method (FEM is among the best techniques, in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency, for studying the factors effective in impact-induced bruising. In this research, the drop test of pear sample was simulated using FEM. The simulation was conducted on a 3D solid model of the pear that was created by using non-contact optical scanning technology. This computer-based study aimed to assess the stress and strain distribution patterns within pear generated by collision of the fruit with a flat surface made of different materials. The contact force between two colliding surfaces is also investigated. The simulations were conducted at two different drop orientations and four different impact surfaces. Results showed that, in both drop orientations, the largest and smallest stresses, strains and contact forces were developed in collision with the steel and rubber surfaces, respectively. In general, these parameters were smaller when fruit collided with the surfaces along its horizontal axis than when collided along its vertical axis. Finally, analyses of stress and strain magnitudes showed that simulation stress and strain values were compatible with experiments data.

  7. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-05-25

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  8. Majorana dynamical mean-field study of spin dynamics at finite temperatures in the honeycomb Kitaev model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-07-01

    A prominent feature of quantum spin liquids is fractionalization of the spin degree of freedom. Fractionalized excitations have their own dynamics in different energy scales, and hence, affect finite-temperature (T ) properties in a peculiar manner even in the paramagnetic state harboring the quantum spin liquid state. We here present a comprehensive theoretical study of the spin dynamics in a wide T range for the Kitaev model on a honeycomb lattice, whose ground state is a quantum spin liquid. In this model, the fractionalization occurs to break up quantum spins into itinerant matter fermions and localized Z2 fluxes, which results in two crossovers at very different T scales. Extending the previous study for the isotropic coupling case [J. Yoshitake, J. Nasu, and Y. Motome, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 157203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.157203], we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor S (q ,ω ) , the NMR relaxation rate 1 /T1 , and the magnetic susceptibility χ while changing the anisotropy in the exchange coupling constants, by using the dynamical mean-field theory based on a Majorana fermion representation. We describe the details of the methodology including the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method for computing dynamical spin correlations and the maximum entropy method for analytic continuation. We confirm that the combined method provides accurate results in a wide T range including the region where the spins are fractionalized. We find that also in the anisotropic cases the system exhibits peculiar behaviors below the high-T crossover whose temperature is comparable to the average of the exchange constants: S (q ,ω ) shows an inelastic response at the energy scale of the averaged exchange constant, 1 /T1 continues to grow even though the equal-time spin correlations are saturated and almost T independent, and χ deviates from the Curie-Weiss behavior. In particular, when the exchange interaction in one direction is stronger than the other two

  9. Contrast independence of dynamic random dot correlogram evoked VEP amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markó, Katalin; Kiss, Huba J M; Mikó-Baráth, Eszter; Bártfai, Orsolya; Török, Béla; Kovács, Ilona; Jandó, Gábor

    2009-04-06

    Dynamic random dot correlograms (DRDCs) are binocular stimuli that evoke a percept and a visual evoked potential (VEP) only in case of a mature and functional binocular system. DRDC-VEP is a method extensively used to study cortical binocularity in human infants and nonverbal children. Although the DRDC-VEP was invented 3 decades ago, neither the fundamental parameters, including contrast, of the stimulation nor the cerebral processing mechanisms have been clarified. The objective of the present study was to investigate the variability and detectability of adults' VEPs to DRDC under different stimulus contrast conditions. DRDCs were presented on the red and green channels of a computer monitor and were viewed with red-green goggles. The steady state DRDC-VEPs were recorded in healthy adult volunteers, and response reliability was assessed by the T(circ)(2) statistic. DRDC-VEP amplitude was independent of contrast, while VEP phases showed a weak correlation with contrast. Contrast invariance of DRDC-VEP amplitude suggests a very high contrast gain and dominant magnocellular input to the binocular correlation processing system.

  10. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  11. Continuous composite finite-time convergent guidance laws with autopilot dynamics compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoming; Lin, Defu

    2015-09-01

    This paper has proposed two continuous composite finite-time convergent guidance laws to intercept maneuvering targets in the presence of autopilot lag: one is for hit-to-kill and the other is for zeroing the line-of-sight (LOS) angular rate. More specifically, the nonlinear disturbance observer (NDOB) is used to estimate the lumped uncertainty online while the finite-time control technique is used to fulfill the design goal in finite time. The key feature in derivation of the proposed guidance law is that two integral-type Lyapunov functions are used to avoid analytic differentiation of virtual control law encountered with traditional backstepping. The finite-time stability of the closed-loop nonlinear observer-controller system is established using finite-time bounded (FTB) function and Lyapunov function methods. Numerical simulations with some comparisons are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.

  12. 75 FR 55764 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on dynamic random access memory semiconductors from the... Semiconductor, Inc. received countervailable subsidies during the period of review. If these preliminary...

  13. 76 FR 2336 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... International Trade Administration Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Final... on dynamic random access memory semiconductors from the Republic of Korea for the period January 1... net subsidy rate for Hynix Semiconductor, Inc. is listed below in the section entitled ``Final...

  14. Partially implicit finite difference scheme for calculating dynamic pressure in a terrain-following coordinate non-hydrostatic ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Lin, Lei; Xie, Lian; Gao, Huiwang

    2016-10-01

    To improve the efficiency of the terrain-following σ-coordinate non-hydrostatic ocean model, a partially implicit finite difference (PIFD) scheme is proposed. By using explicit terms instead of implicit terms to discretize the parts of the vertical dynamic pressure gradient derived from the σ-coordinate transformation, the coefficient matrix of the discrete Poisson equation that the dynamic pressure satisfies can be simplified from 15 diagonals to 7 diagonals. The PIFD scheme is shown to run stably when it is applied to simulate five benchmark cases, namely, a standing wave in a basin, a surface solitary wave, a lock-exchange problem, a periodic wave over a bar and a tidally induced internal wave. Compared with the conventional fully implicit finite difference (FIFD) scheme, the PIFD scheme produces simulation results of equivalent accuracy at only 40-60% of the computational cost. The PIFD scheme demonstrates strong applicability and can be easily implemented in σ-coordinate ocean models.

  15. ONE-DIMENSIONAL GAS DYNAMICS PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTION BASED ON HIGH-RESOLUTION FINITE DIFFERENCE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional unsteady gas dynamics problems are revealing tests for the accuracy estimation of numerical solution with respect to simulation of supersonic flows of inviscid compressible gas. Numerical solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas and conceding continuous and discontinuous solutions is considered. Discretization of Euler equations is based on finite volume method and WENO finite difference schemes. The numerical solutions computed are compared with the exact solution of Riemann problem. Monotonic correction of derivatives makes possible avoiding new extremes and ensures monotonicity of the numerical solution near the discontinuity, but it leads to the smoothness of the existing minimums and maximums and to the accuracy loss. Calculations with the use of WENO schemes give the possibility for obtaining accurate and monotonic solution with the presence of weak and strong gas dynamical discontinuities.

  16. Evaluation of the parameters affecting bone temperature during drilling using a three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun

    2017-03-28

    A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.

  17. Correlation of finite-element structural dynamic analysis with measured free vibration characteristics for a full-scale helicopter fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.

  18. Ultrafast vortex core dynamics investigated by finite-element micromagnetic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliga, Sebastian

    2010-07-01

    The investigations carried out in this thesis concern the ultrafast dynamics of a fundamental micromagnetic configuration: the vortex. Over the past decade, a detailed understanding of the dynamic and static properties of such magnetic nanostructures has been achieved as a result of close interplay between experiments, theory and numeric simulations. Here, micromagnetic simulations were performed based on the finite-element method. The vortex structure arises in laterally-confined ferromagnets, in particular in thin-film elements, and is characterized by an in-plane curling of the magnetic moments around a very stable and narrow core. In the present study, a novel process in micromagnetism was found: the ultrafast reversal of the vortex core. The possibility of easily switching the core orientation by means of short in-plane field pulses is surprising in view of the very high stability of the core. Moreover, the simulations presented here showed that this reversal process unfolds on a time scale of only a few tens of picoseconds, which leads to the prediction of the fastest and most complex micromagnetic reversal process known to date. Indeed, the vortex core is not merely switched: it is destroyed and recreated in the immediate vicinity with an opposite direction. This is mediated by a rapid sequence of vortex-antivortex pair creation and annihilation subprocesses and results in a sudden burst-like emission of spin waves. Equally fascinating is the ultrafast dynamics of an isolated magnetic antivortex, the topological counterpart of the vortex. The simulations performed here showed that the static complementarity between vortices and antivortices is equally reflected in their ultrafast dynamics, which leads to the reversal of the antivortex core. A promising means for the control of the magnetization on the nanoscale consists in exploiting the spin-transfer torque effect. The study of the current-induced dynamics of vortices showed that the core reversal can be

  19. Theory and Application of Characteristic Finite Element Domain Decomposition Procedures for Coupled System of Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-rang Yuan

    2007-01-01

    For a coupled system of multiplayer dynamics of fluids in porous media,the characteristic finite element domain decomposition procedures applicable to parallel arithmetic are put forward.Techniques such as calculus of variations,domain decomposition,characteristic method,negative norm estimate,energy method and the theory of prior estimates are adopted.Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived for the error in the approximate solution.

  20. Finite-size effect on the dynamic and sensing performances of graphene resonators: the role of edge stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Wan Kim; Mai Duc Dai; Kilho Eom

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the finite-size effect on the dynamic behavior of graphene resonators and their applications in atomic mass detection using a continuum elastic model such as modified plate theory. In particular, we developed a model based on von Karman plate theory with including the edge stress, which arises from the imbalance between the coordination numbers of bulk atoms and edge atoms of graphene. It is shown that as the size of a graphene resonator decreases, the edge stress depending on...

  1. Large Deformation Dynamic Three-Dimensional Coupled Finite Element Analysis of Soft Biological Tissues Treated as Biphasic Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    2006; White and Borja, 2008; Sun, Ostien, and Salinger , 2013) Q8P8 hexahedral element is also implemented within the coupled dynamics framework, and...but based on our implementation, it was ineffective for our particular applications of soft tissues at finite strain. Sun, Ostien, and Salinger ...large deformation. Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg., vol. 32, pp. 1411–1439. Sun, W.-C.; Ostien, J.; Salinger , A. (2013): A stabilized assumed

  2. Finite-time singularities in the dynamics of hyperinflation in an economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A; Szybisz, Leszek

    2009-08-01

    The dynamics of hyperinflation episodes is studied by applying a theoretical approach based on collective "adaptive inflation expectations" with a positive nonlinear feedback proposed in the literature. In such a description it is assumed that the growth rate of the logarithmic price, r(t), changes with a velocity obeying a power law which leads to a finite-time singularity at a critical time t(c). By revising that model we found that, indeed, there are two types of singular solutions for the logarithmic price, p(t) . One is given by the already reported form p(t) approximately (t(c)-t)(-alpha) (with alpha>0 ) and the other exhibits a logarithmic divergence, p(t) approximately ln[1/(t(c)-t)] . The singularity is a signature for an economic crash. In the present work we express p(t) explicitly in terms of the parameters introduced throughout the formulation avoiding the use of any combination of them defined in the original paper. This procedure allows to examine simultaneously the time series of r(t) and p(t) performing a linked error analysis of the determined parameters. For the first time this approach is applied for analyzing the very extreme historical hyperinflations occurred in Greece (1941-1944) and Yugoslavia (1991-1994). The case of Greece is compatible with a logarithmic singularity. The study is completed with an analysis of the hyperinflation spiral currently experienced in Zimbabwe. According to our results, an economic crash in this country is predicted for these days. The robustness of the results to changes of the initial time of the series and the differences with a linear feedback are discussed.

  3. Dynamic finite element analysis of the aortic root from MRI-derived parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Carlo A; Votta, Emiliano; Della Corte, Alessandro; Del Viscovo, Luca; Bancone, Ciro; Cotrufo, Maurizio; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    An understanding of aortic root biomechanics is pivotal for the optimisation of surgical procedures aimed at restoring normal root function in pathological subjects. For this purpose, computational models can provide important information, as long as they realistically capture the main anatomical and functional features of the aortic root. Here we present a novel and realistic finite element (FE) model of the physiological aortic root, which simulates its function during the entire cardiac cycle. Its geometry is based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained from 10 healthy subjects and accounts for the geometrical differences between the leaflet-sinus units. Morphological realism is combined with the modelling of the leaflets' non-linear and anisotropic mechanical response, in conjunction with dynamic boundary conditions. The results show that anatomical differences between leaflet-sinus units cause differences in stress and strain patterns. These are notably higher for the leaflets and smaller for the sinuses. For the maximum transvalvular pressure value, maximum principal stresses on the leaflets are equal to 759, 613 and 603 kPa on the non-coronary, right and left leaflet, respectively. For the maximum aortic pressure, average maximum principal stresses values are equal to 118, 112 and 111 kPa on the right, non-coronary and left sinus, respectively. Although liable of further improvements, the model seems to reliably reproduce the behaviour of the real aortic root: the model's leaflet stretches, leaflet coaptation lengths and commissure motions, as well as the timings of aortic leaflet closures and openings, all matched with the experimental findings reported in the literature.

  4. Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Michael K.; Crawford, Curran

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane.

  5. Dynamic simulation and finite element analysis of the human mandible injury protected by polyvinyl alcohol sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi, E-mail: mnavid@iust.ac.ir; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    There have been intensive efforts to find a suitable kinetic energy absorbing material for helmet and bulletproof vest design. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is currently in extensive use as scaffolding material for tissue engineering applications. PVA can also be employed instead of commonly use kinetic energy absorbing materials to increase the kinetic energy absorption capacity of current helmet and bulletproof vest materials owing to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, a combined hexahedral finite element (FE) model is established to determine the potential protection ability of PVA sponge in controlling the level of injury for gunshot wounds to the human mandible. Digital computed tomography data for the human mandible are used to establish a three-dimensional FE model of the human mandible. The mechanism by which a gunshot injures the protected mandible by PVA sponge is dynamically simulated using the LS-DYNA code under two different shot angles. The stress distributions in different parts of the mandible and sponge after injury are also simulated. The modeling results regardless of shot angle reveal that the substantial amount of kinetic energy of the steel ball (67%) is absorbed by the PVA sponge and, consequently, injury severity of the mandible is significantly decreased. The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. The results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and bulletproof vest design to absorb most of the impact energy and reduce the transmitted load. - Highlights: • The ability of PVA sponge to control the injury to the human mandible is computed. • A hexahedral FE model for gunshot wounds to the human mandible is established. • The kinetic energy and injury severity of the mandible is minimized by the sponge. • The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. • PVA suggests as an alternative

  6. Finite-time singularities in the dynamics of hyperinflation in an economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2009-08-01

    The dynamics of hyperinflation episodes is studied by applying a theoretical approach based on collective “adaptive inflation expectations” with a positive nonlinear feedback proposed in the literature. In such a description it is assumed that the growth rate of the logarithmic price, r(t) , changes with a velocity obeying a power law which leads to a finite-time singularity at a critical time tc . By revising that model we found that, indeed, there are two types of singular solutions for the logarithmic price, p(t) . One is given by the already reported form p(t)≈(tc-t)-α (with α>0 ) and the other exhibits a logarithmic divergence, p(t)≈ln[1/(tc-t)] . The singularity is a signature for an economic crash. In the present work we express p(t) explicitly in terms of the parameters introduced throughout the formulation avoiding the use of any combination of them defined in the original paper. This procedure allows to examine simultaneously the time series of r(t) and p(t) performing a linked error analysis of the determined parameters. For the first time this approach is applied for analyzing the very extreme historical hyperinflations occurred in Greece (1941-1944) and Yugoslavia (1991-1994). The case of Greece is compatible with a logarithmic singularity. The study is completed with an analysis of the hyperinflation spiral currently experienced in Zimbabwe. According to our results, an economic crash in this country is predicted for these days. The robustness of the results to changes of the initial time of the series and the differences with a linear feedback are discussed.

  7. Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Philip; Casartelli, Ernesto; Egli, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth’s gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the “bulk volume,” however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid

  8. Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Simon L; Stern, Philip; Casartelli, Ernesto; Egli, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth's gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the "bulk volume," however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid

  9. SLAM algorithm based on random finite set%基于随机有限集的SLAM算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜航原; 赵玉新; 杨永鹏; 韩庆楠

    2012-01-01

    提出一种基于随机有限集的同步定位与地图创建算法,该算法利用随机有限集对环境地图和传感器观测信息建模,建立联合目标状态变量的随机有限集.依据Bayesian估计框架,利用概率假设密度滤波的粒子滤波实现对机器人位姿和环境地图进行同时估计.新算法避免了数据关联过程,并能更加自然有效地表达同步定位与地图创建(simultaneous localization and mapping,SLAM)问题中多特征-多观测特性及多种传感器信息.在仿真实验中,利用FastSLAM2.0算法和新算法进行对比,实验结果验证了新算法的优越性.%A novel simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm based on the random finite set (RFS) theory is proposed,it models environmental map and sensor observations with RFS,and establishes the RFS of joint target state variable.The algorithm framework is Based on Bayesian estimator,uses a probability hypothesis density filter which is realized by particle filter to estimate robot's poses and environmental map simultaneously.The new algorithm avoids the data association and describes the multifeature-multiobserve characteristics more accurately and naturally as well as multiple sensor information.Simulations are presented to compare the performance of the new algorithm with that of the FastSLAM 2.0,the simulation results verify the superiority of the new algorithm.

  10. Fraction Dynamic-Surface-Based Neuroadaptive Finite-Time Containment Control of Multiagent Systems in Nonaffine Pure-Feedback Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujuan; Song, Yongduan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the problem of containment control of networked multiagent systems is considered with special emphasis on finite-time convergence. A distributed neural adaptive control scheme for containment is developed, which, different from the current state of the art, is able to achieve dynamic containment in finite time with sufficient accuracy despite unknown nonaffine dynamics and mismatched uncertainties. Such a finite-time feature, highly desirable in practice, is made possible by the fraction dynamic surface control design technique based on the concept of virtual fraction filter. In the proposed containment protocol, only the local information from the neighbor followers and the local position information from the neighbor leaders are required. Furthermore, since the available information utilized is local and is embedded into the control scheme through fraction power feedback, rather than direct linear or regular nonlinear feedback, the resultant control scheme is truly distributed. In addition, although mismatched uncertainties and external disturbances are involved, only one single generalized neural parameter needs to be updated in the control scheme, making its design and implementation straightforward and inexpensive. The effectiveness of the developed method is also confirmed by numerical simulation.

  11. Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mu, Guo-Hua; Kertész, János

    2012-09-01

    It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient Cij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ1 and λ2) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ1) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients CV R between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets.

  12. Finite element model for arch bridge vibration dynamics considering effect of suspender length adjustment on geometry stiffness matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yi-feng; WANG Rui; YING Xue-gang; CHEN Huai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we established a finite element (FEM) model to analyze the dynamic characteristics of arch bridges. In this model, the effects of adjustment to the length of a suspender on its geometry stiffness matrix are stressed. The FEM equations of mechanics characteristics, natural frequency and main mode are set up based on the first order matrix perturbation theory. Applicantion of the proposed model to analyze a real arch bridge proved the improvement in the simulation precision of dynamical characteristics of the arch bridge by considering the effects of suspender length variation.

  13. An improved predictor/multi-corrector algorithm for a time-discontinuous Galerkin finite element method in structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C.-C.; Wu, T.-Y.

    This work presents an improved predictor/multi-corrector algorithm for linear structural dynamics problems, based on the time-discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. The improved algorithm employs the Gauss-Seidel method to calculate iteratively the solutions that exist in the phase of the predictor/multi-corrector of the numerical implementation. Stability analyses of iterative algorithms reveal that such an improved scheme retains the unconditionally stable behavior with greater efficiency than another iterative algorithm. Also, numerical examples are presented, demonstrating that the proposed method is more stable and accurate than several commonly used algorithms in structural dynamic applications.

  14. Dynamic attack zone of air-to-air missile after being launched in random wind field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yaoluo; Nan Ying; Chen Shaodong; Ding Quanxin; Wu Shengliang

    2015-01-01

    A new concept is presented for air-to-air missile which is dynamic attack zone after being launched in random wind field. This new concept can be used to obtain the 4-dimensional (4-D) information regarding the dynamic envelope of an air-to-air missile at any flight time aimed at different flight targets considering influences of random wind, in the situation of flight fighters coop-erated with missiles fighting against each other. Based on an air-to-air missile model, some typical cases of dynamic attack zone after being launched in random wind field were numerically simulated. Compared with the simulation results of traditional dynamic envelope, the properties of dynamic attack zone after being launched are as follows. The 4-D dynamic attack zone after being launched is inside traditional maximum dynamic envelope, but its forane boundary is usually not inside tra-ditional no-escape dynamic envelope;Traditional dynamic attack zone can just be reliably used at launch time, while dynamic envelope after being launched can be reliably and accurately used dur-ing any flight antagonism time. Traditional envelope is a special case of dynamic envelope after being launched when the dynamic envelope is calculated at the launch time;the dynamic envelope after being launched can be influenced by the random wind field.

  15. Dynamics of the Random Ising Model with Long-Range Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuan; LI Zhi-Bing; FANG Hai; HE Shun-Shan; SITU Shu-Ping

    2001-01-01

    Critical dynamics of the random Ising model with long-range interaction decaying as r-(d+σ) where d is the dimensionality) is studied by the theoretic renormalization-group approach. The system is released to an evolution within a model A dynamics. Asymptotic scaling laws are studied in a frame of the expansion in = 2σ - d. In dimensions d < 2σ. the dynamic exponent z is calculated to the second order in at the random fixed point.``

  16. Finite-Time Stabilization of Dynamic Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robots with Parameter Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    settling time. The systematic strategy combines the theory of finite-time stability with a new switching control design method. Finally, the simulation result illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  17. Finite element model updating of natural fibre reinforced composite structure in structural dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model updating is a process of making adjustment of certain parameters of finite element model in order to reduce discrepancy between analytical predictions of finite element (FE and experimental results. Finite element model updating is considered as an important field of study as practical application of finite element method often shows discrepancy to the test result. The aim of this research is to perform model updating procedure on a composite structure as well as trying improving the presumed geometrical and material properties of tested composite structure in finite element prediction. The composite structure concerned in this study is a plate of reinforced kenaf fiber with epoxy. Modal properties (natural frequency, mode shapes, and damping ratio of the kenaf fiber structure will be determined using both experimental modal analysis (EMA and finite element analysis (FEA. In EMA, modal testing will be carried out using impact hammer test while normal mode analysis using FEA will be carried out using MSC. Nastran/Patran software. Correlation of the data will be carried out before optimizing the data from FEA. Several parameters will be considered and selected for the model updating procedure.

  18. Dynamics of Crowd Behaviors: From Complex Plane to Quantum Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    The following sections are included: * Complex Plane Dynamics of Crowds and Groups * Introduction * Complex-Valued Dynamics of Crowd and Group Behaviors * Kähler Geometry of Crowd and Group Dynamics * Computer Simulations of Crowds and Croups Dynamics * Braids of Agents' Behaviors in the Complex Plane * Hilbert-Space Control of Crowds and Groups Dynamics * Quantum Random Fields: A Unique Framework for Simulation, Optimization, Control and Learning * Introduction * Adaptive Quantum Oscillator * Optimization and Learning on Banach and Hilbert Spaces * Appendix * Complex-Valued Image Processing * Linear Integral Equations * Riemann-Liouville Fractional Calculus * Rigorous Geometric Quantization * Supervised Machine-Learning Methods * First-Order Logic and Quantum Random Fields

  19. Nonequilibrium dynamics of random field Ising spin chains: exact results via real space renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D S; Le Doussal, P; Monthus, C

    2001-12-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of classical random Ising spin chains with nonconserved magnetization are studied using an asymptotically exact real space renormalization group (RSRG). We focus on random field Ising model (RFIM) spin chains with and without a uniform applied field, as well as on Ising spin glass chains in an applied field. For the RFIM we consider a universal regime where the random field and the temperature are both much smaller than the exchange coupling. In this regime, the Imry-Ma length that sets the scale of the equilibrium correlations is large and the coarsening of domains from random initial conditions (e.g., a quench from high temperature) occurs over a wide range of length scales. The two types of domain walls that occur diffuse in opposite random potentials, of the form studied by Sinai, and domain walls annihilate when they meet. Using the RSRG we compute many universal asymptotic properties of both the nonequilibrium dynamics and the equilibrium limit. We find that the configurations of the domain walls converge rapidly toward a set of system-specific time-dependent positions that are independent of the initial conditions. Thus the behavior of this nonequilibrium system is pseudodeterministic at long times because of the broad distributions of barriers that occur on the long length scales involved. Specifically, we obtain the time dependence of the energy, the magnetization, and the distribution of domain sizes (found to be statistically independent). The equilibrium limits agree with known exact results. We obtain the exact scaling form of the two-point equal time correlation function and the two-time autocorrelations . We also compute the persistence properties of a single spin, of local magnetization, and of domains. The analogous quantities for the +/-J Ising spin glass in an applied field are obtained from the RFIM via a gauge transformation. In addition to these we compute the two-point two-time correlation function which can in

  20. Bayesian Estimation of Random Coefficient Dynamic Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic factor models (DFMs) have typically been applied to multivariate time series data collected from a single unit of study, such as a single individual or dyad. The goal of DFMs application is to capture dynamics of multivariate systems. When multiple units are available, however, DFMs are not suited to capture variations in dynamics across…

  1. The Dynamic Response of an Euler-Bernoulli Beam on an Elastic Foundation by Finite Element Analysis using the Exact Stiffness Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Soo; Kyum Kim, Moon

    2012-08-01

    In this study, finite element analysis of beam on elastic foundation, which received great attention of researchers due to its wide applications in engineering, is performed for estimating dynamic responses of shallow foundation using exact stiffness matrix. First, element stiffness matrix based on the closed solution of beam on elastic foundation is derived. Then, we performed static finite element analysis included exact stiffness matrix numerically, comparing results from the analysis with some exact analysis solutions well known for verification. Finally, dynamic finite element analysis is performed for a shallow foundation structure under rectangular pulse loading using trapezoidal method. The dynamic analysis results exist in the reasonable range comparing solution of single degree of freedom problem under a similar condition. The results show that finite element analysis using exact stiffness matrix is evaluated as a good tool of estimating the dynamic response of structures on elastic foundation.

  2. Feedback optimal control of dynamic stochastic two-machine flowshop with a finite buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Diep

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimization of production involving a tandem two-machine system producing a single part type, with each machine being subject to random breakdowns and repairs. An analytical model is formulated with a view to solving an optimal stochastic production problem of the system with machines having up-downtime non-exponential distributions. The model developed is obtained by using a dynamic programming approach and a semi-Markov process. The control problem aims to find the production rates needed by the machines to meet the demand rate, through a minimization of the inventory/shortage cost. Using the Bellman principle, the optimality conditions obtained satisfy the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, which depends on time and system states, and ultimately, leads to a feedback control. Consequently, the new model enables us to improve the coefficient of variation (CVup/down to be less than one while it is equal to one in Markov model. Heuristics methods are used to involve the problem because of the difficulty of the analytical model using several states, and to show what control law should be used in each system state (i.e., including Kanban, feedback and CONWIP control. Numerical methods are used to solve the optimality conditions and to show how a machine should produce.

  3. Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Li, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Hong; Bian, Rong; Zhang, Songning

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward's triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward's triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture.

  4. Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jing-Guang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward's triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward's triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture.

  5. 75 FR 44283 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same... within the United States after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors...

  6. 75 FR 20564 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors from the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on dynamic random access memory semiconductors from...

  7. H1-Random Attractors and Asymptotic Smoothing Effect of Solutions for Stochastic Boussinesq Equations with Fluctuating Dynamical Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the random dynamics of two-dimensional stochastic Boussinesq system with dynamical boundary condition. The white noises affect the system through a dynamical boundary condition. Using a method based on the theory of omega-limit compactness of a random dynamical system, we prove that the L2-random attractor for the generated random dynamical system is exactly the H1-random attractor. This improves a recent conclusion derived by Brune et al. on the existence of the L2-random attractor for the same system.

  8. PyLith: A Finite-Element Code for Modeling Quasi-Static and Dynamic Crustal Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Knepley, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed open-source finite-element software for 2-D and 3-D dynamic and quasi-static modeling of crustal deformation. This software, PyLith (current release is version 1.6) can be used for quasi-static viscoelastic modeling, dynamic spontaneous rupture and/or ground-motion modeling. Unstructured and structured finite-element discretizations allow for spatial scales ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers with temporal scales in dynamic problems ranging from milliseconds to minutes and temporal scales in quasi-static problems ranging from minutes to thousands of years. PyLith development is part of the NSF funded Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) and the software runs on a wide variety of platforms (laptops, workstations, and Beowulf clusters). Binaries (Linux, Darwin, and Windows systems) and source code are available from geodynamics.org. PyLith uses a suite of general, parallel, graph data structures called Sieve for storing and manipulating finite-element meshes. This permits use of a variety of 2-D and 3-D cell types including triangles, quadrilaterals, hexahedra, and tetrahedra. Current PyLith features include prescribed fault ruptures with multiple earthquakes and aseismic creep, spontaneous fault ruptures with a variety of fault constitutive models, time-dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, absorbing boundary conditions, time-dependent point forces, and gravitational body forces. PyLith supports infinitesimal and small strain formulations for linear elastic rheologies, linear and generalized Maxwell viscoelastic rheologies, power-law viscoelastic rheologies, and Drucker-Prager elastoplastic rheologies. Current software development focuses on coupling quasi-static and dynamic simulations to resolve multi-scale deformation across the entire seismic cycle and the coupling of elasticity to heat and/or fluid flow.

  9. Almost Sure Invariance Principle for Continuous-Space Random Walk in Dynamic Random Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    We consider a random walk on $\\R^d$ in a polynomially mixing random environment that is refreshed at each time step. We use a martingale approach to give a necessary and sufficient condition for the almost-sure functional central limit theorem to hold.

  10. Variational integrators for the dynamics of thermo-elastic solids with finite speed thermal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Pablo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4040 (United States); Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Conicyt Regional/CIEP R10C1003, Universidad Austral de Chile, Ignacio Serrrano 509, Coyhaique (Chile); Lew, Adrian J., E-mail: lewa@stanford.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4040 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper formulates variational integrators for finite element discretizations of deformable bodies with heat conduction in the form of finite speed thermal waves. The cornerstone of the construction consists in taking advantage of the fact that the Green–Naghdi theory of type II for thermo-elastic solids has a Hamiltonian structure. Thus, standard techniques to construct variational integrators can be applied to finite element discretizations of the problem. The resulting discrete-in-time trajectories are then consistent with the laws of thermodynamics for these systems: for an isolated system, they exactly conserve the total entropy, and nearly exactly conserve the total energy over exponentially long periods of time. Moreover, linear and angular momenta are also exactly conserved whenever the exact system does. For definiteness, we construct an explicit second-order accurate algorithm for affine tetrahedral elements in two and three dimensions, and demonstrate its performance with numerical examples.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Misalignment Effects on the Dynamic Force Coefficients of Spiral Groove Gas Face Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marco Tulio C.

    This paper presents a finite element procedure specially devised to analyze the misalignment effects on the behavior of spiral groove gas face seals operating at high speeds. In this study, the seal stationary face is slightly misaligned and the flexibly mounted face is perfectly aligned. Predictions of some steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics versus misalignment angle are presented for spirally grooved gas seals operating under stringent conditions. Curves of dynamic force coefficients versus the static misalignment angle of the seal face indicate that the seal misalignment affects considerably the dynamic response of gas lubricated face seals. At high speeds, the static seal misalignment not only results in increased stiffness coefficients but also leads to negative damping coefficients, which may be a sign of the seal susceptibility to excessive angular motions.

  12. Generalized equations of finite difference method in the problems of dynamic load calculation for thin bending plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich

    Full Text Available Bending plate is widely used in the construction of large-span structures. Its advantage is light weight, industrial production, low cost and easy installation. Implementing the algorithm for calculating bending plates in engineering practice is an important issue of the construction science. The generalized equations of finite difference method is a new trend in the calculation of building construction. FDM with generalized equation provides additional options for an engineer along with other methods (FEM. In the article the algorithm for dynamic calculation of thin bending plates basing on FDM was developed. The computer programs for dynamic calculation were created on the basis of the algorithm. The authors come to the conclusion that the more simple equations of FDM can be used in case of solving the impulse load problems in dynamic load calculation of thin bending plate.

  13. Application of a systematic finite-element model modification technique to dynamic analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic finite-element model modification technique has been applied to two small problems and a model of the main wing box of a research drone aircraft. The procedure determines the sensitivity of the eigenvalues and eigenvector components to specific structural changes, calculates the required changes and modifies the finite-element model. Good results were obtained where large stiffness modifications were required to satisfy large eigenvalue changes. Sensitivity matrix conditioning problems required the development of techniques to insure existence of a solution and accelerate its convergence. A method is proposed to assist the analyst in selecting stiffness parameters for modification.

  14. 77 FR 26789 - Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Controllers and Products Containing Same; Determination Rescinding the Exclusion Order and Cease and Desist Orders...

  15. DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DYNAMIC STRAIN MAPPING AND REAL-TIME DAMAGE STATE ESTIMATION UNDER BIAXIAL RANDOM FATIGUE LOADING SUBHASISH MOHANTY*, ADITI CHATTOPADHYAY, JOHN N. RAJADAS, AND CLYDE...

  16. Two Notes on Measure-Theoretic Entropy of Random Dynamical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuJun ZHU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Brin-Katok local entropy formula and Katok's definition of the measure theoretic entropy using spanning set are established for the random dynamical system over an invertible ergodic system.

  17. The influence of storms on finite amplitude sand wave dynamics: an idealized nonlinear model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campmans, G.H.P.; Roos, P.C.; de Vriend, H.J.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of storms on finite amplitude sand wave growth using a new idealized nonlinear morphodynamic model. We find that the growth speed initially linearly increases with sand wave amplitude, after which nonlinear effects cause the growth to decrease. This finally leads to an

  18. Finite size scaling study of dynamical phase transitions in two dimensional models: ferromagnet, symmetric and non symmetric spin glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.U.; Derrida, B.

    1988-10-01

    We study the time evolution of two configurations submitted to the same thermal noise for several two dimensional models (Ising ferromagnet, symmetric spin glass, non symmetric spin glass). For all these models, we find a non zero critical temperature above which the two configurations always meet. Using finite size scaling ideas, we determine for these three models this dynamical phase transition and some of the critical exponents. For the ferromagnet, the transition T/sub c/ approx. = 2.25 coincides with the Curie temperature whereas for the two spin glass models +- J distribution of bonds) we obtain T/sub c/ approx. = 1.5-1.7.

  19. Achieving Energy Conservation in Poisson-Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics: Accuracy and Precision with Finite-Difference Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhi-Lin; Zhao, Hong-Kai; Luo, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Violation of energy conservation in Poisson-Boltzmann molecular dynamics, due to the limited accuracy and precision of numerical methods, is a major bottleneck preventing its wide adoption in biomolecular simulations. We explored the ideas of enforcing interface conditions by the immerse interface method and of removing charge singularity to improve the finite-difference methods. Our analysis of these ideas on an analytical test system shows significant improvement in both energies and forces. Our analysis further indicates the need for more accurate force calculation, especially the boundary force calculation. PMID:20098487

  20. The finite difference method for the three-dimensional nonlinear coupled system of dynamics of fluids in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Yirang

    2006-01-01

    For the three-dimensional coupled system of multilayer dynamics of fluids in porous media, the second-order upwind finite difference fractional steps schemes applicable to parallel arithmetic are put forward. Some techniques, such as calculus of variations, energy method,multiplicative commutation rule of difference operators, decomposition of high order difference operators and prior estimates are adopted. Optimal order estimates in l2 norm are derived to determine the error in the second-order approximate solution. These methods have already been applied to the numerical simulation of migration-accumulation of oil resources.

  1. The upwind finite difference fractional steps method for combinatorial system of dynamics of fluids in porous media and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Yiran(袁益让)

    2002-01-01

    For combinatorial system of multilayer dynamics of fluids in porous media, the second order and first order upwind finite difference fractional steps schemes applicable to parallel arithmetic are put forward and two-dimensional and three-dimensional schemes are used to form a complete set. Some techniques,such as implicit-explicit difference scheme, calculus of variations, multiplicative commutation rule of difference operators, decomposition of high order difference operators and prior estimates, are adopted. Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived to determine the error in the second order approximate solution. This method has already been applied to the numerical simulation of migration-accumulation of oil resources.

  2. THE UPWIND FINITE DIFFERENCE FRACTIONAL STEPS METHOD FOR NONLINEAR COUPLED SYSTEM OF DYNAMICS OF FLUIDS IN POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yirang YUAN

    2006-01-01

    For nonlinear coupled system of multilayer dynamics of fluids in porous media, the second order and first order upwind finite difference fractional steps schemes applicable to parallel arithmetic are put forward, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional schemes are used to form a complete set. Some techniques, such as calculus of variations, multiplicative commutation rule of difference operators, decomposition of high order difference operators and prior estimates, are adopted. Optimal order estimates in L2 norm are derived to determine the error in the second order approximate solution.This method has already been applied to the numerical simulation of migration-accumulation of oil resources.

  3. Random operators disorder effects on quantum spectra and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Aizenman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the mathematical theory of disorder effects on quantum spectra and dynamics. Topics covered range from the basic theory of spectra and dynamics of self-adjoint operators through Anderson localization-presented here via the fractional moment method, up to recent results on resonant delocalization. The subject's multifaceted presentation is organized into seventeen chapters, each focused on either a specific mathematical topic or on a demonstration of the theory's relevance to physics, e.g., its implications for the quantum Hall effect. The mathematical chapters include general relations of quantum spectra and dynamics, ergodicity and its implications, methods for establishing spectral and dynamical localization regimes, applications and properties of the Green function, its relation to the eigenfunction correlator, fractional moments of Herglotz-Pick functions, the phase diagram for tree graph operators, resonant delocalization, the spectral statistics conjecture, and rela...

  4. Mechanical properties of silicon nanobeams with an undercut evaluated by combining the dynamic resonance test and finite element analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jia-Hong; Mao Xiao-Li; Liu Qing-Quan; Gu Fang; Li Min; Liu Heng; Ge Yi-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of silicon nanobeams are of prime importance in nanoelectromechanical system applications.A numerical experimental method of determining resonant frequencies and Young's modulus of nanobeams by combining finite element analysis and frequency response tests based on an electrostatic excitation and visual detection by using a laser Doppler vibrometer is presented in this paper.Silicon nanobeam test structures are fabricated from silicon-on-insulator wafers by using a standard lithography and anisotropic wet etching release process,which inevitably generates the undercut of the nanobeam clamping.In conjunction with three-dimensional finite element numerical simulations incorporating the geometric undercut,dynamic resonance tests reveal that the undercut significantly reduces resonant frequencies of nanobeams due to the fact that it effectively increases the nanobeam length by a correct value △L,which is a key parameter that is correlated with deviations in the resonant frequencies predicted from the ideal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and experimentally measured data.By using a least-square fit expression including △L,we finally extract Young's modulus from the measured resonance frequency versus effective length dependency and find that Young's modulus of a silicon nanobeam with 200-nm thickness is close to that of bulk silicon.This result supports that the finite size effect due to the surface effect does not play a role in the mechanical elastic behaviour of silicon nanobeams with thickness larger than 200 nm.

  5. A non-contacting approach for full field dynamic strain monitoring of rotating structures using the photogrammetry, finite element, and modal expansion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or interior locations where failures may occur. Within this work, an unique expansion algorithm was extended and combined with finite element (FE) modeling and an optical measurement technique to identify the dynamic strain in rotating structures. The merit of the approach is shown by using the approach to predict the dynamic strain on a small non-rotating and rotating wind turbine. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-meter long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. A finite element model of the three wind turbine blades assembled to the hub was created and used to extract resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The FE model was validated and updated using experimental modal tests. For the non-rotating optical test, the turbine was excited using a sinusoidal excitation, a pluck test, arbitrary impacts on three blades, and random force excitations with a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure the displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the work show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for all of the three loading conditions. Similar to the non-rotating case, optical measurements were also preformed on a rotating wind turbine. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible

  6. 'Dicty dynamics': Dictyostelium motility as persistent random motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Liang; Cox, Edward C; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to the amoeba's direction of motion. This motion propels the amoeba with a random periodic left–right waddle in a direction that has a long persistence time. The model fully accounts for the statistics of the experimental trajectories, including velocity power spectra and auto-correlations, non...

  7. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  8. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  9. Real-space renormalization for the finite temperature statics and dynamics of the Dyson long-ranged ferromagnetic and spin-glass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    The finite temperature dynamics of the Dyson hierarchical classical spins models is studied via real-space renormalization rules concerning the couplings and the relaxation times. For the ferromagnetic model involving long-ranged coupling J(r)\\propto {{r}-1-σ} in the region 1/2mean-field-like thermal ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition, the RG flows are explicitly solved: the characteristic relaxation time τ (L) follows the critical power-law τ (L)\\propto {{L}{{z\\text{c}}(σ )}} at the phase transition and the activated law \\ln τ (L)\\propto {{L}\\psi} with \\psi =1-σ in the ferromagnetic phase. For the spin-glass model involving random long-ranged couplings of variance \\overline{{{J}2}(r)}\\propto {{r}-2σ} in the region 2/3mean-field-like thermal spin-glass-paramagnetic transition, the coupled RG flows of the couplings and of the relaxation times are studied numerically: the relaxation time τ (L) follows some power-law τ (L)\\propto {{L}{{z\\text{c}}(σ )}} at criticality and the activated law \\ln τ (L)\\propto {{L}\\psi} in the spin-glass phase with the dynamical exponent \\psi =1-σ =θ coinciding with the droplet exponent governing the flow of the couplings J(L)\\propto {{L}θ} .

  10. Estimation of Finite Population Mean in Stratified Random Sampling Using Auxiliary Attribute(s under Non-Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Shabbir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a combined exponential ratio type estimator of finite population mean utilizing information on the auxiliary attribute(s under non-response. Expressions for bias and MSE of the proposed estimator are derived up to first order of approximation. An empirical study is carried out to observe the performances of the estimators.

  11. Static and Dynamic Mechanics Analysis on Artificial Hip Joints with Different Interface Designs by the Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-bo Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Four different structural models of artificial joints were developed and the finite element method (FEM) was employed to investigate their mechanical characteristics under static and dynamic conditions. The materials used in the FEM calculation were ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 316L stainless steel, CoCrMo alloy and Ti6A14V alloy. The stress distribution, strain, and elastic deformation under static and dynamic conditions were obtained. Analysis and comparison of the calculation results of different models were conducted. It is shown that with the same parameters the model of a metallic femur head covered with an artificial cartilage layer is more similar to the structure of the natural human joint and its mechanical characteristics are the best of the four models.

  12. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  13. On the convergence of complex Langevin dynamics: the three-dimensional XY model at finite chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional XY model is studied at finite chemical potential using complex Langevin dynamics. The validity of the approach is probed at small chemical potential using imaginary chemical potential and continuity arguments, and at larger chemical potential by comparison with the world line method. While complex Langevin works for larger beta, we find that it fails for smaller beta, in the region of the phase diagram corresponding to the disordered phase. Diagnostic tests are developed to identify symptoms correlated with incorrect convergence. We argue that the erroneous behaviour at smaller beta is not due to the sign problem, but rather resembles dynamics observed in complex Langevin simulations of simple models with complex noise.

  14. Mapping between finite temperature classical and zero temperature quantum systems: Quantum critical jamming and quantum dynamical heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Zohar; Johnson, Patrick; Graf, Matthias J.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2013-05-01

    Many electronic systems (e.g., the cuprate superconductors and heavy fermions) exhibit striking features in their dynamical response over a prominent range of experimental parameters. While there are some empirical suggestions of particular increasing length scales that accompany such transitions in some cases, this identification is not universal and in numerous instances no large correlation length is evident. To better understand, as a matter of principle, such behavior in quantum systems, we extend a known mapping (earlier studied in stochastic or supersymmetric quantum mechanics) between finite temperature classical Fokker-Planck systems and related quantum systems at zero temperature to include general nonequilibrium dynamics. Unlike Feynman mappings or stochastic quantization methods in field theories (as well as more recent holographic type dualities), the classical systems that we consider and their quantum duals reside in the same number of space-time dimensions. The upshot of our very broad and rigorous result is that a Wick rotation exactly relates (i) the dynamics in general finite temperature classical dissipative systems to (ii) zero temperature dynamics in the corresponding dual many-body quantum systems. Using this correspondence, we illustrate that, even in the absence of imposed disorder, many continuum quantum fluid systems (and possible lattice counterparts) may exhibit a zero-point “quantum dynamical heterogeneity” wherein the dynamics, at a given instant, is spatially nonuniform. While the static length scales accompanying this phenomenon do not seem to exhibit a clear divergence in standard correlation functions, the length scale of the dynamical heterogeneities can increase dramatically. We further study “quantum jamming” and illustrate how a hard-core bosonic system can undergo a zero temperature quantum critical metal-to-insulator-type transition with an extremely large effective dynamical exponent z>4 that is consistent with

  15. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); Klein, M. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levine, R. D. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-14

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  16. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Klein, M.; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2016-07-01

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  17. The dynamic excitation of a granular chain for biomedical ultrasound applications: contact mechanics finite element analysis and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; Yang, J.; Thomas, P. J.; Hutchins, D. A.; Akanji, O.; Davis, L. A. J.; Freear, S.; Harput, S.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the transmission of acoustic signals along granular chains of spherical beads to produce waveforms of relevance to biomedical ultrasound applications. Hertzian contact between adjacent beads can introduce different harmonic content into the signal as it propagates. This transduction mechanism has the potential to be of use in both diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound applications, and is the object of the study presented here. Although discrete dynamics models of this behaviour exist, a more comprehensive solution must be sought if changes in shape and deformation of individual beads are to be considered. Thus, the finite element method was used to investigate the dynamics of a granular chain of six, 1 mm diameter chrome steel spherical beads excited at one end using a sinusoidal displacement signal at 73 kHz. Output from this model was compared with the solution provided by the discrete dynamics model, and good overall agreement obtained. In addition, it was able to resolve the complex dynamics of the granular chain, including the multiple collisions which occur. It was demonstrated that under dynamic excitation conditions, the inability of discrete mechanics models to account for elastic deformation of the beads when these lose contact, could lead to discrepancies with experimental observations.

  18. Biomechanical analyses of static and dynamic fixation techniques of retrograde interlocking femoral nailing using nonlinear finite element methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Hsu, Tzu-Pin; Hou, Sheng-Mou; Liaw, Chen-Kun

    2014-02-01

    Femoral shaft fractures can be treated using retrograde interlocking nailing systems; however, fracture nonunion still occurs. Dynamic fixation techniques, which remove either the proximal or distal locking screws, have been used to solve the problem of nonunion. In addition, a surgical rule for dynamic fixation techniques has been defined based on past clinical reports. However, the biomechanical performance of the retrograde interlocking nailing systems with either the traditional static fixation technique or the dynamic fixation techniques has not been investigated by using nonlinear numerical modeling. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models were developed, and the implant strength, fixation stability, and contact area of the fracture surfaces were evaluated. Three types of femoral shaft fractures (a proximal femoral shaft fracture, a middle femoral shaft fracture, and a distal femoral shaft fracture) fixed by three fixation techniques (insertion of all the locking screws, removal of the proximal locking screws, or removal of the distal locking screws) were analyzed. The results showed that the static fixation technique resulted in sufficient fixation stability and that the dynamic fixation techniques decreased the failure risk of the implant and produced a larger contact area of the fracture surfaces. The outcomes of the current study could assist orthopedic surgeons in comprehending the biomechanical performances of both static and dynamic fixation techniques. In addition, the surgeons could also select a fixation technique based on the specific patient situation using the numerical outcomes of this study.

  19. On Natural Genetic Engineering: Structural Dynamism in Random Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Larry

    2012-01-01

    This short paper presents an abstract, tunable model of genomic structural change within the cell lifecycle and explores its use with simulated evolution. A well-known Boolean model of genetic regulatory networks is extended to include changes in node connectivity based upon the current cell state, e.g., via transposable elements. The underlying behaviour of the resulting dynamical networks is investigated before their evolvability is explored using a version of the NK model of fitness landscapes. Structural dynamism is found to be selected for in non-stationary environments and subsequently shown capable of providing a mechanism for evolutionary innovation when such reorganizations are inherited.

  20. Topological equivalence for discontinuous random dynamical systems and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Huijie; Duan, Jinqiao

    2012-01-01

    After defining non-Gaussian L\\'evy processes for two-sided time, stochastic differential equations with such L\\'evy processes are considered. Solution paths for these stochastic differential equations have countable jump discontinuities in time. Topological equivalence (or conjugacy) for such an It\\^o stochastic differential equation and its transformed random differential equation is established. Consequently, a stochastic Hartman-Grobman theorem is proved for the linearization of the It\\^o ...

  1. Random polarization dynamics in a resonant optical medium

    CERN Document Server

    Newhall, Katherine A; Kramer, Peter R; Kovacic, Gregor; Gabitov, Ildar R

    2013-01-01

    Random optical-pulse polarization switching along an active optical medium in the $\\Lambda$-configuration with spatially disordered occupation numbers of its lower energy sub-level pair is described using the idealized integrable Maxwell-Bloch model. Analytical results describing the light polarization-switching statistics for the single self-induced transparency pulse are compared with statistics obtained from direct Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  2. Unique Measure for Time-Dependent Random Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves the uniqueness of measure for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations under a random kick-force and a time-dependent deterministic force. By extending a result for uniqueness of measure for time-homogeneous Markov processes to the time-inhomogeneous case, it is shown that the measures are exponentially mixing for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere.

  3. Random walk theory and exchange rate dynamics in transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradojević Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the validity of the random walk theory in the Euro-Serbian dinar exchange rate market. We apply Andrew Lo and Archie MacKinlay's (1988 conventional variance ratio test and Jonathan Wright's (2000 non-parametric ranks and signs based variance ratio tests to the daily Euro/Serbian dinar exchange rate returns using the data from January 2005 - December 2008. Both types of variance ratio tests overwhelmingly reject the random walk hypothesis over the data span. To assess the robustness of our findings, we examine the forecasting performance of a non-linear, nonparametric model in the spirit of Francis Diebold and James Nason (1990 and find that it is able to significantly improve upon the random walk model, thus confirming the existence of foreign exchange market imperfections in a small transition economy such as Serbia. In the last part of the paper, we conduct a comparative study on how our results relate to those of other transition economies in the region.

  4. Thermoelastic and Pyroelectric Couplings Effects on Dynamics and Active Control of Smart Piezolaminated Beam Modeled by Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart structures with integrated sensors, actuators, and control electronics are of importance to the next generation high-performance structural systems. In this study, thermopiezoelastic characteristics of piezoelectric beam continua are studied and applications of the theory to active structures in sensing and optimal control are discussed. Using linear thermopiezoelastic theory and Timoshenko assumptions, a generic thermopiezoelastic theory for piezolaminated composite beam is derived. Finite element equations for the thermopiezoelastic media are obtained by using the linear constitutive equations in Hamilton's principle together with the finite element approximations. The structure consists of a modeling of cantilevered piezolaminated Timoshenko beam with integrated thermopiezoelectric elements between two aluminium layers. The structure is modelled analytically and then numerically and the results of simulations are presented in order to visualize the states of their dynamics and the state of control. The optimal control LQG accompanied by the Kalman filter is applied. The effects of thermoelastic and pyroelectric couplings on the dynamics of the structure and on the control procedure are studied and discussed. We show that the control procedure cannot be perturbed by applying a thermal gradient and the control can be applied at any time during the period of vibration of the beam.

  5. Finite-size effect on the dynamic and sensing performances of graphene resonators: the role of edge stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Dai, Mai Duc; Eom, Kilho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the finite-size effect on the dynamic behavior of graphene resonators and their applications in atomic mass detection using a continuum elastic model such as modified plate theory. In particular, we developed a model based on von Karman plate theory with including the edge stress, which arises from the imbalance between the coordination numbers of bulk atoms and edge atoms of graphene. It is shown that as the size of a graphene resonator decreases, the edge stress depending on the edge structure of a graphene resonator plays a critical role on both its dynamic and sensing performances. We found that the resonance behavior of graphene can be tuned not only through edge stress but also through nonlinear vibration, and that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be controlled by using the edge stress. Our study sheds light on the important role of the finite-size effect in the effective design of graphene resonators for their mass sensing applications.

  6. Parametric dynamics of quantum systems and transitions between ensembles of random matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyczkowski, K. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1993-05-01

    We analyze ensembles of random matrices capable of describing the transitions between orthogonal, unitary and Poisson ensembles. Scaling laws found in complex Hermitian band random matrices and in additive random matrices allow us to apply them to represent the changes of the statistical properties of quantum systems under a variation of external parameters. The properties of spectrum and eigenvectors of an illustrative dynamical system are compared with the properties of ensembles of random matrices. To describe the motion of the eigenvectors of the matrix representing a dynamical system under a change of external parameters we define the relative localization length of the eigenvectors and analyze its properties. We propose a criterion for selection of generic basis, in which statistic of eigenvector components might be described by random matrices. The properties of products of unitary matrices, representing composed quantum systems, are investigated. (author). 220 refs, 15 figs.

  7. Return times at periodic points in random dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Nicolai; Todd, Mike

    2017-01-01

    We prove a quenched limiting law for random measures on subshifts at periodic points. We consider a family of measures {≤ft\\{{{μω}\\right\\}}ω \\in Ω } , where the ‘driving space’ Ω is equipped with a probability measure which is invariant under a transformation θ. We assume that the fibred measures {μω} satisfy a generalised invariance property and are ψ-mixing. We then show that for almost every ω the return times to cylinders A n at periodic points are in the limit compound Poisson distributed for a parameter ϑ which is given by the escape rate at the periodic point.

  8. Probability distribution of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk on the finite-size fully-connected lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, L

    2016-01-01

    The probability distribution of the number $s$ of distinct sites visited up to time $t$ by a random walk on the fully-connected lattice with $N$ sites is first obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the discrete master equation. Then, using generating function techniques, we compute the joint probability distribution of $s$ and $r$, where $r$ is the number of sites visited only once up to time $t$. Mean values, variances and covariance are deduced from the generating functions and their finite-size-scaling behaviour is studied. Introducing properly centered and scaled variables $u$ and $v$ for $r$ and $s$ and working in the scaling limit ($t\\to\\infty$, $N\\to\\infty$ with $w=t/N$ fixed) the joint probability density of $u$ and $v$ is shown to be a bivariate Gaussian density. It follows that the fluctuations of $r$ and $s$ around their mean values in a finite-size system are Gaussian in the scaling limit. The same type of finite-size scaling is expected to hold on periodic lattices above the ...

  9. Accurate Finite Element Modelling of Chipboard Single-Stud Floor Panels subjected to Dynamic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöström, A.; Flodén, O.; Persson, K.;

    2012-01-01

    In multi-storey buildings, the use of lightweight material has many advantages. The low weight, the low energy consumption and the sustainability of the material are some attractive benefits from using lightweight materials. Compared with heavier structures i.e. concrete the challenge...... in constructing a building compliant with building codes vis-a-vis the propagation of sound and vibrations within the structure is a challenge. Focusing on junctions in a multi-storey lightweight buildings, a modular finite element model is developed to be used for analyses of vibration transmission...... in lightweight buildings subjected to different types of loads....

  10. Finite Element Approximation for the Dynamics of Fluidic Two-Phase Biomembranes

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, John W; Nürnberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Biomembranes and vesicles consisting of multiple phases can attain a multitude of shapes, undergoing complex shape transitions. We study a Cahn--Hilliard model on an evolving hypersurface coupled to Navier--Stokes equations on the surface and in the surrounding medium to model these phenomena. The evolution is driven by a curvature energy, modelling the elasticity of the membrane, and by a Cahn--Hilliard type energy, modelling line energy effects. A stable semidiscrete finite element approximation is introduced and, with the help of a fully discrete method, several phenomena occurring for two-phase membranes are computed.

  11. [Development and validation of a finite element model of human knee joint for dynamic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Gu, Yulong; Ruan, Shijie; Cui, Shihai

    2012-02-01

    Based on the biomechanical response of human knee joint to a front impact in occupants accidents, a finite element (FE) model of human knee joint was developed by using computer simulation technique for impacting. The model consists of human anatomical structure, including femoral condyle, tibia condyle, fibular small head, patellar, cartilage, meniscus and primary ligament. By comparing the results of the FE model with experiments of the knee joint in axial load conditions, the validation of the model was verified. Furthermore, this study provides data for the mechanical of human knee joint injury, and is helpful for the design and optimization of the vehicle protective devices.

  12. Singularities of the dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Sacramento, P. D.; Machado, J. D. P.; Campbell, D. K.

    2015-10-01

    We study the longitudinal and transverse spin dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field h, focusing in particular on the singularities at excitation energies in the vicinity of the lower thresholds. While the static properties of the model can be studied within a Fermi-liquid like description in terms of pseudoparticles, our derivation of the dynamical properties relies on the introduction of a form of the ‘pseudofermion dynamical theory’ (PDT) of the 1D Hubbard model suitably modified for the spin-only XXX chain and other models with two pseudoparticle Fermi points. Specifically, we derive the exact momentum and spin-density dependences of the exponents {{\\zeta}τ}(k) controlling the singularities for both the longitudinal ≤ft(τ =l\\right) and transverse ≤ft(τ =t\\right) dynamical structure factors for the whole momentum range k\\in ]0,π[ , in the thermodynamic limit. This requires the numerical solution of the integral equations that define the phase shifts in these exponents expressions. We discuss the relation to neutron scattering and suggest new experiments on spin-chain compounds using a carefully oriented crystal to test our predictions.

  13. Static and dynamic finite element analysis of 304 stainless steel rod and wire hot continuous rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siyu Yuan; Liwen Zhang; Shulun Liao; Mao Li; Min Qi; Yu Zhen; Shuqi Guo

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models were developed to analyze 304 stainless steel rod and wire hot continuous rolling process with the help of MSC.Marc software. The entire 30-pass deformation process and the actual parameters of production line were taken into account. Static and dynamic procedures were used to study the continuous rolling process with the aid of the thermo-mechanical coupled FEM of elastic-plasticity. The properties of billets, such as deformation, temperature field and rolling force, were mainly discussed. The simulation results of temperature agree well with the measured values. Comparisons of the analysis results obtained using static implicit method and dynamic implicit method were presented. It is shown that static implicit proce-dure is more accurate than dynamic implicit procedure and is able to simulate the rolling process with a lower speed, such as a rough-ing mill. Whereas, dynamic analysis shows a higher efficiency than static analysis and is fit for simulating the rolling process with a higher speed, such as a finishing mill.

  14. Synthetic-jet-based dynamic stall control on a scaled finite span wind turbine S817 blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Taylor, Keith; Amitay, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As wind turbines increase in size, so do many of the adverse effects associated with unsteady flow fields. Yawed flow, unsteady gusts, atmospheric boundary layers, and even free stream turbulence can cause unsteady loading, which are detrimental to the blades' structure. In order to decrease unsteady loading, synthetic jet actuators were installed on a scaled finite span cantilevered wind turbine blade having an S817 airfoil shape. The S817 airfoil shape is of the blade tips on the NREL CART3, which will be used next year on full scale field testing of active flow control. The model has been tested in the wind tunnel with and without active flow control, using load, surface pressure, and PIV measurements to characterize the airfoil's stall behavior during static and dynamic conditions, and the effect of flow control on its aerodynamic performance. Surface-mounted microphones were also used to detect dominant frequencies in the flow field. Dynamic stall was also simulated by pitching the airfoil through stall in a sinusoidal pitching motion. Synthetic jets, placed near the leading edge, were shown to increase lift both in the static and dynamic cases, in addition to attaching the flow and reducing hysteresis during dynamic pitching, showing a decrease in structural loading.

  15. Intrapopulation fixation index dynamics in finite populations with variable outcrossing rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrapopulation fixation index ( f is inversely related to the outcrossing rate (t. Results obtained from data on molecular markers of natural populations have shown that these values are highly variable, even when measured in the same group of individuals. It is thus suggested that factors besides those described in Wright's genetic equilibrium must be operating. Using simulated data sets this study shows that the finite size condition of a population is sufficient to spread the estimated f values along a range at equilibrium, as opposed to keeping them at the theoretical equilibrium point. The variation in outcrossing rates can amplify this range considerably. Correlation between estimated f values obtained from different loci in this condition showed to be negatively related to the outcrossing rates, and positively related to the variance of these rates along generations. The finite size of populations associated to small fluctuations in t mean values over time may explain the usually reported high variation among estimated f values of different loci.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Deepwater Drilling Risers Subjected to Random Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Excited by ocean currents, random wave and vessel motion, deepwater drilling risers exhibit significant dynamic response. In time domain, a method is proposed to calculate the nonlinear dynamic response of deepwater drilling risers subjected to random wave and dynamic large displacement vessel motion boundary condition. Structural and functional loads, external and internal pressure, free surface effect of irregular wave, hydrodynamic forces induced by current and wave, as well as wave and low frequency (drift) motion of the drilling vessel are all accounted for. An example is presented which illustrates the application of the proposed method. The study shows that long term drift motion of the vessel has profound effect on the envelopes of bending stress and lateral displacement, as well as the range of lower flex joint angle of the deepwater riser. It can also be concluded that vessel motion is the principal dynamic loading of nonlinear dynamic response for the deepwater risers rather than wave force.

  17. Cascading dynamics on random networks: Crossover in phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor progression with random fitness values

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Rick; Leder, Kevin; Mayberry, John; Michor, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Most human tumors result from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations in a single cell. Mutations that confer a fitness advantage to the cell are known as driver mutations and are causally related to tumorigenesis. Other mutations, however, do not change the phenotype of the cell or even decrease cellular fitness. While much experimental effort is being devoted to the identification of the different functional effects of individual mutations, mathematical modeling of tumor progression generally considers constant fitness increments as mutations are accumulated. In this paper we study a mathematical model of tumor progression with random fitness increments. We analyze a multi-type branching process in which cells accumulate mutations whose fitness effects are chosen from a distribution. We determine the effect of the fitness distribution on the growth kinetics of the tumor. This work contributes to a quantitative understanding of the accumulation of mutations leading to cancer phenotype...

  19. SIRS Dynamics on Random Networks: Simulations and Analytical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, Ganna; Nunes, Ana

    The standard pair approximation equations (PA) for the Susceptible-Infective-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model of infection spread on a network of homogeneous degree k predict a thin phase of sustained oscillations for parameter values that correspond to diseases that confer long lasting immunity. Here we present a study of the dependence of this oscillatory phase on the parameter k and of its relevance to understand the behaviour of simulations on networks. For k = 4, we compare the phase diagram of the PA model with the results of simulations on regular random graphs (RRG) of the same degree. We show that for parameter values in the oscillatory phase, and even for large system sizes, the simulations either die out or exhibit damped oscillations, depending on the initial conditions. This failure of the standard PA model to capture the qualitative behaviour of the simulations on large RRGs is currently being investigated.

  20. Simulation of Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Vortex Systems in Random Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Dynamics in two-dimensional vortex systems with random pinning centres is investigated using molecular dy-namical simulations. The driving force and temperature dependences of vortex velocity are investigated. Below the critical depinning force Fc, a creep motion of vortex is found at low temperature. At forces slightly above Fc, a part of vortices flow in winding channels at zero temperature. In the vortex channel flow region, we ob-serve the abnormal behaviour of vortex dynamics: the velocity is roughly independent of temperature or even decreases with temperature at low temperatures. A phase diagram that describes different dynamics of vortices is presented.

  1. An explicit finite element formulation for dynamic strain localization and damage evolution in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Hashem M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-16

    An explicit finite element formulation, used to study the behavior and failure mechanisms of metallic materials under high strain rate loading, is presented. The formulation is based on the assumed-strain approach of Fish and Belytschko [1988], which allows localization bands to be embedded within an element, thereby alleviating mesh sensitivity and reducing the required computational effort. The behavior of the material outside localization bands (and of the virgin material prior to the onset of strain localization) is represented using a Gurson-type coupled plasticity-damage model based on the work of Johnson and Addessio [1988]. Assuming adiabatic conditions, the response of the localization band material is represented by a set of constitutive equations for large elasticviscoplastic deformations in metals at high strain rates and high homologous temperatures (see Brown et al. [1989]). Computational results are compared to experimental data for different metallic alloys to illustrate the advantages of the proposed modeling strategy.

  2. Computational statics and dynamics an introduction based on the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to modern computational mechanics based on the finite element method. It helps students succeed in mechanics courses by showing them how to apply the fundamental knowledge they gained in the first years of their engineering education to more advanced topics. In order to deepen readers’ understanding of the derived equations and theories, each chapter also includes supplementary problems. These problems start with fundamental knowledge questions on the theory presented in the chapter, followed by calculation problems. In total over 80 such calculation problems are provided, along with brief solutions for each. This book is especially designed to meet the needs of Australian students, reviewing the mathematics covered in their first two years at university. The 13-week course comprises three hours of lectures and two hours of tutorials per week.

  3. Dynamical effects of a one-dimensional multibarrier potential of finite range

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, D

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a large number N of one-dimensional (bounded) locally periodic potential barriers in a finite interval. We show that the transmission coefficient, the scattering cross section $\\sigma$, and the resonances of $\\sigma$ depend sensitively upon the ratio of the total spacing to the total barrier width. We also show that a time dependent wave packet passing through the system of potential barriers rapidly spreads and deforms, a criterion suggested by Zaslavsky for chaotic behaviour. Computing the spectrum by imposing (large) periodic boundary conditions we find a Wigner type distribution. We investigate also the S-matrix poles; many resonances occur for certain values of the relative spacing between the barriers in the potential.

  4. Explicit mixed strain-displacement finite element for dynamic geometrically non-linear solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, N. M.; Rossi, R.; Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    Low-order finite elements face inherent limitations related to their poor convergence properties. Such difficulties typically manifest as mesh-dependent or excessively stiff behaviour when dealing with complex problems. A recent proposal to address such limitations is the adoption of mixed displacement-strain technologies which were shown to satisfactorily address both problems. Unfortunately, although appealing, the use of such element technology puts a large burden on the linear algebra, as the solution of larger linear systems is needed. In this paper, the use of an explicit time integration scheme for the solution of the mixed strain-displacement problem is explored as an alternative. An algorithm is devised to allow the effective time integration of the mixed problem. The developed method retains second order accuracy in time and is competitive in terms of computational cost with the standard irreducible formulation.

  5. Propagation dynamics of finite-energy Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Kun; Li, Peng; Gu, Yu-Zong

    2017-10-01

    We investigate periodic inversion and phase transition of normal and displaced finite-energy Airy beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media with the split-step Fourier method. Numerical simulation results show that parameters such as the degree of nonlocality and amplitude have profound effects on the intensity distribution of the period of an Airy beam. Nonlocal nonlinear media will reduce into a harmonic potential if the nonlocality is strong enough, which results in the beam fluctuating in an approximately cosine mode. The beam profile changes from an Airy profile to a Gaussian one at a critical point, and during propagation the process repeats to form an unusual oscillation. We also briefly discus the two-dimensional case, being equivalent to a product of two one-dimensional cases.

  6. Dissipative dynamics in a finite chaotic environment: Relationship between damping rate and Lyapunov exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J C; Strunz, W T; Beims, M W

    2015-08-01

    We consider the energy flow between a classical one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a set of N two-dimensional chaotic oscillators, which represents the finite environment. Using linear response theory we obtain an analytical effective equation for the system harmonic oscillator, which includes a frequency dependent dissipation, a shift, and memory effects. The damping rate is expressed in terms of the environment mean Lyapunov exponent. A good agreement is shown by comparing theoretical and numerical results, even for environments with mixed (regular and chaotic) motion. Resonance between system and environment frequencies is shown to be more efficient to generate dissipation than larger mean Lyapunov exponents or a larger number of bath chaotic oscillators.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Overhead Power Lines after Ice-Shedding Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murín, Justín; Hrabovský, Juraj; Gogola, Roman; Janíček, František

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the analysis of ice-shedding from ACSR conductors to its swing up height and vibration using Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented. For the numerical simulations the effective material properties of the ACSR conductor are calculated using the homogenisation method. Numerical analysis concerning vibration of one and triple-bundle conductors with icing for a whole range or on their certain parts are performed. The impact of ice-shedding to the mechanical tension in the conductors at the points of attachment is investigated and evaluated. Identification of the impact of ice-shedding from the ACSR conductors on its mechanical state may contribute to increasing the safety and quality of an electrical transmission system.

  8. The finite volume method in computational fluid dynamics an advanced introduction with OpenFOAM and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Moukalled, F; Darwish, M

    2016-01-01

    This textbook explores both the theoretical foundation of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and its applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Readers will discover a thorough explanation of the FVM numerics and algorithms used for the simulation of incompressible and compressible fluid flows, along with a detailed examination of the components needed for the development of a collocated unstructured pressure-based CFD solver. Two particular CFD codes are explored. The first is uFVM, a three-dimensional unstructured pressure-based finite volume academic CFD code, implemented within Matlab. The second is OpenFOAM®, an open source framework used in the development of a range of CFD programs for the simulation of industrial scale flow problems. With over 220 figures, numerous examples and more than one hundred exercise on FVM numerics, programming, and applications, this textbook is suitable for use in an introductory course on the FVM, in an advanced course on numerics, and as a reference for CFD programm...

  9. Finite element study on the effect of abutment length and material on implant bone interface against dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manish; Ozawa, Shogo; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Yoshioka, Fumi; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2011-09-01

    Finite element study on the effect of abutment length and material on implant bone interface against dynamic loading. Two dimensional finite element models of cylinderical implant, abutments and bone made by titanium or polyoxymethylene were simulated with the aid of Marc/Mentat software. Each model represented bone, implant and titanium or polyoxymethylene abutment. Model 1: Implant with 3 mm titanium abutment, Model 2: Implant with 2 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment, Model 3: Implant with 3 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment and Model 4: Implant with 4 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment. A vertical load of 11 N was applied with a frequency of 2 cycles/sec. The stress distribution pattern and displacement at the junction of cortical bone and implant was recorded. When Model 2, 3 and 4 are compared with Model 1, they showed narrowing of stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone as the height of the polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment increases. Model 2, 3 and 4 showed slightly less but similar displacement when compared to Model 1. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that introduction of different height resilient material abutment with different heights i.e. 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm polyoxymethylene, does not bring about significant change in stress distribution pattern and displacement as compared to 3 mm Ti abutment. Clinically, with the application of resilient material abutment there is no significant change in stress distribution around implant-bone interface.

  10. Convergence of Galerkin truncation for dynamic response of finite beams on nonlinear foundations under a moving load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Chen, Li-Qun; Yang, Shao-Pu

    2012-05-01

    The present paper investigates the convergence of the Galerkin method for the dynamic response of an elastic beam resting on a nonlinear foundation with viscous damping subjected to a moving concentrated load. It also studies the effect of different boundary conditions and span length on the convergence and dynamic response. A train-track or vehicle-pavement system is modeled as a force moving along a finite length Euler-Bernoulli beam on a nonlinear foundation. Nonlinear foundation is assumed to be cubic. The Galerkin method is utilized in order to discretize the nonlinear partial differential governing equation of the forced vibration. The dynamic response of the beam is obtained via the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Three types of the conventional boundary conditions are investigated. The railway tracks on stiff soil foundation running the train and the asphalt pavement on soft soil foundation moving the vehicle are treated as examples. The dependence of the convergence of the Galerkin method on boundary conditions, span length and other system parameters are studied.

  11. A Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Drilling Shaft including Multispan Auxiliary Supports in Deep-Hole Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to enhance computational efficiency of the nonlinear dynamic analysis of the large-scale deep-hole drilling machine. Based on finite element model, the drilling shaft system is constructed into Timoshenko beam element on the basis of flexible rotary shaft so as to increase the accuracy of numerical calculation. In order to save the calculation time and resources, modal synthesis technique is adopted to reduce the feature modal of linear freedom degrees of drilling shaft system. As a result, the accuracy required by the non-linear analysis will not be loss. On the basis of these, the whirling characteristics of drilling shaft system are studied under the conditions of different shaft lengths, and simultaneously, the stability patterns of drilling shaft motion and its stability region are obtained in the selected drilling depth and cutting speed parameters while drilling intersection holes.

  12. Dynamic finite element modeling of the effects of size on the upper shelf energy of pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidener, S.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Kumar, A.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Oglesby, D.B. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Schubert, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Inc. (EPRI), Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Dynamic finite element modeling (FEM) of the fracture behavior of fatigue-precracked Charpy specimens was performed to determine the effect of single variable changes in ligament size, width, span, and thickness on the upper shelf energy. A tensile fracture-strain based method for modeling crack initiation and propagation was used. It was found that the upper shelf energy of precracked specimens (USE{sub p}) is proportional to b{sup n}, where b is ligament size and n varies from about 1.6 for subsize to 1.9 for full size specimens. The USE{sub p} was found to be proportional to (width){sup 2.5}. The dependence on span was found to be non-linear. The dependence on thickness was found to be linear for all cases studied. Some of the data from the FEM analysis were compared with experimental data and were found to be in reasonable agreement. (orig.).

  13. Adaptive dynamic programming for finite-horizon optimal control of discrete-time nonlinear systems with ε-error bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Jin, Ning; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the finite-horizon optimal control problem for discrete-time nonlinear systems using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) approach. The idea is to use an iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the optimal control law which makes the performance index function close to the greatest lower bound of all performance indices within an ε-error bound. The optimal number of control steps can also be obtained by the proposed ADP algorithms. A convergence analysis of the proposed ADP algorithms in terms of performance index function and control policy is made. In order to facilitate the implementation of the iterative ADP algorithms, neural networks are used for approximating the performance index function, computing the optimal control policy, and modeling the nonlinear system. Finally, two simulation examples are employed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  14. Squeezed magnons in an optical lattice: Application to simulation of the dynamical Casimir effect at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Dong; Zhao, Xu; Jing, Hui; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    We propose to realize controllable squeezing states of ferromagnetic magnons with a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical lattice. We use an external laser field to induce optical dipole-dipole interaction, which leads to magnon excitations of the system. By focusing on the role of the long-range magnetic and the optical dipole-dipole interactions, we show that the existence and properties of the produced squeezed magnons can be well controlled by tuning the transverse trapping widths of the condensates. We also show that the magnon excitations in this system have a close analogy with the dynamical Casimir effect at finite temperature predicted by Plunien [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1882 84, 1882 (2000)] and Jing [Phys. Lett. APYLAAG0375-960110.1016/S0375-9601(00)00165-1 268, 174 (2000)].

  15. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  16. Random Dynamics of the Stochastic Boussinesq Equations Driven by Lévy Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of random dynamics of the stochastic Boussinesq equations driven by Lévy noise. Some fundamental properties of a subordinator Lévy process and the stochastic integral with respect to a Lévy process are discussed, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, and the random dynamical system generated by the stochastic Boussinesq equations are established. Finally, some discussions on the global weak solution of the stochastic Boussinesq equations driven by general Lévy noise are also presented.

  17. Wave propagation in laminates using the nonhomogenized dynamic method of cells: An alternative to standard finite-difference hydrodynamic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B.E.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    The nonhomogenized dynamic method of cells (NHDMOC) uses a truncated expansion for the particle displacement field; the expansion parameter is the local cell position vector. In the NHDMOC, specifying the cell structure is similar to specifying the spatial grid used in a finite-difference hydrodynamic calculation. The expansion coefficients for the particle displacement field are determined by the equation of motion, any relevant constitutive relations, plus continuity of traction and displacement at all cell boundaries. The authors derive and numerically solve the NHDMOC equations for the first, second, and third-order expansions, appropriate for modeling a plate-impact experiment. The performance of the NHDMOC is tested, at each order, for its ability to resolve a shock-wave front as it propagates through homogeneous and laminated targets. They find for both cases that the displacement field expansion converges rapidly: given the same cell widths, the first-order theory gives only a qualitative description of the propagating stress wave; the second-order theory performs much better; and the third-order theory gives small refinements over the second-order theory. The performance of the third-order NHDMOC is then compared to that of a standard finite-difference hydrodynamic calculation. The two methods differ in that the former uses a finite-difference solution to update the time dependence of the equations, whereas the hydrodynamic calculation uses finite-difference solutions for both the temporal and spatial variables. Both theories are used to model shock-wave propagation in stainless steel arising from high-velocity planar impact. To achieve the same high-quality resolution of the stress and particle velocity profiles, the NHDMOC consistently requires less fine spatial and temporal grids, and substantially less artificial viscosity to control unphysical high-frequency oscillations in the numerical solutions. Finally, the third-order NHDMOC theory is used to

  18. Finite temperature infrared spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: Path-integral molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F.; Parneix, P.; Van-Oanh, N.-T.

    2010-03-01

    The vibrational spectra of the naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene molecules have been computed in the 0-3500 cm-1 infrared range using classical and quantum molecular dynamics simulations based on a dedicated tight-binding potential energy surface. The ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) methods have been employed to account for quantum nuclear effects. The contributions of quantum delocalization to the line shift and broadening are significant in the entire spectral range and of comparable magnitude as pure thermal effects. While the two methods generally produce similar results, the CMD method may converge slower at low temperature with increasing Trotter discretization number. However, and contrary to the CMD method, the RPMD approach suffers from serious resonance problems at high frequencies and low temperatures.

  19. A Coupled Helicopter Rotor/Fuselage Dynamics Model Using Finite Element Multi-body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qi-you

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage model for vibration reduction studies, the equation of coupled rotor-fuselage is set up based on the theory of multi-body dynamics, and the dynamic analysis model is established with the software MSC.ADMAS and MSC.NASTRAN. The frequencies and vibration acceleration responses of the system are calculated with the model of coupled rotor-fuselage, and the results are compared with those of uncoupled modeling method. Analysis results showed that compared with uncoupled model, the dynamic characteristic obtained by the model of coupled rotor-fuselage are some different. The intrinsic frequency of rotor is increased with the increase of rotational velocities. The results also show that the flying speed has obvious influence on the vibration acceleration responses of the fuselage. The vibration acceleration response in the vertical direction is much higher at the low speed and high speed flight conditions.

  20. Predictability of chaotic dynamics a finite-time Lyapunov exponents approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vallejo, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    This book is primarily concerned with the computational aspects of predictability of dynamical systems – in particular those where observation, modeling and computation are strongly interdependent. Unlike with physical systems under control in laboratories, for instance in celestial mechanics, one is confronted with the observation and modeling of systems without the possibility of altering the key parameters of the objects studied. Therefore, the numerical simulations offer an essential tool for analyzing these systems. With the widespread use of computer simulations to solve complex dynamical systems, the reliability of the numerical calculations is of ever-increasing interest and importance. This reliability is directly related to the regularity and instability properties of the modeled flow. In this interdisciplinary scenario, the underlying physics provide the simulated models, nonlinear dynamics provides their chaoticity and instability properties, and the computer sciences provide the actual numerica...

  1. A grid-doubling finite-element technique for calculating dynamic three-dimensional spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new finite-element technique for calculating dynamic 3-D spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault, which can reduce the required computational resources by a factor of six or more, without loss of accuracy. The grid-doubling technique employs small cells in a thin layer surrounding the fault. The remainder of the modelling volume is filled with larger cells, typically two or four times as large as the small cells. In the resulting non-conforming mesh, an interpolation method is used to join the thin layer of smaller cells to the volume of larger cells. Grid-doubling is effective because spontaneous rupture calculations typically require higher spatial resolution on and near the fault than elsewhere in the model volume. The technique can be applied to non-planar faults by morphing, or smoothly distorting, the entire mesh to produce the desired 3-D fault geometry. Using our FaultMod finite-element software, we have tested grid-doubling with both slip-weakening and rate-and-state friction laws, by running the SCEC/ USGS 3-D dynamic rupture benchmark problems. We have also applied it to a model of the Hayward fault, Northern California, which uses realistic fault geometry and rock properties. FaultMod implements fault slip using common nodes, which represent motion common to both sides of the fault, and differential nodes, which represent motion of one side of the fault relative to the other side. We describe how to modify the traction-at-split-nodes method to work with common and differential nodes, using an implicit time stepping algorithm. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.

  2. Far from random: dynamical groupings among the NEO population

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2016-01-01

    Among the near-Earth object (NEO) population there are comets and active asteroids which are sources of fragments that initially move together; in addition, some NEOs follow orbits temporarily trapped in a web of secular resonances. These facts contribute to increasing the risk of meteoroid strikes on Earth, making its proper quantification difficult. The identification and subsequent study of groups of small NEOs that appear to move in similar trajectories are necessary steps in improving our understanding of the impact risk associated with meteoroids. Here, we present results of a search for statistically significant dynamical groupings among the NEO population. Our Monte Carlo-based methodology recovers well-documented groupings like the Taurid Complex or the one resulting from the split comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, and new ones that may have been the source of past impacts. Among the most conspicuous are the Mjolnir and Ptah groups, perhaps the source of recent impact events like Almahata Sitta and C...

  3. Far from random: dynamical groupings among the NEO population

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-03-01

    Among the near-Earth object (NEO) population, there are comets and active asteroids which are sources of fragments that initially move together; in addition, some NEOs follow orbits temporarily trapped in a web of secular resonances. These facts contribute to increasing the risk of meteoroid strikes on Earth, making its proper quantification difficult. The identification and subsequent study of groups of small NEOs that appear to move in similar trajectories are necessary steps in improving our understanding of the impact risk associated with meteoroids. Here, we present results of a search for statistically significant dynamical groupings among the NEO population. Our Monte Carlo-based methodology recovers well-documented groupings like the Taurid Complex or the one resulting from the split comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, and new ones that may have been the source of past impacts. Among the most conspicuous are the Mjolnir and Ptah groups, perhaps the source of recent impact events like Almahata Sitta and Chelyabinsk, respectively. Meteoroid 2014 AA, that hit the Earth on 2014 January 2, could have its origin in a marginally significant grouping associated with Bennu. We find that most of the substructure present within the orbital domain of the NEOs is of resonant nature, probably induced by secular resonances and the Kozai mechanism that confine these objects into specific paths with well-defined perihelia.

  4. Random matrix theory for mixed regular-chaotic dynamics in the super-extensive regime

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hady, A Abd

    2011-01-01

    We apply Tsallis's q-indexed nonextensive entropy to formulate a random matrix theory (RMT), which may be suitable for systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. We consider the super-extensive regime of q < 1. We obtain analytical expressions for the level-spacing distributions, which are strictly valid for 2 \\times 2 random-matrix ensembles, as usually done in the standard RMT. We compare the results with spacing distributions, numerically calculated for random matrix ensembles describing a harmonic oscillator perturbed by Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles.

  5. Multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 205, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China) and Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. These stochastic symbolic sequences bear three features. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. The features of visitation density in surjective maps presents catholicity and the catholicity in n letters randomicity has the same measure foundation. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to attempt to study certain properties of DNA base sequences, 20 amino acids symbolic sequences of proteid structure, and the time series that can be symbolic in finance market et al.

  6. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  7. The influence of temperature dynamics and dynamic finite ion Larmor radius effects on seeded high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, Magnus; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic...

  8. Investigation of biomechanical behavior of lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic stabilization device using finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoghare, Ashish B.; Kashyap, Siddharth; Padole, Pramod M.

    2013-03-01

    Degenerative disc disease is a major source of lower back pain and significantly alters the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Dynamic stabilization device is a remedial technique which uses flexible materials to stabilize the affected lumbar region while preserving the natural anatomy of the spine. The main objective of this research work is to investigate the stiffness variation of dynamic stabilization device under various loading conditions under compression, axial rotation and flexion. Three dimensional model of the two segment lumbar spine is developed using computed tomography (CT) scan images. The lumbar structure developed is analyzed in ANSYS workbench. Two types of dynamic stabilization are considered: one with stabilizing device as pedicle instrumentation and second with stabilization device inserted around the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis suggests that proper positioning of the dynamic stabilization device is of paramount significance prior to the surgery. Inserting the device in the posterior region indicates the adverse effects as it shows increase in the deformation of the inter-vertebral disc. Analysis executed by positioning stabilizing device around the inter-vertebral disc yields better result for various stiffness values under compression and other loadings. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Improvement of the Stokesian Dynamics method for systems with finite number of particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ichiki, Kengo

    2002-01-01

    An improvement of the Stokesian Dynamics method for many-particle systems is presented. A direct calculation of the hydrodynamic interaction is used rather than imposing periodic boundary conditions. The two major diculties concern the accuracy and the speed of calculations. The accuracy discussed i

  10. Dynamic interfacial tension of finite reactive systems related to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiwetelu, C.I.

    1988-01-01

    In enhanced oil recovery by caustic flooding, carboxylic acids in the crude oil react with the caustic reagents to form active soap species, which form at the interface and desorb to the bulk oleic and aqueous phases. Such reactive systems exhibit the dynamic interfacial tension phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanisms of carboxylic acid/caustic reagent interaction, a novel experimental scheme called photo-micropendography has been developed to measure dynamic interfacial tension. This method has been shown to give more reliable and consistent results than those obtained by spinning drop and ring tensiometries. An equilibrium model is proposed for interaction of single acids with various caustic solutions to enable important ionization properties to be determined with the aid of regression analysis. A diffusive kinetic model is also proposed to explain the dynamic interfacial behavior associated with single acids reacting with a range of aqueous caustic solutions. Good estimates of the adsorption rate constants which were the model parameters were obtained by correlating the experimental interfacial tension data with the aid of a sensitivity analysis of the problem. A generalized dynamic model has been advanced in order to rationalize the interaction of a multicomponent acid mixture contacting a spectrum of NaOH solutions. A detailed analysis for binary oleic/lauric acid mixtures was carried out to demonstrate the model's validity. Using parameter values for each acid determined from separate single-component studies, it was possible to obtain theoretical values for dynamic interfacial tension of the mixture. Generally satisfactory agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental data. 115 refs., 89 figs., 91 tabs.

  11. Dynamics of comb-of-comb-network polymers in random layered flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of comb-of-comb-network polymers in the presence of external random flows. The dynamics of such structures is evaluated through relevant physical quantities, viz., average square displacement (ASD) and the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF). We focus on comparing the dynamics of the comb-of-comb network with the linear polymer. The present work displays an anomalous diffusive behavior of this flexible network in the random layered flows. The effect of the polymer topology on the dynamics is analyzed by varying the number of generations and branch lengths in these networks. In addition, we investigate the influence of external flow on the dynamics by varying flow parameters, like the flow exponent α and flow strength Wα. Our analysis highlights two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The anomalous long-time dynamics is governed by the temporal exponent ν of ASD, viz., ν =2 -α /2 . Compared to a linear polymer, the comb-of-comb network shows a shorter crossover time (from the subdiffusive to superdiffusive regime) but a reduced magnitude of ASD. Our theory displays an anomalous VACF in the random layered flows that scales as t-α /2. We show that the network with greater total mass moves faster.

  12. Dynamics of comb-of-comb-network polymers in random layered flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the dynamics of comb-of-comb-network polymers in the presence of external random flows. The dynamics of such structures is evaluated through relevant physical quantities, viz., average square displacement (ASD) and the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF). We focus on comparing the dynamics of the comb-of-comb network with the linear polymer. The present work displays an anomalous diffusive behavior of this flexible network in the random layered flows. The effect of the polymer topology on the dynamics is analyzed by varying the number of generations and branch lengths in these networks. In addition, we investigate the influence of external flow on the dynamics by varying flow parameters, like the flow exponent α and flow strength W_{α}. Our analysis highlights two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The anomalous long-time dynamics is governed by the temporal exponent ν of ASD, viz., ν=2-α/2. Compared to a linear polymer, the comb-of-comb network shows a shorter crossover time (from the subdiffusive to superdiffusive regime) but a reduced magnitude of ASD. Our theory displays an anomalous VACF in the random layered flows that scales as t^{-α/2}. We show that the network with greater total mass moves faster.

  13. Finite-size and correlation-induced effects in Mean-field Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Touboul, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The brain's activity is characterized by the interaction of a very large number of neurons that are strongly affected by noise. However, signals often arise at macroscopic scales integrating the effect of many neurons into a reliable pattern of activity. In order to study such large neuronal assemblies, one is often led to derive mean-field limits summarizing the effect of the interaction of a large number of neurons into an effective signal. Classical mean-field approaches consider the evolution of a deterministic variable, the mean activity, thus neglecting the stochastic nature of neural behavior. In this article, we build upon a recent approach that includes correlations and higher order moments in mean-field equations, and study how these stochastic effects influence the solutions of the mean-field equations, both in the limit of an infinite number of neurons and for large yet finite networks. We show that, though the solutions of the deterministic mean-field equation constitute uncorrelated solutions of...

  14. Modeling and finite difference numerical analysis of reaction-diffusion dynamics in a microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazl, Igor; Lakner, Mitja

    2010-03-01

    A theoretical description with numerical experiments and analysis of the reaction-diffusion processes of homogeneous and non-homogeneous reactions in a microreactor is presented considering the velocity profile for laminar flows of miscible and immiscible fluids in a microchannel at steady-state conditions. A Mathematical model in dimensionless form, containing convection, diffusion, and reaction terms are developed to analyze and to forecast the reactor performance. To examine the performance of different types of reactors, the outlet concentrations for the plug-flow reactor (PFR), and the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) are also calculated for the case of an irreversible homogeneous reaction of two components. The comparison of efficiency between ideal conventional macroscale reactors and the microreactor is presented for a wide range of operating conditions, expressed as different Pe numbers (0.01 < Pe < 10). The numerical procedure of complex non-linear systems based on an implicit finite-difference method improved by non-equidistant differences is proposed.

  15. Phase Diagram of Dynamical Twisted Mass Wilson Fermions at Finite Isospin Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Oliver; Splittorff, K; Verbaarschot, Jacobus J M; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    We consider the phase diagram of twisted mass Wilson fermions of two-flavor QCD in the parameter space of the quark mass, the isospin chemical potential, the twist angle and the lattice spacing. This work extends earlier studies in the continuum and those at zero chemical potential. We evaluate the phase diagram as well as the spectrum of the (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons using the chiral Lagrangian for twisted mass Wilson fermions at non-zero isospin chemical potential. The phases are obtained from a mean field analysis. At zero twist angle we find that already an infinitesimal isospin chemical potential destroys the Aoki phase. The reason is that in this phase we have massless Goldstone bosons with a non-zero isospin charge. At finite twist angle only two different phases are present, one phase which is continuously connected to the Bose condensed phase at non-zero chemical potential and another phase which is continuously connected to the normal phase. For either zero or maximal twist the phase diagram is more...

  16. Vibration Propagation of Gear Dynamics in a Gear-Bearing-Housing System Using Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.

  17. Prediction of the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading using subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Forman, Jason; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models. Among the five levels of model complexity, the geometric SS-FE and the heterogenized SS-FE models showed statistically significant improvement on response prediction capability compared to the other model formulations whereas the difference between two SS-FE models was negligible. This result indicated the geometric SS-FE models, containing detailed geometric information from CT images with homogeneous linear isotropic elastic material properties, would be an optimal model complexity for prediction of structural response of the femoral shafts under the dynamic loading conditions. The average and the standard deviation of the RMS errors of the geometric SS-FE models for all the 31 cases was 0.46 kN and 0.66 kN, respectively. This study highlights the contribution of geometric variability on the structural response variation of the femoral shafts subjected to dynamic loading condition and the potential of geometric SS-FE models to capture the structural response variation of the femoral shafts.

  18. Realistic air filter media performance simulation. Part II: Beyond finite-volume computational fluid dynamics procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Tronville, Paolo Maria

    2013-01-01

    One form of numerical simulation of flow and particle capture by air filter media sees gases as continuous fluids, influenced by the macro-properties viscosity, density, and pressure. The alternate approach treats gases as atoms or molecules in random motion, impacting their own kind and solid surfaces on a micro-scale. The appropriate form for analysis of flow through a given filter medium at a given operating condition depends on the gas condition and the Knudsen number (Kn) of the finest f...

  19. THz elastic dynamics in finite-size CoFeB-MgO phononic superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichs, Henning; Meyer, Dennis; Müller, Markus; Wittrock, Steffen; Mansurova, Maria; Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present the observation of coherent elastic dynamics in a nano-scale phononic superlattice, which consists of only 4 bilayers. We demonstrate how ultra-short light pulses with a length of 40 fs can be utilized to excite a coherent elastic wave at 0.535 THz, which persist over about 20 ps. In later steps of the elastic dynamics, modes with frequency of 1.7 THz and above appear. All these modes are related to acoustic band gaps. Thus, the periodicity strongly manifests in the wave physics, although the system under investigation has only a small number of spatial periods. To further illustrate this, we show how by breaking the translational invariance of the superlattice, these features can be suppressed. Discussed in terms of phonon blocking and radiation, we elucidate in how far our structures can be considered as useful building blocks for phononic devices.

  20. A shock-fitting technique for cell-centered finite volume methods on unstructured dynamic meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dongyang; Xu, Chunguang; Dong, Haibo; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the shock-fitting technique is further developed on unstructured dynamic meshes. The shock wave is fitted and regarded as a special boundary, whose boundary conditions and boundary speed (shock speed) are determined by solving Rankine-Hugoniot relations. The fitted shock splits the entire computational region into subregions, in which the flows are free from shocks and flow states are solved by a shock-capturing code based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian algorithm. Along with the motion of the fitted shock, an unstructured dynamic meshes algorithm is used to update the internal node's position to maintain the high quality of computational meshes. The successful applications prove the present shock-fitting to be a valid technique.

  1. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Finite-horizon Coherent Quantum LQG Control

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Igor G

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the coherent quantum Linear Quadratic Gaussian (CQLQG) control problem for time-varying quantum plants governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations over a bounded time interval. A controller is sought among quantum linear systems satisfying physical realizability (PR) conditions. The latter describe the dynamic equivalence of the system to an open quantum harmonic oscillator and relate its state-space matrices to the free Hamiltonian, coupling and scattering operators of the oscillator. Using the Hamiltonian parameterization of PR controllers, the CQLQG problem is recast into an optimal control problem for a deterministic system governed by a differential Lyapunov equation. The state of this subsidiary system is the symmetric part of the quantum covariance matrix of the plant-controller state vector. The resulting covariance control problem is treated using dynamic programming and Pontryagin's minimum principle. The associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for the minimu...

  2. Mean Curvature, Threshold Dynamics, and Phase Field Theory on Finite Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    BK91] Lia Bronsard and Robert V. Kohn, Motion by mean curvature as the singular limit of Ginzburg-Landau dynamics, J. Differential Equations 90 (1991...Proceedings of the IEEE 95 (2007), no. 1, 215–233. [Peg89] Robert L. Pego, Front migration in the nonlinear cahn-hilliard equation, Proceedings of the Royal...625. [SB10] Arthur Szlam and Xavier Bresson , Total variation and cheeger cuts, Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Machine Learning

  3. Finite-time singularities in the dynamics of Mexican financial crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Historically, symptoms of Mexican financial crises have been strongly reflected in the dynamics of the Mexican peso to the dollar exchange currency market. Specifically, in the Mexican financial crises during 1990's, the peso suffered significant depreciation processes, which has important impacts in the macro- and micro-economical environment. In this paper, it is shown that the peso depreciation growth was greater than an exponential and that these growth rates are compatible with a spontaneous singularity occurring at a critical time, which signals an abrupt transition to new dynamical conditions. As in the major 1990's financial crisis in 1994-1995, some control actions (e.g., increasing the USA dollar supply) are commonly taken to decelerate the degree of abruptness of peso depreciation. Implications of these control actions on the crisis dynamics are discussed. Interestingly, by means of a simple model, it is demonstrated that the time at which the control actions begin to apply is critical to moderate the adverse effects of the financial crisis.

  4. Study of wave chaos in a randomly-inhomogeneous oceanic acoustic waveguide: spectral analysis of the finite-range evolution operator

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, D V; Uleysky, M Yu; Petrov, P S

    2012-01-01

    The proplem of sound propagation in an oceanic waveguide is considered. Scattering on random inhomogeneity of the waveguide leads to wave chaos. Chaos reveals itself in spectral properties of the finite-range evolution operator (FREO). FREO describes transformation of a wavefield in course of propagation along a finite segment of a waveguide. We study transition to chaos by tracking variations in spectral statistics with increasing length of the segment. Analysis of the FREO is accompanied with ray calculations using the one-step Poincar\\'e map which is the classical counterpart of the FREO. Underwater sound channel in the Sea of Japan is taken for an example. Several methods of spectral analysis are utilized. In particular, we approximate level spacing statistics by means of the Berry-Robnik and Brody distributions, explore the spectrum using the procedure elaborated by A. Relano with coworkers (Relano et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002; Relano, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008), and analyze modal expansions of the eigenfu...

  5. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method --a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a gene...

  6. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  7. A Class of Random Walks in Reversible Dynamic Environments: Antisymmetry and Applications to the East Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Luca; Blondel, Oriane; Faggionato, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    We introduce via perturbation a class of random walks in reversible dynamic environments having a spectral gap. In this setting one can apply the mathematical results derived in Avena et al. (L^2-Perturbed Markov processes and applications to random walks in dynamic random environments, Preprint, 2016). As first results, we show that the asymptotic velocity is antisymmetric in the perturbative parameter and, for a subclass of random walks, we characterize the velocity and a stationary distribution of the environment seen from the walker as suitable series in the perturbative parameter. We then consider as a special case a random walk on the East model that tends to follow dynamical interfaces between empty and occupied regions. We study the asymptotic velocity and density profile for the environment seen from the walker. In particular, we determine the sign of the velocity when the density of the underlying East process is not 1 / 2, and we discuss the appearance of a drift in the balanced setting given by density 1 / 2.

  8. Entanglement and the generation of random states in the quantum chaotic dynamics of kicked coupled tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Collin M; Madhok, Vaibhav; Deutsch, Ivan H

    2008-10-01

    We study the dynamical generation of entanglement as a signature of chaos in a system of periodically kicked coupled tops, where chaos and entanglement arise from the same physical mechanism. The long-time-averaged entanglement as a function of the position of an initially localized wave packet very closely correlates with the classical phase space surface of section--it is nearly uniform in the chaotic sea, and reproduces the detailed structure of the regular islands. The uniform value in the chaotic sea is explained by the random state conjecture. As classically chaotic dynamics take localized distributions in phase space to random distributions, quantized versions take localized coherent states to pseudorandom states in Hilbert space. Such random states are highly entangled, with an average value near that of the maximally entangled state. For a map with global chaos, we derive that value based on analytic results for the entropy of random states. For a mixed phase space, we use the Percival conjecture to identify a "chaotic subspace" of the Hilbert space. The typical entanglement, averaged over the unitarily invariant Haar measure in this subspace, agrees with the long-time-averaged entanglement for initial states in the chaotic sea. In all cases the dynamically generated entanglement is that of a random complex vector, even though the system is time-reversal invariant, and the Floquet operator is a member of the circular orthogonal ensemble.

  9. Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-Feng; SONG Zhi-Tang; LING Yun; LIU Yan; FENG Song-Lin

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfaciai layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  10. Simulation of Phase-Change Random Access Memory with Ring-Type Contactor for Low Reset Current by Finite Element Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-Feng; LING Yun; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element models for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established to simulate thermal and electrical behaviours during RESET operation. The RESET behaviours of the conventional structure (CS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) are compared with each other. The simulation results indicate that the RIB cell has advantages of high heat efficiency for melting phase change material in cell,reduction of contact area and lower RESET current with maintaining good resistance contrast. The RESET current decreases from 1.26mA to 1.2mA and the heat consumption in GST material during programming increases from 12% to 37% in RIB structure. Thus the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future device with high heat efficiency and smaller RESET current.

  11. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  12. Coherent electron dynamics in a two-dimensional random system with mobility edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Malyshev, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of a one-electron wavepacket in a two-dimensional random lattice with long-range correlated diagonal disorder in the presence of a uniform electric field. The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is used for this purpose. We find that the wavepacket displays Bloch-li

  13. Static and dynamic aspects of the rms local slope of growing random surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we investigated static and dynamic aspects of the rms local surface slope ‘‘ρ’’ for self-affine random surfaces. The rms local slope is expressed as a function of the rms roughness amplitude σ, the in-plane correlation length ξ, and the roughness exponent H (0 0).

  14. Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.

    2016-03-01

    The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.

  15. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  16. Numerical analysis of the dynamic interaction between wheel set and turnout crossing using the explicit finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, L.; Markine, V. L.; Shevtsov, I. Y.

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) explicit dynamic finite element (FE) model is developed to simulate the impact of the wheel on the crossing nose. The model consists of a wheel set moving over the turnout crossing. Realistic wheel, wing rail and crossing geometries have been used in the model. Using this model the dynamic responses of the system such as the contact forces between the wheel and the crossing, crossing nose displacements and accelerations, stresses in rail material as well as in sleepers and ballast can be obtained. Detailed analysis of the wheel set and crossing interaction using the local contact stress state in the rail is possible as well, which provides a good basis for prediction of the long-term behaviour of the crossing (fatigue analysis). In order to tune and validate the FE model field measurements conducted on several turnouts in the railway network in the Netherlands are used here. The parametric study including variations of the crossing nose geometries performed here demonstrates the capabilities of the developed model. The results of the validation and parametric study are presented and discussed.

  17. Absolute Continuity Theorem for Random Dynamical Systems on $R^d$

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a proof of the so called absolute continuity theorem for random dynamical systems on $R^d$ which have an invariant probability measure. First we present the construction of local stable manifolds in this case. Then the absolute continuity theorem basically states that for any two transversal manifolds to the family of local stable manifolds the induced Lebesgue measures on these transversal manifolds are absolutely continuous under the map that transports every point on the first manifold along the local stable manifold to the second manifold, the so-called Poincar\\'e map or holonomy map. In contrast to known results, we have to deal with the non-compactness of the state space and the randomness of the random dynamical system.

  18. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2010-10-17

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual‐randomization is used to promote the destructive interference of crosstalk noise resulting from blending a large number of common shot gathers into a supergather. We compare our multisource algorithm with various algorithms in a numerical experiment using the 3D SEG/EAGE overthrust model and show that our algorithm provides a higher‐quality velocity tomogram than the other methods that use only monorandomization. This suggests that increasing the degree of randomness in phase encoding should improve the quality of the inversion result.

  19. Dynamic random links enhance diversity-induced coherence in strongly coupled neuronal systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Kumar Kamal; Sudeshna Sinha

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the influence of diversity on the temporal regularity of spiking in a ring of coupled model neurons. We find diversity-induced coherence in the spike events, with an optimal amount of parametric heterogeneity at the nodal level yielding the greatest regularity in the spike train. Further, we investigate the system under random spatial connections, where the links are both dynamic and quenched, and in all the cases we observe marked diversity-induced coherence. We quantitatively find the effect of coupling strength and random rewiring probability, on the optimal coherence that can be achieved under diversity. Our results indicate that the largest coherence in the spike events emerge when the coupling strength is high, and when the underlying connections are mostly random and dynamically changing.

  20. Local and cluster critical dynamics of the 3d random-site Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaneyko, D.; Ilnytskyi, J.; Berche, B.; Holovatch, Yu.

    2006-10-01

    We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations for the critical dynamics of the three-dimensional site-diluted quenched Ising model. Three different dynamics are considered, these correspond to the local update Metropolis scheme as well as to the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms. The lattice sizes of L=10-96 are analysed by a finite-size-scaling technique. The site dilution concentration p=0.85 was chosen to minimize the correction-to-scaling effects. We calculate numerical values of the dynamical critical exponents for the integrated and exponential autocorrelation times for energy and magnetization. As expected, cluster algorithms are characterized by lower values of dynamical critical exponent than the local one: also in the case of dilution critical slowing down is more pronounced for the Metropolis algorithm. However, the striking feature of our estimates is that they suggest that dilution leads to decrease of the dynamical critical exponent for the cluster algorithms. This phenomenon is quite opposite to the local dynamics, where dilution enhances critical slowing down.