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Sample records for finite double-walled carbon

  1. Finite-size effect on the Raman-active modes of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbai, K [Equipe de Physique Informatique et Modelisation des Systemes, Universite MY Ismail, Faculte des Sciences, BP 11201, Zitoune, 50000 Meknes (Morocco); Rahmani, A [Equipe de Physique Informatique et Modelisation des Systemes, Universite MY Ismail, Faculte des Sciences, BP 11201, Zitoune, 50000 Meknes (Morocco); Chadli, H [Equipe de Physique Informatique et Modelisation des Systemes, Universite MY Ismail, Faculte des Sciences, BP 11201, Zitoune, 50000 Meknes (Morocco); Sauvajol, J-L [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux (UMR CNRS 5587), Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-01-09

    The dependence of the breathing-like phonon modes (BLM) and tangential-like phonon modes (TLM) of individual, finite and infinite bundles of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as a function of the relative lengths of the inner (L{sub i}) and outer (L{sub o}) tubes is calculated by using the spectral moments method in the framework of the bond-polarization theory. Depending on the relative lengths of the inner (L{sub i}) and outer (L{sub o}) tubes, additional modes are evidenced in the BLM region. These modes must be considered in the analysis of the experimental data.

  2. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  3. Nanomechanics of Nonideal Single- and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling characteristics of nonideal single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes were studied in this work via molecular dynamics simulation method. An imperfectly straight nonideal single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT with a bent along the tube axis was used to form an array which is subjected to compression. The change in orientation of bends will result in a variation of nonbonded interactions in an SWCNT array system. We find that these variations in the nonbonded interactions strongly affect the buckling resistance of the SWCNT array. Similarly, a nonideal double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT is constructed by varying the interlayer distance by introducing a center offset on the inner core SWCNT. The inclusion of offset along the tube axis in such nonideal DWCNT can enhance or deteriorate the mechanical qualities of the DWCNT under compression. Our numerical studies on nonideal CNT systems suggest a possibility of designing high-performing CNTs for applications involving fiber reinforcements.

  4. GUIDED CIRCUMFERENTIAL WAVES IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model of guided circumferential waves propagating in double-walled carbon nanotubes is built by the theory of wave propagation in continuum mechanics, while the van der Waals force between the inner and outer nanotube has been taken into account in the model. The dispersion curves of the guided circumferential wave propagation are studied, and some dispersion characteristics are illustrated by comparing with those of single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that in double-walled carbon nanotubes, the guided circumferential waves will propagate in more dispersive ways. More interactions between neighboring wave modes may take place. In particular, it has been found that a couple of wave modes may disappear at a certain frequency and that, while a couple of wave modes disappear, another new couple of wave modes are excited at the same wave number.

  5. Stability of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    An approach to the stability analysis of orthotropic two-layer shells with mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes is proposed. Van der Waals forces act between the layers. The parameters of the continuum between the layers are obtained using the Lennard-Jones potential. The governing system of equations is written for rates of sixteen variables. The loading and boundary conditions are specified for each layer separately. Numerical results are obtained using the discrete orthogonalization method. The stability of single- and double-walled nanotubes is analyzed. Numerical results are summarized in tables and analyzed

  6. Intrinsic phonon properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes

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    Tran, H. N.; Levshov, D. I.; Nguyen, V. C.; Paillet, M.; Arenal, R.; Than, X. T.; Zahab, A. A.; Yuzyuk, Y. I.; Phan, N. M.; Sauvajol, J.-L.; Michel, T.

    2017-03-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) are made of two concentric and weakly van der Waals coupled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). DWNTs are the simplest systems for studying the mechanical and electronic interactions between concentric carbon layers. In this paper we review recent results concerning the intrinsic features of phonons of DWNTs obtained from Raman experiments performed on index-identified DWNTs. The effect of the interlayer distance on the strength of the mechanical and electronic coupling between the layers, and thus on the frequencies of the Raman-active modes, namely the radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) and G-modes, are evidenced and discussed. Invited talk at 8th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (IWAMSN2016), 8–12 November 2016, Ha Long City, Vietnam.

  7. Raman Spectra Of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, T.; Dmitrović, S.; Dobardžić, E.

    2007-04-01

    Using nonresonant bond-polarization theory, Raman spectra of periodic double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are calculated. Due to the lower symmetry of DWCNT, the number of Raman active modes is much larger compared to those of its layers. Complete frequency range of the tubes spectra has been analyzed for large number of tubes. We found that only modes whose frequencies are below 800 cm-1 have noticeable up shifts compared to those of isolated layers. Special attention is given to radial breathing modes (RBMs) and G-band region since these modes are used for the identification of singe-walled carbon nanotubes. In case of breathing like modes (BLMs), frequency of the out of phase mode is found to be chirality dependent, while the in phase one remains only diameter dependent as in the case of individual layers.

  8. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of double walled carbon nanotube based resonator with curvature factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration analysis of a double walled carbon nanotube based mass sensor with curvature factor or waviness, which is doubly clamped at a source and a drain. Nonlinear vibrational behaviour of a double-walled carbon nanotube excited harmonically near its primary resonance is considered. The double walled carbon nanotube is harmonically excited by the addition of an excitation force. The modelling involves stretching of the mid plane and damping as per phenomenon. The equation of motion involves four nonlinear terms for inner and outer tubes of DWCNT due to the curved geometry and the stretching of the central plane due to the boundary conditions. The vibrational behaviour of the double walled carbon nanotube with different surface deviations along its axis is analyzed in the context of the time response, Poincaré maps and Fast Fourier Transformation diagrams. The appearance of instability and chaos in the dynamic response is observed as the curvature factor on double walled carbon nanotube is changed. The phenomenon of Periodic doubling and intermittency are observed as the pathway to chaos. The regions of periodic, sub-harmonic and chaotic behaviour are clearly seen to be dependent on added mass and the curvature factors in the double walled carbon nanotube. Poincaré maps and frequency spectra are used to explicate and to demonstrate the miscellany of the system behaviour. With the increase in the curvature factor system excitations increases and results in an increase of the vibration amplitude with reduction in excitation frequency.

  9. Van der Waals-coupled electronic states in incommensurate double-walled carbon nanotubes

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    Liu, Kaihui; Jin, Chenhao; Hong, Xiaoping; Kim, Jihoon; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Non-commensurate two-dimensional materials such as a twisted graphene bilayer or graphene on boron nitride, consisting of components that have no finite common unit cell, exhibit emerging moiré physics such as novel Van Hove singularities, Fermi velocity renormalization, mini Dirac points and Hofstadter butterflies. Here we use double-walled carbon nanotubes as a model system for probing moiré physics in incommensurate one-dimensional systems, by combining structural and optical characterizations. We show that electron wavefunctions between incommensurate inner- and outer-wall nanotubes can hybridize strongly, contrary to the conventional wisdom of negligible electron hybridization due to destructive interference. The chirality-dependent inter-tube electronic coupling is described by one-dimensional zone folding of the electronic structure of twisted-and-stretched graphene bilayers. Our results demonstrate that incommensurate van der Waals interactions can be important for engineering the electronic structure and optical properties of one-dimensional materials.

  10. Selective breakdown of metallic pathways in double-walled carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Allen L; Sun, Yong; Powell, Lyndsey; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lee, Cheng S; Wang, YuHuang

    2015-01-07

    Covalently functionalized, semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit remarkable properties and can outperform their single-walled carbon nanotube counterparts. In order to harness their potential for electronic applications, metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes must be separated from the semiconductors. However, the inner wall is inaccessible to current separation techniques which rely on the surface properties. Here, the first approach to address this challenge through electrical breakdown of metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes, both inner and outer walls, within networks of mixed electronic types is described. The intact semiconductors demonstrate a ∼62% retention of the ON-state conductance in thin film transistors in response to covalent functionalization. The selective elimination of the metallic pathways improves the ON/OFF ratio, by more than 360 times, to as high as 40 700, while simultaneously retaining high ON-state conductance.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of bi-layered graphene sheet, double-walled carbon nanotube and nanotube bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Sachin O.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Due to strong van der Waals (vdW) interactions, the graphene sheets and nanotubes stick to each other and form clusters of these corresponding nanostructures, viz. bi-layered graphene sheet (BLGS), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and nanotube bundle (NB) or ropes. This research work is concerned with the study of nonlinear dynamics of BLGS, DWCNT and NB due to nonlinear interlayer vdW forces using multiscale atomistic finite element method. The energy between two adjacent carbon atoms is represented by the multibody interatomic Tersoff-Brenner potential, whereas the nonlinear interlayer vdW forces are represented by Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential function. The equivalent nonlinear material model of carbon-carbon bond is used to model it based on its force-deflection relation. Newmark's algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear matrix equation governing the motion of the BLGS, DWCNT and NB. An impulse and harmonic excitations are used to excite these nanostructures under cantilevered, bridged and clamped boundary conditions. The frequency responses of these nanostructures are computed, and the dominant resonant frequencies are identified. Along with the forced vibration of these structures, the eigenvalue extraction problem of armchair and zigzag NB is also considered. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are extracted for the different length and boundary conditions of the nanotube bundle.

  12. Influence of atomic vacancies on the dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators based on double walled carbon nanotube

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    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic analysis of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with different boundary conditions has been performed using atomistic finite element method. The double walled carbon nanotube is modeled considering it as a space frame structure similar to a three dimensional beam. The elastic properties of beam element are calculated by considering mechanical characteristics of covalent bonds between the carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Spring elements are used to describe the interlayer interactions between the inner and outer tubes caused due to the van der Waals forces. The mass of each beam element is assumed as point mass at nodes coinciding with carbon atoms at inner and outer wall of DWCNT. It has been reported that atomic vacancies are formed during the manufacturing process in DWCNT which tend to migrate leading to a change in the mechanical characteristics of the same. Simulations have been carried out to visualize the behavior of such defective DWCNTs subjected to different boundary conditions and when used as mass sensing devices. The variation of such atomic vacancies in outer wall of Zigzag and Armchair DWCNT is performed along the length and the change in response is noted. Moreover, as CNTs have been used as mass sensors extensively, the present approach is focused to explore the use of zigzag and armchair DWCNT as sensing device with a mono-atomic vacancy in it. The results clearly state that the dynamic characteristics are greatly influenced by defects like vacancies in it. A higher frequency shift is observed when the vacancy is located away from the fixed end for both Armchair as well as zigzag type of CNTs. A higher frequency shift is reported for armchair CNT for a mass of 10-22 g which remains constant for 10-21 g and then decreases gradually. Comparison with the other experimental and theoretical studies exhibits good association which suggests that defective DWCNTs can further be explored for mass sensing. This investigation is helpful

  13. Sharp burnout failure observed in high current-carrying double-walled carbon nanotube fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Toth, Geza; Wei, Jinquan; Liu, Zheng; Gao, Wei; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Endo, Morinobu; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the current-carrying capability and the high-current-induced thermal burnout failure modes of 5-20 µm diameter double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) fibers made by an improved dry-spinning method. It is found that the electrical conductivity and maximum current-carrying capability for these DWNT fibers can reach up to 5.9 × 105 S m - 1 and over 1 × 105 A cm - 2 in air. In comparison, we observed that standard carbon fiber tended to be oxidized and burnt out into cheese-like morphology when the maximum current was reached, while DWNT fiber showed a much slower breakdown behavior due to the gradual burnout in individual nanotubes. The electron microscopy observations further confirmed that the failure process of DWNT fibers occurs at localized positions, and while the individual nanotubes burn they also get aligned due to local high temperature and electrostatic field. In addition a finite element model was constructed to gain better understanding of the failure behavior of DWNT fibers.

  14. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  15. Changing and predicting the frequency of double wall carbon nanotubes oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Double wall carbon nanotubes have been considered as potential candidate for ultra-high frequency oscillator. However, the exact frequency change versus the nanotubes’ shape has not been detailed discussed. In this article, a series of double wall carbon nanotubes oscillators are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. We find that, by changing the tube length and radius, the oscillation frequency can be easily modified. To better understand the simulation result above, a theoretical model with maximum main force approximation is introduced. Then the tendency for the frequency change can be well interpreted. Moreover, we find the effective force increases linearly with the tube radius. After a careful derivation, a universal formula is given, which can predict the oscillation period with a good accuracy.

  16. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes using lanthanum as promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安玉良; 候青怡; 王俊; 郑朝晖; 赵晖; 张罡

    2010-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) were prepared from graphite by arc discharge technique with La as promoter. The DWNTs products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that La was a suitable promoter reagent for making high purity DWNTs with narrow diameter distribution by arc discharge method. The role of La in the growth of the DWNTs was briefly discussed in terms of the...

  17. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

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    Zhao, Xin [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qiao, Weiye [College of Chemical Engineering and Biological Technology, Xingtai University, Xingtai 054001 (China); Li, Yuliang [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Yuanhe, E-mail: yuanhe@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young’s moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes are also calculated and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Structures and band structures of the optimum 1D Double walls nanotubes. The optimized structures are 3-gon SiO2@(15,0), 5-gon SiO2@(17,0), 6-gon SiO2@(18,0) and 7-gon SiO2@(19,0). - Highlights: • The structure and electronic properties of the 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are studied using SCF-CO method. • The encapsulation of 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2} tubes inside zigzag carbon nanotubes can be energetically favorable. • The 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are all semiconductors. • The mobility of charge carriers and Young’s moduli are calculated.

  18. Electrostatically actuated oscillator of bundle and double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Song, Ki Oh; Hwang, Ho Jung [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha; Lee, Hoong Joo [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Sik; Song, Young Jin [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Schematics of capacitively driven carbon nanotube (CNT) oscillators were presented and investigated by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While the capacitive force acting on a CNT oscillator extruded it, the force exerted by the excess van der Waals energy sucked the CNT oscillator into the bundle or outer shell. The CNT oscillator could be oscillated by using both the Coulomb and the van der Waals interactions. The van der Waals force of the bundle-type CNT oscillator was less than the van der Waals force of the double-walled CNT oscillator. Molecular dynamics simulation results showed that double-walled CNT oscillators were better than bundle-type CNT oscillators in the aspects of both energy dissipation and stable operation.

  19. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Weiye; Li, Yuliang; Huang, Yuanhe

    2015-01-01

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO2 nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 102-104 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young's moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO2 nanotubes are also calculated and discussed.

  20. Extraordinary improvement of the graphitic structure of continuous carbon nanofibers templated with double wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkov, Dimitry; Beese, Allison M; Goponenko, Alexander; Zou, Yan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Espinosa, Horacio D; Saha, Biswajit; Schatz, George C; Moravsky, Alexander; Loutfy, Raouf; Nguyen, Sonbinh T; Dzenis, Yuris

    2013-01-22

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely studied as a reinforcing element in high-performance composites and fibers at high volume fractions. However, problems with nanotube processing, alignment, and non-optimal stress transfer between the nanotubes and surrounding matrix have so far prevented full utilization of their superb mechanical properties in composites. Here, we present an alternative use of carbon nanotubes, at a very small concentration, as a templating agent for the formation of graphitic structure in fibers. Continuous carbon nanofibers (CNF) were manufactured by electrospinning from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with 1.2% of double wall nanotubes (DWNT). Nanofibers were oxidized and carbonized at temperatures from 600 °C to 1850 °C. Structural analyses revealed significant improvements in graphitic structure and crystal orientation in the templated CNFs, with the largest improvements observed at lower carbonization temperatures. In situ pull-out experiments showed good interfacial bonding between the DWNT bundles and the surrounding templated carbon matrix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of templated carbonization confirmed oriented graphitic growth and provided insight into mechanisms of carbonization initiation. The obtained results indicate that global templating of the graphitic structure in fine CNFs can be achieved at very small concentrations of well-dispersed DWNTs. The outcomes reveal a simple and inexpensive route to manufacture continuous CNFs with improved structure and properties for a variety of mechanical and functional applications. The demonstrated improvement of graphitic order at low carbonization temperatures in the absence of stretch shows potential as a promising new manufacturing technology for next generation carbon fibers.

  1. A possible formation mechanism of double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube: a molecular dynamics study

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    Han, Dianrong; Luo, Chenglin; Dai, Yafei; Zhu, Xingfeng

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations based on an empirical potential were performed to study the interaction of graphene nanoribbons and the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The results indicated that a piece of graphene nanoribbon can form a tube structure inside or outside single-walled carbon nanotubes spontaneously under certain condition. Based on this kind of spontaneous phenomenon, we proposed a new possible formation mechanism of double walled carbon nanotube and multi-walled carbon nanotube, and suggested the possibility of controlling the structure of double-walled carbon nanotube and/or multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  2. Detection of biological objects using dynamic characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.

    2015-08-01

    This study explores double-walled carbon nanotubes as the sensing devices for biological objects including viruses and bacteria. The biological objects studied include alanine with amino terminal residue, deoxyadenosine with free residue, Coronaviridae and Bartonella bacilliformis. An expression has been articulated to identify the mass of biological objects from the shift of frequency. Sensitivity of the sensor has been calculated when subjected to such biological objects. Molecular structural mechanics approach has been used for investigating the vibrational responses of zigzag and armchair double-walled carbon nanotube-based nano biosensors. The elastic properties of beam element are calculated by considering mechanical characteristics of covalent bonds between the carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Spring elements are used to describe the interlayer interactions between the inner and outer tubes caused due to the van der Waals forces. The mass of each beam element is assumed as point mass at nodes coinciding with carbon atoms at inner and outer wall of DWCNT. Based on the sensitivity and the frequency shift it can be concluded that cantilever zigzag DWCNTs are better candidates for detecting the biological objects.

  3. On the vibration of double-walled carbon nanotubes using molecular structural and cylindrical shell models

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    Ansari, R.; Rouhi, S.; Aryayi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of double-walled carbon nanotubes is studied by the use of the molecular structural and cylindrical shell models. The spring elements are employed to model the van der Waals interaction. The effects of different parameters such as geometry, chirality, atomic structure and end constraint on the vibration of nanotubes are investigated. Besides, the results of two aforementioned approaches are compared. It is indicated that by increasing the nanotube side length and radius, the computationally efficient cylindrical shell model gives rational results.

  4. Interface Friction of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Investigated Using Molecular Dynamics †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Da Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interface friction characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the Tersoff potential. The effects of the DWCNT type, outer shell diameter, and temperature are evaluated. The simulation results show that when an inner shell is being pulled out from a DWCNT, the friction force and normal force between shells increase with increasing the outer shell diameter. The noise of the friction force significantly increases with the increasing temperature. Zigzag@zigzag and armchair@armchair DWCNTs exhibit larger friction forces and smaller normal forces compared to those of chiral@chiral DWCNTs.

  5. Operation Mechanism of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Transistors Investigated By ab initio Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN nai-Ping; ZHANG Shuang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a new switching characteristic of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) transistors is found in during experiments. We carry out a series of ab intio calculations on DWNTs' electronic properities, together with verification on the electronic response under the electric field. Our results reveal that the peculiar energy states relation in DWNTs and related contact modes should account for the distinct switching behavior of DWNT transistors. We believe these results have important implications in the fabrication and understanding of electronic devices with DWNTs.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of inner double walled carbon nanotubes investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, M.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analytical technique was used to investigate the double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) electromagnetic properties of inner walls. The local magnetic and electronic properties of inner nanotubes in DWNTs were analyzed using 25% 13C enriched C 60 by which the effect of dipolar coupling could be minimized. The diamagnetic shielding was determined due to the ring currents on outer nanotubes in DWNTs. The NMR chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation studies reveal the metallic properties of the inner nanotubes with a signature of the spin-gap opening below 70 K.

  7. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-07

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  8. Stability and chirality effect on twist formation of collapsed double wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-liang; LIU Bin; HUANG Yong-gang; HWANG Ke-zhi; YU Min-feng

    2006-01-01

    This study is to reveal the effect of interlayer lattice registry on the formation of collapsed double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). It is found that collapsed carbon nanotubes can be energetically unstable,metastable or stable,depending mainly on the diameter of the CNT. A fully collapsed DWCNT can adopt different structural morphologies,such as a straight ribbon,a warping ribbon or a twisted ribbon,depending on the chirality of the CNT,which is similar to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Different from SWCNTs,this study also shows some unique phenomena in the formation of collapsed DWCNTs. A fully collapsed DWCNT can have different combinations of the interlayer lattice registry effect within the inner and outer tube,thus the outer tube can influence the formation of the collapsed CNT via lattice registry effect,sometimes even dominates the twist of the CNT.

  9. Quantum-coupled radial-breathing oscillations in double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Wu, Muhong; Xiao, Fajun; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Ager, Joel W; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals-coupled materials, ranging from multilayers of graphene and MoS(2) to superlattices of nanoparticles, exhibit rich emerging behaviour owing to quantum coupling between individual nanoscale constituents. Double-walled carbon nanotubes provide a model system for studying such quantum coupling mediated by van der Waals interactions, because each constituent single-walled nanotube can have distinctly different physical structures and electronic properties. Here we systematically investigate quantum-coupled radial-breathing mode oscillations in chirality-defined double-walled nanotubes by combining simultaneous structural, electronic and vibrational characterizations on the same individual nanotubes. We show that these radial-breathing oscillations are collective modes characterized by concerted inner- and outer-wall motions, and determine quantitatively the tube-dependent van der Waals potential governing their vibration frequencies. We also observe strong quantum interference between Raman scattering from the inner- and outer-wall excitation pathways, the relative phase of which reveals chirality-dependent excited-state potential energy surface displacement in different nanotubes.

  10. Nonlinear free vibrations of curved double walled carbon nanotubes using differential quadrature method

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    Cigeroglu, Ender; Samandari, Hamed

    2014-11-01

    Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions.

  11. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  12. A double-walled carbon nanotube oscillator encapsulating a copper nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Jiang, Qing; Hwang, Ho Jung

    2006-11-01

    A double-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) oscillator encapsulating a copper nanowire has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that the excess energy due to the interactions between the copper nanowire and the outer CNT were around 1% of the excess of van der Waals energy between the inner and the outer CNTs. The classical oscillation theory and the theory given by Zheng et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 045503) provide a fairly good estimate of the mass-dependent frequency of a CNT oscillator encapsulating a metal nanowire. The nanotube oscillator encapsulating a metal nanowire is found to be more dependent on the encapsulated metal mass than the metal-carbon interaction.

  13. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhaoji; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2017-06-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  14. Influence of Intertube Additional Atoms on Sliding Behaviors of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海洋; 耿淑芳; 查新未; 孙建

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intertube additional atoms on (DWCNTs) are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) the sliding behaviors of double-walled carbon nanotubes simulation method. The interaction between carbon atoms is modeled using the second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential coupled with the Lennard-Jones potential. The simulations indicate that intertube additional atoms of DWCNT can significantly enhance the load transfer between neighboring tubes of DWCNT. The improvement in load transfer is guaranteed by the addition of intertube atoms which are covalently bonded to the inner and outer tubes of DWCNT. The results also show that the sliding behaviors of DWCNT are strongly dependent of additional atom numbers. The results presented here demonstrate that the superior mechanical properties of DWCNT can be realized by controlling intertube coupling. The general conclusions derived from this work may be of importance in devising high-performance CNT composites.

  15. Light emission of double-walled carbon nanotube filaments doped with yttrium and europium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU QinKe; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; ZHU HongWei; LI XinMing; CHEN Xi; JIA Yi; GUI XuChun; XU ErYang

    2009-01-01

    As the potential applications of carbon nanotubes in the field of electroluminescence, elements yttrium and europium were introduced to modify the emission properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) to obtain higher efficacy and other properties. The light emission spectrum of the Y-Eu-doped DWNT filament is suppressed in the near-infrared range, while enhanced in the mid-infrared range. The doped DWNT filament can reach higher efficacy than that of the pure DWNT filament at the same input power and can work stably as long as 5000 h at 12 V. These filaments could be useful for the light sources with special functions, such as infrared light sources operated at low input power.

  16. Specific features of low-frequency vibrational dynamics and low-temperature heat capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, M. V.; Roshal, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    A continuous model has been constructed for low-frequency dynamics of a double-walled carbon nanotube. The formation of the low-frequency part of the phonon spectrum of a double-walled nanotube from phonon spectra of its constituent single-walled nanotubes has been considered in the framework of the proposed approach. The influence of the environment on the phonon spectrum of a single double-walled carbon nanotube has been analyzed. A combined method has been proposed for estimating the coefficients of the van der Waals interaction between the walls of the nanotube from the spectroscopic data and the known values of the elastic moduli of graphite. The low-temperature specific heat has been calculated for doublewalled carbon nanotubes, which in the field of applicability of the model ( T nanotubes forming it.

  17. INTER-LAYER INTERACTION IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES EVIDENCED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giusca, Cristina E; Tison, Yann; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2008-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy have been used in an attempt to elucidate the electronic structure of nanotube systems containing two constituent shells. Evidence for modified electronic structure due to the inter-layer interaction in double-walled carbon nanotubes is provided...... and the overall electronic structure for double-walled carbon nanotubes, is demonstrated by our experiments, showing that the effect the inner tube has on the overall electronic structure of double-walled nanotubes cannot be neglected, and is key to the opto-electronic properties of the system. We postulate...... that previous analysis of the opto-electronic properties on multiple-walled carbon nanotubes based purely on the outer layer chirality of the tube needs significant modification based on new understanding brought forth with our analysis....

  18. Prediction of radial breathing-like modes of double-walled carbon nanotubes with arbitrary chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad

    2014-10-15

    The radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with arbitrary chirality are investigated by a simple analytical model. For this purpose, DWCNT is considered as double concentric elastic thin cylindrical shells, which are coupled through van der Waals (vdW) forces between two adjacent tubes. Lennard-Jones potential and a molecular mechanics model are used to calculate the vdW forces and to predict the mechanical properties, respectively. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experimental results. Finally, a new approach is proposed to determine the diameters and the chiral indices of the inner and outer tubes of the DWCNTs with high precision.

  19. Prediction of radial breathing-like modes of double-walled carbon nanotubes with arbitrary chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with arbitrary chirality are investigated by a simple analytical model. For this purpose, DWCNT is considered as double concentric elastic thin cylindrical shells, which are coupled through van der Waals (vdW) forces between two adjacent tubes. Lennard-Jones potential and a molecular mechanics model are used to calculate the vdW forces and to predict the mechanical properties, respectively. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experimental results. Finally, a new approach is proposed to determine the diameters and the chiral indices of the inner and outer tubes of the DWCNTs with high precision.

  20. Mechanical coupled vibrations in an individual double-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutahir, Mourad; Rahmani, Abdelhai; Chadli, Hassan; Rahmani, Abdelali

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we calculate the Raman spectra of different double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) by using the spectral moments method. Using a convenient Lennard-Jones expression of the van der Waals intermolecular interaction between the inner and outer tubes, the optimized structures of DWCNT are derived. We found that the C-C bond length in DWCNT is depending on the metallic (M) or semiconducting (Sc) character of the inner and outer nanotubes. We show that the radial breathing-like modes (RBLM) of DWCNT are characterized by concerted inner and outer wall motions. Comparison with Raman spectra measurements is given. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  1. Efficient implementation of a van der Waals density functional: application to double-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Pérez, Guillermo; Soler, José M

    2009-08-28

    We present an efficient implementation of the van der Waals density functional of Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)], which expresses the nonlocal correlation energy as a double spatial integral. We factorize the integration kernel and use fast Fourier transforms to evaluate the self-consistent potential, total energy, and atomic forces, in O(NlogN) operations. The resulting overhead, for medium and large systems, is a small fraction of the total computational cost, representing a dramatic speedup over the O(N(2)) evaluation of the double integral. This opens the realm of first-principles simulations to the large systems of interest in soft matter and biomolecular problems. We apply the method to calculate the binding energies and the barriers for relative translation and rotation in double-wall carbon nanotubes.

  2. Anharmonic properties of Raman modes in double wall carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquina, J. [Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Optica, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Power, Ch.; Gonzalez, J. [Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Broto, J. M. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS UPR 3228, 31400 Toulouse (France); Flahaut, E., E-mail: castella@ula.v [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 5085, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the radial breathing modes (RB Ms) and the zone-center tangential optical phonons (G-bands) of double-walled carbon nano tubes has been investigated between 300 and 700 K using Raman scattering. As expected, with increasing temperature, the frequencies of the Raman peaks, including the RB Ms and G-bands downshift simultaneously. We show here that the temperature dependence of the RB Ms can be fitted by a simple linear dependence and different RB Ms have different frequency shifts. We observe a noticeable nonlinearity in the temperature dependence of the G-band associated with the outer semiconducting tube G+ext (s). The deviation from the linear trend is due to the contribution of the third-order anharmonic term in the lattice potential energy with a pure temperature effect. An estimated value of 1.5 for the Grueneisen parameter of the G+ext (s) band was found. (Author)

  3. DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER STEP AXIAL LOAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengqi Sun; Kaixln Liu

    2009-01-01

    An approximate method is presented in this paper for studying the dynamic buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) under step axial load. The analysis is based on the continuum mechanics model, which takes into account the van der Waals interaction between the outer and inner nanotubes. A buckling condition is derived, from which the critical buckling load and associated buckling mode can be determined. As examples, numerical results are worked out for DWNTs under fixed boundary conditions. It is shown that, due to the effect of van der Waals forces, the critical buckling load of a DWNT is enhanced when inserting an inner tube into a single-walled one. The paper indicates that the critical buckling load of DWNTs for dynamic buckling is higher than that for static buckling. The effect of the radii is also examined. In addition, some of the results are compared with the previous ones.

  4. Fabrication of flexible transparent conductive films from long double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Imazu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of flexible transparent conducting films (TCFs is important for the development of the next-generation flexible devices. In this study, we used double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs as the starting material and described a fabrication method of flexible TCFs. We have determined in a quantitative way that the key factors are the length and the dispersion states of the DWCNTs as well as the weight-ratios of dispersant polymer/DWCNTs. By controlling such factors, we have readily fabricated a flexible highly transparent (94% transmittance and conductive (surface resistivity = 320 Ω sq−1 DWCNT film without adding any chemical doping that is often used to reduce the surface resistivity. By applying a wet coating, we have succeeded in the fabrication of large-scale conducting transparent DWCNT films based on the role-to-role method.

  5. First-Principles Study of Li Doping in a Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yan-Wei; LIU Hui-Jun; PAN Lu; TAN Xiao-Jian; SHI Jing

    2009-01-01

    By performing first-principles calculatio ns,we study Li doping in a double-wall carbon nanotube where a (5,0)tube is confined inside a (14,0) tube.There are three possible sites for Li doping and two of them are energetically favorable.The change of energy band structure is closely related to the doping sites and the charge transfer is investigated.Bader charge analysis indicates that Li prefers to donate its electron to the inner (5,0) tube.Moreover,the Li capacity of the system can reach LiC4.74 which makes it a promising candidate for Li-ion battery materials.

  6. Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ha LEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamental frequency. In this paper, we analyze the variation in frequency of ultra-high frequency nano-mechnical resonators constructed from DWCNTs with different wall lengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12951

  7. Double-wall carbon nanotube-porphyrin supramolecular hybrid: synthesis and photophysical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizuete, María; Gómez-Escalonilla, María J; Fierro, José Luis G; Atienzar, Pedro; García, Hermenegildo; Langa, Fernando

    2014-01-13

    Double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with pyridyl units covalently attached to the external wall through isoxazolino linkers and carboxylic groups that have been esterified by pentyl chains are synthesized. The properties of these modified DWCNTs are then compared with an analogous sample based on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of characteristic radial breathing mode vibrations, confirming that the samples partly retain the integrity of the nanotubes in the case of DWCNTs, including the internal and external nanotubes. Quantification of the pyridyl content for both samples (DWCNT and SWCNT derivatives) is based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric profiles, showing very similar substituent load. Both pyridyl-containing nanotubes (DWCNTs and SWCNTs) form a complex with zinc porphyrin (ZnP), as evidenced by the presence of two isosbestic points in the absorption spectra of the porphyrin upon addition of the pyridyl-functionalized nanotubes. Supramolecular complexes based on pyridyl-substituted DWCNTs and SWCNTs quench the emission and the triplet excited state identically, through an energy-transfer mechanism based on pre-assembly of the ground state. Thus, the presence of the intact inner wall in DWCNTs does not influence the quenching behavior, with respect to SWCNTs, for energy-transfer quenching with excited ZnP. These results sharply contrast with previous ones referring to electron-transfer quenching, in which the double-wall morphology of the nanotubes has been shown to considerably reduce the lifetime of charge separation, owing to faster electron mobility in DWCNTs compared to SWCNTs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Experimental study of lattice dynamics in individual semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes: Tangential G modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshov, D. I.; Tran, H. N.; Slabodyan, Yu. S.; Osadchii, A. V.; Roshal', S. B.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    The tangential G modes in individual semiconducting double-walled nanotubes have been examined via Raman spectroscopy over a wide laser excitation wavelength range. Individual suspended nanotubes have been synthesized via chemical vapor deposition. The ( n, m) chirality indices are determined via electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The pronounced shift in the tangential modes compared to the analogous modes of single-walled nanotubes has been observed in Raman spectra of double-walled nanotubes. The shift value is shown to depend on the interlayer distance and on the van der Waals interaction between the layers in a double-walled tube.

  9. Structure, stability, and motion of dislocations in double-wall carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Kai-Wang; Li Zhong-Qiu; Wu Jian; Peng Xiang-Yang; Tan Xin-Jun; Sun Li-Zhong; Zhong Jian-Xin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a novel double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) with both edge and screw dislocations is studied by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The differences between two adjacent tubule indexes of armchair and zigzag nanotubes are determined to be 5 and 9,respectively,by taking into account the symmetry,integrality,and thermal stability of the composite structures. It is found that melting first occurs near the dislocations,and the melting temperatures of the dislocated armchair and zigzag DWCNTs are around 2600 K-2700 K.At the premelting temperatures,the shrink of the dislocation loop,which is comprised of edge and screw dislocations,implies that the composite dislocation in DWCNTs has self-healing ability.The dislocated DWCNTs first fracture at the edge dislocations,which induces the entire break in axial tensile test. The dislocated DWCNTs have a smaller fracture strength compared to the perfect DWCNTs.Our results not only match with the dislocation glide of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in experiments,but also can free from the electron beam radiation under experimental conditions observed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM),which is deemed to cause the motion of dislocation loop.

  10. Structure, stability, and motion of dislocations in double-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Wang; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Wu, Jian; Peng, Xiang-Yang; Tan, Xin-Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) with both edge and screw dislocations is studied by using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The differences between two adjacent tubule indexes of armchair and zigzag nanotubes are determined to be 5 and 9, respectively, by taking into account the symmetry, integrality, and thermal stability of the composite structures. It is found that melting first occurs near the dislocations, and the melting temperatures of the dislocated armchair and zigzag DWCNTs are around 2600 K—2700 K. At the pre-melting temperatures, the shrink of the dislocation loop, which is comprised of edge and screw dislocations, implies that the composite dislocation in DWCNTs has self-healing ability. The dislocated DWCNTs first fracture at the edge dislocations, which induces the entire break in axial tensile test. The dislocated DWCNTs have a smaller fracture strength compared to the perfect DWCNTs. Our results not only match with the dislocation glide of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in experiments, but also can free from the electron beam radiation under experimental conditions observed by the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), which is deemed to cause the motion of dislocation loop.

  11. Raman and XPS analyses of pristine and annealed N-doped double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Sauer, Markus; Domanov, Oleg; Rohringer, Philip; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    N-doped single/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were studied for long time from synthesis to properties. However, the stability of N in the CNT lattice still needs further developments. In this work, to obtain more stable N-doped CNTs, concentric double-walled (DW) CNTs with more N were synthesized using benzylamine as C and N source. In order to test the stability of N-doped DWCNTs, high-temperature annealing in vacuum was performed. By XPS and Raman spectroscopic measurements, we found that the N-doped DWCNTs are still stable under 1500 $\\,^{\\circ}\\mathrm{C}$: the graphitic N does not change at all, the molecular N is partly removed, and the pyridinic N ratio greatly increases by more than two times. The reason could be that the N atoms from the surrounded N-contained materials combine into the CNT lattice during the annealing. Compared with the undoped DWCNTs, no Raman frequency shift was observed for the RBM, the G-band, and the G'-band of the N-doped DWCNTs.

  12. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungile P. Lukhele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  13. Raman and XPS analyses of pristine and annealed N-doped double-walled carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Lei; Domanov, Oleg; Rohringer, Philip; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-doped single/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were studied for long time from synthesis to properties. However, the stability of N in the CNT lattice still needs further developments. In this work, to obtain more stable N-doped CNTs, concentric double-walled (DW) CNTs with more N were synthesized using benzylamine as C and N source. In order to test the stability of N-doped DWCNTs, high-temperature annealing in vacuum was performed. By XPS and Raman spectroscopic measurements, we found that the N-doped DWCNTs are still stable under 1500 $\\,^{\\circ}\\mathrm{C}$: the graphitic N does not change at all, the molecular N is partly removed, and the pyridinic N ratio greatly increases by more than two times. The reason could be that the N atoms from the surrounded N-contained materials combine into the CNT lattice during the annealing. Compared with the undoped DWCNTs, no Raman frequency shift was observed for the RBM, the G-band, and the G'-band of the N-doped DWCNTs.

  14. Force distribution for double-walled carbon nanotubes and gigahertz oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Hill, James M.

    2007-09-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have led to the creation of many nano-scale devices and carbon nanotubes are representative materials to construct these devices. Double-walled carbon nanotubes with the inner tube oscillating can be used as gigahertz oscillators and form the basis of possible nano-electronic devices that might be instrumental in the micro-computer industry which are predominantly based on electron transport phenomena. There are many experiments and molecular dynamical simulations which show that a wave is generated on the outer cylinder as a result of the oscillation of the inner carbon nanotube and that the frequency of this wave is also in the gigahertz range. As a preliminary to analyze and model such devices, it is necessary to estimate accurately the resultant force distribution due to the inter-atomic interactions. Here we determine some new analytical expressions for the van der Waals force using the Lennard Jones potential for general lengths of the inner and outer tubes. These expressions are utilized together with Newton’s second law to determine the motion of an oscillating inner tube, assuming that any frictional effects may be neglected. An idealized and much simplified representation of the Lennard Jones force is used to determine a simple formula for the oscillation frequency resulting from an initial extrusion of the inner tube. This simple formula is entirely consistent with the existing known behavior of the frequency and predicts a maximum oscillation frequency occurring when the extrusion length is (L 2 L 1)/2 where L 1 and L 2 are the respective half-lengths of the inner and outer tubes (L 1 < L 2).

  15. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  16. Field Emission Properties of the Graphene Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films Prepared by Vacuum Filtration and Screen Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhuo Xu; Tao Feng; Yiwei Chen; Zhuo Sun

    2013-01-01

    The graphene double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) hybrid films were prepared by vacuum filtration and screen printing. Their electron field emission properties have been studied systematically. The electron emission properties of the hybrid films are much better than those of pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films. Comparing with the screen printed films, the vacuum filtered films have many advantages, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, better uniformity, better ...

  17. A selective way to create defects by the thermal treatment of fluorinated double walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki Muramatsu; Kazunori Fujisawa; Yong-Il Ko; Kap-Seung Yang; Takuya Hayashi; Morinobu Endo; Cheol-Min Yang; Yong Chae Jung; Yoong Ahm Kim

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale defects in the outer tube to preserve the electrical and optical features of the inner tube can be engineered to exploit the intrinsic properties of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) for various promising applications. We demonstrated a selective way to make defects in the outer tube by the fluorination of DWCNTs followed by the thermal detachment of the F atoms at 1000 °C in argon. Fluorinated DWCNTs with different amounts of F atoms were prepared by reacting with fluorine gas at 25, 200, and 400 °C that gave the stoichiometry of CF0.20, CF0.30, and CF0.43, respective-ly. At the three different temperatures used, we observed preservation of the coaxial morphology in the fluorinated DWCNTs. For the DWCNTs fluorinated at 25 and 200 °C, the strong radial breathing modes (RBMs) of the inner tube and weakened RBMs of the outer tube indicated selective fluorine attachment onto the outer tube. However, the disappearance of the RBMs in the Raman spectrum of the DWCNTs fluorinated at 400 °C showed the introduction of F atoms onto both inner and outer tubes. There was no significant change in the morphology and optical properties when the DWCNTs fluorinated at 25 and 200 °C were thermally treated at 1000 °C in argon. However, in the case of the DWCNTs fluorinated at 400 °C, the recovery of strong RBMs from the inner tube and weakened RBMs from the outer tube indicated the selective introduction of substantial defects on the outer tube while preserving the original tubular shape. The thermal detachment of F atoms from fluori-nated DWCNTs is an efficient way to make highly defective outer tubes for preserving the electrical conduction and optical activity of the inner tubes.

  18. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC INSTABILITY OF DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES UNDER PERIODIC EXCITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Fu; Rengui Bi; Pu Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A multiple-elastic beam model based on Euler-Bernoulli-beam theory is presented to investigate the nonlinear dynamic instability of double-walled nanotubes. Taking the geometric nonlinearity of structure deformation, the effects of van der Waais forces as well as the non-coaxial curvature of each nested tube into account, the nonlinear parametric vibration governing equations are derived. Numerical results indicate that the double-walled nanotube (DWNT) can be considered as a single column when the van der Waals forces are sufficiently strong. The stiffness of medium could substantially reduce the area of the nonlinear dynamic instability region, in particular, the geometric nonlinearity can be out of account when the stiffness is large enough. The area of the principal nonlinear instability region and its shifting distance aroused by the nonlinearity both decrease with the increment of the aspect ratio of the nanotubes.

  19. Covalent and non-covalent functionalization and solubilization of double-walled carbon nanotubes in nonpolar and aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Panchakarla; A Govindaraj

    2008-11-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been functionalized by both covalent and non-covalent means. Covalent functionalization has been carried out by attaching an aliphatic amide function to DWNTs which enable solubilization in non-polar solvents. Solubilization in non-polar solvents has also been accomplished by non-covalent functionalization by using 1-pyrenebutanoicacid succinimidyl ester (PYBS). Non-covalent functionalization of DWNTs has been carried out by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyoxyethylene(40)nonylphenyl ether (IGPAL), both of which enable solubilization in aqueous media. These functionalized DWNTs have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, IR and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Purification and characterization of double-wall carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, P.; Okazaki, T.; Sugai, T.; Kimura, J.; Kishi, N.; Sato, K.; Ozeki, Y.; Shinohara, H.

    2006-02-01

    Double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been selectively synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition of alcohol over Fe/Co loaded mesoporous silica. The as-grown carbon nanotubes are purified using a multi-step process involving heat treatment in air followed by alkali and acid treatments. The nanotubes are characterized as-grown and after each step of the purification stage by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is observed that most of the mesoporous silica and metal particles have been removed from the as-grown nanotubes by these treatments. The carbon content of the nanotube material obtained after the purification is found to be more than 90 wt%.

  1. Integrated ternary artificial nacre via synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide/double-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-07-01

    The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.

  2. Field Emission Properties of the Graphene Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films Prepared by Vacuum Filtration and Screen Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhuo Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphene double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT hybrid films were prepared by vacuum filtration and screen printing. Their electron field emission properties have been studied systematically. The electron emission properties of the hybrid films are much better than those of pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films. Comparing with the screen printed films, the vacuum filtered films have many advantages, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, better uniformity, better long-term stability, and stronger adhesive strength with conductive substrates. The optimized hybrid films with 20% weight ratio of graphene, which were fabricated by vacuum filtration, show the best electron emission performances with a low turn-on field of 0.50 Vμm−1 (at 1 μAcm−2 and a high field enhancement factor β of 27000.

  3. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  4. Characterisation and in vivo ecotoxicity evaluation of double-wall carbon nanotubes in larvae of the amphibian Xenopus laevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchet, Florence [Laboratoire d' Ecologie fonctionnelle - EcoLab, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5245, Campus INP-ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Auzeville-Tolosane (France)], E-mail: florence.mouchet@cict.fr; Landois, Perine [CIRIMAT, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5085, Bat. 2R1, 118 Route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Sarremejean, Elodie; Bernard, Guillaume [Laboratoire d' Ecologie fonctionnelle - EcoLab, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5245, Campus INP-ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Puech, Pascal [CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Pinelli, Eric [Laboratoire d' Ecologie fonctionnelle - EcoLab, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5245, Campus INP-ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Auzeville-Tolosane (France); Flahaut, Emmanuel [CIRIMAT, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5085, Bat. 2R1, 118 Route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Gauthier, Laury [Laboratoire d' Ecologie fonctionnelle - EcoLab, Universite Paul Sabatier, UMR UPS INPT CNRS 5245, Campus INP-ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Auzeville-Tolosane (France)

    2008-04-28

    Because of their outstanding properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being assessed for inclusion in many manufactured products. Due to their massive production and growing number of potential applications, the impact of CNTs on the environment must be taken into consideration. The present investigation evaluates the ecotoxicological potential of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) in the amphibian larvae Xenopus laevis at a large range of concentrations in water (from 10 to 500 mg L{sup -1}). Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were analysed after 12 days of static exposure in laboratory conditions. Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality and the growth of larvae. The genotoxic effects were analysed by scoring the micronucleated erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae according to the International Standard micronucleus assay. Moreover, histological preparations of larval intestine were prepared after 12 days of exposure for observation using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the intestine of an exposed larva was prepared on a slide for analyse by Raman imaging. The results showed no genotoxicity in erythrocytes of larvae exposed to DWNTs in water, but acute toxicity at every concentration of DWNTs studied which was related to physical blockage of the gills and/or digestive tract. Indeed, black masses suggesting the presence of CNTs were observed inside the intestine using optical microscopy and TEM, and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Assessing the risks of CNTs requires better understanding, especially including mechanistic and environmental investigations.

  5. Suction energy and offset configuration for double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baowan, Duangkamon; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-09-01

    Nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes offer the means to create new mechanical devices operating at the nanoscale. Such devices include oscillators constructed from an inner carbon nanotube sliding inside another carbon nanotube. The resultant oscillatory frequency is found to be in the gigahertz range and they have applications in the computing industry for signalling devices, such as an ultra-fast optical filter. While most research in the area is dominated by molecular dynamics simulations, our approach here is to use elementary mechanical principles and classical applied mathematical modelling techniques to formulate explicit analytical criteria and ideal model behaviour. In this paper, we first investigate the suction force experienced by a single-walled carbon nanotube located near an open end of a semi-infinite single-walled carbon nanotube, using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approximation. Second the equilibrium position of an offset inner tube with reference to the cross-section of the outer tube is determined.

  6. The oscillatory damped behavior of double wall carbon nanotube oscillators in gaseous environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; BI KeDong; CHEN MinHua; CHEN YunFei

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical oscillatory behaviors of multiwall carbon nanotube oscillators in gaseous environment are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The effects of ambient gas and temperature on intertube frictional force and oscillation frequency are analyzed. It is found that the intertube frictional force increases with the ambient gas density and temperature. Higher gas density and higher temperature cause a more rapid decay in the oscillation amplitude and an increase of the oscillation frequency. Compared to the vacuum environmental condition, the collision between gas atoms and the nanotube walls is a main ingredient leading to the increase of the energy dissipation. Gas damping may be the main reason for the failure of carbon nanotube oscillators working in gas environment. The ambient temperature also has an important effect on oscillations and low temperature is advantageous to sustain oscillations.

  7. The oscillatory damped behavior of double wall carbon nanotube oscillators in gaseous environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical oscillatory behaviors of multiwall carbon nanotube oscillators in gaseous environment are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The effects of ambient gas and temperature on intertube frictional force and oscillation frequency are analyzed. It is found that the intertube frictional force increases with the ambient gas density and temperature. Higher gas density and higher tem- perature cause a more rapid decay in the oscillation amplitude and an increase of the oscillation fre- quency. Compared to the vacuum environmental condition, the collision between gas atoms and the nanotube walls is a main ingredient leading to the increase of the energy dissipation. Gas damping may be the main reason for the failure of carbon nanotube oscillators working in gas environment. The am- bient temperature also has an important effect on oscillations and low temperature is advantageous to sustain oscillations.

  8. Size-dependent vibration of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes using couple stress shell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeighampour, Hamid; Tadi Beni, Y.

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated vibrations and instability of double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) conveying fluid by a modified couple stress theory. For this purpose, Donnell's shell model was developed and, using the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion and corresponding classical and non-classical boundary conditions of DWCNT were obtained through Hamilton's principle. Then, DWCNT with simple-simple and clamped-clamped supports were investigated. The effect of the van der Waals (vdW) forces was considered between the two walls, and the DWCNT surroundings were modeled as a visco-Pasternak foundation. The governing equations of motion and corresponding boundary conditions were discretized through differential quadrature method (DQM), and the vibration problem was solved by using the boundary conditions. The results show that the effects of fluid velocity, stiffness and damping of the visco-Pasternak foundation, nanotube length, and size parameter in the modified couple stress theory are stronger than in the classical theory. Finally, the effect of vdW forces and presence of fluid in the DWCNT examined on the natural frequencies of DWCNT.

  9. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  10. Wave propagation in double-walled carbon nanotubes on a novel analytically nonlocal Timoshenko-beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Lixiang; Lim, C. W.

    2011-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the characteristics of wave propagation in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). The DWCNTs is simulated with a Timoshenko beam model based on the nonlocal continuum elasticity theory, referred to as an analytically nonlocal Timoshenko-beam (ANT) model. The governing equations of the DWCNTs beam consist of a set of four equations that are derived from the variational principle of the beam with high-order boundary conditions at the both ends, in which the effects of the nano-scale nonlocality and the van der Waals interaction between inner and outer tubes are inclusive. The characteristics of the wave propagation in the DWCNTs beam were analyzed with the new ANT model proposed and the comparisons with the partially nonlocal Timoshenko-beam (PNT) models in publication were made in details. The results show that the nonlocal effects of the ANT model proposed in the present study on the wave propagations are more significant because it is in stronger stiffness enhancement to the DWCNTs beam.

  11. Structure and electronic properties of the double-wall nanotubes constructed from SiO2 nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Weiye; Bai, Hongcun; Zhu, Ying; Huang, Yuanhe

    2012-05-09

    This paper presents ab initio self-consistent field crystal orbital calculations on the structures, stabilities, elastic and electronic properties of the double-wall nanotubes made of SiO(2) nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes based on density functional theory. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the nearest distance between the two constituents is in the area of the van der Waals effect. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. Based on the deformation potential theory and effective mass approximation, the mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be in the range of 10(2)-10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), the same order of magnitude as those of the corresponding zigzag carbon nanotubes. The Young's moduli are also calculated for the combined systems.

  12. On the vibrational behavior of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes under the physical adsorption of biomolecules in the aqueous environment: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajori, S; Ansari, R; Darvizeh, M

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of biomolecules on the walls of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an aqueous environment is of great importance in the field of nanobiotechnology. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to understand the mechanical vibrational behavior of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and DWCNTs) under the physical adsorption of four important biomolecules (L-alanine, guanine, thymine, and uracil) in vacuum and an aqueous environment. It was observed that the natural frequencies of these CNTs in vacuum reduce under the physical adsorption of biomolecules. In the aqueous environment, the natural frequency of each pure CNT decreased as compared to its natural frequency in vacuum. It was also found that the frequency shift for functionalized CNTs as compared to pure CNTs in the aqueous environment was dependent on the radius and the number of walls of the CNT, and could be positive or negative.

  13. Effect of magnetic field on quantum state energies of an electron confined in the core of a double walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khurshed A.; Bhat, Bashir Mohi Ud Din

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we report the effect of external magnetic field and core radius on the excited quantum state energies of an electron confined in the core of a double walled carbon nanotube. The goal is accomplished by using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillioun (WKB) approximation method within the effective mass approximation and confinement potential. All numerical analysis were carried out in a strong confinement regime. The results show that the electron energy increases with the increase in external magnetic field at a given core radii. The electron energy is also found to increase as the core radius of the CNT decreases and for core radius a > 5 nm the energy becomes almost zero. The effect of magnetic field on the excited state energies of the confined electron is more evident for smaller core radius acarbon nanotube quantum dot devices [1].

  14. Enlightening the ultrahigh electrical conductivities of doped double-wall carbon nanotube fibers by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristant, Damien; Zubair, Ahmed; Puech, Pascal; Neumayer, Frédéric; Moyano, Sébastien; Headrick, Robert J; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E; Young, Colin C; Gerber, Iann C; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro; Leotin, Jean

    2016-12-01

    Highly aligned, packed, and doped carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers with electrical conductivities approaching that of copper have recently become available. These fibers are promising for high-power electrical applications that require light-weight, high current-carrying capacity cables. However, a microscopic understanding of how doping affects the electrical conductance of such CNT fibers in a quantitative manner has been lacking. Here, we performed Raman spectroscopy measurements combined with first-principles calculations to determine the position of the average Fermi energy and to obtain the temperature of chlorosulfonic-acid-doped double-wall CNT fibers under high current. Due to the unique way in which double-wall CNT Raman spectra depend on doping, it is possible to use Raman data to determine the doping level quantitatively. The correspondence between the Fermi level shift and the carbon charge transfer is derived from a tight-binding model and validated by several calculations. For the doped fiber, we were able to associate an average Fermi energy shift of ∼-0.7 eV with a conductance increase by a factor of ∼5. Furthermore, since current induces heating, local temperature determination is possible. Through the Stokes-to-anti-Stokes intensity ratio of the G-band peaks, we estimated a temperature rise at the fiber surface of ∼135 K at a current density of 2.27 × 10(8) A m(-2) identical to that from the G-band shift, suggesting that thermalization between CNTs is well achieved.

  15. Oxygen and light sensitive field-effect transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles attached to individual double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanaewa, Alina; Juárez, Beatriz H.; Weller, Horst; Klinke, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The attachment of semiconducting nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes is one of the most challenging subjects in nanotechnology. Successful high coverage attachment and control over the charge transfer mechanism and photo-current generation open a wide field of new applications such as highly effective solar cells and fibre-enhanced polymers. In this work we study the charge transfer in individual double-walled carbon nanotubes highly covered with uniform ZnO nanoparticles. The synthetic colloidal procedure was chosen to avoid long-chained ligands at the nanoparticle-nanotube interface. The resulting composite material was used as conductive channel in a field-effect transistor device and the electrical photo-response was analysed under various conditions. By means of the transfer characteristics we could elucidate the mechanism of charge transfer from non-covalently attached semiconducting nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes. The role of positive charges remaining on the nanoparticles is discussed in terms of a gating effect.The attachment of semiconducting nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes is one of the most challenging subjects in nanotechnology. Successful high coverage attachment and control over the charge transfer mechanism and photo-current generation open a wide field of new applications such as highly effective solar cells and fibre-enhanced polymers. In this work we study the charge transfer in individual double-walled carbon nanotubes highly covered with uniform ZnO nanoparticles. The synthetic colloidal procedure was chosen to avoid long-chained ligands at the nanoparticle-nanotube interface. The resulting composite material was used as conductive channel in a field-effect transistor device and the electrical photo-response was analysed under various conditions. By means of the transfer characteristics we could elucidate the mechanism of charge transfer from non-covalently attached semiconducting nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes. The role of positive

  16. Study of collective radial breathing-like modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes: combination of continuous two-dimensional membrane theory and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshov, Dmitry I.; Avramenko, Marina V.; Than, Xuan-Tinh; Michel, Thierry; Arenal, Raul; Paillet, Matthieu; Rybkovskiy, Dmitry V.; Osadchy, Alexander V.; Rochal, Sergei B.; Yuzyuk, Yuri I.; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Radial breathing modes (RBMs) are widely used for the atomic structure characterization and index assignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from resonant Raman spectroscopy. However, for double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), the use of conventional ωRBM(d) formulas is complicated due to the van der Waals interaction between the layers, which strongly affects the frequencies of radial modes and leads to new collective vibrations. This paper presents an alternative way to theoretically study the collective radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of DWNTs and to account for interlayer interaction, namely the continuous two-dimensional membrane theory. We obtain an analytical ωRBLM(do,di) relation, being the equivalent of the conventional ωRBM(d) expressions, established for SWNTs. We compare our theoretical predictions with Raman data, measured on individual index-identified suspended DWNTs, and find a good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, we show that the interlayer coupling in individual DWNTs strongly depends on the interlayer distance, which is manifested in the frequency shifts of the RBLMs with respect to the RBMs of the individual inner and outer tubes. In terms of characterization, this means that the combination of Raman spectroscopy data and predictions of continuous membrane theory may give additional criteria for the index identification of DWNTs, namely the interlayer distance.

  17. Refined 2D and Exact 3D Shell Models for the Free Vibration Analysis of Single- and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Brischetto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper talks about the free vibration analysis of simply supported Single- and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs and DWCNTs. Refined 2D Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ shell methods and an exact 3D shell model are compared. A continuum approach (based on an elastic three-dimensional shell model is used for natural frequency investigation of SWCNTs and DWCNTs. SWCNTs are defined as isotropic cylinders with an equivalent thickness and Young modulus. DWCNTs are defined as two concentric isotropic cylinders (with an equivalent thickness and Young modulus which can be linked by means of the interlaminar continuity conditions or by means of van der Waals interactions. Layer wise approaches are mandatory for the analysis of van der Waals forces in DWCNTs. The effect of van der Waals interaction between the two cylinders is shown for different DWCNT lengths, diameters and vibration modes. The accuracy of beam models and classical 2D shell models in the free vibration analysis of SWCNTs and DWCNTs is also investigated.

  18. Fabrication of Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO2 nanotube array/Ti heterojunctions with low resistance state for broadband photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Guowei; Dong, Zhanmin; Wei, Jinquan; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Sun, Jia-Lin

    2017-03-01

    A broadband photodetector based on Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO2 nanotube array /Ti multilayer heterojunction structures has been fabricated. A pre-electroforming process at a voltage bias of 35 V was used to switch the photodetector from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. At a voltage bias of 1 V under 532-nm laser illumination in air, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 15.41 mA W-1, which is enhanced by approximately 1.91 times when compared with that of device before deposition of Au nanoparticles. In addition, in a vacuum under a voltage bias of 1 V, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 23.29 mA W-1 and 6.85 mA W-1 at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The surface plasmon polaritons of the Au nanoparticles allowed extension of the sensitivity of the photosensitive regions into the mid-infrared range. The experimental results show that the device photoresponsivity reached 2.26 mA W-1 at a voltage bias of 1 V under 10.6-μm laser illumination in air.

  19. Fabrication of Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array/Ti heterojunctions with low resistance state for broadband photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Mianyang Teachers’ College (Mianyang Normal University), Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Guowei; Dong, Zhanmin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Zhu, Jia-Lin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-01

    A broadband photodetector based on Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array /Ti multilayer heterojunction structures has been fabricated. A pre-electroforming process at a voltage bias of 35 V was used to switch the photodetector from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. At a voltage bias of 1 V under 532-nm laser illumination in air, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 15.41 mA W{sup −1}, which is enhanced by approximately 1.91 times when compared with that of device before deposition of Au nanoparticles. In addition, in a vacuum under a voltage bias of 1 V, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 23.29 mA W{sup −1} and 6.85 mA W{sup −1} at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The surface plasmon polaritons of the Au nanoparticles allowed extension of the sensitivity of the photosensitive regions into the mid-infrared range. The experimental results show that the device photoresponsivity reached 2.26 mA W{sup −1} at a voltage bias of 1 V under 10.6-µm laser illumination in air.

  20. Synthesis of High-quality Single- and Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Fe/MgO Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran B. Kashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fe/MgO catalysts with three different iron contents (5, 10, and 15 wt.% were prepared by three catalyst preparation methods: impregnation, solution combustion synthesis, and co-calcination of metal ni‐ trates. The resulting catalysts were subjected to methane at 900°C in order to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The powders and products were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of MgFe2O4 upon heating the catalysts to 900°C was confirmed by XRD. After the growth step, corresponding peaks of MgFe2O4 disappeared and metallic iron peaks appeared, indicating that MgFe2O4 is the responsible phase for production of iron nanoparticles. HRTEM images showed that the product on the 5 wt.% catalysts was mostly SWNTs and DWNTs with no evidence of carbon nanofi‐ bres or multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the co-calcina‐ tion catalyst. Furthermore, ID/IG ratios obtained from Raman spectra were all below 0.1, except for one sample, showing the good quality of the products.

  1. Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mode-Locker in Tm-doped Fibre Laser: A Novel Mechanism for Robust Bound-State Solitons Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Bednyakova, Anastasia; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Howe, Richard C. T.; Hu, Guohua; Hasan, Tawfique; Gambetta, Alessio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Rümmeli, Mark; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2017-03-01

    The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement.

  2. Double-Wall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mode-Locker in Tm-doped Fibre Laser: A Novel Mechanism for Robust Bound-State Solitons Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Bednyakova, Anastasia; Al Araimi, Mohammed; Howe, Richard C. T.; Hu, Guohua; Hasan, Tawfique; Gambetta, Alessio; Galzerano, Gianluca; Rümmeli, Mark; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement. PMID:28287159

  3. Dynamic buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes under axial impact loading%轴向冲击载荷作用下双壁碳纳米管的动力屈曲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小虎; 张晓晴; 韩强

    2011-01-01

    Using the modified finite element method, the nonlinear shell-spring finite element model is established with taking the van der waals force into account. Based on the B-R motion criterion, the dynamic bucking behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are examined systemically. The dynamic critical loads for buckling and failure of double-walled carbon nanotubes under axial impact load are obtained. It is shown that in the dynamic buckling process of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, the deformation of each wall is harmonious to each other and the change of interlayer spacing is very small. The magnitude and the duration of impact load as well as the length of carbon nanotube have greater effects on the dynamic buckling of carbon nanotubes. For the shorter carbon nanotubes, asymmetrical buckling mode appears earlier. The simulations further show that the stress wave propagation in carbon nanotubes induces the asymmetrical buckling mode. In the dynamic buckling process of carbon nanotubes, there are four circumferential lobes that can be observed obviously, and their wave crest and trough of the lobes change alternately.%应用改进的有限元方法,建立考虑层间范德华力作用的壳-弹簧非线性有限元模型,基于B-R运动准则,系统地研究了双壁碳纳米管的动力屈曲问题,得到了轴向冲击载荷作用下双壁碳纳米管的临界动力屈曲载荷和临界动力失效载荷.研究结果表明,在动力屈曲过程中,双壁碳纳米管层间距的变化非常小,各管的变形相互协调;碳纳米管中应力波的传播导致碳纳米管出现非对称屈曲模态,可明显观测到四个环向波瓣,沿着碳纳米管的轴线方向,四个波瓣的波峰和波谷交替变化.对碳纳米管动力屈曲问题的研究表明,冲击载荷的大小和持续时间对碳纳米管的动力屈曲有较大影响,同时碳纳米管的长度对碳纳米管的动力屈曲也有较大的影响,较短的碳纳米管较早出现非对称屈曲模态.

  4. Improvement of signal-to-noise ratio of optoacoustic signals from double-walled carbon nanotubes by using an array of dual-wavelength high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; de Varona, Omar E.; Escudero, Pedro; Carpintero del Barrio, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela Rivera, Horacio

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging is a rising biomedical technique that has attracted much interest over the last 15 years. This technique permits to visualize the internal soft tissues in depth by using short laser pulses, able to generate ultrasonic signals in a large frequency range. It combines the high contrast of optical imaging with the high resolution of ultrasound systems. The OA signals detected from the whole surface of the body serve to reconstruct in detail the image of the internal tissues, where the absorbed optical energy distribution outlines the regions of interest. In fact, the use of contrast agents could improve the detection of growing anomalies in soft tissues, such as carcinomas. This work proposes the use of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as a potential nontoxic biodegradable contrast agent applicable in OA to reveal the presence of malignant in-depth tissues in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (0.75-1.4 μm), where the biological tissues are fairly transparent to optical radiation. A dual-wavelength (870 and 905 nm) OA system is presented, based on arrays of high power diode lasers (HPDLs) that generate ultrasound signals from a DWCNT solution embedded within a biological phantom. The OA signals generated by DWCNTs are compared with those obtained using black ink, considered to be a very good absorber at these wavelengths. The experiments prove that DWCNTs are a potential contrast agent for optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS).

  5. Wall-to-wall stress induced in (6,5) semiconducting nanotubes by encapsulation in metallic outer tubes of different diameters: a resonance Raman study of individual C60-derived double-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando-Paez, Federico; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Farhat, Hootan; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-03-01

    We measure resonant Raman scattering from 11 individual C(60)-derived double-wall carbon nanotubes all having inner semiconducting (6,5) tubes and various outer metallic tubes. The Raman spectra show the radial breathing modes (RBM) of the inner and the outer tubes to be simultaneously in resonance with the same laser energy. We observe that an increase in the RBM frequency of the inner tubes is related to an increase in the RBM frequency of the outer tubes. The Raman spectra also contain a sharp G(-) feature that increases in frequency as the nominal diameter of the outer metallic tubes decreases. Finally, the one-phonon second-order D-band mode shows a two-way frequency splitting that decreases with decreasing nominal wall-to-wall distance. We suggest that the stress which increases with decreasing nominal wall-to-wall distance is responsible for the hardening that is observed in the frequencies of the RBM, D and G(-) modes of the inner (6,5) semiconducting tubes.

  6. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1996-01-01

    The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

  7. Localization of matter and fermion resonances on double walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Duan, Yi-Shi

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the possibility of localizing various matter fields on the double walls. For spin 0 scalar field, massless zero mode can be normalized on the double walls. However, for spin 1 vector field, the zero mode is not localized on the double walls. In the paper [C.A.S. Almeida, M.M. Ferreira Jr., A.R. Gomes, R. Casana, arxiv:arXiv:0901.3543 [hep-th

  8. Localization of matter and fermion resonances on double walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Jun, E-mail: liangjunbeijing@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan Yishi [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-10-26

    We investigate the possibility of localizing various matter fields on the double walls. For spin 0 scalar field, massless zero mode can be normalized on the double walls. However, for spin 1 vector field, the zero mode is not localized on the double walls. In the paper [C.A.S. Almeida, M.M. Ferreira Jr., A.R. Gomes, R. Casana, (arXiv:0901.3543) [hep-th

  9. Interaction of H2 with a Double-Walled Armchair Nanotube by First-Principles Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costanzo, F.; Ensing, B.; Scipioni, R.; Ancilotto, F.; Silvestrelli, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied, by first-principles methods, the interaction of molecular hydrogen with a double-walled (2,10) carbon nanotube (DWCNT). This combination of the smallest possible diameter for the inner nanotube with a significantly larger outer tube allows for substantial space between the nanotube

  10. Interaction of H2 with a Double-Walled Armchair Nanotube by First-Principles Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costanzo, F.; Ensing, B.; Scipioni, R.; Ancilotto, F.; Silvestrelli, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied, by first-principles methods, the interaction of molecular hydrogen with a double-walled (2,10) carbon nanotube (DWCNT). This combination of the smallest possible diameter for the inner nanotube with a significantly larger outer tube allows for substantial space between the nanotube

  11. Damping of double wall panels including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Stainhaouer, G.; Bakamidis, S.; Charalabopoulou, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of double wall panels, with emphasis on damping and sound radiation. It will be shown that a narrow air layer separating the two plates of a panel significantly alters the mentioned quantities by its viscothermal properties. Numerical and experimental resu

  12. Edge effects in finite elongated carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, O; Scuseria, G E; Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of finite-size effects for the electronic structure of long zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes is studied. We analyze the electronic structure of capped (6,6), (8,0), and (9,0) single walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their length up to 60 nm, using a divide and conquer density functional theory approach. For the metallic nanotubes studied, most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite carbon nanotube are recovered at a length of 40 nm. The (8,0) semi-conducting nanotube studied exhibits pronounced edge effects within the energy gap that scale as the inverse of the length of the nanotube. As a result, the energy gap reduces from the value of ~1 eV calculated for the periodic system to a value of ~0.25 eV calculated for a capped 62 nm long CNT. These edge effects are expected to become negligible only at tube lengths exceeding 6 micrometers. Our results indicate that careful tailoring of the nature of the system and its capping units should be applied w...

  13. Structural and electronic properties of boron-doped double-walled silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Somayeh, E-mail: somayeh.behzad@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Rostam [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Science Research Laboratory, Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chegel, Raad [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    The effects of boron doping on the structural and electronic properties of (6,0)-(14,0) double-walled silicon carbide nanotube (DWSiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found that boron atom could be more easily doped in the inner tube. Our calculations indicate that a Si site is favorable for B under C-rich condition and a C site is favorable under Si-rich condition. Additionally, B-substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in DWSiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization.

  14. Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Finite Lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-Li; PAN Bi-Cai

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with finite lengths should be natural components of future "nano devices". Based on orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations, we report on our study of formation energies, optimal geometrical structures and active sites of carbon nanotubes with finite lengths. This should be useful to understand the properties of such natural components.

  15. Tuning Electronic Structures of BN and C Double-Wall Hetero-Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueran Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First principle calculations based on density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation were carried out to investigate the energetic and electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride double-wall hetero-nanotubes (C/BN-DWHNTs with different chirality and size, including an armchair (n, n carbon nanotube (CNT enclosed in (m, m boron nitride nanotube (BNNT and a zigzag (n, 0 CNT enclosed in (m, 0 BNNT. The electronic structure of these DWHNTs under a transverse electric field was also investigated. The ability to tune the band gap with changing the intertube distance (di and imposing an external electric field (F of zigzag DWHNTs provides the possibility for future electronic and electrooptic nanodevice applications.

  16. Electroanalytical Determination of Guanine and Uric Acid Using Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Nanosheet Hybrid Film/Acid Yellow 9 Modified Electrode%石墨烯-双壁碳纳米管/酸性黄9修饰电极电化学检测鸟嘌呤和尿酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许冰冰; 王海军

    2012-01-01

    A new method for electroanalytical determination of guanine (GA) and uric acid (UA) based on double-walled carbon nanotube-graphene nanosheet hybrid film/acid yellow 9 modified glass carbon electrode ( DG/AY/GCE) is reported. The electrochemical behaviors of guanine and uric acid at DG/AY/GCE were investigated in details. It is found that the DG/AY/GCE exhibited excellent analytical performance for determination GA and UA in 0. 1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 4. 0) since it not only increases the oxidation peak current but also lowers the oxidation overpotential. The oxidation currents of GA and UA were found linearly related to concentration over the range 2. 0 × 10-9 to 6. 8 × 10-5 mol/L for GA and 5. 0 × 10-9 to 9. 5 × 10-5 mol/L for UA using amperometric method. The detection limits were found to be 6.67 × 10-10 mol/L (s/n = 3) for GA and 1.67 × 10-9 mol/L (s/n =3) for UA. The proposed method was used to detect GA and UA in human urine samples with satisfactory results.%制备了石墨烯-双壁碳纳米管/酸性黄9修饰玻碳电极(DG/AY/GCE),在浓度为0.1mol/L、pH为4.0的磷酸缓冲溶液中,探讨了鸟嘌呤(Guanine,GA)和尿酸(Uric acid,UA)在该修饰电极上的电化学行为.结果表明:GA和UA在该修饰电极上氧化电流可得到明显增强,过电位得以降低.利用计时电流法测定GA和UA,与GA和UA氧化电流呈线性关系的浓度范围分别为2.0×10-9 ~ 6.8×10-5 mol/L和5.0×10-9 ~ 9.5×10-5 mol/L,检测限(s/n=3)分别为6.67×10-10 mol/L和1.67×10-9 mol/L.该修饰电极已经成功应用于人类尿液中GA和UA的含量分析,结果令人满意.

  17. Nanoscale Continuum Modelling of Carbon Nanotubes by Polyhedral Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logah Perumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the geometry of a cell of carbon nanotube is hexagonal, a new approach is presented in modelling of single-walled carbon nanotubes using polyhedral finite elements. Effect of varying length, diameter, and thickness of carbon nanotubes on Young’s modulus is studied. Both armchair and zigzag configurations are modelled and simulated in Mathematica. Results from current approach found good agreement with the other published data.

  18. Current Status on the Development of a Double Wall Tube Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho

    2007-12-15

    A fast reactor, which uses sodium as a coolant, has a lot of merits as a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the possibility of a sodium-water reaction occurrence hinders the commercialization of this reactor. As one way to improve the reliability of a steam generator, a double-wall tube steam generator is being developed in GEN-4 program. In this report, the current state of the technical developments for a double-wall tube steam generator are reviewed and a future plan for the development of a double-wall tube steam generator is established. The current focuses of this research are an improvement of the heat transfer capability for a double-wall tube and the development of a proper leak detection method for the failure of a double-wall tube during a reactor operation. The ideal goal is an on-line leak detection of a double wall tube to prevent the sodium-water reaction. However, such a method is not developed as yet. An alternative method is being used to improve the reliability of a steam generator by performing a non-destructive test of a double wall tube during the refueling period of a reactor. In this method a straight double wall tube is employed to perform this test easily, but has a difficulty regarding an absorption of a thermal expansion of the used materials. If an on-line leak detection method is developed, the demerits of a straight double-wall tube are avoided by using a helical type double-wall tube, and the probability of a sodium-water reaction can be reduced to a level less than the design-based accident.

  19. The growth model and electronic properties of single- and double-walled zigzag silicon nanotubes: Depending on the structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang; Lu, Junzhe; Liu, Jing; Tang, Yuchao; Zhu, Hengjiang

    2017-02-01

    The growth model and electronic properties of the capped zigzag single- and double-walled silicon nanotubes (SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs) are studied with the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Particularly, the morphologies of the silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) and the layer-by-layer growth process are explored. Capping of SiNTs is explained well in terms of pentagons. It seems that pentagons or heptagons play apivotal role during the SiNTs growth. Moreover, the structures of the finite SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs are studied. Finally, the infinite SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs can be set up with the repeat unit cells based on the periodic trait of the corresponding finite SiNTs. All of the zigzag SWSiNTs and DWSiNTs have a narrow band gap.

  20. Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of Hypervelocity Projectile Impact on Double-Wall Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沿海; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    Tests of hypervelocity projectile impact on double-wall structure were performed with the front wall ranging from 0.5 mm to 2.0 mm thick and different impact velocities. Smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code in LS-DYNA was employed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact on the double-wall structure. By using elementary shock wave theory, the experimental results above are analyzed. The analysis can provide an explanation for the penetration mechanism of hypervelocity projectile impact on double-wall structure about the effect of front wall thickness and impact velocity.

  1. FINITE DIFFERENCE SIMULATION OF LOW CARBON STEEL MANUAL ARC WELDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S Al-Khafagy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the evaluation and simulation of angular distortion in welding joints, and the ways of controlling and treating them, while welding plates of (low carbon steel type (A-283-Gr-C through using shielded metal arc welding. The value of this distortion is measured experimentally and the results are compared with the suggested finite difference method computer program. Time dependent temperature distributions are obtained using finite difference method. This distribution is used to obtain the shrinkage that causes the distortions accompanied with structural forces that act to modify these distortions. Results are compared with simple empirical models and experimental results. Different thickness of plates and welding parameters is manifested to illustrate its effect on angular distortions. Results revealed the more accurate results of finite difference method that match experimental results in comparison with empirical formulas. Welding parameters include number of passes, current, electrode type and geometry of the welding process.

  2. Numerical investigation of sound transmission through double wall cylinders with respect to active noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, T. J.; Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

    Market pressure for more fuel efficient air travel has led to increased use of turboprop and higher bypass turbofan engines. The low frequency components of propeller, jet and boundary layer noise are difficult to attenuate with conventional passive techniques. Weight and geometric restrictions for sound absorbing meterials limit the amount and type of treatment that may be applied. An active noise control (ANC) method is providing to be an attractive alternative. The approach taken in this paper uses a numerical finite/boundary element method (FEM/BEM) that may be easilty adapted to arbitrary geometries. A double walled cylinder is modeled using commercially available software. The outer shell is modeled as an aluminum cylinder, similar to that of aircraft skins. The inner shell is modeled as a composite material representative of a lightweight, stiff trim panel. Two different inner shell materials are used. The first is representative of current trim structure, the second a much stiffer composite. The primary source is generated by an exterior acoustic monopole. Control fields are generated using normal force inputs to the inner cylindrical shell. A linear least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used to determine amplitudes of control forces that minimize the interior acoustic field. Coupling of acoustic and structural modes and noise reductions are discussed for each of the inner shell materials.

  3. Schottky barriers at metal-finite semiconducting carbon nanotube interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yongqiang; Ratner, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic properties of metal-finite semiconducting carbon nanotube interfaces are studied as a function of the nanotube length using a self-consistent tight-binding theory. We find that the shape of the potential barrier depends on the long-range tail of the charge transfer, leading to an injection barrier thickness comparable to half of the nanotube length until the nanotube reaches the bulk limit. The conductance of the nanotube junction shows a transition from tunneling to thermally-acti...

  4. Stable cycling of double-walled silicon nanotube battery anodes through solid–electrolyte interphase control

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hui

    2012-03-25

    Although the performance of lithium ion-batteries continues to improve, their energy density and cycle life remain insufficient for applications in consumer electronics, transport and large-scale renewable energy storage 1-5. Silicon has a large charge storage capacity and this makes it an attractive anode material, but pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase has limited the cycle life of silicon anodes to hundreds of cycles 6-11. Here, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanotube surrounded by an ion-permeable silicon oxide shell can cycle over 6,000 times in half cells while retaining more than 85% of their initial capacity. The outer surface of the silicon nanotube is prevented from expansion by the oxide shell, and the expanding inner surface is not exposed to the electrolyte, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. Batteries containing these double-walled silicon nanotube anodes exhibit charge capacities approximately eight times larger than conventional carbon anodes and charging rates of up to 20C (a rate of 1C corresponds to complete charge or discharge in one hour). © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Destruction of methylphosphonic acid in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale double wall reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bambang Veriansyah; Eun-Seok Song; Jae-Duck Kim

    2011-01-01

    The destruction of methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a final product by hydrolysis/neutralization of organophosphorus agents such as satin and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothionate), was investigated in a a bench-scale, continuous concentric vertical double wall reactor under supercritical water oxidation condition. The experiments were conducted at a temperature range of 450-600~C and a fixed pressure of 25 MPa. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. The destruction efficiency (DE) was monitored by analyzing total organic carbon (TOC) and MPA concentrations using ion chromatography on the liquid effluent samples. The results showed that the DE of MPA up to 99.999% was achieved at a reaction temperature of 600~C, oxygen concentration of 113% storichiometric requirement, and reactor residence time of 8 sec. On the basis of the data derived from experiments, a global kinetic rate equation for the DE of MPA and DE of TOC were developed by nonlinear regression analysis. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data.

  6. Vibration Behaviour of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube using Finite Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashirbad Swain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The flexural vibration of single walled carbon nanotube has analyzed by finite element method. Timoshenko beam element formulation has been used for this purpose. Axial deformation has also been taken into account apart from shear deformation for formulation of the element. Results from multi-scale modeling for free vibration analysis have been found to be in good agreement with the literatures available. Effects of chirality and aspect ratio on vibration characteristics are presented. More over effect of initial axial strain or stress on natural frequency have been analysed and found to have significant effect on the natural frequency of the nanotube.

  7. Investigation of interlaminar shear strength in carbon epoxy and carbon epoxy carbon nanotubes using experimental and finite element technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rama Lakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns experimental and finite element analysis of carbon epoxy and carbon epoxy carbon nanotube composites to estimate interlaminar shear strength. Mechanical properties such as elastic ratios, thickness are varied for double notched specimen and the corresponding deflections and interlaminar shear strengths are estimated by ANSYS. From simple rule of mixtures, equivalent orthotropic material properties are estimated. These properties are provided as input in ANSYS to generate finite element model. Solid layered element is used to model double notch specimen. To estimate the properties of carbon epoxy carbon nanotube composite, initially finite element model of matrix and carbon nanotube is generated by properties individual material properties of both the materials. From the obtained stretch and stress, the equivalent material property of combined matrix and carbon nanotube is achieved. This property is provided as input in simple rule of mixtures to find out the equivalent orthotropic materials are determined. It is inferred that experiment results are in good agreement with results generated by ANSYS. The superiority of the presence of carbon nanotube in the composite is proved from experimental and finite element technique from the estimated fracture parameters.

  8. Oxygen consumption and temperature control of premature infants in a double-wall incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K H; Lee, C A; Bolan, C D; Maisels, M J

    1981-07-01

    The effects of a double wall in a forced convection-heated incubator were studied on ten naked, nondistressed, premature infants by measuring their mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature, and oxygen consumption when they were in thermal steady state, with, and without, the double wall in place. The incubator air temperature was maintained within the recommended thermoneutral zone during the consecutive paired experiments. Ambient room temperature and relative humidity were constant and the infant's activity (quiet sleep) and postprandial state were the same in both conditions. Together with a significant rise in operative temperature (P less than .05) induced by the double wall (accounted for by a 0.9 C mean increased in incubator wall temperature nearest the baby), their mean skin temperature and esophageal temperatures increased (P less than .025), while a decrease in oxygen consumption occurred in nine of the ten infants (P less than .05). These findings suggest that the double wall reduced radiant and total heat loss from the baby by diminishing the temperature gradient between the skin and incubator surfaces and that metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption) was reduced when the double wall was in place.

  9. Facile synthesis and properties of hierarchical double-walled copper silicate hollow nanofibers assembled by nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Renxi; Yang, Yang; Xing, Yan; Chen, Li; Song, Shuyan; Jin, Rongchao

    2014-04-22

    The hierarchical assembly of multilevel, nonspherical hollow structures remains a considerable challenge. Here, we report a facile approach for synthesizing copper silicate hollow nanofibers with an ultrasmall nanotube-assembled, double-walled structure. The as-prepared hollow fibers possess a tailored complex wall structure, high length-to-diameter ratio, good structural stability, and a high surface area, and they exhibit excellent performance as an easily recycled adsorbent for wastewater treatment and as an ideal support for noble metal catalysts. In addition, this strategy can be extended as a general approach to prepare other double-walled, hollow, fibrous silica-templated materials.

  10. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-03-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m-3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  11. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Asiz, Andi [Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Nitin, Shukla [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  12. Exploration of the shapes of double-walled vesicles with a confined inner membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Li, Jianfeng

    2011-07-01

    We investigate double-walled vesicles as a simple model system for multi-vesicular structures, where the inner membrane is confined within the outer membrane. Various shapes of double-walled vesicles in two dimensions are obtained by means of our recently-developed discrete space variation method, and the shapes of each layer are found to be interdependent. Confined within the outer membrane, an inner membrane with a larger surface area always shows a cristae shape. As previous simulations and theoretical analyses of a single-walled vesicle have been done before, the geometric properties of double-walled vesicles, including the mean square radius of gyration and volume within the vesicle membrane, are studied in detail as functions of the pressure and surface area. It is found that due to the inter-space restriction of each layer, double-walled vesicles exhibit different behaviors compared with the previously-observed scaling laws of single-walled vesicles. It is straightforward to extend this study to more complicated and realistic biological systems, such as those including electrostatic interactions between membranes and solvent, phase separation, and cooperative interactions between multicomponent membranes.

  13. Exploration of the shapes of double-walled vesicles with a confined inner membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Kunkun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Jianfeng, E-mail: kunkunguo@hnu.edu.cn [Department of Macromolecular Science, Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-07-20

    We investigate double-walled vesicles as a simple model system for multi-vesicular structures, where the inner membrane is confined within the outer membrane. Various shapes of double-walled vesicles in two dimensions are obtained by means of our recently-developed discrete space variation method, and the shapes of each layer are found to be interdependent. Confined within the outer membrane, an inner membrane with a larger surface area always shows a cristae shape. As previous simulations and theoretical analyses of a single-walled vesicle have been done before, the geometric properties of double-walled vesicles, including the mean square radius of gyration and volume within the vesicle membrane, are studied in detail as functions of the pressure and surface area. It is found that due to the inter-space restriction of each layer, double-walled vesicles exhibit different behaviors compared with the previously-observed scaling laws of single-walled vesicles. It is straightforward to extend this study to more complicated and realistic biological systems, such as those including electrostatic interactions between membranes and solvent, phase separation, and cooperative interactions between multicomponent membranes.

  14. POE/PLGA composite microspheres: formation and in vitro behavior of double walled microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Yan; Shi, Meng; Goh, Suat-Hong; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Ng, Steve; Heller, Jorge

    2003-03-07

    The poly(ortho ester) (POE) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 (PLGA) composite microspheres were fabricated by a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion process. The morphology of the composite microspheres varied depending on POE content. When the POE content was 50, 60 or 70% in weight, the double walled microspheres with a dense core of POE and a porous shell of PLGA were formed. The formation of the double walled POE/PLGA microspheres was analysed. Their in vitro degradation behavior was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). It was found that compared to the neat POE or PLGA microspheres, distinct degradation mechanism was achieved in the double walled POE/PLGA microspheres system. The degradation of the POE core was accelerated due to the acidic microenvironment produced by the hydrolysis of the outer PLGA layer. The formation of hollow microspheres became pronounced after the first week in vitro. 1H NMR spectra showed that the POE core was completely degraded after 4 weeks. On the other hand, the outer PLGA layer experienced slightly retarded degradation after the POE core disappeared. PLGA in the double walled microspheres kept more than 32% of its initial molecular weight over a period of 7 weeks.

  15. Energy transmission through a double-wall curved stiffened panel using Green's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subha; Bhattacharya, Partha

    2015-04-01

    It is a common practice in aerospace and automobile industries to use double wall panels as fuselage skins or in window panels to improve acoustic insulation. However, the scientific community is yet to develop a reliable prediction method for a suitable vibro-acoustic model for sound transmission through a curved double-wall panel. In this quest, the present work tries to delve into the modeling of energy transmission through a double-wall curved panel. Subsequently the radiation of sound power into the free field from the curved panel in the low to mid frequency range is also studied. In the developed model to simulate a stiffened aircraft fuselage configuration, the outer wall is provided with longitudinal stiffeners. A modal expansion theory based on Green's theorem is implemented to model the energy transmission through an acoustically coupled double-wall curved panel. An elemental radiator approach is implemented to calculate the radiated energy from the curved surface in to the free field. The developed model is first validated with various numerical models available. It has been observed in the present study that the radius of curvature of the surface has a prominent effect on the behavior of radiated sound power into the free field. Effect of the thickness of the air gap between the two curved surfaces on the sound power radiation has also been noted.

  16. Numerical simulation of isothermal chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克智; 李贺军; 姜开宇

    2000-01-01

    The chemical vapor infiltration process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites is highly inefficient and requires long processing time. These limitations add considerably to the cost of fabrication and restrict the application of this material. Efforts have been made to study the CVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites by computer simulation and predict the process parameters, density, porosity, etc. According to the characteristics of CVI process, the basic principle of FEM and mass transport, the finite element model has been established. Incremental finite element equations and the elemental stiffness matrices have been derived for the first time. The finite element program developed by the authors has been used to simulate the ICVI process in fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. Computer color display of simulated results can express the densification and distributions of density and porosity in preform clearly. The influence of process parameters on the densification of prefo

  17. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  18. Energy transmission in a mechanically-linked double-wall structure coupled to an acoustic enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Gao, J. X.

    2005-05-01

    The energy transmission in a mechanically linked double-wall structure into an acoustic enclosure is studied in this paper. Based on a fully coupled vibro-acoustic formulation, focus is put on investigating the effect of the air gap and mechanical links between the two panels on the energy transmission and noise insulation properties of such structures. An approximate formula reflecting the gap effect on the lower-order coupled frequencies of the system is proposed. A criterion, based on the ratio between the aerostatic stiffness of the gap cavity and the stiffness of the link, is proposed to predict the dominant transmitting path, with a view to provide guidelines for the design of appropriate control strategies. Numerical results reveal the existence of three distinct zones, within which energy transmission takes place following different mechanisms and transmitting paths. Corresponding effects on noise insulation properties of the double-wall structure are also investigated. .

  19. Cladding layer on well-defined double-wall TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chaorui; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Lu, Xu

    2015-02-03

    Highly ordered double-wall TiO2 nanotube arrays were obtained by a two-step anodization method in a fluoride-containing glycerol based electrolyte. The low water and fluoride content and high viscosity of the electrolyte support a partly undissolved fluoride-rich layer, and its hydrolyzed products remain on the tube walls. The double-wall structure and a cladding layer originating from the fluoride-rich layer were clearly observed after annealing. The morphology and crystal structure of the cladding layer were investigated. The study of the cladding layer gives a fundamental insight into the wall structure design of the anodic TiO2 nanotubes in the glycerol-based electrolyte.

  20. On the Acousto-Elastic Behaviour of Double-Wall Panels with a Viscothermal Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASTEN, T. G. H.; VAN DER HOOGT, P. J. M.; SPIERING, R. M. E. J.; TIJDEMAN, H.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, an analytical two-dimensional model is presented for the acousto-elastic behaviour of double-wall panels with a thin viscothermal air layer. The model for the air is based on the low reduced frequency solution as introduced by Beltman (1998 Ph.D. Thesis, University of Twente; 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration227, (Part I), 555-586;227 (Part II), 587-609; Beltman et al., 1997 Journal of Sound and Vibration206 , 217-241; 1998 Journal of Sound and Vibration216, 159-185) [1-5] and includes, apart from inertia and compressibility, the effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity. With the analytical model eigenfrequencies were determined and response and transmission calculations were performed. It is shown that high damping coefficients for double-wall panels can be obtained by using the viscous characteristics of the fluid layer. The model makes it possible to conduct parameter analyses very easily and efficiently, which is important for design studies. Furthermore, the model gives exact results for both the vibrational behaviour and the sound transmission characteristics of double-wall panels which can be used to validate numerical codes.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Space-dispersed Double-wall Jet Combustion System for DI Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏江; 高希彦

    2012-01-01

    A space-dispersed double-wall jet combustion system was developed by adopting the wall-guiding spray method and the stratification theory.The experimental test was carried out to optimize the structural parameters of the diesel-engine combustion system,including chamber structure,swirl ratio of cylinder head,included angle of jet orifice,number and diameter of jet orifice,fuel injection pressure and timing.The effect of double-wall jet combustion system on combustion and engine performance was tested to obtain the best performance indexes,and the double-wall jet combustion system was compared to the prototype.The results show that NOx is reduced from 712 PPm to 487 PPm at 2 100 r/min,and from 593 PPm to 369 PPm at 3 000 r/min,which are reduced by 31.6% and 37.7%,respectively.The smoke intensity was reduced form 3.67 BSU to 2.1 BSU,and the oil consumption was reduced from 240.5 g/(kW·h) to 225.4 g/(kW·h),which was decreased by 6.3% at low speed.The pressure in the cylinder was obviously reduced from 115 bar to 108 bar,which was reduced by 6%.

  2. Controlled synthesis of double-wall a-FePO4 nanotubes and their LIB cathode properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Wenyu; Tan, Huiteng; Yang, Dan; Huang, Yizhong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-04-08

    Double-wall amorphous FePO4 nanotubes are prepared by an oil-phase chemical route. The inward diffusion of vacancies and outward diffusion of ions through passivation layers result in double-wall nanotubes with thin walls. Such a process can be extended to prepare hollow polydedral nanocrystals and hollow ellipsoids. The double-wall FePO4 nanotubes show interesting cathode performance in Li ion batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Vibro-acoustic modelling of aircraft double-walls with structural links using Statistical Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Bruno L.

    The prediction of aircraft interior noise involves the vibroacoustic modelling of the fuselage with noise control treatments. This structure is composed of a stiffened metallic or composite panel, lined with a thermal and acoustic insulation layer (glass wool), and structurally connected via vibration isolators to a commercial lining panel (trim). The goal of this work aims at tailoring the noise control treatments taking design constraints such as weight and space optimization into account. For this purpose, a representative aircraft double-wall is modelled using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Laboratory excitations such as diffuse acoustic field and point force are addressed and trends are derived for applications under in-flight conditions, considering turbulent boundary layer excitation. The effect of the porous layer compression is firstly addressed. In aeronautical applications, compression can result from the installation of equipment and cables. It is studied analytically and experimentally, using a single panel and a fibrous uniformly compressed over 100% of its surface. When compression increases, a degradation of the transmission loss up to 5 dB for a 50% compression of the porous thickness is observed mainly in the mid-frequency range (around 800 Hz). However, for realistic cases, the effect should be reduced since the compression rate is lower and compression occurs locally. Then the transmission through structural connections between panels is addressed using a four-pole approach that links the force-velocity pair at each side of the connection. The modelling integrates experimental dynamic stiffness of isolators, derived using an adapted test rig. The structural transmission is then experimentally validated and included in the double-wall SEA model as an equivalent coupling loss factor (CLF) between panels. The tested structures being flat, only axial transmission is addressed. Finally, the dominant sound transmission paths are

  4. Double walled POE/PLGA microspheres: encapsulation of water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins and their release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Yang, Yi-Yan; Chaw, Cheng-Shu; Goh, Suat-Hong; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Ng, Steve; Heller, Jorge

    2003-04-29

    The poly(orthoester) (POE)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) double-walled microspheres with 50% POE in weight were loaded with hydrophilic bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hydrophobic cyclosporin A (CyA). Most of the BSA and CyA was entrapped within the shell and core, respectively, because of the difference in their hydrophilicity. The morphologies and release mechanisms of proteins-loaded double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres were investigated. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that the CyA-BSA-loaded double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres yielded a more porous surface and PLGA shell than those without BSA. The neat POE and PLGA yielded slow and incomplete CyA and BSA release. In contrast, nearly complete BSA and more than 95% CyA were released in a sustained manner from the double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres. Both the BSA- and CyA-BSA-loaded POE/PLGA microspheres yielded a sustained BSA release over 5 days. The CyA release pattern of the CyA-loaded double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres was biphasic, characterized by a slow release over 15 days followed by a sustained release over 27 days. However, the CyA-BSA-loaded double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres provided a more constant and faster CyA release due to their more porous shell. In the CyA-BSA-loaded double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres system, the PLGA layer acted as a carrier for BSA and mild reservoir for CyA. During the first 5 days, most BSA was released from the shell but only 14% CyA was left from the microspheres. Subsequently, more than 80% CyA were released in the next 25 days. The distinct structure of double-walled POE/PLGA microspheres would make an interesting device for controlled delivery of therapeutic agents.

  5. Experimental investigation on powder conductivity for the application to double wall heat exchanger (NACIE-UP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozzia, Davide, E-mail: daviderozzia@libero.it [University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 1 – 56100 Pisa, PI (Italy); Fasano, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.fasano@enea.it [ENEA CR Brasimone, Località Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Di Piazza, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.dipiazza@enea.it [ENEA CR Brasimone, Località Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Tarantino, Mariano, E-mail: mariano.tarantino@enea.it [ENEA CR Brasimone, Località Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Porous media provide temperature drop or enhance heat transfer in double wall tubes. • The conductivity of stainless steel powder has been assessed in the TxP facility. • The loading procedure and the thermal cycling affect the conductivity of the powder. • Grain growth occurs during thermal cycling and causes an increase of conductivity. • The data obtained fits the estimated conductivity based on NACIE facility's test. - Abstract: The double wall tube bundle heat exchanger is generally constituted by two or three (called double wall bayonet) concentric tubes. It is based on the concept to provide a double physical separation between two fluids: the coolant (i.e. water) and the hot fluid (i.e. lead). There are two primary reasons for the separation of the fluids. The first is to maintain a given temperature drop between the hot fluid and the coolant. The second is to increase the safety margin of the unit by reducing the probability of interaction between the coolant and the hot fluid. Furthermore, this configuration allows the possibility to monitor eventual leakages from the coolant or from the hot fluid by pressuring the separation region. On the other hand, if it is necessary to achieve high thermal performance of the unit, the annular space that separates the fluids should be filled with a heat transfer enhancer (i.e. sintetic diamond powder, stainless steel-SS powder). Several applications of the double wall and double wall bayonet tube heat exchangers have been designed and constructed at ENEA CR Brasimone. In particular, there are four facilities (NACIE and NACIE-UP, HELENA and HERO) whose heat exchanger is based on this concept and make use of SS powder (AISI-304 or AISI-316) to provide a temperature drop or to accommodate monitoring and heat transfer enhancement. In this framework, the Tubes for Powders (TxP) facility has been designed and constructed during 2012 and has been operating since the beginning of 2013 to

  6. Characteristics of a Sheath with Secondary Electron Emission in the Double Walls of a Hall Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段萍; 李肸; 沈鸿娟; 陈龙; 鄂鹏

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of secondary electrons, which are emitted from the wall, on the performance of a thruster, a one-dimensional fluid model of the plasma sheath in double walls is applied to study the characteristics of a magnetized sheath. The effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficients and trapping coefficients, as well as magnetic field, on the structure of the plasma sheath are investigated. The results show that sheath potential and wall potential rise with the increment of SEE coefficient and trapping coefficient which results in a reduced sheath thickness. In addition, magnetic field strength will influence the sheath potential distributions.

  7. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  8. Double-Wall Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoplatelets for Hybrid Conductive Adhesives with Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Elena; Leone, Nancy; Foti, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Riccucci, Cristina; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Di Maggio, Francesco; Cassata, Antonio; Gargano, Leonardo; D'Andrea, Cristiano; Fazio, Barbara; Maragò, Onofrio Maria; Robba, Benedetto; Vasi, Cirino; Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe

    2016-09-07

    Improving the electrical and thermal properties of conductive adhesives is essential for the fabrication of compact microelectronic and optoelectronic power devices. Here we report on the addition of a commercially available conductive resin with double-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets that yields simultaneously improved thermal and electrical conductivity. Using isopropanol as a common solvent for the debundling of nanotubes, exfoliation of graphene, and dispersion of the carbon nanostructures in the epoxy resin, we obtain a nanostructured conducting adhesive with thermal conductivity of ∼12 W/mK and resistivity down to 30 μΩ cm at very small loadings (1% w/w for nanotubes and 0.01% w/w for graphene). The low filler content allows one to keep almost unchanged the glass-transition temperature, the viscosity, and the curing parameters. Die shear measurements show that the nanostructured resins fulfill the MIL-STD-883 requirements when bonding gold-metalized SMD components, even after repeated thermal cycling. The same procedure has been validated on a high-conductivity resin characterized by a higher viscosity, on which we have doubled the thermal conductivity and quadrupled the electrical conductivity. Graphene yields better performances with respect to nanotubes in terms of conductivity and filler quantity needed to improve the resin. We have finally applied the nanostructured resins to bond GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors in power-amplifier circuits. We observe a decrease of the GaN peak and average temperatures of, respectively, ∼30 °C and ∼10 °C, with respect to the pristine resin. The obtained results are important for the fabrication of advanced packaging materials in power electronic and microwave applications and fit the technological roadmap for CNTs, graphene, and hybrid systems.

  9. The two classes of low-energy spectra in finite carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marganska, Magdalena; Chudzinski, Piotr; Grifoni, Milena

    2015-01-01

    We study the spectra of finite-length carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of arbitrary chirality. They divide into two classes, which arise because of different rotational symmetries of the low-energy eigenstates. In one of them (the zigzag class), the spinless spectrum is doubly degenerate and the two states c

  10. Acute toxicity of double-walled carbon nanotubes to three aquatic organisms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lukhele, LP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available contained prepared nutrient stock solutions for the culturing medium, matrix dissolving medium, algal beads, and plastic long cells. In our tests, the long cells were replaced with glass Erlenmeyer flasks. Algal culturing medium (2 L) was prepared by adding... 20mL of nutrient stock solution A and adding 2mL (each) of nutrient stock solutions B, C, and D. The medium was aerated and set aside.The P. subcapitata culture was prepared by first dissolving the alginatematrix (used to form the beads) in matrix...

  11. Wave propagation in single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes filled with fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuki, T; Ni, QQ; Endo, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS. 101(3):034319 (2007) and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2432025 .

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  13. Plasmons in doped finite carbon nanotubes and their interactions with fast electrons and quantum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Sandra; Cox, Joel D.; de Abajo, F. Javier García

    2016-08-01

    We study the potential of highly doped finite carbon nanotubes to serve as plasmonic elements that mediate the interaction between quantum emitters. Similar to graphene, nanotubes support intense plasmons that can be modulated by varying their level of electrical doping. These excitations exhibit large interaction with light and electron beams, as revealed upon examination of the corresponding light extinction cross-section and electron energy-loss spectra. We show that quantum emitters experience record-high Purcell factors, while they undergo strong mutual interaction mediated by their coupling to the tube plasmons. Our results show the potential of doped finite nanotubes as tunable plasmonic materials for quantum optics applications.

  14. Nanoscale finite element models for vibrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes:atomistic versus continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R ANSARI; S ROUHI; M ARYAYI

    2013-01-01

    By the atomistic and continuum finite element models, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied. In the atomistic finite element model, the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively. The molecular mechanics is linked to structural mechanics to determine the elastic properties of the mentioned beam elements. In the continuum finite element approach, by neglecting the discrete nature of the atomic structure of the nanotubes, they are modeled with shell elements. By both models, the natural frequencies of SWCNTs are computed, and the effects of the geometrical parameters, the atomic structure, and the boundary conditions are investigated. The accuracy of the utilized methods is verified in comparison with molecular dynamic simulations. The molecular structural model leads to more reliable results, especially for lower aspect ratios. The present analysis provides valuable information about application of continuum models in the investigation of the mechanical behaviors of nanotubes.

  15. First-principles calculations on double-walled inorganic nanotubes with hexagonal chiralities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovskii, Yuri F [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga (Latvia); Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Losev, Maxim V, E-mail: quantzh@latnet.lv [Department of Quantum Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, 26 Universitetsky Ave., 198504, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-23

    The two sets of commensurate double-walled boron nitride and titania hexagonally-structured nanotubes (DW BN and TiO{sub 2} NTs) possessing either armchair- or zigzag-type chiralities have been considered, i.e., (n{sub 1},n{sub 1})-(n{sub 2},n{sub 2}) or (n{sub 1},0)-(n{sub 2},0), respectively. For symmetry analysis of these nanotubes, the line symmetry groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry have been applied. To analyze the structural and electronic properties of hexagonal DW NTs, a series of large-scale ab initio DFT-LCAO calculations have been performed using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0 (as implemented in CRYSTAL-09 code). To establish the optimal inter-shell distances within DW NTs corresponding to the minima of calculated total energy, the chiral indices n{sub 1} and n{sub 2} of the constituent single-walled (SW) nanotubes have been successively varied.

  16. Power transmission through double-walled laminated composite panels considering porous layer-air gap insulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M H SHOJAEIFARD; R TALEBITOOTI; B RANJBAR; R AHMADI

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of double-walled laminated composite panels consisting of two porous and air gap middle layers is studied within the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT). Thus, viscous and inertia coupling in a dynamic equation, as well as stress transfer, thermal and elastic coupling of porous material are based on the Biot theory. In addition, the wave equations are extracted according to the vibration equation of composite layers. The transmission loss (TL) of the structure is then calculated by solving these equations simultaneously. Statistical energy analysis (SEA) is developed to divide the structure into specific subsystems, and power transmission is extracted with balancing power flow equations of the subsystems. Comparison between the present work and the results reported elsewhere shows excellent agreement. The results also indicate that, although favorable enhancement is seen in noise control particularly at high frequencies, the corresponding parameters associated with fluid phase and solid phase of the porous layer are important on TL according to the boundary condition interfaces. Finally, the influence of composite material and stacking sequence on power transmission is discussed.

  17. Amines immobilized double-walled silica nanotubes for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Hyun Chul; Choi, Ung Su

    2013-04-15

    Novel silica support has been required for high amine loading and good CO2 molecule diffusion into its pores to increase the performance of CO2 adsorbents. Herein, amine groups supported on double-walled silica nanotubes (DWSNTs) have been prepared via the immobilization of various aminosilanes (primary, secondary, tertiary, di-, and tri-aminosilanes) on DWSNT, and found to be a very effective adsorbent for CO2 capture. Amine groups immobilized DWSNTs captured CO2 reversibly in a temperature swing process at various adsorption temperatures (25°C, 50°C, 75°C, and 100°C). The amines on modified DWSNTs showed high CO2 capture capacity in the order of tri-, di-, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The CO2 capture capacity of all aminosilanes immobilized DWSNTs decreased linearly with the increase of the adsorption temperature. We expect that DWSNT would be able to inspire researchers to use it not only as a support for CO2 capture but also as a promising candidate for various applications.

  18. N[Formula: see text] azide anion confined inside finite-size carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Stefano; Evangelisti, Stefano; Faginas-Lago, Noelia; Leininger, Thierry

    2017-09-26

    In this work, the confinement of an N[Formula: see text] azide anion inside finite-size single-wall zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes of different diameters has been studied by wave function and density functional theory. Unrelaxed and relaxed interaction energies have been computed, resulting in a favorable interaction between the guest and host system. In particular, the largest interaction has been observed for the confinement in an armchair (5,5) carbon nanotube, for which a natural population analysis as well as an investigation based on the molecular electrostatic potential has been carried out. The nature of the interaction between the two fragments appears to be mainly electrostatic, favored by the enhanced polarizability of the nanotube wall treated as a finite system and passivated by hydrogen atoms. The results obtained are promising for possible applications of this complex as a starting point for the stabilization of larger polynitrogen compounds, suitable as a high-energy density material.

  19. USING A NEW FINITE SLIT PORE MODEL FOR NLDFT ANALYSIS OF CARBON PORE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagiello, Jacek [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Kenvin, Jeffrey [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Oliver, James P [Micromeritics Instrument Corporation; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present a model for analyzing activated carbon micropore structures based on graphene sheet walls of finite thickness and extent. This is a two-dimensional modification of the widely used infinite slit pore model that assumes graphite-like infinitely extended pore walls. The proposed model has two versions: (1) a strip pore constructed with graphene strip walls that have finite length L in the x direction and are infinite in the y direction. Strip pores are open on both sides in the x direction. (2) A channel pore is a strip pore partially closed along one edge by a perpendicularly oriented graphene wall. This more realistic model allows pore termination via both physical pore entrances and pore blockage. The model consequently introduces heterogeneity of the adsorption potential that is reduced near pore entrances and enhanced near corners of pore walls. These energetically heterogeneous structures fill with adsorbate more gradually than homogeneous pores of the same width. As a result, the calculated adsorption isotherms are smoother and less steep for the finite versus the infinite pore model. In the application of this model for carbon characterization it is necessary to make an assumption about the pore length. In this work we made this assumption based on the high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. We find the agreement between the experiment and the model significantly better for the finite than for the infinite pore model.

  20. The construction of HDPE double wall corrugated pipe%HDPE 双壁波纹管的施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢东博

    2014-01-01

    简述了 HDPE 双壁波纹管的优点,从管道基础及沟槽开挖、管道安装、修补、闭水试验、连接、回填六方面出发,对 HDPE 双壁波纹管施工工序及要点作了全面的阐述,以最大限度地发挥该管材的作用。%This paper discussed simply the advantages of HDPE double wall corrugated pipe,from the pipeline foundation and trench excavation, pipeline installation,repair,closed water test,connection,backfill six aspects,fully elaborated the HDPE double wall corrugated pipe construc-tion process and main points,in order to maximize the role of pipe material.

  1. Environmental temperature control in very low birth weight infants (less than 1000 grams) cared for in double-walled incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessex, P; Blouet, S; Vaucher, J

    1988-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluctuations in environment and body temperatures on preterm infants, we recorded these variables in very immature newborn infants (birth weight less than 1000 gm) cared for in double-walled incubators (Air-Shields model C-100 and Ohio model IC). Both incubators maintained environmental temperatures corresponding overall to the set point, despite incubator openings. Under skin temperature servocontrol, however, environmental temperature fluctuations were greater than 2 degrees C even in strictly controlled conditions. The pattern of incubator temperature fluctuations depended on the set point rather than on the type of incubator (conventionally heated or heated by warm air blown between the double walls). The long-term clinical significance of the incubator temperature variability remains to be determined; the choice between air and skin servocontrolling should depend in part on the need for environmental stability.

  2. Double-walled microspheres for the sustained release of a highly water soluble drug: characterization and irradiation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Teng Huar; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2002-10-30

    Composite double-walled microspheres with biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) shells and poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) cores were fabricated with highly water-soluble etanidazole entrapped within the core as solid crystals. This paper discusses the characterization, in vitro release and the effects of irradiation on this class of microsphere. Through the variation of polymer mass ratios, predictable shell and core dimensions could be fabricated and used to regulate the release rates. A direct and simple method was devised to determine the composition of the shell and core polymer based on the different solubilities of the polymer pair in ethyl acetate. A distribution theory based on solubility parameter explains why highly hydrophilic etanidazole has the tendency to be distributed consistently to the more hydrophilic polymer. Release profiles for normal double-walled samples have about 80% of drug released over 10 days after the initial time lag, while for irradiated double-walled samples, the sustained release lasted for more than 3 weeks. Although sustained release was short of the desired 6-8 weeks required for therapy, a low initial burst of less than 5% and time lags that can be manipulated, allows for administration of these microspheres together with traditional ones to generate pulsatile or new type of releases. The effects of irradiation were also investigated to determine the suitability of these double-walled microspheres as delivery devices to be used in conjunction with radiotherapy. Typical therapeutic dosage of 50 Gy was found to be too mild to have noticeable effects on the polymer and its release profiles, while, sterilization dosages of 25 kGy, lowered the glass transition temperatures and crystalline melting point, indirectly indicating a decrease in molecular weight. This accelerated degradation of the polymer, hence releasing the drug.

  3. Effects of external and gap mean flows on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Sebastian, Alexis

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies analytically the effects of an external mean flow and an internal gap mean flow on sound transmission through a double-wall sandwich panel lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials, and the transfer matrix method with three types of boundary conditions is applied to solve the system simultaneously. The random incidence transmission loss in a diffuse field is calculated numerically, and the limiting angle of incidence due to total internal reflection is discussed in detail. The numerical predictions suggest that the sound insulation performance of such a double-wall panel is enhanced considerably by both external and gap mean flows particularly in the high-frequency range. Similar effects on transmission loss are observed for the two mean flows. It is shown that the effect of the gap mean flow depends on flow velocity, flow direction, gap depth and fluid properties and also that the fluid properties within the gap appear to influence the transmission loss more effectively than the gap flow. Despite the implementation difficulty in practice, an internal gap flow provides more design space for tuning the sound insulation performance of a double-wall sandwich panel and has great potential for active/passive noise control.

  4. Finite Element Modeling of Thermal Cycling Induced Microcracking in Carbon/Epoxy Triaxial Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Morscher, Gregory; Martin, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The microcrack distribution and mass change in PR520/T700s and 3502/T700s carbon/epoxy braided composites exposed to thermal cycling was evaluated experimentally. Acoustic emission was utilized to record the crack initiation and propagation under cyclic thermal loading between -55 C and 120 C. Transverse microcrack morphology was investigated using X-ray Computed Tomography. Different performance of two kinds of composites was discovered and analyzed. Based on the observations of microcrack formation, a meso-mechanical finite element model was developed to obtain the resultant mechanical properties. The simulation results exhibited a decrease in strength and stiffness with increasing crack density. Strength and stiffness reduction versus crack densities in different orientations were compared. The changes of global mechanical behavior in both axial and transverse loading conditions were studied. Keywords: Thermal cycles; Microcrack; Finite Element Model; Braided Composite

  5. Controlled-release and preserved bioactivity of proteins from (self-assembled core-shell double-walled microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W, employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, poly(D,L-lactide, and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.Keywords: protein delivery, protein stability, core-shell microspheres, dextran nanoparticles

  6. A Eutectic Melting Study of Double Wall Cladding Tubes of FeCrAl and Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Woojin; Son, Seongmin; Lee, You Ho; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Eun [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The eutectic melting behavior of FeCrAl/Zircaloy-4 double wall cladding tubes was investigated by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 900 .deg. C to 1300 .deg. C. It was found that significant eutectic melting occurred after annealing at temperatures equal to or higher than 1150 .deg. C. It means that an additional diffusion barrier layer is necessary to limit the eutectic melting between FeCrAl and Zircaloy-4 alloy cladding tubes. Coating of FeCrAl layers on the Zr alloy cladding tube is being investigated for the development of accident tolerant fuel by exploiting of both the oxidation resistance of FeCrAl alloys and the neutronic advantages of Zr alloys. Coating of FeCrAl alloys on Zr alloy cladding tubes can be performed by various techniques including thermal spray, laser cladding, and co-extrusion. Son et al. also reported the fabrication of FeCrAl/Zr ally double wall cladding by the shrink fit method. For the double layered cladding tubes, the thermal expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials, severe deformation or mechanical failure due to the evolution of thermal stresses can occur when there is a thermal cycling. In addition to the thermal stress problems, chemical compatibilities between the two different alloys should be investigated in order to check the stability and thermal margin of the double wall cladding at a high temperature. Generally, it is considered that Zr alloy cladding will maintain its mechanical integrity up to 1204 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F) to satisfy the acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems.

  7. Evaluation of Finite-Rate GasSurface Interaction Models for a Carbon Based Ablator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Goekcen, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of finite-rate gas-surface interaction model between air and the carbon surface are studied. The first set is an engineering model with one-way chemical reactions, and the second set is a more detailed model with two-way chemical reactions. These two proposed models intend to cover the carbon surface ablation conditions including the low temperature rate-controlled oxidation, the mid-temperature diffusion-controlled oxidation, and the high temperature sublimation. The prediction of carbon surface recession is achieved by coupling a material thermal response code and a Navier-Stokes flow code. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and Ablation Program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting full Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Recession analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities with heat fluxes ranging from 45 to 1100 wcm2 are performed and compared with data for model validation. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests is Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Additionally, computational predictions of surface recession and shape change are in good agreement with measurement for arc-jet conditions of Small Probe Reentry Investigation for Thermal Protection System Engineering.

  8. Modelling of single walled carbon nanotube cylindrical structures with finite element method simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, E.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus values of single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs were modelled by using both finite element method and the Matlab code. Initially, cylindrical armchair and zigzag single walled 3D space frames were demonstrated as carbon nanostructures. Thereafter, macro programs were written by the Matlab code producing the space truss for zigzag and armchair models. 3D space frames were introduced to the ANSYS software and then tension, compression and additionally torsion tests were performed on zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes with BEAM4 element in obtaining the exact values of elastic and shear modulus values. In this study, two different boundary conditions were tested and especially used in torsion loading. The equivalent shear modulus data was found by averaging the corresponding values obtained from ten different nodal points on the nanotube path. Finally, in this study it was determined that the elastic constant values showed proportional changes by increasing the carbon nanotube diameters up to a certain level but beyond this level these values remained stable.

  9. Double-walled Au nanocage/SiO2 nanorattles: integrating SERS imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guangcun; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-02-25

    In this work, a novel type of nanomedical platform, the double-walled Au nanocage/SiO(2) nanorattle, is successfully fabricated by combining two "hollow-excavated strategies"--galvanic replacement and "surface-protected etching". The rational design of double-walled nanostructure based on gold nanocages (AuNCs) and hollow SiO(2) shells functionalized respectively with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) and Tat peptide simultaneously renders the nanoplatforms three functionalities: 1) the whole nanorattle serves as a high efficient drug carrier thanks to the structural characteristics of AuNC and SiO(2) shell with hollow interiors and porous walls; 2) the AuNC with large electromagnetic enhancement acts as a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to track the internalization process of the nanorattles by human MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as well as an efficient photothermal transducer for localized hyperthermia cancer therapy due to the strong near-infrared absorption; 3) Tat-functionalized SiO(2) shell not only improves biocompatibility and cell uptake efficiency resulting in enhanced anticancer efficacy but also prevents the AuNCs from aggregation and provides the stability of AuNCs so that the SERS signals can be used for cell tracking in high fidelity. The reported chemistry and the designed nanostructures should inspire more interesting nanostructures and applications.

  10. On finite element modeling of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandoust, Moones; Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    In this study, Single-Walled and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in their perfect forms were investigated by the Finite Element Method. Details on the modeling of the structure are provided in this paper, including the appropriate elements, the element properties that should be defined based on the atomic structure of Carbon Nanotubes and the corresponding chemical bonds. Non-covalent van der Waals interactions between two neighbor atoms as well as the required approximations for the modeling of the structures with this kind of interaction are also presented. Specific attention was dedicated to the necessity of using some time- and energy-consuming steps in the simulation process. First, the effect of simulating only a single ring of the whole structure is studied to find out if it would represent the same mechanical behavior as the long structure. Results show that by applying an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the stiffness of the shortened structure is practically equal to the long perfect structure. Furthermore, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube structures with and without defining the van der Waals force are studied. Based on the observations, applying the van der Waals force does not significantly influence the obtained Young's modulus of the structure in the case of a uniaxial tensile test.

  11. Calculation of phonon dispersion in carbon nanotubes using a continuum-atomistic finite element approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Leamy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion calculations are presented for cylindrical carbon nanotubes using a manifold-based continuum-atomistic finite element formulation combined with Bloch analysis. The formulated finite elements allow any (n,m chiral nanotube, or mixed tubes formed by periodically-repeating heterojunctions, to be examined quickly and accurately using only three input parameters (radius, chiral angle, and unit cell length and a trivial structured mesh, thus avoiding the tedious geometry generation and energy minimization tasks associated with ab initio and lattice dynamics-based techniques. A critical assessment of the technique is pursued to determine the validity range of the resulting dispersion calculations, and to identify any dispersion anomalies. Two small anomalies in the dispersion curves are documented, which can be easily identified and therefore rectified. They include difficulty in achieving a zero energy point for the acoustic twisting phonon, and a branch veering in nanotubes with nonzero chiral angle. The twisting mode quickly restores its correct group velocity as wavenumber increases, while the branch veering is associated with a rapid exchange of eigenvectors at the veering point, which also lessens its impact. By taking into account the two noted anomalies, accurate predictions of acoustic and low-frequency optical branches can be achieved out to the midpoint of the first Brillouin zone.

  12. Preparation, characterization and in vitro release study of BSA-loaded double-walled glucose-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansary, Rezaul H; Rahman, Mokhlesur M; Awang, Mohamed B; Katas, Haliza; Hadi, Hazrina; Mohamed, Farahidah; Doolaanea, Abd Almonem; Kamaruzzaman, Yunus B

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded double-walled microspheres using a fast degrading glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (Glu-PLGA) and a moderate-degrading carboxyl-terminated PLGA polymers to reduce the initial burst release and to eliminate the lag phase from the release profile of PLGA microspheres. The double-walled microspheres were prepared using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w/o/o/w) method and single-polymer microspheres were prepared using a conventional water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, thermal properties, in vitro drug release and structural integrity of BSA were evaluated in this study. Double-walled microspheres prepared with Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers with a mass ratio of 1:1 were non-porous, smooth-surfaced, and spherical in shape. A significant reduction of initial burst release was achieved for the double-walled microspheres compared to single-polymer microspheres. In addition, microspheres prepared using Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited continuous BSA release after the small initial burst without any lag phase. It can be concluded that the double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA polymers in a mass ratio of 1:1 can be a potential delivery system for pharmaceutical proteins.

  13. Finite Element Simulation of Low Velocity Impact Damage on an Aeronautical Carbon Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanle Sanga, Roger Pierre; Garnier, Christian; Pantalé, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Low velocity barely visible impact damage (BVID) in laminated carbon composite structures has a major importance for aeronautical industries. This contribution leads with the development of finite element models to simulate the initiation and the propagation of internal damage inside a carbon composite structure due by a low velocity impact. Composite plates made from liquid resin infusion process (LRI) have been subjected to low energy impacts (around 25 J) using a drop weight machine. In the experimental procedure, the internal damage is evaluated using an infrared thermographic camera while the indentation depth of the face is measured by optical measurement technique. In a first time we developed a robust model using homogenised shells based on degenerated tri-dimensional brick elements and in a second time we decided to modelize the whole stacking sequence of homogeneous layers and cohesive interlaminar interfaces in order to compare and validate the obtained results. Both layer and interface damage initiation and propagation models based on the Hashin and the Benzeggagh-Kenane criteria have been used for the numerical simulations. Comparison of numerical results and experiments has shown the accuracy of the proposed models.

  14. TiS2 and ZrS2 single- and double-wall nanotubes: first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2014-02-15

    Hybrid density functional theory has been applied for investigations of the electronic and atomic structure of bulk phases, nanolayers, and nanotubes based on titanium and zirconium disulfides. Calculations have been performed on the basis of the localized atomic functions by means of the CRYSTAL-2009 computer code. The full optimization of all atomic positions in the regarded systems has been made to study the atomic relaxation and to determine the most favorable structures. The different layered and isotropic bulk phases have been considered as the possible precursors of the nanotubes. Calculations on single-walled TiS2 and ZrS2 nanotubes confirmed that the nanotubes obtained by rolling up the hexagonal crystalline layers with octahedral 1T morphology are the most stable. The strain energy of TiS2 and ZrS2 nanotubes is small, does not depend on the tube chirality, and approximately obeys to D(-2) law (D is nanotube diameter) of the classical elasticity theory. It is greater than the strain energy of the similar TiO2 and ZrO2 nanotubes; however, the formation energy of the disulfide nanotubes is considerably less than the formation energy of the dioxide nanotubes. The distance and interaction energy between the single-wall components of the double-wall nanotubes is proved to be close to the distance and interaction energy between layers in the layered crystals. Analysis of the relaxed nanotube shape using radial coordinate of the metal atoms demonstrates a small but noticeable deviation from completely cylindrical cross-section of the external walls in the armchair-like double-wall nanotubes.

  15. Natural gas pyrolysis in double-walled reactor tubes using thermal plasma or concentrated solar radiation as external heating source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stèphane Abanades; Stefania Tescari; Sylvain Rodat; Gilles Flamant

    2009-01-01

    The thermal pyrolysis of natural gas as a clean hydrogen production route is examined.The concept of a double-walled reactor tube is proposed and implemented.Preliminary experiments using an external plasma heating source are carded out to validate this concept.The results point out the efficient CH4 dissociation above 1850 K (CH4 conversion over 90%) and the key influence of the gas residence time.Simulations are performed to predict the conversion rate of CH4 at the reactor outlet,and are consistent with experimental tendencies.A solar reactor prototype featuring four independent double-walled tubes is then developed.The heat in high temperature process required for the endothermic reaction of natural gas pyrolysis is supplied by concentrated solar energy.The tubes are heated uniformly by radiation using the blackbody effect of a cavity-receiver absorbing the concentrated solar irradiation through a quartz window.The gas composition at the reactor outlet,the chemical conversion of CH4,and the yield to H2 are determined with respect to reaction temperature,inlet gas flow-rates,and feed gas composition.The longer the gas residence time,the higher the CH4 conversion and H2 yield,whereas the lower the amount of acetylene.A CH4 conversion of 99% and H2 yield of about 85% are measured at 1880 K with 30% CH4 in the feed gas (6 L/min injected and residence time of 18 ms).A temperature increase from 1870 K to 1970 K does not improve the H2 yield.

  16. Molecular Simulations of Cyclic Loading Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Atomistic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in many engineered bionanomaterials and electromechanical devices have imposed an urgent need on the understanding of the fatigue behavior and mechanism of CNT under cyclic loading conditions. To date, however, very little work has been done in this field. This paper presents the results of a theoretical study on the behavior of CNT subject to cyclic tensile and compressive loads using quasi-static molecular simulations. The Atomistic Finite Element Method (AFEM has been applied in the study. It is shown that CNT exhibited extreme cyclic loading resistance with yielding strain and strength becoming constant within limited number of loading cycles. Viscoelastic behavior including nonlinear elasticity, hysteresis, preconditioning (stress softening, and large strain have been observed. Chiral symmetry was found to have appreciable effects on the cyclic loading behavior of CNT. Mechanisms of the observed behavior have been revealed by close examination of the intrinsic geometric and mechanical features of tube structure. It was shown that the accumulated residual defect-free morphological deformation was the primary mechanism responsible for the cyclic failure of CNT, while the bond rotating and stretching experienced during loading/unloading played a dominant role on the strength, strain and modulus behavior of CNT.

  17. The quantum transport properties of double-walled nanotubes%双壁纳米管的量子输运性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴言宁

    2015-01-01

    Using the density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function, the transport properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and carbon boronitride (CBN) heteronanotubes were investigated. The results show that the hopping between adjacent shells plays a decisive role in the transport of multi-walled nanodevices. With the increase of the hopping, the conductance of DWCNTs shows a dramatic variation, which is independent of the intertube spacing and the H satura-tion of the dangling bonds in the open ends. The BN parts adjust the electronic structure of the CBN heteronanotubes. The tunneling effect exists in the CBN junctions, however, the conductance of them also shows unusual behavior under lower voltage, which is op-posite to that of DWCNTs. The tunneling effects occur in the CBN heteronanotubes. It is believed that the DWCNTs and CBN het-erostructures may find a variety of potential applications for nanodevices and nanotechnology in future.%采用密度泛函理论结合非平衡格林函数研究双壁碳纳米管及其与硼氮复合材料的输运性质,探索内、外管重叠长度对其输运性质的调控。研究结果表明重叠长度对多壁纳米管的输运性质起着至关重要的作用。随着重叠长度的变化,双壁碳纳米管的输运性质表现异常,但是与内、外管间距变化无关,也与开口端的悬挂键是否被氢饱和无关。硼氮调控复合材料纳米管的电子结构和输运性质。内、外管的重叠长度也影响其输运性质,随着重叠长度的变化,输运行为出现异常现象,但是却与碳纳米管表现的行为相反。碳与硼氮复合材料纳米管存在明显的隧道效应。通过改变重叠长度和硼氮比例调节其量子输运性质在未来的纳米器件和纳米技术中有潜在的应用价值。

  18. Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovathingal, Savio

    An oxidation model for carbon surfaces is developed to predict ablation rates for carbon heat shields used in hypersonic vehicles. Unlike existing empirical models, the approach used here was to probe gas-surface interactions individually and then based on an understanding of the relevant fundamental processes, build a predictive model that would be accurate over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and even microstructures. Initially, molecular dynamics was used to understand the oxidation processes on the surface. The molecular dynamics simulations were compared to molecular beam experiments and good qualitative agreement was observed. The simulations reproduced cylindrical pitting observed in the experiments where oxidation was rapid and primarily occurred around a defect. However, the studies were limited to small systems at low temperatures and could simulate time scales only of the order of nanoseconds. Molecular beam experiments at high surface temperature indicated that a majority of surface reaction products were produced through thermal mechanisms. Since the reactions were thermal, they occurred over long time scales which were computationally prohibitive for molecular dynamics to simulate. The experiments provided detailed dynamical data on the scattering of O, O2, CO, and CO2 and it was found that the data from molecular beam experiments could be used directly to build a model. The data was initially used to deduce surface reaction probabilities at 800 K. The reaction probabilities were then incorporated into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Simulations were performed where the microstructure was resolved and dissociated oxygen convected and diffused towards it. For a gas-surface temperature of 800 K, it was found that despite CO being the dominant surface reaction product, a gas-phase reaction forms significant CO2 within the microstructure region. It was also found that surface area did not play any role in concentration of

  19. Self-organized double-wall oxide nanotube layers on glass-forming Ti-Zr-Si(-Nb) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopha, Hanna; Pohl, Darius; Damm, Christine; Hromadko, Ludek; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Gebert, Annett; Macak, Jan M

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report for the first time on the use of melt spun glass-forming alloys - Ti75Zr10Si15 (TZS) and Ti60Zr10Si15Nb15 (TZSN) - as substrates for the growth of anodic oxide nanotube layers. Upon their anodization in ethylene glycol based electrolytes, highly ordered nanotube layers were achieved. In comparison to TiO2 nanotube layers grown on Ti foils, under the same conditions for reference, smaller diameter nanotubes (~116nm for TZS and ~90nm for TZSN) and shorter nanotubes (~11.5μm and ~6.5μm for TZS and TZSN, respectively) were obtained for both amorphous alloys. Furthermore, TEM and STEM studies, coupled with EDX analysis, revealed a double-wall structure of the as-grown amorphous oxide nanotubes with Ti species being enriched in the inner wall, and Si species in the outer wall, whereby Zr and Nb species were homogeneously distributed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Finite Element Modeling and Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Beams Reinforced by Randomly Oriented Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the finite element modeling and free vibration analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite beams reinforced by randomly oriented straight single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. Nanostructural materials can be used to alter mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of polymer-based composite materials, because of their superior properties and perfect atom arrangement. Timoshenko beam theory is used to evaluate dynamic characteristics of the beam. The Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach based on an equivalent fiber is used to investigate the material properties of the beam. The equations of motion are derived by using Hamilton’s principle. The finite element method is employed to discretize the model and obtain a numerical approximation of the motion equation. Different SWCNTs distributions in the thickness direction are introduced to improve fundamental natural frequency and dynamic behavior of uniform functionally graded nanocomposite beam. Results are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of various material distributions, carbon nanotube orientations, shear deformation, slenderness ratios and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of the beam. The first five normalized mode shapes for functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC beams with different boundary conditions and different carbon nanotubes (CNTs orientation are presented. The results show that the above mentioned effects play very important role on the dynamic behavior of the beam.

  1. Solid-state structures of peapod bearings composed of finite single-wall carbon nanotube and fullerene molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sota; Yamasaki, Takashi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-10

    A supramolecular combination of carbon nanotube and fullerene, so-called a peapod, has attracted much interest, not solely because of its physical properties but also for its unique assembled structures of carbonaceous entities. However, the detailed structural information available was not sufficient for in-depth understanding of its structural chemistry or for exploratory research inspired by novel physical phenomena, mainly because of the severely inhomogeneous nature of currently available carbon nanotubes. We herein report solid-state structures of a molecular peapod. This structure, solved with a belt-persistent finite carbon nanotube molecule at the atomic level by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, revealed the presence of a smooth, inflection-free Hirshfeld surface inside the tube, and the smoothness permitted dynamic motion of the C60 guest molecule even in the solid state. This precise structural information may inspire the molecular design of carbonaceous machines assembled purely through van der Waals contacts between two neutral molecules.

  2. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  3. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2013-09-25

    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  4. Carbon/PEEK composite materials as an alternative for stainless steel/titanium hip prosthesis: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farshid; Hassani, Kamran; Solhjoei, Nosratollah; Karimi, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) has been ranked within the most typical surgical processes in the world. The durability of the prosthesis and loosening of prosthesis are the main concerns that mostly reported after THR surgeries. In THR, the femoral prosthesis can be fixed by either cement or cementless methods in the patient's bones. In both procedures, the stability of the prosthesis in the hosted bone has a key asset in its long-term durability and performance. This study aimed to execute a comparative finite element simulation to assess the load transfer between the prosthesis, which is made of carbon/PEEK composite and stainless steel/titanium, and the femur bone. The mechanical behavior of the cortical bone was assumed as a linear transverse isotropic while the spongy bone was modeled like a linear isotropic material. The implants were made of stainless steel (316L) and titanium alloy as they are common materials for implants. The results showed that the carbon/PEEK composites provide a flatter load transfer from the upper body to the leg compared to the stainless steel/titanium prosthesis. Furthermore, the results showed that the von Mises stress, principal stress, and the strain in the carbon/PEEK composites prosthesis were significantly lower than that made of the stainless steel/titanium. The results also imply that the carbon/PEEK composites can be applied to introduce a new optimum design for femoral prosthesis with adjustable stiffness, which can decrease the stress shielding and interface stress. These findings will help clinicians and biomedical experts to increase their knowledge about the hip replacement.

  5. Effects of hydrogen adsorption on the properties of double wall BN and (BN){sub x}C{sub y} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58059-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Azevedo, S., E-mail: sazevedo@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58059-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Kaschny, J.R. [Instituto Federal da Bahia – Campus Vitoria da Conquista, Avenida Amazonas 3150, 45030-220 Vitória da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    In the present contribution, we apply first-principles calculations, based on the density functional theory, to study the effects of hydrogen adsorption on the structural and electronic properties of boron nitride and hybrid carbon–boron nitride double wall nanotubes. The results demonstrate that the hydrogen decoration induces significant structural deformation and an appreciable reduction in the gap energy. When the number of hydrogen atoms introduced on the outer wall is increased, desorption of hydrogen pairs are observed. The calculations indicate that each adsorbed hydrogen atom induces a structural deformation with an energetic cost of about 68 meV/atom. It is also found that the introduction of hydrogen atoms can be applied as an efficient tool for tuning the electronic properties of such structures. - Graphical abstract: Localized density of states of a hydrogenated double wall boron nitride nanotube. Some hydrogen pairs are desorbed, forming H{sub 2} molecules. - Highlights: • Hydrogenation induces structural deformation and reduction in the gap energy. • Each H atom induces a deformation with an energetic cost of about 68 meV/atom. • In some cases, desorption of H pairs from the outer wall is observed.

  6. Phonon Spectra Prediction in Carbon Nanotubes Using a Manifold-Based Continuum Finite Element Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    flywheels Discovery Channel – 10 Uses for Carbon Nanotubes Page 6 “Theoretically 100 times stronger than steel and six times lighter.” CBCNews...nanotubes together to create fibers that have the strength of Kevlar , a composite material used in bullet-proof vests. With new techniques rapidly...emerging to make longer CNTs, spun fibers using the longer CNTs will soon surpass Kevlar in strength, and weigh less. As CNT prices drop, spun CNT

  7. A Nonequilibrium Finite-Rate Carbon Ablation Model for Radiating Earth Re-entry Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    for carbon containing environments like Mars and Titan . The CN violet bands were the only atomic or molecular systems considered for the NEQAIR...range of surface pressures and temperatures [78, 124, 83, 82, 58, 100, 77]. Additionally, MacLean [63] developed a tool to compute the composition of an...Intensity Measurements in Simulated Titan Atmospheres. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 24(2):291300, April 2010. 22. Candler, G. V. The

  8. Carbon nanotube analysis for an unsteady physiological flow in a non-uniform channel of finite length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher Akbar, Noreen; Ayub, Ayesha; Wahid Butt, Adil

    2017-04-01

    An analytical investigation is presented to study the unsteady peristaltic transport of nanofluids. Carbon nanotubes analysis is taken into account. The flow geometry is taken as a non-uniform channel of finite length to explore our model for a wide range of biomedical applications. Exact solutions are obtained for the non-dimensional governing equations subject to physically realistic boundary conditions. The effects of carbon nanotubes on effective thermal conductivity, axial velocity, transverse velocity, temperature, and pressure difference distributions along the length of a non-uniform channel with the variation of different flow parameters are discussed with the help of graphical illustrations. An inherent property of peristaltic transport, i.e., trapping is also discussed. We have noticed that MWCnt's have this exceptional quality to increase the axial velocity as well as the transverse velocity of the governing fluids. This model is applicable in drugs delivery system where different geometries of drugs are delivered and it is also applicable to design a microperistaltic pump for transportation of nanofluids.

  9. Energy gaps, electronic structures, and x-ray spectroscopies of finite semiconductor single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Wu, ZiYu; Luo, Yi

    2008-02-28

    We report hybrid density functional theory calculations for electronic structures of hydrogen-terminated finite single-walled carbon nanotubes (6,5) and (8,3) up to 100 nm in length. Gap states that are mainly arisen from the hydrogen-terminated edges have been found in (8,3) tubes, but their contributions to the density of states become invisible when the tube is longer than 10 nm. The electronic structures of (6,5) and (8,3) tubes are found to be converged around 20 nm. The calculated band-gap energies of 100 nm long nanotubes are in good agreement with experimental results. The valence band structures of (6,5), (8,3), as well as (5,5) tubes are also investigated by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra theoretically. The UPS, XES and RIXS spectra become converged already at 10 nm. The length-dependent oscillation behavior is found in the RIXS spectra of (5,5) tubes, indicating that the RIXS spectra may be used to determine the size and length of metallic nanotubes. Furthermore, the chiral dependence observed in the simulated RIXS spectra suggests that RIXS spectra could be a useful technique for the determination of chirality of carbon nanotubes.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THE DYNAMIC BUCKLING OF DOUBLEWALLED CARBON NANOTUBE SUBJECTED TO AXIAL PERIODIC DISTURBING FORCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Feng-huan; ZHAO Long-mao; YANG Gui-tong

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic response of a double-walled carbon nanotube embedded in elastic medium subjected to periodic disturbing forces is investigated. Investigation of the dynamic buckling of a double-walled carbon nanotube develops continuum model. The effect of the van der Waals forces between two tubes and the surrounding elastic medium for axial dynamic buckling are considered. The buckling model subjected to periodic disturbing forces and the critical axial strain and the critical frequencies are given. It is found that the critical axial strain of the embedded multi-walled carbon nanotube due to the intertube van der Waals forces is lower than that of an embedded single-walled carbon nanotube. The van der Waals forces and the surrounding elastic medium affect region of dynamic instability. The van der Waals forces increase the critical frequencies of a double-walled carbon nanotube. The effect of the surrounding elastic medium for the critical frequencies is small.

  11. Electrical conductivity improvement of aeronautical carbon fiber reinforced polyepoxy composites by insertion of carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lonjon, Antoine; Demont, Philippe; Dantras, Eric; Lacabanne, Colette

    2012-01-01

    International audience; An increase and homogenization of electrical conductivity is essential in epoxy carbon fiber laminar aeronautical composites. Dynamic conductivity measurements have shown a very poor transversal conductivity. Double wall carbon nanotubes have been introduced into the epoxy matrix to increase the electrical conductivity. The conductivity and the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy matrix were evaluated. The epoxy matrix was filled with 0.4 wt.% of CNTs to ...

  12. Study on stacking sequence on the flexural properties of basalt/carbon/epoxy hybrid composites using test and finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. I.; Rhee, K. Y. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. R. [ELSOLTEC Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Basalt fiber is widely used in various industries and several studies have been carried out to understand the mechanical behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composites. However, few studies have been made to specifically investigate the mechanical properties of basalt/carbon hybrid composites. In this study, the effect of stacking sequence on the flexural properties of carbon/basalt/epoxy hybrid composites was investigated in order to verify the reliability of this composite model. Two types of carbon/basalt/epoxy hybrid composites with a sandwich form were fabricated: basalt skin-carbon core (BSCC) composites and carbon skin-basalt core (CSBC) composites. After fabrication flexural tests and finite element method (FEM) were conducted. FEM results of flexural analysis are compared with experimental results. A FEA analysis model has been successfully developed in order to predict flexural behavior of basalt/carbon/epoxy hybrid composites. The simulation using the FEA model produces a similar flexural strength to that obtained from the experiment. Therefore, the developed FEA model in general will be highly useful for the prediction of stacking sequence of basalt/carbon/ epoxy hybrid composites for several industrial applications.

  13. Impact of the carbon pore size and topology on the equilibrium quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes at zero coverage and finite pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2009-04-08

    Carbonaceous slit-shaped and square-shaped pores efficiently differentiate adsorbed hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K. Extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the square-shaped carbon pores enhanced the selectivity of deuterium over hydrogen in comparison to equivalent slit-shaped carbon pores at zero coverage as well as at finite pressures (i.e. quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes is pore-topology-dependent). We show that this enhancement of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity results from larger localization of hydrogen isotopes in square-shaped pores. The operating pressures for efficient quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes are strongly dependent on the topology as well as on the size of the carbon pores. However, for both considered carbon pore topologies the highest D(2)/H(2) separation factor is observed at zero-coverage limit. Depending on carbon pore size and topology we predicted monotonic decreasing and non-monotonic shape of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity at finite pressures. For both kinds of carbonaceous pores of molecular sizes we predict high compression of hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K (for example, the pore density of compressed hydrogen isotopes at 77 K and 0.25 MPa in a square-shaped carbon pore of size 2.6 Å exceeds 60 mmol cm(-3); for comparison, the liquid density of para-H(2) at 30 K and 30 MPa is 42 mmol cm(-3)). Finally, by direct comparison of simulation results with experimental data it is explained why 'ordinary' carbonaceous materials are not efficient quantum sieves.

  14. Reasons and countermeasures for “marking problem”during the production of double-walled copper-brazed steel tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yuanyuan,LIANG Gaofei; WANG Guodong; LIAN Fuliang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the reasons underlying the frequent appearance of “marking problem”during the production of double-walled copper-brazed steel tubes.To this end,we compared two types of copper-coated steel strips,of which one has almost no problem during production,whereas the other has higher number of incidences of“marking problem”.We analyzed the chemical composition,mechanical properties,the cross-sectional metallographs, and surface quality of the trimmed edge in both types of specimen.After the roll forming process,the bonding condition between the steel layers of the tubes before and after brazing process has also been examined.Results indicate that the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the two kinds of strips are similar;however,the edge quality of the trimmed strips is significantly different.It is believed that the irregular shape of the edge portions in the strips will be more pronounced during the bevel treatment.Consequently,smooth and tight seams cannot be guaranteed by such uneven beveled edges,which lead to higher number of incidences of “marking problem”during production.

  15. Controllable Synthesis of TiO2@Fe2O3 Core-Shell Nanotube Arrays with Double-Wall Coating as Superb Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Ma, Yifan; Guo, Qiubo; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Mei; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Highlighted by the safe operation and stable performances, titanium oxides (TiO2) are deemed as promising candidates for next generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the pervasively low capacity is casting shadow on desirable electrochemical behaviors and obscuring their practical applications. In this work, we reported a unique template-assisted and two-step atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to achieve TiO2@Fe2O3 core-shell nanotube arrays with hollow interior and double-wall coating. The as-prepared architecture combines both merits of the high specific capacity of Fe2O3 and structural stability of TiO2 backbone. Owing to the nanotubular structural advantages integrating facile strain relaxation as well as rapid ion and electron transport, the TiO2@Fe2O3 nanotube arrays with a high mass loading of Fe2O3 attained desirable capacity of ~520 mA h g‑1, exhibiting both good rate capability under uprated current density of 10 A g‑1 and especially enhanced cycle stability (~450 mA h g‑1 after 600 cycles), outclassing most reported TiO2@metal oxide composites. The results not only provide a new avenue for hybrid core-shell nanotube formation, but also offer an insight for rational design of advanced electrode materials for LIBs.

  16. Controllable Synthesis of TiO2@Fe2O3 Core-Shell Nanotube Arrays with Double-Wall Coating as Superb Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Ma, Yifan; Guo, Qiubo; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Mei; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Highlighted by the safe operation and stable performances, titanium oxides (TiO2) are deemed as promising candidates for next generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the pervasively low capacity is casting shadow on desirable electrochemical behaviors and obscuring their practical applications. In this work, we reported a unique template-assisted and two-step atomic layer deposition (ALD) method to achieve TiO2@Fe2O3 core-shell nanotube arrays with hollow interior and double-wall coating. The as-prepared architecture combines both merits of the high specific capacity of Fe2O3 and structural stability of TiO2 backbone. Owing to the nanotubular structural advantages integrating facile strain relaxation as well as rapid ion and electron transport, the TiO2@Fe2O3 nanotube arrays with a high mass loading of Fe2O3 attained desirable capacity of ~520 mA h g−1, exhibiting both good rate capability under uprated current density of 10 A g−1 and especially enhanced cycle stability (~450 mA h g−1 after 600 cycles), outclassing most reported TiO2@metal oxide composites. The results not only provide a new avenue for hybrid core-shell nanotube formation, but also offer an insight for rational design of advanced electrode materials for LIBs. PMID:28098237

  17. Hyper-velocity impact test and simulation of a double-wall shield concept for the Wide Field Monitor aboard LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Perinati, E; Santangelo, A; Suchy, S; Tenzer, C; Del Monte, E; Herder, J -W den; Diebold, S; Feroci, M; Rachevski, A; Vacchi, A; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2014-01-01

    The space mission LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) was selected in 2011 by ESA as one of the candidates for the M3 launch opportunity. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM), based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs). In orbit, they would be exposed to hyper-velocity impacts by environmental dust particles, which might alter the surface properties of the SDDs. In order to assess the risk posed by these events, we performed simulations in ESABASE2 and laboratory tests. Tests on SDD prototypes aimed at verifying to what extent the structural damages produced by impacts affect the SDD functionality have been performed at the Van de Graaff dust accelerator at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg. For the WFM, where we expect a rate of risky impacts notably higher than for the LAD, we designed, simulated and successfully tested at the plasma accelerator at the Technical University in Munich (TUM) a double-wall shield...

  18. Monitoring Mechanical Motion of Carbon Nanotube based Nanomotor by Optical Absorption Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Baomin; Wang, Zhan; Wang, Yong; Liu, Kaihui

    2016-01-01

    The optical absorption spectrums of nanomotors made from double-wall carbon nanotubes have been calculated with the time-dependent density functional based tight binding method. When the outer short tube of the nanomotor moves along or rotates around the inner long tube, the peaks in the spectrum will gradually evolve and may shift periodically, the amplitude of which can be as large as hundreds of meV. We show that the features and behaviors of the optical absorption spectrum could be used to monitor the mechanical motions of the double-wall carbon nanotube based nanomotor.

  19. Thermal effects on nonlinear vibration of a carbon nanotube-based mass sensor using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Keun; Kim, Chang-Wan; Yang, Hyun-Ik

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we carried out a dynamic analysis of a CNT-based mass sensor by using a finite element method (FEM)-based nonlinear analysis model of the CNT resonator to elucidate the combined effects of thermal effects and nonlinear oscillation behavior upon the overall mass detection sensitivity. Mass sensors using carbon nanotube (CNT) resonators provide very high sensing performance. Because CNT-based resonators can have high aspect ratios, they can easily exhibit nonlinear oscillation behavior due to large displacements. Also, CNT-based devices may experience high temperatures during their manufacture and operation. These geometrical nonlinearities and temperature changes affect the sensing performance of CNT-based mass sensors. However, it is very hard to find previous literature addressing the detection sensitivity of CNT-based mass sensors including considerations of both these nonlinear behaviors and thermal effects. We modeled the nonlinear equation of motion by using the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relation, taking into account the additional axial force associated with the thermal effect. The FEM was employed to solve the nonlinear equation of motion because it can effortlessly handle the more complex geometries and boundary conditions. A doubly clamped CNT resonator actuated by distributed electrostatic force was the configuration subjected to the numerical experiments. Thermal effects upon the fundamental resonance behavior and the shift of resonance frequency due to attached mass, i.e., the mass detection sensitivity, were examined in environments of both high and low (or room) temperature. The fundamental resonance frequency increased with decreasing temperature in the high temperature environment, and increased with increasing temperature in the low temperature environment. The magnitude of the shift in resonance frequency caused by an attached mass represents the sensing performance of a mass sensor, i.e., its mass detection

  20. Flux controllable pumping of water molecules in a double-walled carb on nanotub e%通量可控的双壁碳纳米管水分子泵∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹平; 罗成林; 陈贵虎; 韩典荣; 朱兴凤; 戴亚飞

    2015-01-01

    A water pumping system model has been designed based on the double-walled carbon nanotube. In this system, the inner tube is fixed as the water channel, while the exterior one can move, similar to the piston motion along the axial direction, to create a pumping force. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that both the water flux and the water dipole orientation are sensitive to the velocity of motions of the outer tube so that a controllable unidirectional water flow can be achieved in this system by varying the velocity. Its pumping ability comes mainly from the carbon–water van der Waals driving forces of the exterior tube. The piston motion of the outer tube changes the position of the vdW balance point, which not only leads to the increase of vdW force on the water molecules already residing in the inner tube, but also enlarges their accelerated distance. Meanwhile, the orientation of water molecules inside the inner tube is strongly coupled to the water flux, the probability of +dipole states attains unity at v=0.05 Å/ps, where the water flux reaches its maximum value (2.02 ns−1). Compared to the pump which is controlled by uniform electric field, the transmission efficiency of our mechanical pump is higher. This design may open a new way for water pumping in the field of nanodevices.%以双壁碳纳米管作为基本单元设计了一种新型纳米机械水泵,其内管固定作为水分子通道,外管做活塞式轴向运动。分子动力学计算表明,水分子净通量及管内水分子电偶极矩分布均与外管运动速率有强烈耦合效应。该设计可以实现水分子的高效单向运输,且输运效率可以通过外管活塞运动的速率进行调控。这些发现可为未来实用纳米分子泵器件的设计提供新的思路。

  1. Improvement of Center -driven Overflow Ball Mill with Double -wall Partition%中心传动双仓溢流型球磨机改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴

    2015-01-01

    磨机广泛应用于选矿、冶金、水泥厂、化工、电力等工矿企业粉磨各种矿石及其它可磨性物料。中心传动双仓溢流型球磨机应用于拜耳法生产氧化铝,在生产中用于对原矿浆的细磨,对于中心传动双仓溢流型球磨机在全国的使用没有几例。针对目前出现的问题,结合球磨机、管磨机在该行业成熟的使用经验进行了分析处理,找到合理的改进措施,取得了一定的社会和经济效益。%Mill is widely used in mineral processing,metallurgy,cement plant,chemical industry,electric pow-er and other industrial and mining enterprises to smash all kinds of ores and other materials.Center -driven over-flow ball mill with double -wall partition is used in alumina production by Bayer process,but few were applied in the grinding of original pulp.Aiming at these problems,the service experience of ball mill and tube mill in this industry was analyzed and then rational improvement measures were found,thus achieving some social and economic benefits.

  2. Nanoparticle Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes by Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    on metal morphology, as does diffusion activation energy. Comparison of the metal– graphene interfa- cial energy to the surface energy of the metal...Nanotechnology 2009;20:375501–11. [17] O. Yaglioglu, Thesis . Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2007. [18] Venables...25] Osswald S, Flahaut E, Ye H, Gogotsi Y. Elimination of D-band in Raman spectra of double-wall carbon nanotubes by oxidation . Chem Phys Lett

  3. Finite Automation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This self-paced narrated tutorial covers the following about Finite Automata: Uses, Examples, Alphabet, strings, concatenation, powers of an alphabet, Languages (automata and formal languages), Deterministic finite automata (DFA) SW4600 Automata, Formal Specification and Run-time Verification

  4. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  5. A Large-scale Finite Element Model on Micromechanical Damage and Failure of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Including Thermal Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.

  6. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  7. Assessment of penetration potential of pH responsive double walled biodegradable nanogels coated with eucalyptus oil for the controlled delivery of 5-fluorouracil: In vitro and ex vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Prashant; Kashaw, Sushil K; Jain, Sanyog; Sau, Samaresh; Iyer, Arun K

    2017-03-17

    Penetration enhancers coated biodegradable polymeric nanogels loaded with cytotoxic drugs applied via the topical route, can be a promising strategy for improving the chemotherapeutic efficiency of skin cancers. The major objective of proposed research was to investigate the in vitro and ex vivo chemotherapeutic potential of double walled PLGA-chitosan biodegradable nanogel entrapped with 5-fluororuacil (5-FU) coated with eucalyptus oil, topically applied onto the skin. 5-FU was first entrapped in PLGA core by solvent evaporation technique followed by coating with cationic chitosan for ionic interaction with anionic skin cancer cell membrane. A surface coating of eucalyptus oil (1%) was employed to improve the penetration efficacy of the nanogel into stratum corneum. The surface modified biodegradable double walled nanogel was characterized for particle size, charge and thermal properties followed by pH dependent in vitro analysis. Human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line was employed for the bio- and cyto-compatibility testing prior to the hemolysis assay and coagulation assessment. A porcine skin ex vivo screening was performed for assessing the penetration potential of the nanogels. DLS and TEM revealed a particle size of 170nm for the double walled nanogels. The nanogels also exhibited high thermal stability as analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The drug entrapment efficacy was about ~45%. The drug release showed sustained release pattern noted up to 24h. The low hemolysis of 3.31% with short prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of 13.5 and 33s respectively, revealed high biocompatibility of the nanogels. The cellular uptake and localization was assessed by confocal microscopy. The cytotoxicity (MTT assay) on HaCaT cell line demonstrated high cytocompatibilty of the nanogels. An ex vivo evaluation using porcine skin displayed efficient and steady state flux of 5-FU from the biodegradable

  8. Stability characteristics and structural properties of single- and double-walled boron-nitride nanotubes under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous environment using molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, R., E-mail: r_ansari@guilan.ac.ir; Ajori, S., E-mail: Shahram_ajori1366@yahoo.com; Ameri, A.

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Structural properties and stability characteristics of single- and double-walled boron-nitride nanotubes functionalized with Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous environment are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Structural and buckling analysis of boron-nitride nanotubes under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN). • Gyration radius increases linearly as the weight percentage of FMN increases. • Presence of water molecules results in more expansion of FMN around BNNTs. • Critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs is higher than that of pure BNNTs. • The critical strain of functionalized BNNTs is found to be lower than that of pure ones. - Abstract: The non-cytotoxic properties of Boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and the ability of stable interaction with biomolecules make them so promising for biological applications. In this research, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the structural properties and stability characteristics of single- and double-walled BNNTs under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in vacuum and aqueous environments. According to the simulation results, gyration radius increases by rising the weight percentage of FMN. Also, the results demonstrate that critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs increases in vacuum. Moreover, it is observed that by increasing the weight percentage of FMN, critical force of functionalized BNNTs rises. By contrast, critical strain reduces by functionalization of BNNTs in vacuum. Considering the aqueous environment, it is observed that gyration radius and critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs increase more considerably than those of functionalized BNNTs in vacuum, whereas the critical strains approximately remain unchanged.

  9. Transitional Failure of Carbon Nanotube Systems under a Combination of Tension and Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Woo Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional failure envelopes of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes under combined tension-torsion are predicted using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The observations reveal that while the tensile failure load decreases with combined torsion, the torsional buckling moment increases with combined tension. As a result, the failure envelopes under combined tension-torsion are definitely different from those under pure tension or torsion. In such combined loading, there is a multitude of failure modes (tensile failure and torsional buckling, and the failure consequently exhibits the feature of transitional failure envelopes. In addition, the safe region of double-walled carbon nanotubes is significantly larger than that of single-walled carbon nanotubes due to the differences in the onset of torsional buckling.

  10. Single-Step, Solvent-Free, Catalyst-Free Preparation of Holey Carbon Allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Funk, Michael R. (Inventor); Campbell, Caroline J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods for forming holey carbon allotropes and graphene nanomeshes are provided by the various embodiments. The various embodiments may be applicable to a variety of carbon allotropes, such as graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, thermal exfoliated graphene, graphene nanoribbons, graphite, exfoliated graphite, expanded graphite, carbon nanotubes (e.g., single-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes, few-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, etc.), carbon nanofibers, carbon fibers, carbon black, amorphous carbon, fullerenes, etc. The methods may produce holey carbon allotropes without the use of solvents, catalysts, flammable gas, additional chemical agents, or electrolysis to produce the pores (e.g., holes, etc.) in the carbon allotropes. In an embodiment, a carbon allotrope may be heated at a working window temperature for a working period of time to create holes in the carbon allotrope.

  11. Finite superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Restuccia, A; Taylor, J G

    1992-01-01

    This is the first complete account of the construction and finiteness analysis of multi-loop scattering amplitudes for superstrings, and of the guarantee that for certain superstrings (in particular the heterotic one), the symmetries of the theory in the embedding space-time are those of the super-poincaré group SP10 and that the multi-loop amplitudes are each finite. The book attempts to be self-contained in its analysis, although it draws on the works of many researchers. It also presents the first complete field theory for such superstrings. As such it demonstrates that gravity can be quant

  12. 螺旋上升对自激发锯齿型双壁碳纳米管振荡行为的影响∗%Influence of helical rise on the self-excited oscillation b ehavior of zigzag @ zigzag double-wall carb on nanotub es

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾永辉; 江五贵; Qin Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    aberrant or defective shell structures. In this paper, the oscillatory behaviors of zigzag@zigzag double-wall carbon nanotubes containing a rotating inner tube with different helical rises are investigated using the molecular dynamics method. In all the simulation modes, the adaptive intermolecular reactive empirical bond order potential is used in this work for both the covalent bond between carbon atoms and the long-range van der Waals interaction of the force field. The perfect zigzag outer tube is assumed to be fixed while the zigzag inner tube is free after it has been rotated by a torque. At the beginning of the simulation, the whole system is heat bathed at a temperature around 300 K for 60 ps, to gently increase the whole system temperature to around 300 K after the energy minimization. The total number of particles, the system volume, and the absolute temperature are kept unchanged for 60 ps. Then we apply a torque of 30 eV to the inner tube under the constant temperature. After the rotation frequency of the inner tube reaches around 300 GHz, we remove the torque of inner tube and let the whole system be under a constant energy condition. The time steps for all simulations are all chosen to be 1 fs. The total time for the simulation is 3000 ps. It is found that the oscillatory behavior of the inner tube is dependent on the helical rise. The simulation results show that the oscillation frequency of the inner tube increases with the length of helical rise increasing. However, as the helical rise is further increased, the oscillation becomes awful because of the breakage of the inner tube with defects. Moreover, the zigzag@zigzag double-wall carbon nanotubes without any helical rise may be used as an ideal rotating actuator because the inner tube can rotate at an approximately constant rotational frequency. The influence of the system temperature on the oscillatory behavior of inner tube with a helical rise of 0.5 nm is also investigated. The results show that the

  13. Thermoelectric transport properties through a single-walled zig–zag carbon nanotube side coupled to a correlated quantum dot: Atomic approach for the finite U-impurity Anderson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Edwin, E-mail: eramosr@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), A. A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia); Franco, Roberto, E-mail: rfrancop@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), A. A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia); Instituto de Física de São Carlos-Universidade de São Paulo (IFSC-USP), 369 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Silva-Valencia, Jereson [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), A. A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia); Figueira, Marcos Sergio [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense (IF-UFF), Avenida litorânea s/n, CEP 24210-346, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    We study the thermopower S, linear thermal conductance κ, linear electric conductance G and thermoelectric figure of merit Z properties of a single-walled zig–zag carbon nanotube side coupled to a correlated quantum dot (QD). We employ the recently developed U-finite atomic approach for the Single Impurity Anderson model (SIAM). The quantum dot is linked to the localized states in the model, considering a finite Coulombic repulsion U, and the conduction band in the model is associated with the single walled zig–zag metallic carbon nanotube (n=3), and is described by a tight-binding approximation in order to obtain Green's function of the nanotube. The thermoelectric transport coefficients were obtained using the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function technique with the Onsager relation in the linear regime automatically satisfied. Results indicate that this system can be employed in possible thermoelectric device applications at low temperatures when strong charge fluctuations are present in the QD.

  14. Isotope engineering of carbon nanotube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F; Kramberger, Ch; Pfeiffer, R; Kuzmany, H; Zólyomi, V; Kürti, J; Singer, P M; Alloul, H

    2005-07-01

    The synthesis of a unique isotope engineered system, double-wall carbon nanotubes with natural carbon outer and highly 13C enriched inner walls, is reported from isotope enriched fullerenes encapsulated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The material allows the observation of the D line of the highly defect-free inner tubes that can be related to a curvature induced enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling. Ab initio calculations explain the inhomogeneous broadening of inner tube Raman modes due to the distribution of different isotopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance shows a significant contrast of the isotope enriched inner SWCNTs compared to other carbon phases and provides a macroscopic measure of the inner tube mass content. The high curvature of the small diameter inner tubes manifests in an increased distribution of the chemical shift tensor components.

  15. Frequency, delay and velocity analysis for intrinsic channel region of carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gate wrap around field effect transistor is preferred for its good channel control. To study the high frequency behaviour of the device, parameters like cut-off frequency, transit or delay time, velocity are calculated and plotted. Double-walled and array of channels are considered in this work for enhanced output and impedance matching of the device with the measuring equipment terminal respectively. The perfomance of double-walledcarbon nanotube is compared with single-walled carbon nanotube and found that the device with double-wall shows appreciable improvement in its characteristics. Analysis of these parameters are done with various values of source/drain length, gate length, tube diameters and channel densities. The maximum cut-off frequency is found to be 72.3 THz with corresponding velocity as 5x106 m/s for channel density as 3 and gate length as 11nm. The number of channel is varied from 3 to 21 and found that the perfromance of the device containing double-walled carbon nano tube is better for channel number lesser than or equal to 12. The proposed modelling can be used for designing devices to handle high speed applications of future generation.

  16. Simulation Investigation on Optical and Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube in Terahertz Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-Yong; FU Xiao-Nan

    2009-01-01

    Under the framework of Maxwell-Garnett (M-G) model, the optical and electrical properties of singlewalled carbon naotube (SWCNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) and hydrogen-doped carbon nanotube (H-doped CNT) in terahertz (THz) region have been investigated. It has been found that as frequency increases the loss tangent and conductivity show a peak. The loss tangent and conductivity of SWCNT is larger than that of DWCNT and H-doped CNT. The loss tangent and conductivity increase with the increases of falling factor and the decreases of geometrical factor.

  17. Confined linear carbon chains as a route to bulk carbyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Suenaga, Kazu; Niimi, Yoshiko; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C.; Peterlik, Herwig; Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Rubio, Angel; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Strong chemical activity and extreme instability in ambient conditions characterize carbyne, an infinite sp1 hybridized carbon chain. As a result, much less has been explored about carbyne as compared to other carbon allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. Although end-capping groups can be used to stabilize carbon chains, length limitations are still a barrier for production, and even more so for application. We report a method for the bulk production of long acetylenic linear carbon chains protected by thin double-walled carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of very long arrangements is confirmed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and (near-field) resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results establish a route for the bulk production of exceptionally long and stable chains composed of more than 6,000 carbon atoms, representing an elegant forerunner towards the final goal of carbyne’s bulk production.

  18. Field Strain Measurement on the Fiber Scale in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Using Global Finite-Element Based Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Ran

    2015-05-01

    Laminated composites are materials with complex architecture made of continuous fibers embedded within a polymeric resin. The properties of the raw materials can vary from one point to another due to different local processing conditions or complex geometrical features for example. A first step towards the identification of these spatially varying material parameters is to image with precision the displacement fields in this complex microstructure when subjected to mechanical loading. This thesis is aimed to accurately measure the displacement and strain fields at the fiber-matrix scale in a cross-ply composite. First, the theories of both local subset-based digital image correlation (DIC) and global finite-element based DIC are outlined. Second, in-situ secondary electron tensile images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are post-processed by both DIC techniques. Finally, it is shown that when global DIC is applied with a conformal mesh, it can capture more accurately sharp local variations in the strain fields as it takes into account the underlying microstructure. In comparison to subset-based local DIC, finite-element based global DIC is better suited for capturing gradients across the fiber-matrix interfaces.

  19. Curvature Effect of Van Der Waals Forces on Buckling of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under External Pressure%考虑范德华力曲率效应的双壁碳纳米管外压屈曲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱浩; 徐凯宇

    2005-01-01

    针对双壁碳纳米管外压屈曲问题,研究了层间范德华力的曲率效应对临界外压的影响.应用弹性双层圆柱壳模型,考虑层间范德华力不仅与层间距有关而且与挠度曲率的变化有关,导出了外压屈曲临界压力解析公式.计算得出在不同半径、不同长细比下,外压屈曲临界压力的数值结果,并与经典壳的结果和忽略范德华力曲率效应的结果做了比较.结果显示,对于小半径的双壁碳纳米管曲率效应对外压屈曲有效明显的影响.

  20. 范德华力对双层碳纳米管扭转屈曲的影响%Effect of van der Waals Force on Torsional Buckling of Double-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩强; 李兰芳; 罗毅

    2005-01-01

    基于弹性壳体模型对双层碳纳米管的扭转屈曲问题进行了研究,计及层间范德华力的影响,建立了双层碳纳米管扭转屈曲的临界条件,并进行了数值计算.研究表明,当管径比较小时,范德华力的影响较小.

  1. MD simulations of diametrally compressed single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotubes%单壁及双壁纳米碳管径向压缩特性的分子动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈裕; 沈海军

    2007-01-01

    采用Tersoff-Brenner势与L-J势的分子动力学方法,研究了双石墨层作用下(13,0)、(22,0)锯齿形碳管以及它们组合的(13,0)/(22,0)双壁碳管的径向压缩力学特性.根据计算结果,讨论了三种碳管压缩过程中的构型、能量、压缩载荷等的变化及其差异.研究表明,压缩过程中,(22,0)碳管出现了明显的"塌陷"现象,"塌陷"时,能量及外载一度下降;(13,0)/(22,0)碳管的能量吸收能力及承受压缩载荷能力最大;(22,0)碳管的能量吸收能力与承受压缩载荷能力最差,且体积最容易压缩;当压缩应变小于12%时,(13,0)/(22,0)碳管的内管的构型、体积及其能量变化量均很小;内壁与外壁之间的Van der Waals能在整个压缩(13,0)/(22,0)碳管能量变化中仅占很小的份额.

  2. Influence of van der Waals force on the buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes%范德华力对双壁碳纳米管轴向压缩屈曲行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 张洪武; 王晋宝

    2007-01-01

    使用分子动力学方法研究几种不同半径尺寸的单壁碳纳米管组成的双壁碳管,预测了其初始稳定构型;分析了其自由弛豫阶段的特征;并模拟了它们在轴向压缩载荷作用下的屈曲行为;研究了不同层间距导致的范德华力变化对屈曲行为的影响.采用Tersoff-Brenner势描述单壁碳纳米管内原子间作用,Iennard-Jones势描述内外层间的范德华相互作用.计算结果表明:在通常意义下的双壁管间距(约0.34 nm)外还可以存在稳定的双壁碳管构型,并且这些新的稳定构型表现出了不同的力学性质.

  3. Theoretical study of interaction between Tacrine and finite-length Al-doped Carbon and Boron nitride Nanotubes: A Semiempirical drug delivery study in thermodynamic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Zeighami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend our previous theoretical calculations that dealt with the thermochemistry of doping the single walled boron nitride nano tubes, BNNTs, and carbon nanotubes ,CNTs, with alminium atoms [1], we have used the AM 1, PM 3, and PM 6 semiempirical methods to investigate the interaction of the tacrine molecule (a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with the side-walls of aluminum doped boron nitride and carbon nano tubes in thermodynamic views.At first, the frequency calculations were carried out to confirm the stability of the involved structures. In addition, the theoretical thermodynamic study of tacrine adsorption onto the considered nanotubes was performed and the thermodynamic functions such as enthalpy changes, entropy changes and Gibbs free energy changes of the adsorption process were evaluated at different temperatures. Our results suggest the aluminum doped boron nitride nano tubes and alminium doped carbon nano tubes may be considered as the proper carries for the drug delivery of tacrine.

  4. Prediction of the critical buckling load of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timesli, Abdelaziz; Braikat, Bouazza; Jamal, Mohammad; Damil, Noureddine

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new explicit analytical formula of the critical buckling load of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) under axial compression. This formula takes into account van der Waals interactions between adjacent tubes and the effect of terms involving tube radii differences generally neglected in the derived expressions of the critical buckling load published in the literature. The elastic multiple Donnell shells continuum approach is employed for modelling the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The validation of the proposed formula is made by comparison with a numerical solution. The influence of the neglected terms is also studied.

  5. 碳纤维复合材料强度的有限元模拟%FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR THE STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 段成红; 吴祥

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite materials are more and more used in industries, but the research on the properties is not deep enough. To save test cost, it is necessary to carry out theoretical simulation for the materials while performing experimental investigation. In this paper, ultimate strength of a carbon fibre composite material with a standard testing NOL-ring was calculated numerically by using ANSYS software with two simulation methods,namely node coupling and contacting. Circumferential stresses along the NOL-ring were given. Results show that errors between the two simulations and the test results are 23.6% and 5.6% respectively, indicating that using contacting method is more precise.%碳纤维复合材料在工业上的应用越来越广,但对其材料性质的研究还远不充分.为了节省试验经费,应在进行必要试验的同时对碳纤维复合材料的性质进行模拟计算.本文针对一标准试验,利用ANSYS软件的节点耦合技术和接触分析技术分别对某碳纤维复合材料制成的NOL环进行了拉伸破坏载荷下的强度计算,给出NOL环上各点的周向应力.结果发现,这两种模拟方法与试验值的误差分别为23.6%和5.6%,表明接触分析技术比较精确.

  6. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...

  7. Finite element simulations on cutting process for carbon fiber composite%碳纤维复合材料切削过程的有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊威龙; 戴斌煜; 商景利; 王薇薇

    2014-01-01

    Based on failure criterion of Hashin,the two-dimensional orthogonal cutting model of carbon fiber composite material was presented in ABAQUS/Explicit. Effects of cutting condition on surface quality were analyzed by the model. In two-dimensional cutting simulation,the forming process of break,and the curve of force-tool stroke,and the stress distribution in chip and workpiece were obtained. The effects of tools with back engagement of cutting edge on the cutting process,surface quality and chip morphology were analyzed,and the methods to improve the surface quality of these materials were proposed theoretically.%基于Hashin失效准则,在ABAQUS/Explicit中建立碳纤维复合材料的二维正交切削模型。采用此模型研究切削条件对复合材料切削表面质量的影响。模拟得到了崩碎切屑的形成过程、切削力随刀具行程的变化曲线、应力在刀具及工件中的分布,并分析背吃刀量对切削过程中加工表面质量及切屑形貌的影响,从理论上提出改善复合材料切削表面质量的分析方法。

  8. 含硅类金刚石膜硬度压痕测试的有限元模拟%Finite Element Simulation of Indentation Testing for Hardness of Si-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璨; 兰惠清

    2012-01-01

    使用Abaqus有限元软件通过加载荷与加载位移两种方法对含硅类金刚石膜进行了压痕测试模拟,得到了不同硅含量类金刚石膜的硬度曲线。结果表明:两种方法的模拟结果较吻合,其中加载位移的方法较稳定,速度较快,含硅类金刚石膜的硬度随着硅含量的增加而减小;模拟结果得到了相关试验的验证。%The simulation for indentation testing of Si-containing diamond-like carbon(Si-DLC) film was carried out by infinite element simulation software Abaqus using loading and displacement methods,and the hardness of the diamond-like carbon film with different silicon contents was obtained.The results show that the two methods fit fairly well,the displacement method was fairly stable and its speed also was fairly quick,and the hardness of Si-DLC film decreased with the increase of the silicon content.The finite element simulation was in agreement with correlative experiments.

  9. Carbon nanotube-reinforced composites: frequency analysis theories based on the matrix stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sara Shayan; Dalir, Hamid; Farshidianfar, Anooshirvan

    2009-03-01

    Strong and versatile carbon nanotubes are finding new applications in improving conventional polymer-based fibers and films. This paper studies the influence of matrix stiffness and the intertube radial displacements on free vibration of an individual double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT). For this, a double elastic beam model is presented for frequency analysis in a DWNT embedded in an elastic matrix. The analysis is based on both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories which considers shear deformation and rotary inertia and for both concentric and non-concentric assumptions considering intertube radial displacements and the related internal degrees of freedom. New intertube resonant frequencies and the associated non-coaxial vibrational modes are calculated. Detailed results are demonstrated for the dependence of resonant frequencies and mode shapes on the matrix stiffness. The results indicate that internal radial displacement and surrounding matrix stiffness could substantially affect resonant frequencies especially for longer double-walled carbon nanotubes of larger innermost radius at higher resonant frequencies, and thus the latter does not keep the otherwise concentric structure at ultrahigh frequencies. Therefore, depending on the matrix stiffness, for carbon nanotubes reinforced composites, different analysis techniques should be used while the aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes has a little effect on the analysis theory which should be selected.

  10. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Naab, Fabian; Savage, Lauren; Holland, Wayne; Duggan, Jerome; McDaniel, Floyd

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen as a fuel source is an attractive, relatively clean alternative to fossil fuels. However, a major limitation in its use for the application of automobiles has been the requirement for an efficient hydrogen storage medium. Current hydrogen storage systems are: physical storage in high pressure tanks, metal hydride, and gas-on-solid absorption. However, these methods do not fulfill the Department of Energy's targeted requirements for a usable hydrogen storage capacity of 6.5 wt.%, operation near ambient temperature and pressure, quick extraction and refueling, reliability and reusability.Reports showing high capacity hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes originally prompted great excitement in the field, but further research has shown conflicting results. Results for carbon nanostructures have ranged from less than 1 wt.% to 70 wt.%. The wide range of adsorption found in previous experiments results from the difficulty in measuring hydrogen in objects just nanometers in size. Most previous experiments relied on weight analysis and residual gas analysis to determine the amount of hydrogen being adsorbed by the CNTs. These differing results encouraged us to perform our own analysis on single-walled (SWNTs), double-walled (DWNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as carbon fiber. We chose to utilize direct measurement of hydrogen in the materials using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates and the University of North Texas.

  11. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small

  12. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  13. Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki

    2011-08-11

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experiment, calculation and simulation. Our results show that the RBM frequency is linearly dependent on the axial pressure and is affected by the wave numbers. We concluded that RBM frequency can be used to characterize the axial pressure acting on both ends of a CNT.

  14. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  15. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h and H = U(h # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  16. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  17. Finite Unification: phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S; Ma, E; Mondragon, M; Zoupanos, G, E-mail: sven.heinemeyer@cern.ch, E-mail: ma@phyun8.ucr.edu, E-mail: myriarn@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: george.zoupanos@cern.ch

    2010-11-01

    We study the phenomenological implications of Finite Unified Theories (FUTs). In particular we look at the predictions for the lightest Higgs mass and the s-spectra of two all-loop finite models with SU(5) as gauge group. We also consider a two-loop finite model with gauge group SU(3){sup 3}, which is finite if and only if there are exactly three generations. In this latter model we concetrate here only on the predictions for the third generation of quark masses.

  18. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  19. Handbook of finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Poised to become the leading reference in the field, the Handbook of Finite Fields is exclusively devoted to the theory and applications of finite fields. More than 80 international contributors compile state-of-the-art research in this definitive handbook. Edited by two renowned researchers, the book uses a uniform style and format throughout and each chapter is self contained and peer reviewed. The first part of the book traces the history of finite fields through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The second part presents theoretical properties of finite fields, covering polynomials,

  20. Finite Symplectic Matrix Groups

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The finite subgroups of GL(m, Q) are those subgroups that fix a full lattice in Q^m together with some positive definite symmetric form. A subgroup of GL(m, Q) is called symplectic, if it fixes a nondegenerate skewsymmetric form. Such groups only exist if m is even. A symplectic subgroup of GL(2n, Q) is called maximal finite symplectic if it is not properly contained in some finite symplectic subgroup of GL(2n, Q). This thesis classifies all conjugacy classes of maximal finite symplectic subg...

  1. Raman imaging of millimeter-long carbon nanotubes grown by a gas flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Katsuya; Ishitani, Akihiro; Koyama, Tomohiro; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Inaba, Takumi; Shimizu, Maki; Homma, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-01

    Growing long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is an important prerequisite for practical applications of CNTs. Although gas-flow-guided chemical vapor deposition can be used to produce millimeter-long CNTs, little is known regarding the associated growth mechanism. In the present work, Raman imaging was employed to characterize individual CNTs grown by the gas flow method, and Raman images of a CNT over 1.6 mm long were obtained. Two radial breathing modes were observed and the associated Raman images exhibited exactly identical distributions, indicating that the long CNT most likely had a double-walled structure, in which the CNT diameter was uniform along the whole length.

  2. Large-scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Method and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Morinobu

    2005-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes consisting of rolled graphene layer built from sp2-units have attracted the imagination of scientists as one-dimensional macromolecules. Their unusual physical and chemical properties make them useful in the fabrication of nanocomposite, nanoelectronic device and sensor etc. In this study, the recent hot topics "highly pure and crystalline double walled carbon nanotubes" will be described because it is expected that these tubes are thermally and structurally stable, and also contain small-sized tubes (below 2 nm). Among the recent applications of carbon nanotubes, micro-catheter fabricated from high purity carbon nanotubes as filler and nylon as matrix exhibited quite low blood coagulation and also reduced thrombogenity. It is envisaged that carbon nanotubes will play an important role in the development of nano-technology in the near-future.

  3. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  4. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  5. On finitely recursive programs

    CERN Document Server

    Baselice, Sabrina; Criscuolo, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Disjunctive finitary programs are a class of logic programs admitting function symbols and hence infinite domains. They have very good computational properties, for example ground queries are decidable while in the general case the stable model semantics is highly undecidable. In this paper we prove that a larger class of programs, called finitely recursive programs, preserves most of the good properties of finitary programs under the stable model semantics, namely: (i) finitely recursive programs enjoy a compactness property; (ii) inconsistency checking and skeptical reasoning are semidecidable; (iii) skeptical resolution is complete for normal finitely recursive programs. Moreover, we show how to check inconsistency and answer skeptical queries using finite subsets of the ground program instantiation. We achieve this by extending the splitting sequence theorem by Lifschitz and Turner: We prove that if the input program P is finitely recursive, then the partial stable models determined by any smooth splittin...

  6. Frequency characteristics of triple-walled carbon nanotube gigahertz devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won [Department of Computer Engineering, Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Department of Computer System Engineering, Sangmyung University, Chonan 330-729 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkang@cjnu.ac.kr

    2008-07-16

    We explore the frequency characteristics of triple-walled carbon nanotube (TWCNT) oscillators using molecular dynamics simulations. The fast Fourier transform results of the TWCNT oscillators show both primary (f{sub 1}) and minor (f{sub 2}) peaks. The frequency characteristics of TWCNT oscillators are closely related to the amplitude (A{sub 1}) of the primary peak. Both f{sub 1} and f{sub 2} linearly increase as a function of A{sub 1} for A{sub 1}{sup -0.5}<0.45, whereas f{sub 1} and f{sub 2} slightly decrease as a function of A{sub 1} for A{sub 1}{sup -0.5}>0.45. f{sub 1} for all TWCNT oscillators is always less than the frequency of the double-walled CNT oscillators, while f{sub 2} is less than the operating frequencies of double-walled CNT oscillators for A{sub 1}{sup -0.5}<0.3. As a function of A{sub 1}{sup -0.5}, f{sub 2} was almost two times higher than f{sub 1}.

  7. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  8. Introduction to finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Kárteszi, F

    1976-01-01

    North-Holland Texts in Advanced Mathematics: Introduction to Finite Geometries focuses on the advancements in finite geometries, including mapping and combinatorics. The manuscript first offers information on the basic concepts on finite geometries and Galois geometries. Discussions focus on linear mapping of a given quadrangle onto another given quadrangle; point configurations of order 2 on a Galois plane of even order; canonical equation of curves of the second order on the Galois planes of even order; and set of collineations mapping a Galois plane onto itself. The text then ponders on geo

  9. Finite element analysis of thermal residual stresses in magnesium matrix composite reinforced by carbon nanotubes%碳纳米管增强镁基复合材料热残余应力的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维学; 张胡军; 戴剑锋; 王青

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of Ni-coating thickness on the thermal residual stress in AZ9lD magnesium matrix composite reinforced with Ni coated carbon nanotubes(Ni- CNTs/AZ91D), the distribution of the thermal residual stresses in Ni- CNTs/AZ91D composite was simulated by using finite element method(FEM)based on some experiments. The results indicate that plating Ni on CNTs' surface can greatly reduce the thermal residual stress of Ni - CNTs/AZ9lD. For the Ni - CNTs/AZ91D composite materials, the thermal residual stress achieves the minimum at the thickness of Ni-coating is 6 nm. While the thickness of Ni-coating is varying from 2 nm to 6 nm, the thermal residual stress is diminished with the increase of the thickness of Ni-coating. Once the thickness of Ni-coating is larger than 6 nm, the thermal residual stress increases with increasing the thickness of Ni-coating. Moreover, the location of thermal residual stress's maximum moves toward the interface of Ni-coating and substrate with increasing of the thickness of Ni-coating.%为了探寻Ni层厚度对镀镍碳纳米管增强AZ91D镁基复合材料(Ni-CNTs/AZ91D)中热残余应力的影响,在实验基础上,建立不同Ni层厚度时Ni-CNTs/AZ91D复合材料的有限元模型,模拟了Ni-CNTs/AZ91D复合材料中热残余应力的分布.研究发现:在碳纳米管表面镀镍能够明显降低Ni-CNTs/AZ91D复合材料中的热残余应力.Ni-CNTs/AZ91D复合材料中,热残余应力在Ni层厚度为6 nm时最小;Ni层厚度由2 nm增至6 nm时,热残余应力随着Ni层厚度的增加而减小;当Ni层厚度超过6 nm时热残余应力随着Ni层厚度的增加而增大.复合材料中热残余应力的最大值随碳纳米管表面Ni层厚度的增加向Ni层与基体的界面移动.

  10. Finite BMS transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnich, Glenn [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Troessaert, Cédric [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-03-24

    The action of finite BMS and Weyl transformations on the gravitational data at null infinity is worked out in three and four dimensions in the case of an arbitrary conformal factor for the boundary metric induced on Scri.

  11. Quarks in finite nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Guichon, P A M; Thomas, A W

    1996-01-01

    We describe the development of a theoretical description of the structure of finite nuclei based on a relativistic quark model of the structure of the bound nucleons which interact through the (self-consistent) exchange of scalar and vector mesons.

  12. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  13. Multiscale Hybrid Micro-Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Inam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT-NH2/carbon fiber (CF/epoxy hybrid micro-nanocomposite laminates were prepared by a resin infusion technique. DWCNT-NH2/epoxy nanocomposites and carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites were made for comparison. Morphological analysis of the hybrid composites was performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. A good dispersion at low loadings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in epoxy matrix was achieved by a bath ultrasonication method. Mechanical characterization of the hybrid micro-nanocomposites manufactured by a resin infusion process included three-point bending, mode I interlaminar toughness, dynamic mechanical analysis, and drop-weight impact testing. The addition of small amounts of CNTs (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 wt% to epoxy resins for the fabrication of multiscale carbon fiber composites resulted in a maximum enhancement in flexural modulus by 35%, a 5% improvement in flexural strength, a 6% improvement in absorbed impact energy, and 23% decrease in the mode I interlaminar toughness. Hybridization of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy using CNTs resulted in a reduction in and dampening characteristics, presumably as a result of the presence of micron-sized agglomerates.

  14. The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, M.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.

  15. Finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  16. The finite Bruck Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We continue the work by Aschbacher, Kinyon and Phillips [AKP] as well as of Glauberman [Glaub1,2] by describing the structure of the finite Bruck loops. We show essentially that a finite Bruck loop $X$ is the direct product of a Bruck loop of odd order with either a soluble Bruck loop of 2-power order or a product of loops related to the groups $PSL_2(q)$, $q= 9$ or $q \\geq 5$ a Fermat prime. The latter possibillity does occur as is shown in [Nag1, BS]. As corollaries we obtain versions of Sylow's, Lagrange's and Hall's Theorems for loops.

  17. Finite element mesh generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Daniel SH

    2014-01-01

    Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques

  18. Finite element modeling of nanotube structures linear and non-linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Awang, Mokhtar; Muhammad, Ibrahim Dauda

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach to modeling carbon structures such as graphene and carbon nanotubes using finite element methods, and addresses the latest advances in numerical studies for these materials. Based on the available findings, the book develops an effective finite element approach for modeling the structure and the deformation of grapheme-based materials. Further, modeling processing for single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in detail.

  19. Sound transmission through finite lightweight multilayered structures with thin air layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G; Lauriks, W

    2010-12-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of finite lightweight multilayered structures with thin air layers is studied in this paper. Two types of models are used to describe the vibro-acoustic behavior of these structures. Standard transfer matrix method assumes infinite layers and represents the plane wave propagation in the layers. A wave based model describes the direct sound transmission through a rectangular structure placed between two reverberant rooms. Full vibro-acoustic coupling between rooms, plates, and air cavities is taken into account. Comparison with double glazing measurements shows that this effect of vibro-acoustic coupling is important in lightweight double walls. For infinite structures, structural damping has no significant influence on STL below the coincidence frequency. In this frequency region, the non-resonant transmission or so-called mass-law behavior dominates sound transmission. Modal simulations suggest a large influence of structural damping on STL. This is confirmed by experiments with double fiberboard partitions and sandwich structures. The results show that for thin air layers, the damping induced by friction and viscous effects at the air gap surfaces can largely influence and improve the sound transmission characteristics.

  20. Finite q-oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atakishiyev, Natig M [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Klimyk, Anatoliy U [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Wolf, Kurt Bernardo [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-05-28

    The finite q-oscillator is a model that obeys the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator, with the operators of position, momentum and Hamiltonian being functions of elements of the q-algebra su{sub q}(2). The spectrum of position in this discrete system, in a fixed representation j, consists of 2j + 1 'sensor'-points x{sub s} = 1/2 [2s]{sub q}, s element of {l_brace}-j, -j+1, ..., j{r_brace}, and similarly for the momentum observable. The spectrum of energies is finite and equally spaced, so the system supports coherent states. The wavefunctions involve dual q-Kravchuk polynomials, which are solutions to a finite-difference Schroedinger equation. Time evolution (times a phase) defines the fractional Fourier-q-Kravchuk transform. In the classical limit as q {yields} 1 we recover the finite oscillator Lie algebra, the N = 2j {yields} {infinity} limit returns the Macfarlane-Biedenharn q-oscillator and both limits contract the generators to the standard quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.

  1. Finite q-oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Klimyk, Anatoliy U.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2004-05-01

    The finite q-oscillator is a model that obeys the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator, with the operators of position, momentum and Hamiltonian being functions of elements of the q-algebra suq(2). The spectrum of position in this discrete system, in a fixed representation j, consists of 2j + 1 'sensor'-points x_s={\\case12}[2s]_q, s\\in\\{-j,-j+1,\\ldots,j\\} , and similarly for the momentum observable. The spectrum of energies is finite and equally spaced, so the system supports coherent states. The wavefunctions involve dual q-Kravchuk polynomials, which are solutions to a finite-difference Schrödinger equation. Time evolution (times a phase) defines the fractional Fourier-q-Kravchuk transform. In the classical limit as q rarr 1 we recover the finite oscillator Lie algebra, the N = 2j rarr infin limit returns the Macfarlane-Biedenharn q-oscillator and both limits contract the generators to the standard quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.

  2. Gluons at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P J; Dudal, D; Bicudo, P; Cardoso, N

    2016-01-01

    The gluon propagator is investigated at finite temperature via lattice simulations. In particular, we discuss its interpretation as a massive-type bosonic propagator. Moreover, we compute the corresponding spectral density and study the violation of spectral positivity. Finally, we explore the dependence of the gluon propagator on the phase of the Polyakov loop.

  3. Finite unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)

    1993-09-01

    We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)

  4. Algorithms for finite rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciocanea Teodorescu I.,

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we are interested in describing algorithms that answer questions arising in ring and module theory. Our focus is on deterministic polynomial-time algorithms and rings and modules that are finite. The first main result of this thesis is a solution to the module isomorphism problem in

  5. Finite Complements in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald W. Langacker

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptual basis of finite complimentation in English.It first considem the distinguishing property of a finite clause,namely grounding,effeeted by tense and the modals.Notions crucial for clausal grounding--including a reality conception and the striving for control at the effective and epistemic levelsalso figure in the semantic import of eomplementation.An essential feature of complement constructions is the involvement of multiple conceptualizers,each with their own conception of reality.The different types of complement and their grammatical markings can be characterized on this basis.Finite complements differ from other types by virtue of expressing an autonomous proposition capable of being apprehended by multiple conceptualizers,each from their own vantage point.Acognitive model representing phases in the striving for epistemic control provides a partial basis for the semantic description of predicates taking finite complements.The same model supports the description of both personal and impersonal complement constructions.

  6. Algorithms for finite rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciocanea Teodorescu I.,

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we are interested in describing algorithms that answer questions arising in ring and module theory. Our focus is on deterministic polynomial-time algorithms and rings and modules that are finite. The first main result of this thesis is a solution to the module isomorphism problem in

  7. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  8. 工具式围堰在桥梁墩柱维修中的应用%Operation Method of the Tool-typed Recycling Double Wall Steel Cofferdam in Wate-pier Reinforcement Engineering in the Spring Tide of Poor Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昂; 吴中鑫; 朱慈祥

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,in the engineering background of detection and reinforcement project of the No.14~18 Pier of a bridge,the construction method of the Tool-Typed Double Wall Steel Cofferdam in the bridge of low clearance flyovers which is removable and recyclable in the spring tide of poor wa-ter is introduced.In the method,the factors,the spring tide of poor water,low clearance flyovers, and details of design and fabrication of the steel cofferdams are considered.An application example shows that the method can reduce construction time,cost,energy conservation and environmental protection..%以某桥梁15~18号桥墩检测加固项目为工程背景,介绍了某桥梁高潮差低净空下的工具式可拆卸循环利用双壁钢围堰使用方法,该工具式可拆卸循环利用双壁钢围堰的施工考虑了涨落潮变化、桥下净空较小等环境因素,以及围堰及辅助措施的设计、制作安装。应用证明,该方法具有减少施工工期、降低成本、节能环保等特点。

  9. 核电站双层安全壳施工技术的创新和需要研讨的问题%The Construction Technique Innovation for the Double-wall Containment of NPP and the Problems Needed for Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开华; 魏建国; 秦亚林; 钱伏华; 孙春峰; 周书奎; 杨金辉

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the innovation of construction techniques of nuclear power plant double wall containment. Such as double hull construction sequence, template selection,reinforcing bar banding,embedded parts of installation,concrete configuration,prestressed tensioning,steel lining board installation,digitization and innovation of management information systems, etc. And according to the characteristics of the double shell construction,the need to continue improving the technical problems is put forward.%本文叙述了核电站双层安全壳施工技术的创新。诸如双壳施工顺序、模板选用、钢筋绑扎、预埋件安装、混凝土配置、预应力张拉、钢衬里安装、数字化和管理信息系统等方面的创新。并根据双壳施工特点,提出了需要继续改进的技术问题。

  10. Differential calculi on finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of bicovariant differential calculi on finite groups is given, with some new developments on diffeomorphisms and integration. We illustrate the general theory with the example of the nonabelian finite group S_3.

  11. Finite unified theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, M [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G, E-mail: myriam@fisica.unam.m, E-mail: zoupanos@mail.cern.c [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus: Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 GUTs in which a complete reduction of couplings has been achieved. FUTs realize an old field theoretical dream and have remarkable predictive power. Reduction of dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exists RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of the beta-functions in certain N=1 supersymmetric GUTS even to all orders. Furthermore, developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations also in this dimensionful sector of the theories. Of particular interest for the construction of realistic theories is a RGI sum rule for the soft scalar masses holding to all orders.

  12. Finite Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We hereby present a class of multidimensional higher derivative theories of gravity that realizes an ultraviolet completion of Einstein general relativity. This class is marked by a "non-polynomal" entire function (form factor), which averts extra degrees of freedom (including ghosts) and improves the high energy behavior of the loop amplitudes. By power counting arguments, it is proved that the theory is super-renormalizable in any dimension, i.e. only one-loop divergences survive. Furthermore, in odd dimensions there are no counter terms for pure gravity and the theory turns out to be "finite." Finally, considering the infinite tower of massive states coming from dimensional reduction, quantum gravity is finite in even dimension as well.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Effect on Flexural Bending Capacity of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Simply Beams with Carbon Fiber Cloth%碳纤维布加固带裂缝钢筋砼简支梁抗弯性能有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汪阳; 毛毳

    2012-01-01

    Considering the finite element model of initial load, 2 groups which were established respectively (each group contained 6 reinforced concrete simply beams)were simulated by the ANSYS finite element software. The paper analyzed the influence of the fracture form, raising rate of the bending capacity and carbon fiber layers on the strengthening effect. The results demonstrated that the strengthening effect was closely bound up with beam longitudinal tension reinforcement ratio and carbon fiber cloth layers. The more adequate the steel reinforcement utilization rate was, the more significantly the bending capacity of the bending component with small longitudinal reinforcement ratio would be improved. It did not mean that more carbon fiber cloth layers was better. The reinforced effect with three or four layers was the best.%利用ANSYS有限元软件,分别建立两组(每组包含六根钢筋混凝土简支梁)考虑初始荷载的分离式有限元模型进行数值模拟,对加固后梁的破坏形态,屈服承载力、极限承载力提高幅度和碳纤维粘贴层数对加固效果的影响进行了分析.结果表明:梁纵向受拉钢筋的配筋率及碳纤维布粘贴层数与其加固效果密切相关;纵向配筋率较小,受拉钢筋利用越充分的简支梁,其抗弯承载力提高幅度越明显;碳纤维布层数增加并非越多越好,粘贴三或四层时效果最佳.

  14. Confinement at Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nuno; Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco

    2017-05-01

    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed on the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the squared strengths of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the critical temperature. Our results are for pure gauge SU(3) gauge theory, they are invariant and all computations are done with GPUs using CUDA.

  15. Experimental Methods for Implementing Graphene Contacts to Finite Bandgap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob

    for molecular electronics with parallel CVD graphene bottom electrodes with SiO2 passivation was successfully fabricated and electronically characterized. A functioning Carbon Burger was not achieved. Along the work on the Carbon Burger, the scope was broadened and focus was put on implementing graphene......Present Ph.D. thesis describes my work on implanting graphene as electrical contact to finite bandgap semiconductors. Different transistor architectures, types of graphene and finite bandgap semiconductors have been employed. The device planned from the beginning of my Ph.D. fellowship...... was a graphene-C60 monolayergraphene vertical transistor named the Carbon Burger. The fabrication of such device proved increasingly difficult to achieve and many experimental methods to handle graphene were implemented and improved in attempt to fabricate the Carbon Burger. In the end, a device platform...

  16. Dynamical parametric instability of carbon nanotubes under axial harmonic excitation by nonlocal continuum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ze; Li, Feng-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Structures under parametric load can be induced to the parametric instability in which the excitation frequency is located the instability region. In the present work, the parametric instability of double-walled carbon nanotubes is studied. The axial harmonic excitation is considered and the nonlocal continuum theory is applied. The critical equation is derived as the Mathieu form by the Galerkin's theory and the instability condition is presented with the Bolotin's method. Numerical calculations are performed and it can be seen that the van der Waals interaction can enhance the stability of double-walled nanotubes under the parametric excitation. The parametric instability becomes more obvious with the matrix stiffness decreasing and small scale coefficient increasing. The parametric instability is going to be more significant for higher mode numbers. For the nanosystem with the soft matrix and higher mode number, the small scale coefficient and the ratio of the length to the diameter have obvious influences on the starting point of the instability region.

  17. Combinatorics of finite sets

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Coherent treatment provides comprehensive view of basic methods and results of the combinatorial study of finite set systems. The Clements-Lindstrom extension of the Kruskal-Katona theorem to multisets is explored, as is the Greene-Kleitman result concerning k-saturated chain partitions of general partially ordered sets. Connections with Dilworth's theorem, the marriage problem, and probability are also discussed. Each chapter ends with a helpful series of exercises and outline solutions appear at the end. ""An excellent text for a topics course in discrete mathematics."" - Bulletin of the Ame

  18. Finite Density Fat QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, R; Di Carlo, G; Galante, A; Grillo, A F

    2000-01-01

    Lattice formulation of Finite Baryon Density QCD is problematic from computer simulation point of view; it is well known that for light quark masses the reconstructed partition function fails to be positive in a wide region of parameter space. For large bare quark masses, instead, it is possible to obtain more sensible results; problems are still present but restricted to a small region. We present evidence for a saturation transition independent from the gauge coupling $\\beta$ and for a transition line that, starting from the temperature critical point at $\\mu=0$, moves towards smaller $\\beta$ with increasing $\\mu$ as expected from simplified phenomenological arguments.

  19. Differentiation of chemical reaction activity of various carbon nanotubes using redox potential: Classification by physical and chemical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hidetoshi; Castranova, Vincent; Porter, Dale W; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Saito, Naoto; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Endo, Morinobu

    2015-12-01

    The present study systematically examined the kinetics of a hydroxyl radical scavenging reaction of various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and MWCNTs), and carbon nano peapods (AuCl3@DWCNT). The theoretical model that we recently proposed based on the redox potential of CNTs was used to analyze the experimental results. The reaction kinetics for DWCNTs and thin MWCNTs agreed well with the theoretical model and was consistent with each other. On the other hand, thin and thick MWCNTs behaved differently, which was consistent with the theory. Additionally, surface morphology of CNTs substantially influenced the reaction kinetics, while the doped particles in the center hollow parts of CNTs (AuCl3@DWCNT) shifted the redox potential in a different direction. These findings make it possible to predict the chemical and biological reactivity of CNTs based on the structural and chemical nature and their influence on the redox potential.

  20. Structural studies of carbon nanotubes by powder x-ray diffraction at SPring-8 and KEK PF

    CERN Document Server

    Maniwa, Y; Fujiwara, A

    2003-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using synchrotron radiation are reported. In spite of the observed broad XRD peak profiles of two-dimensional triangular (hexagonal) lattice of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it was shown that useful structural information, such as the tube diameter and its distribution, can be deduced from detailed analysis of the characteristic XRD patterns. In particular, powder-XRD measurements were performed to study the phase transition of encapsulated materials inside SWNTs. In the C sub 7 sub 0 -one dimensional (1D) crystals formed inside SWNTs, importance of one-dimensionality in the C sub 7 sub 0 -molecular dynamics was suggested. It was also shown that water inside SWNTs undergoes a phase transition from liquid to an ice-nanotube structure below -38degC. Conversion process from SWNT to double-wall carbon nanotube (DWNT) was also studied by XRD.

  1. Dynamic torsional buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengqi Sun; Kaixin Liu; Guoxing Lu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the dynamic torsional buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied by using a continuum mechan-ics model. By introducing initial imperfections for MWNTs and applying the preferred mode analytical method, a buck-ling condition is derived for the buckling load and associ-ated buckling mode. In particular, explicit expressions are obtained for embedded double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). Numerical results show that, for both the DWNTs and embedded DWNTs, the buckling form shifts from the lower buckling mode to the higher buckling mode with increasing the buckling load, but the buckling mode is invari-able for a certain domain of the buckling load. It is also indicated that, the surrounding elastic medium generally has effect on the lower buckling mode of DWNTs only when compared with the corresponding one for individual DWNTs.

  2. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BURST PRESSURE FOR CARBON FIBER WRAPPED COMPOSITE CYLINDERS%碳纤维缠绕复合气瓶爆破压力的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段成红; 吴祥; 罗翔鹏

    2012-01-01

    本文主要采用有限元法分析复合气瓶的爆破,按最大应力准则和最大应变准则预测爆破压力,并与《DOT CFFC》标准规定的最小爆破压力进行比较,计算误差百分比,由误差百分比分析得出,按最大应变准则预测爆破压力较为接近最小爆破压力,对工程实践有较大的指导意义.%In this paper, the bursting of composite cylinders is analyzed with the finite element method. The burst pressure is predicted according to the maximum stress criterion and the maximum strain criterion. The predicted results are compared with the minimum burst pressure regulated by the DOT CFFC standard, and the percentage error is calculated. By analyzing the percentage error, it can be concluded that the burst pressure predicted with maximum strain criterion is more approximate to the minimum burst pressure. The finite element analysis results in this paper are conducive to the engineering practice.

  3. Finite quantum gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Piva, Marco; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular, Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of the running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction. Our calculations are done in D =4 , but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely, the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite, we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular, in QED. Without any potential, the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).

  4. Finite, primitive and euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Khalimsky

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Integer and digital spaces are playing a significant role in digital image processing, computer graphics, computer tomography, robot vision, and many other fields dealing with finitely or countable many objects. It is proven here that every finite T0-space is a quotient space of a subspace of some simplex, i.e. of some subspace of a Euclidean space. Thus finite and digital spaces can be considered as abstract simplicial structures of subspaces of Euclidean spaces. Primitive subspaces of finite, digital, and integer spaces are introduced. They prove to be useful in the investigation of connectedness structure, which can be represented as a poset, and also in consideration of the dimension of finite spaces. Essentially T0-spaces and finitely connected and primitively path connected spaces are discussed.

  5. Exciton Dynamics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Matt [University of California, Berkeley; Chmeliov, Javgenij [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Ma, Yingzhong [ORNL; Shinohara, Nori [Nagoya University, Japan; Green, Alexander A. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Valkunas, Leonas [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Fleming, Graham [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    We report femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic study on the (6, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes and the (7, 5) inner tubes of a dominant double-walled carbon nanotube species. We found that the dynamics of exciton relaxation probed at the first transition-allowed state (E11) of a given tube type exhibits a markedly slower decay when the second transition-allowed state (E22) is excited than that measured by exciting its first transition-allowed state (E11). A linear intensity dependence of the maximal amplitude of the transient absorption signal is found for the E22 excitation, whereas the corresponding amplitude scales linearly with the square root of the E11 excitation intensity. Theoretical modeling of these experimental findings was performed by developing a continuum model and a stochastic model with explicit consideration of the annihilation of coherent excitons. Our detailed numerical simulations show that both models can reproduce reasonably well the initial portion of decay kinetics measured upon the E22 and E11 excitation of the chosen tube species, but the stochastic model gives qualitatively better agreement with the intensity dependence observed experimentally than those obtained with the continuum model.

  6. Finite Random Domino Automaton

    CERN Document Server

    Bialecki, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Finite version of Random Domino Automaton (FRDA) - recently proposed a toy model of earthquakes - is investigated. Respective set of equations describing stationary state of the FRDA is derived and compared with infinite case. It is shown that for the system of big size, these equations are coincident with RDA equations. We demonstrate a non-existence of exact equations for size N bigger then 4 and propose appropriate approximations, the quality of which is studied in examples obtained within Markov chains framework. We derive several exact formulas describing properties of the automaton, including time aspects. In particular, a way to achieve a quasi-periodic like behaviour of RDA is presented. Thus, based on the same microscopic rule - which produces exponential and inverse-power like distributions - we extend applicability of the model to quasi-periodic phenomena.

  7. Finite energy electroweak dyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.M. [Konkuk University, Administration Building 310-4, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    The latest MoEDAL experiment at LHC to detect the electroweak monopole makes the theoretical prediction of the monopole mass an urgent issue. We discuss three different ways to estimate the mass of the electroweak monopole. We first present the dimensional and scaling arguments which indicate the monopole mass to be around 4 to 10 TeV. To justify this we construct finite energy analytic dyon solutions which could be viewed as the regularized Cho-Maison dyon, modifying the coupling strength at short distance. Our result demonstrates that a genuine electroweak monopole whose mass scale is much smaller than the grand unification scale can exist, which can actually be detected at the present LHC. (orig.)

  8. Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Fracture Toughness of Pyrolytic Carbon in Prosthetic Heart Valve%人工心瓣热解炭断裂韧性有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建辉; 邢兴

    2012-01-01

    This article used ANSYS to conduct simulation analysis of compact tension and 3 points bending test for the isotropic pyrolytic carbon and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite composite material used in heart valve prosthesis, calculated the plane strain fracture toughness KIC and compared the calculated results with the results of related experiments, then analyzed the effectiveness of the method that used ANSYS to calculate KIC as well as the influence of the thickness ratio of the coating and substrate and crack tip radius for the KIC of pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite composite material. Results showed that the KIC of the pure pyrolytic carbon and graphite material were respectively 1. 176 MPa √m and 1. 415 MPa √m, which were close to the results of related experiments, verifying the accuracy of using ANSYS to calculate KIC ; the KIC of composite material of pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite reduced with the increase of thickness ratio for the coating and substrate. The fracture toughness of composite material was better than that of pure pyrolytic carbon or graphite composite material when the thickness ratio of coating and substrate was on the low side; pyrolitic carbon-coated graphite had a limit notch root radius p0, which was about 5 μm, when the notch root radius p >p0, the measured value of KIC was proportional to p1/2 , and when p < po, the measured value of KIC was in line with the value of samples with sharp crack.%利用有限元分析软件ANSYS,对人工心瓣各向同性热解炭和热解炭包覆石墨复合材料进行紧凑拉伸以及三点弯曲实验仿真分析,计算材料的平面应变断裂韧性KIC,并将计算结果与相关实验结果进行对比,分析利用ANSYS计算KIC方法的有效性,以及涂层与基体厚度比、裂纹尖端半径对热解炭包覆石墨复合材料KIC值的影响.结果表明,纯热解炭和石墨材料的ANSYS计算KIC值分别为1.176 MPa√m以及1.415 MPa√m,与相关实验结果接近,验证

  10. Finite groups with transitive semipermutability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifang WANG; Yanming WANG

    2008-01-01

    A group G is said to be a T-group (resp. PT-group, PST-group), if normality (resp. permutability, S-permutability) is a transitive relation. In this paper, we get the characterization of finite solvable PST-groups. We also give a new characterization of finite solvable PT-groups.

  11. THE FINITE-STATE PLAYGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hammond

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Finite-state methods are finding ever increasing use among linguists as a way of modeling phonology and morphology and as a method for manipulating and modeling text. This paper describes a suite of very simple finite-state tools written by the author that can be used to investigate this area and that can be used for simple analysis.

  12. Solution of Finite Element Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...

  13. In silico assembly and nanomechanical characterization of carbon nanotube buckypaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-07-01

    Carbon nanotube sheets or films, also known as 'buckypaper', have been proposed for use in actuating, structural and filtration systems, based in part on their unique and robust mechanical properties. Computational modeling of such a fibrous nanostructure is hindered by both the random arrangement of the constituent elements as well as the time- and length-scales accessible to atomistic level molecular dynamics modeling. Here we present a novel in silico assembly procedure based on a coarse-grain model of carbon nanotubes, used to attain a representative mesoscopic buckypaper model that circumvents the need for probabilistic approaches. By variation in assembly parameters, including the initial nanotube density and ratio of nanotube type (single- and double-walled), the porosity of the resulting buckypaper can be varied threefold, from approximately 0.3 to 0.9. Further, through simulation of nanoindentation, the Young's modulus is shown to be tunable through manipulation of nanotube type and density over a range of approximately 0.2-3.1 GPa, in good agreement with experimental findings of the modulus of assembled carbon nanotube films. In addition to carbon nanotubes, the coarse-grain model and assembly process can be adapted for other fibrous nanostructures such as electrospun polymeric composites, high performance nonwoven ballistic materials, or fibrous protein aggregates, facilitating the development and characterization of novel nanomaterials and composites as well as the analysis of biological materials such as protein fiber films and bulk structures.

  14. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, MA

    2013-01-01

    This second volume in the Progress in Electromagnetic Research series examines recent advances in computational electromagnetics, with emphasis on scattering, as brought about by new formulations and algorithms which use finite element or finite difference techniques. Containing contributions by some of the world's leading experts, the papers thoroughly review and analyze this rapidly evolving area of computational electromagnetics. Covering topics ranging from the new finite-element based formulation for representing time-harmonic vector fields in 3-D inhomogeneous media using two coupled sca

  16. A finiteness result for post-critically finite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of complex points in the moduli space of polynomials of degree d corresponding to post-critically finite polynomials is a set of algebraic points of bounded height. It follows that for any B, the set of conjugacy classes of post-critically finite polynomials of degree d with coefficients of algebraic degree at most B is a finite and effectively computable set. In the case d=3 and B=1 we perform this computation. The proof of the main result comes down to finding a relation between the "naive" height on the moduli space, and Silverman's critical height.

  17. quadratic spline finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bahadir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.

  18. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  19. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  20. Finite volume form factors and correlation functions at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pozsgay, Balázs

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate finite size effects in 1+1 dimensional integrable QFT. In particular we consider matrix elements of local operators (finite volume form factors) and vacuum expectation values and correlation functions at finite temperature. In the first part of the thesis we give a complete description of the finite volume form factors in terms of the infinite volume form factors (solutions of the bootstrap program) and the S-matrix of the theory. The calculations are correct to all orders in the inverse of the volume, only exponentially decaying (residual) finite size effects are neglected. We also consider matrix elements with disconnected pieces and determine the general rule for evaluating such contributions in a finite volume. The analytic results are tested against numerical data obtained by the truncated conformal space approach in the Lee-Yang model and the Ising model in a magnetic field. In a separate section we also evaluate the leading exponential correction (the $\\mu$-term) associate...

  1. Shock behavior of carbon nanotubes at pressures up to 100 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ev, Sergey; Milyavskiy, Vladimir; Schlothauer, Thomas; Mases, Mattias; Waldbock, Jeremy; Dossot, Manuel; Devaux, Xavier; McRae, Edward; Soldatov, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Recent experiments in a diamond anvil cell demonstrate high structural stability of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) exposed to a static pressure of 35 GPa. Here we report on the study of DWNTs after application of stepwise shock compression in a recovery assembly. Peak shock pressures in the specimens were achieved by several reverberations of waves between the walls of the recovery ampoules and were 14, 19, 26, 36, 52 and 98 GPa. The recovered samples were characterized by Raman, XPS and HRTEM and revealed outer wall disruption along with shortening of the DWNTs and unzipping of the DWNTs accompanying by the formation of gpaphene sheets. Structural damage of the DWNTs increases with the shock pressure. Simultaneously, the Raman data exhibit a steep increase of D/G-band intensity ratio. The work was supported by RFBR (12-08-01284-a), by Swedish Institute (00906-2009), and by the French National Research Agency (ANR-10-BLAN-0819-01-SPRINT).

  2. Iodine doped carbon nanotube cables exceeding specific electrical conductivity of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Wei, Jinquan; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2011-09-01

    Creating highly electrically conducting cables from macroscopic aggregates of carbon nanotubes, to replace metallic wires, is still a dream. Here we report the fabrication of iodine-doped, double-walled nanotube cables having electrical resistivity reaching ~10-7 Ω.m. Due to the low density, their specific conductivity (conductivity/weight) is higher than copper and aluminum and is only just below that of the highest specific conductivity metal, sodium. The cables exhibit high current-carrying capacity of 104~105 A/cm2 and can be joined together into arbitrary length and diameter, without degradation of their electrical properties. The application of such nanotube cables is demonstrated by partly replacing metal wires in a household light bulb circuit. The conductivity variation as a function of temperature for the cables is five times smaller than that for copper. The high conductivity nanotube cables could find a range of applications, from low dimensional interconnects to transmission lines.

  3. Language dynamics in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-04-01

    Any mechanism of language acquisition can only learn a restricted set of grammars. The human brain contains a mechanism for language acquisition which can learn a restricted set of grammars. The theory of this restricted set is universal grammar (UG). UG has to be sufficiently specific to induce linguistic coherence in a population. This phenomenon is known as "coherence threshold". Previously, we have calculated the coherence threshold for deterministic dynamics and infinitely large populations. Here, we extend the framework to stochastic processes and finite populations. If there is selection for communicative function (selective language dynamics), then the analytic results for infinite populations are excellent approximations for finite populations; as expected, finite populations need a slightly higher accuracy of language acquisition to maintain coherence. If there is no selection for communicative function (neutral language dynamics), then linguistic coherence is only possible for finite populations.

  4. Combinatorial Properties of Finite Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hubicka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We study countable embedding-universal and homomorphism-universal structures and unify results related to both of these notions. We show that many universal and ultrahomogeneous structures allow a concise description (called here a finite presentation). Extending classical work of Rado (for the random graph), we find a finite presentation for each of the following classes: homogeneous undirected graphs, homogeneous tournaments and homogeneous partially ordered sets. We also give a finite presentation of the rational Urysohn metric space and some homogeneous directed graphs. We survey well known structures that are finitely presented. We focus on structures endowed with natural partial orders and prove their universality. These partial orders include partial orders on sets of words, partial orders formed by geometric objects, grammars, polynomials and homomorphism orders for various combinatorial objects. We give a new combinatorial proof of the existence of embedding-universal objects for homomorphism-defined...

  5. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L

    2013-01-01

    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  6. Test Simulation using Finite Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M B; Abdullah, S; Nuawi, M Z; Ariffin, A K, E-mail: abgbas@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The dynamic responses of the standard Charpy impact machine are experimentally studied using the relevant data acquisition system, for the purpose of obtaining the impact response. For this reason, the numerical analysis by means of the finite element method has been used for experiment findings. Modelling of the charpy test was performed in order to obtain strain in the striker during the test. Two types of standard charpy specimens fabricated from different materials, i.e. aluminium 6061 and low carbon steel 1050, were used for the impact simulation testing. The related parameters on between different materials, energy absorbed, strain signal, power spectrum density (PSD) and the relationship between those parameters was finally correlated and discussed.

  7. Nonlinear Vibrations of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Various Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aminikhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with applying the homotopy perturbation method to the problem of the nonlinear oscillations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium under various boundary conditions. A multiple-beam model is utilized in which the governing equations of each layer are coupled with those of its adjacent ones via the van der Waals interlayer forces. The amplitude-frequency curves for large-amplitude vibrations of single-walled, double-walled, and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are obtained. The influences of some commonly used boundary conditions, changes in material constant of the surrounding elastic medium, and variations of the nanotubes geometrical parameters on the vibration characteristics of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are discussed. The comparison of the generated results with those from the open literature illustrates that the solutions obtained are of very high accuracy and clarifies the capability and the simplicity of the present method. It is worthwhile to say that the results generated are new and can be served as a benchmark for future works.

  8. Rigid Pillars and Double Walls in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework:Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal ,Controlled Uptake and Release of Iodine and Electrical Conductivity%刚性柱双π墙金属有机框架:单晶到单晶结构转换,碘富集与缓释,协同导电性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明华; 李丹丹; 殷政; 王强心; 张东材

    2012-01-01

    The first high stable micro-porous metal-organic framework with rigid pillars and double-walls, Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2 o 2. 5DMF (1) was constructed from infinite pillars {[Zn3(Z)L-lac)2]2+ and 4-pyridyl benzoate (pybz) which is long,polar and ditopic at the opposite ends through the pyridine and the carboxylate under solvothermal reaction. 1 crystallized in tetragonal PA21c space group. There are ID channels running along the c axis with window size of 1. 12×1. 02 nm2 in 1. A void volume of 43. o% was calculated by PLATON. A Langmuir surface area of 918. 5 m2 o g~3 further confirms the permanent porosity of complex 1'. The framework of 1 is highly stable up to 400℃ which is confirmed by TG and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction measurement.Guest removed phase Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2(l') can be obtained through single-crystal to single-crystal transformation. 1' shows outstanding iodine enrichment ability in cyclohexane solution of I2 and one gram of 1' can absorb approximately 1 g of iodine to obtain {[Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2] o 3I2}"(1' o 3I2X 1' o 3I2 shows controlled iodine releasing in ethanol solvent. The potential inter molecular interactions between I2 and it-electron walls induced n→ σ charge* transfer and resulted in cooperative electrical conductivity for of lυ)3I2,hich is about 440 times higher than iodine. A special phenomena was found that increased electrical conductivity resulted from cooperative interaction between insulating guests and insulating coordination polymers for the first time.%本文在溶剂热条件下利用刚性柱型金属手性配位链(Zn-lactate),辅助于三角架桥联配体(pybz)构筑了目前第一例高稳定性、双π墙的纳米孔道配位聚合物Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2·2.5DMF(1).化合物1具有孔径为1.12 nm×1.02 nm的一维纳米通道,其孔洞率Vvoid为43.5%,Langmuir比表面积为918.5m2·g-1,热稳定性高达400℃.化合物1通过晶态转换的方式得到去客体化合物Zn3 (pybz)2 (lac)2(1′).1′在碘

  9. Infinite to finite: An overview of finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srirekha A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of finite elements was developed at perfectly right times; growing computer capacities, growing human skills and industry demands for ever faster and cost effective product development providing unlimited possibilities for the researching community. This paper reviews the basic concept, current status, advances, advantages, limitations and applications of finite element method (FEM in restorative dentistry and endodontics. Finite element method is able to reveal the otherwise inaccessible stress distribution within the tooth-restoration complex and it has proven to be a useful tool in the thinking process for the understanding of tooth biomechanics and the biomimetic approach in restorative dentistry. Further improvement of the non-linear FEM solutions should be encouraged to widen the range of applications in dental and oral health science.

  10. A Finite Speed Curzon-Ahlborn Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Curzon and Ahlborn achieved finite power output by introducing the concept of finite rate of heat transfer in a Carnot engine. The finite power can also be achieved through a finite speed of the piston on the four branches of the Carnot cycle. The present paper combines these two approaches to study the behaviour of output power in terms of…

  11. Geometrical Underpinning of Finite Dimensional Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Revzen, M

    2011-01-01

    Finite geometry is employed to underpin operators in finite, d, dimensional Hilbert space. The central role of Hilbert space operators that form mutual unbiased bases (MUB) states projectors is exhibited. Interrelation among them revealed through their (finite) dual affine plane geometry (DAPG) underpinning is studied. Transcription to (finite) affine plane geometry (APG) is given and utilized for their interpretation.

  12. Geometrical Underpinning of Finite Dimensional Hilbert space

    OpenAIRE

    Revzen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Finite geometry is employed to underpin operators in finite, d, dimensional Hilbert space. The central role of mutual unbiased bases (MUB) states projectors is exhibited. Interrelation among operators in Hilbert space, revealed through their (finite) dual affine plane geometry (DAPG) underpinning is studied. Transcription to (finite) affine plane geometry (APG) is given and utilized for their interpretation.

  13. Combinatorial Properties of Finite Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Jan

    2010-09-01

    We study countable embedding-universal and homomorphism-universal structures and unify results related to both of these notions. We show that many universal and ultrahomogeneous structures allow a concise description (called here a finite presentation). Extending classical work of Rado (for the random graph), we find a finite presentation for each of the following classes: homogeneous undirected graphs, homogeneous tournaments and homogeneous partially ordered sets. We also give a finite presentation of the rational Urysohn metric space and some homogeneous directed graphs. We survey well known structures that are finitely presented. We focus on structures endowed with natural partial orders and prove their universality. These partial orders include partial orders on sets of words, partial orders formed by geometric objects, grammars, polynomials and homomorphism orders for various combinatorial objects. We give a new combinatorial proof of the existence of embedding-universal objects for homomorphism-defined classes of structures. This relates countable embedding-universal structures to homomorphism dualities (finite homomorphism-universal structures) and Urysohn metric spaces. Our explicit construction also allows us to show several properties of these structures.

  14. Finiteness conditions for unions of semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghazalh, Nabilah Hani

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we prove the following: The semigroup which is a disjoint union of two or three copies of a group is a Clifford semigroup, Rees matrix semigroup or a combination between a Rees matrix semigroup and a group. Furthermore, the semigroup which is a disjoint union of finitely many copies of a finitely presented (residually finite) group is finitely presented (residually finite) semigroup. The constructions of the semigroup which is a disjoint union of two copies of the f...

  15. Superrosy dependent groups having finitely satisfiable generics

    CERN Document Server

    Ealy, Clifton; Pillay, Anand

    2007-01-01

    We study a model theoretic context (finite thorn rank, NIP, with finitely satisfiable generics) which is a common generalization of groups of finite Morley rank and definably compact groups in o-minimal structures. We show that assuming thorn rank 1, the group is abelian-by-finite, and assuming thorn rank 2 the group is solvable by finite. Also a field is algebraically closed.

  16. Radon Transform in Finite Dimensional Hilbert Space

    OpenAIRE

    Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel analysis of finite dimensional Hilbert space is outlined. The approach bypasses general, inherent, difficulties present in handling angular variables in finite dimensional problems: The finite dimensional, d, Hilbert space operators are underpinned with finite geometry which provide intuitive perspective to the physical operators. The analysis emphasizes a central role for projectors of mutual unbiased bases (MUB) states, extending thereby their use in finite dimensional quantum mechani...

  17. Sound radiation from finite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...... in the radiation formula directly, and no pre-windowing is needed. Examples are given for the radiation efficiency, and the results are compared with results found in the literature....

  18. Second order tensor finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.

  19. Finite element methods for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...

  20. Finite and profinite quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vourdas, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...

  1. Numerical computation of transonic flows by finite-element and finite-difference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. M.; Wellford, L. C.; Merkle, C. L.; Murman, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on applications of the finite element approach to transonic flow calculations are reported. Different discretization techniques of the differential equations and boundary conditions are compared. Finite element analogs of Murman's mixed type finite difference operators for small disturbance formulations were constructed and the time dependent approach (using finite differences in time and finite elements in space) was examined.

  2. Variational collocation on finite intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Cervantes, Mayra [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Diag. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-10-26

    In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others.

  3. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2006-01-01

    Character theory is a powerful tool for understanding finite groups. In particular, the theory has been a key ingredient in the classification of finite simple groups. Characters are also of interest in their own right, and their properties are closely related to properties of the structure of the underlying group. The book begins by developing the module theory of complex group algebras. After the module-theoretic foundations are laid in the first chapter, the focus is primarily on characters. This enhances the accessibility of the material for students, which was a major consideration in the

  4. Finite elements of nonlinear continua

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J T

    2000-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate and graduate students, this text extends applications of the finite element method from linear problems in elastic structures to a broad class of practical, nonlinear problems in continuum mechanics. It treats both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view.The text reviews the thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method, and then brings them together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of these models are analyzed, along with the numerical s

  5. Existentially closed locally finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We investigate this class of groups originally called ulf (universal locally finite groups) of cardinality lambda . We prove that for every locally finite group G there is a canonical existentially closed extention of the same cardinality, unique up to isomorphism and increasing with G . Also we get, e.g. existence of complete members (i.e. with no non-inner automorphisms) in many cardinals (provably in ZFC). We also get a parallel to stability theory in the sense of investigating definable types.

  6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  7. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the

  8. Finite-dimensional (*)-serial algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional associative algebra with identity over a field k. In this paper we introduce the concept of (*)-serial algebras which is a generalization of serial algebras. We investigate the properties of (*)-serial algebras, and we obtain suficient and necessary conditions for an associative algebra to be (*)-serial.

  9. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  10. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  11. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the sam

  12. Critical Phenomena in Finite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonasera, A; Chiba, S

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of finite systems within molecular dynamics models. Signatures of a critical behavior are analyzed and compared to experimental data both in nucleus-nucleus and metallic cluster collisions. We suggest the possibility to explore the instability region via tunneling. In this way we can obtain fragments at very low temperatures and densities. We call these fragments quantum drops.

  13. 基于ANSYS的碳纤维连续抽油杆作业车侧翻稳定性的有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of the Roll Stability for Continuous Carbon Fiber Sucker Rod Busywork Unit Based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新国; 孙亮; 王二化

    2014-01-01

    The application of the continuous carbon fiber sucker rod pumping system is successful preliminarily in the oilfields of our country,and has shown great economic value to promote to large area. A continuous carbon fiber sucker rod busywork unit is devel-oped in which the sucker rod lifting (setting down)and the sucker rod coiling are driven separately. In order to prevent the busywork unit to roll,a math-model which included 242 nodes and 228 elements was set up for the finite element analysis (FEA),and solved by using ANSYS FEA software. By calculation and analysis,it is proved that the vehicle will not roll over in routine operation,and its o-verall structural design is reasonable. And this designed model has certain value to further research.%碳纤维连续抽油杆采油系统在我国油田的应用获得了初步的成功,并显示出其大面积推广的巨大经济价值。一种将杆柱起升(下放)与杆柱缠绕分别驱动的新型碳纤维连续抽油杆作业车被研制出来。为了防止该作业车侧翻,建立了由242个节点和228个单元组成的有限元分析数学模型,并用ANSYS通用有限元软件进行求解。经过计算和分析,得出该作业车正常工作时不会侧翻,该车整体结构设计是合理的。另外,所设计的数学模型有一定的使用价值和更深入研究的参考价值。

  14. LOAD DISTRIBUTION AND FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATION OF T800 CARBON FIBER HYPER JOINTS COMPOSITE LAMINATES%T800碳纤维复合材料混合连接层合板钉载分布及有限元计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明星

    2011-01-01

    采用自动铺带工艺制得混合连接的T800碳纤维复合材料层压板试验件,通过轴向拉伸测试,测得了整个试验件的载荷-位移曲线和每一个钉孔附近的应变-载荷曲线.试验结果表明,首末两排钉承担载荷最大,中间排钉载最小.模量相对较大的胶层阻止了钉载的有效传递,破坏模式主要为钉孔挤压和层合板拉伸破坏.建立了相应的有限元模型,模拟结果和试验结果的一致说明了有限元模型的合理性.%T800 carbon fiber hyper joints composite laminates samples were produced with automated tape-lay ing process. Load-displacement curves of whole composite samples under axial tensile load were obtained, and strain-load curves were available through the strain flowers around the holes. The results show that the first and last rows fasteners carry the most load and the middle ones take the least load. The relatively high modulus glue prevents the load transfer, the failure modes mainly are squeezed fastener hole and tensile failure near the first row fasteners. One finite element analysis model is established and verified with the high agreement between simulated and experi mental results.

  15. Finite Dimensional KP \\tau-functions I. Finite Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, F; Harnad, J

    2014-01-01

    We study \\tau-functions of the KP hierarchy in terms of abelian group actions on finite dimensional Grassmannians, viewed as subquotients of the Hilbert space Grassmannians of Sato, Segal and Wilson. A determinantal formula of Gekhtman and Kasman involving exponentials of finite dimensional matrices is shown to follow naturally from such reductions. All reduced flows of exponential type generated by matrices with arbitrary nondegenerate Jordan forms are derived, both in the Grassmannian setting and within the fermionic operator formalism. A slightly more general determinantal formula involving resolvents of the matrices generating the flow, valid on the big cell of the Grassmannian, is also derived. An explicit expression is deduced for the Pl\\"ucker coordinates appearing as coefficients in the Schur function expansion of the \\tau-function.

  16. Chiral anomaly and anomalous finite-size conductivity in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing; Li, Chang-An; Niu, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a hexagon lattice to host two spin degenerate pairs of massless two-dimensional Dirac fermions with different chirality. It is known that the existence of non-zero electric polarization in reduced momentum space which is associated with a hidden chiral symmetry will lead to the zero-energy flat band of a zigzag nanoribbon and some anomalous transport properties. Here it is proposed that the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly or non-conservation of chiral charges of Dirac fermions at different valleys can be realized in a confined ribbon of finite width, even in the absence of a magnetic field. In the laterally diffusive regime, the finite-size correction to conductivity is always positive and is inversely proportional to the square of the lateral dimension W, which is different from the finite-size correction inversely proportional to W from the boundary modes. This anomalous finite-size conductivity reveals the signature of the chiral anomaly in graphene, and it is measurable experimentally. This finding provides an alternative platform to explore the purely quantum mechanical effect in graphene.

  17. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion

  18. 碳纳米材料的制备及应用%Fabrication and Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新洛; 郁黎明; 盛雷梅; 安康

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with low-dimensional nanostructure possess superior properties and promising applications. This paper provides a brief review of recent progress of carbon nanomaterials research in Institute of Low-Dimensional Carbons and Device Physics, Shanghai University. We are successful in mass-production and applications of high-purity and high-crystallinity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs) by hydrogen arc discharge. High-quality multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) with one-dimensional quantum confinement effect, and the controlled growth of carbon nanowires have been prepared successfully. Electrochemical characteristics of graphene evaluated in coin-type cells versus metallic lithium, and the Raman spectra of individual MWCNT or carbon nanowire have been studied. The future trend of carbon nanomaterial development is discussed.%碳纳米材料具有独特的低维纳米结构、优异的性能和潜在的应用价值.重点综述上海大学低维炭材料与器件物理研究所在碳纳米材料研究方面的最新进展,并对碳纳米材料的发展趋势及对未来生产生活的影响进行评述.研究所在高纯度高结晶性单壁碳纳米管(single-walled carbon nanotubes,SWCNTs)、双壁碳纳米管(double-walled CNTs,DWCNTs)的大量生产与应用,具有量子效应的多壁碳纳米管(multi-walled CNTs,MWCNTs)的合成,碳纳米线的可控生长,单根MWCNT、单根碳纳米线的拉曼(Raman)光谱研究以及石墨烯的大量制备等方面均取得了可喜的成果.

  19. Elements with Square Roots in Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S. Lucido; M.R. Pournaki

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the probability that a randomly chosen element in a finite group has a square root, in particular the simple groups of Lie type of rank 1, the sporadic finite simple groups and the alternating groups.

  20. Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)

  1. Conforming finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias-da-Costa, D.; Alfaiate, J.; Sluys, L.J.; Areias, P.; Fernandes, C.; Julio, E.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of embedding strong discontinuities into finite elements allowed the simulation of different problems, namely, brickwork masonry fracture, dynamic fracture, failure in finite strain problems and simulation of reinforcement concrete members. However, despite the significant contributi

  2. DOLFIN: Automated Finite Element Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders; 10.1145/1731022.1731030

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a library aimed at automating the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. By employing novel techniques for automated code generation, the library combines a high level of expressiveness with efficient computation. Finite element variational forms may be expressed in near mathematical notation, from which low-level code is automatically generated, compiled and seamlessly integrated with efficient implementations of computational meshes and high-performance linear algebra. Easy-to-use object-oriented interfaces to the library are provided in the form of a C++ library and a Python module. This paper discusses the mathematical abstractions and methods used in the design of the library and its implementation. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the library in application code.

  3. Finite elements methods in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Eslami, M Reza

    2014-01-01

    This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...

  4. Automation of finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Korelc, Jože

    2016-01-01

    New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.

  5. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  6. Selective Smoothed Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines three selective schemes for the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) which was formulated by incorporating a cell-wise strain smoothing operation into the standard compatible finite element method (FEM). These selective SFEM schemes were formulated based on three selective integration FEM schemes with similar properties found between the number of smoothing cells in the SFEM and the number of Gaussian integration points in the FEM. Both scheme 1 and scheme 2 are free of nearly incompressible locking, but scheme 2 is more general and gives better results than scheme 1. In addition, scheme 2 can be applied to anisotropic and nonlinear situations, while scheme 1 can only be applied to isotropic and linear situations. Scheme 3 is free of shear locking. This scheme can be applied to plate and shell problems. Results of the numerical study show that the selective SFEM schemes give more accurate results than the FEM schemes.

  7. Quantum Computing over Finite Fields

    CERN Document Server

    James, Roshan P; Sabry, Amr

    2011-01-01

    In recent work, Benjamin Schumacher and Michael~D. Westmoreland investigate a version of quantum mechanics which they call "modal quantum theory" but which we prefer to call "discrete quantum theory". This theory is obtained by instantiating the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces with a finite field instead of the field of complex numbers. This instantiation collapses much the structure of actual quantum mechanics but retains several of its distinguishing characteristics including the notions of superposition, interference, and entanglement. Furthermore, discrete quantum theory excludes local hidden variable models, has a no-cloning theorem, and can express natural counterparts of quantum information protocols such as superdense coding and teleportation. Our first result is to distill a model of discrete quantum computing from this quantum theory. The model is expressed using a monadic metalanguage built on top of a universal reversible language for finite computations, and hence is directly implementab...

  8. Factorization Properties of Finite Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Simkhovich, B; Zak, J; 10.1088/1751-8113/43/4/045301

    2010-01-01

    In 1960 Schwinger [J. Schwinger, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. 46 (1960) 570- 579] proposed the algorithm for factorization of unitary operators in the finite M dimensional Hilbert space according to a coprime decomposition of M. Using a special permutation operator A we generalize the Schwinger factorization to every decomposition of M. We obtain the factorized pairs of unitary operators and show that they obey the same commutation relations as Schwinger's. We apply the new factorization to two problems. First, we show how to generate two kq-like mutually unbiased bases for any composite dimension. Then, using a Harper-like Hamiltonian model in the finite dimension M = M1M2, we show how to design a physical system with M1 energy levels, each having degeneracy M2.

  9. Finite mathematics models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Features step-by-step examples based on actual data and connects fundamental mathematical modeling skills and decision making concepts to everyday applicability Featuring key linear programming, matrix, and probability concepts, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications emphasizes cross-disciplinary applications that relate mathematics to everyday life. The book provides a unique combination of practical mathematical applications to illustrate the wide use of mathematics in fields ranging from business, economics, finance, management, operations research, and the life and social sciences.

  10. Maximal subgroups of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivasan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.

  11. Commutators with Finite Spectrum Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia BOUDI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study derivations d, d' defined on a Banach algebra A such that the spectrum σ([dx, d'x]) is finite for all x ∈ A. In particular we show that if the algebra is semisimple, then there exists an element a in the socle of A such that [d, d'] is the inner derivation implemented by a.

  12. Flux tubes at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed in the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the square densities of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the phase transition. Our results are gauge invariant and produced in pure gauge SU(3). The codes are written in CUDA and the computations are performed with GPUs.

  13. Finite Operator-Valued Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Operator-valued frames are natural generalization of frames that have been used in quantum computing, packets encoding, etc. In this paper, we focus on developing the theory about operator-valued frames for finite Hilbert spaces. Some results concerning dilation, alternate dual, and existence of operator-valued frames are given. Then we characterize the optimal operator-valued frames under the case which one packet of data is lost in transmission. At last we construct the operator-valued fram...

  14. Strong reality of finite simple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vdovin, E P

    2010-01-01

    The classification of finite simple strongly real groups is complete. It is easy to see that strong reality for every nonabelian finite simple group is equivalent to the fact that each element can be written as a product of two involutions. We thus obtain a solution to Problem 14.82 from the Kourovka notebook from the classification of finite simple strongly real groups.

  15. FINITE RIODAN MATRIX AND RIODAN GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Riodan Matrix is a lower triangular matrix of in finite order with certainly restricted conditions.In this paper,the author defines two kinds of finite Riodan matrices which are not limited to lower triangular.Properties of group theory of the two kinds matrices are considered.Applications of the finite Riodan matrices are researched.

  16. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  17. Selforthogonal modules with finite injective dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆泳

    2000-01-01

    The category consisting of finitely generated modules which are left orthogonal with a cotilting bimodule is shown to be functorially finite. The notion of left orthogonal dimension is introduced , and then a necessary and sufficient condition of selforthogonal modules having finite injective dimension and a characterization of cotilting modules are given.

  18. Selforthogonal modules with finite injective dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The category consisting of finitely generated modules which are left orthogonal with a cotilting bimodule is shown to be functorially finite. The notion of left orthogonal dimension is introduced, and then a necessary and sufficient condition of selforthogonal modules having finite injective dimension and a characterization of cotilting modules are given.

  19. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  20. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distan...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  1. A general strategy for the preparation of carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide decorated with PdO nanoparticles in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongkun; Gao, Chao

    2010-07-02

    The preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT)/PdO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO)/PdO nanoparticle hybrids via a general aqueous solution strategy is reported. The PdO nanoparticles are generated in situ on the CNTs and GO by a one-step "green" synthetic approach in aqueous Pd(NO(3))(2) solution under ambient conditions without adding any additional chemicals. The production of PdO is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The morphologies of the resulting CNT/PdO and GO/PdO nanohybrids are characterized by transmission and/or scanning transmission electron microscopy. PdO nanoparticles with an average size of 2-3 nm in diameter are decorated evenly along the surfaces of CNTs and GO. This synthesis strategy is demonstrated to be compatible for 1) CNTs with different modifications, including pristine, oxidized, and polymer-functionalized CNTs; 2) different types of CNTs, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); and 3) different shapes of carbon materials, including tubular CNTs and planar GO. The as-prepared CNT/PdO and GO/PdO nanohybrids can be transformed into CNT/Pd and GO/Pd nanohybrids by reduction with NaBH(4), and can then be used as a heterogeneous catalyst in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  2. Symmetric finite volume schemes for eigenvalue problems in arbitrary dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on a linear finite element space,two symmetric finite volume schemes for eigenvalue problems in arbitrary dimensions are constructed and analyzed.Some relationships between the finite element method and the finite difference method are addressed,too.

  3. Symmetric finite volume schemes for eigenvalue problems in arbitrary dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoying; YANG Zhang; ZHOU Aihui

    2008-01-01

    Based on a linear finite element space, two symmetric finite volume schemes for eigenvalue problems in arbitrary dimensions are constructed and analyzed. Some relationships between the finite element method and the finite difference method are addressed, too.

  4. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  5. Distribution of carbon nanotube sizes from adsorption measurements and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Tanaka, Hideki; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2005-08-04

    The method for the evaluation of the distribution of carbon nanotube sizes from the static adsorption measurements and computer simulation of nitrogen at 77 K is developed. We obtain the condensation/evaporation pressure as a function of pore size of a cylindrical carbon tube using Gauge Cell Monte Carlo Simulation (Gauge Cell MC). To obtain the analytical form of the relationships mentioned above we use Derjaguin-Broekhoff-deBoer theory. Finally, the pore size distribution (PSD) of the single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) is determined from a single nitrogen adsorption isotherm measured at 77 K. We neglect the conical part of an isolated SWNH tube and assume a structureless wall of a carbon nanotube. We find that the distribution of SWNH sizes is broad (internal pore radii varied in the range 1.0-3.6 nm with the maximum at 1.3 nm). Our method can be used for the determination of the pore size distribution of the other tubular carbon materials, like, for example, multiwalled or double-walled carbon nanotubes. Besides the applicable aspect of the current work the deep insight into the problem of capillary condensation/evaporation in confined carbon cylindrical geometry is presented. As a result, the critical pore radius in structureless single-walled carbon tubes is determined as being equal to three nitrogen collision diameters. Below that size the adsorption-desorption isotherm is reversible (i.e., supercritical in nature). We show that the classical static adsorption measurements combined with the proper modeling of the capillary condensation/evaporation phenomena is a powerful method that can be applied for the determination of the distribution of nanotube sizes.

  6. Finite element procedure for stress amplification factor recovering in a representative volume of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Plaisant Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models are proposed to the micromechanical analysis of a representative volume of composite materials. A detailed description of the meshes, boundary conditions, and loadings are presented. An illustrative application is given to evaluate stress amplification factors within a representative volume of the unidirectional carbon fiber composite plate. The results are discussed and compared to the numerical findings.

  7. A Few Finite Trigonometric Sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Datta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Finite trigonometric sums occur in various branches of physics, mathematics, and their applications. These sums may contain various powers of one or more trigonometric functions. Sums with one trigonometric function are known; however, sums with products of trigonometric functions can become complicated, and may not have a simple expression in a number of cases. Some of these sums have interesting properties, and can have amazingly simple values. However, only some of them are available in the literature. We obtain a number of such sums using the method of residues.

  8. The Finiteness of Moffatt vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Kalita, Jiten C; Panda, Swapnendu; Unal, Aynur

    2016-01-01

    Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of internal viscous incompressible flows, widely known as Moffatt vortices was thought to be infinite. In this paper, we propose two topological equivalence classes of Moffatt vortices in terms of orientation-preserving homeomorphism as well as critical point theory. We further quantify the centers of vortices as fixed points through Brower fixed point theorem and define boundary of a vortex as circle cell. With the aid of these new developments and some existing theorems in topology, we provide six proofs establishing that the sequence of Moffatt vortices cannot be infinite; in fact it is at most finite.

  9. Functionals of finite Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffer, Menahem

    2014-01-01

    This advanced monograph on finite Riemann surfaces, based on the authors' 1949-50 lectures at Princeton University, remains a fundamental book for graduate students. The Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society hailed the self-contained treatment as the source of ""a plethora of ideas, each interesting in its own right,"" noting that ""the patient reader will be richly rewarded."" Suitable for graduate-level courses, the text begins with three chapters that offer a development of the classical theory along historical lines, examining geometrical and physical considerations, existence theo

  10. Discrete and finite General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M; Souza, Manoelito M. de; Silveira, Robson N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop the General Theory of Relativity in a formalism with extended causality that describes physical interaction through discrete, transversal and localized pointlike fields. The homogeneous field equations are then solved for a finite, singularity-free, point-like field that we associate to a ``classical graviton". The standard Einstein's continuous formalism is retrieved by means of an averaging process, and its continuous solutions are determined by the chsosen imposed symetry. The Schwarzschild metric is obtained by the imposition of spherical symmetry on the averaged field.

  11. Finite Operator-Valued Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Operator-valued frames are natural generalization of frames that have been used in quantum computing, packets encoding, etc. In this paper, we focus on developing the theory about operator-valued frames for finite Hilbert spaces. Some results concerning dilation, alternate dual, and existence of operator-valued frames are given. Then we characterize the optimal operator-valued frames under the case which one packet of data is lost in transmission. At last we construct the operator-valued frames $\\{V_j\\}_{j=1}^m$ with given frame operator $S$ and satisfying $V_jV_j^*=\\alpha_jI$, where $\\alpha_j's$ are positive numbers.

  12. Simulating QCD at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this review, I recall the nature and the inevitability of the "sign problem" which plagues attempts to simulate lattice QCD at finite baryon density. I present the main approaches used to circumvent the sign problem at small chemical potential. I sketch how one can predict analytically the severity of the sign problem, as well as the numerically accessible range of baryon densities. I review progress towards the determination of the pseudo-critical temperature T_c(mu), and towards the identification of a possible QCD critical point. Some promising advances with non-standard approaches are reviewed.

  13. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as s...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts.......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  14. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Amand A.; Lambin, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein α-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized.

  15. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Amand A; Lambin, Philippe [Physics Department, FUNDP, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2005-05-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein {alpha}-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized.

  16. Radial Heat Transfer Dynamics in Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamed; Kim, Taejin

    2006-05-01

    The dynamics of radial heat transfer in zigzag and armchair double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) have been examined using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with the goal of understanding the role of radial phonon modes in heat transfer. The MD model uses Tersof-Brenner potential for bonded C-C interactions within each shell and non-bended van der Wall interaction between inner and outer shells. The simulation procedure involves, (1) quenching the DWNT to 0 K, (2) minimization of the potential energy and (3) raising the temperature of the outer shell to the desired steady state temperature while maintaining the inner tube at 0.1 K. The heat baths are removed from the outer and inner shell and their energies are examined. The energies of inner and outer exhibit an out of phase oscillatory behavior due the exchange of the energies between the two shells. The energy of the inner tube shows a weak gradual increase due to the temperature gradient. The beat frequencies determined from the Fourier transform of the energy oscillations of the inner and outer nanotubes were found to be in the tera Herz range. We will also discuss the temperature and length dependence of oscillatory energy exchange between the nanotube shells.

  17. Finite Unification: Theory and Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Heinemeyer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs are very interesting N=1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs which not only realise an old field theoretic dream but also have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. The reduction of the dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exist RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of all beta-functions in certain N=1 GUTs even to all orders. Furthermore developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations, i.e. reduction of couplings, in this dimensionful sector of the theory too. Based on the above theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTS have been constructed. Here we present FUT models based on the SU(5 and SU(3^3 gauge groups and their predictions. Of particular interest is the Higgs mass prediction of one of the models which is expected to be tested at the LHC.

  18. Biset functors for finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bouc, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This volume exposes the theory of biset functors for finite groups, which yields a unified framework for operations of induction, restriction, inflation, deflation and transport by isomorphism. The first part recalls the basics on biset categories and biset functors. The second part is concerned with the Burnside functor and the functor of complex characters, together with semisimplicity issues and an overview of Green biset functors. The last part is devoted to biset functors defined over p-groups for a fixed prime number p. This includes the structure of the functor of rational representations and rational p-biset functors. The last two chapters expose three applications of biset functors to long-standing open problems, in particular the structure of the Dade group of an arbitrary finite p-group.This book is intended both to students and researchers, as it gives a didactic exposition of the basics and a rewriting of advanced results in the area, with some new ideas and proofs.

  19. Quasispecies theory for finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Man; Muñoz, Enrique; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    We present stochastic, finite-population formulations of the Crow-Kimura and Eigen models of quasispecies theory, for fitness functions that depend in an arbitrary way on the number of mutations from the wild type. We include back mutations in our description. We show that the fluctuation of the population numbers about the average values is exceedingly large in these physical models of evolution. We further show that horizontal gene transfer reduces by orders of magnitude the fluctuations in the population numbers and reduces the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the finite population due to Muller’s ratchet. Indeed, the population sizes needed to converge to the infinite population limit are often larger than those found in nature for smooth fitness functions in the absence of horizontal gene transfer. These analytical results are derived for the steady state by means of a field-theoretic representation. Numerical results are presented that indicate horizontal gene transfer speeds up the dynamics of evolution as well.

  20. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  1. Simulating Molecular Interactions of Carbon Nanoparticles with a Double-Stranded DNA Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions between carbon nanoparticles (CNPs and a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA fragment were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Six types of CNPs including fullerenes (C60 and C70, (8,0 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT, (8,0 double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT, graphene quantum dot (GQD, and graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD were studied. Analysis of the best geometry indicates that the dsDNA fragment can bind to CNPs through pi-stacking and T-shape. Moreover, C60, DWNT, and GOQD bind to the dsDNA molecules at the minor groove of the nucleotide, and C70, SWNT, and GQD bind to the dsDNA molecules at the hydrophobic ends. Estimated interaction energy implies that van der Waals force may mainly contribute to the mechanisms for the dsDNA-C60, dsDNA-C70, and dsDNA-SWNT interactions and electrostatic force may contribute considerably to the dsDNA-DWNT, dsDNA-GQD, and dsDNA-GOQD interactions. On the basis of the results from large-scale MD simulations, it was found that the presence of the dsDNA enhances the dispersion of C60, C70, and SWNT in water and has a slight impact on DWNT, GQD, and GOQD.

  2. Probabilistic sampling of finite renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Antunes, Nelson; 10.3150/10-BEJ321

    2012-01-01

    Consider a finite renewal process in the sense that interrenewal times are positive i.i.d. variables and the total number of renewals is a random variable, independent of interrenewal times. A finite point process can be obtained by probabilistic sampling of the finite renewal process, where each renewal is sampled with a fixed probability and independently of other renewals. The problem addressed in this work concerns statistical inference of the original distributions of the total number of renewals and interrenewal times from a sample of i.i.d. finite point processes obtained by sampling finite renewal processes. This problem is motivated by traffic measurements in the Internet in order to characterize flows of packets (which can be seen as finite renewal processes) and where the use of packet sampling is becoming prevalent due to increasing link speeds and limited storage and processing capacities.

  3. Finite element differential forms on cubical meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Douglas N

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of finite element spaces of differential forms defined on cubical meshes in any number of dimensions. The family contains elements of all polynomial degrees and all form degrees. In two dimensions, these include the serendipity finite elements and the rectangular BDM elements. In three dimensions they include a recent generalization of the serendipity spaces, and new H(curl) and H(div) finite element spaces. Spaces in the family can be combined to give finite element subcomplexes of the de Rham complex which satisfy the basic hypotheses of the finite element exterior calculus, and hence can be used for stable discretization of a variety of problems. The construction and properties of the spaces are established in a uniform manner using finite element exterior calculus.

  4. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  5. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-10-10

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position δ. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation δ = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position δ is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

  6. Finite type invariants of nanowords and nanophrases

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Homotopy classes of nanowords and nanophrases are combinatorial generalizations of virtual knots and links. Goussarov, Polyak and Viro defined finite type invariants for virtual knots and links via semi-virtual crossings. We extend their definition to nanowords and nanophrases. We study finite type invariants of low degrees. In particular, we show that the linking matrix and T invariant defined by Fukunaga are finite type of degree one and degree two respectively. We also give a finite type invariant of degree 4 for open homotopy of Gauss words.

  7. Unified Framework for Finite Element Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Alnæs, Martin Sandve; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Skavhaug, Ola; Langtangen, Hans Petter; 10.1504/IJCSE.2009.029160

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of any finite element simulation is the assembly of matrices and vectors from discrete variational forms. We propose a general interface between problem-specific and general-purpose components of finite element programs. This interface is called Unified Form-assembly Code (UFC). A wide range of finite element problems is covered, including mixed finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin methods. We discuss how the UFC interface enables implementations of variational form evaluation to be independent of mesh and linear algebra components. UFC does not depend on any external libraries, and is released into the public domain.

  8. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  9. Computing with Hereditarily Finite Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tarau, Paul

    2011-01-01

    e use Prolog as a flexible meta-language to provide executable specifications of some fundamental mathematical objects and their transformations. In the process, isomorphisms are unraveled between natural numbers and combinatorial objects (rooted ordered trees representing hereditarily finite sequences and rooted ordered binary trees representing G\\"odel's System {\\bf T} types). This paper focuses on an application that can be seen as an unexpected "paradigm shift": we provide recursive definitions showing that the resulting representations are directly usable to perform symbolically arbitrary-length integer computations. Besides the theoretically interesting fact of "breaking the arithmetic/symbolic barrier", the arithmetic operations performed with symbolic objects like trees or types turn out to be genuinely efficient -- we derive implementations with asymptotic performance comparable to ordinary bitstring implementations of arbitrary-length integer arithmetic. The source code of the paper, organized as a ...

  10. Electroweak relaxation from finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We study theories which naturally select a vacuum with parametrically small Electroweak Scale due to finite temperature effects in the early universe. In particular, there is a scalar with an approximate shift symmetry broken by a technically natural small coupling to the Higgs, and a temperature dependent potential. As the temperature of the universe drops, the scalar follows the minimum of its potential altering the Higgs mass squared parameter. The scalar also has a periodic potential with amplitude proportional to the Higgs expectation value, which traps it in a vacuum with a small Electroweak Scale. The required temperature dependence of the potential can occur through strong coupling effects in a hidden sector that are suppressed at high temperatures. Alternatively, it can be generated perturbatively from a one-loop thermal potential. In both cases, for the scalar to be displaced, a hidden sector must be reheated to temperatures significantly higher than the visible sector. However this does not violate...

  11. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  12. Quantum memories at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Loss, Daniel; Pachos, Jiannis K.; Self, Chris N.; Wootton, James R.

    2016-10-01

    To use quantum systems for technological applications one first needs to preserve their coherence for macroscopic time scales, even at finite temperature. Quantum error correction has made it possible to actively correct errors that affect a quantum memory. An attractive scenario is the construction of passive storage of quantum information with minimal active support. Indeed, passive protection is the basis of robust and scalable classical technology, physically realized in the form of the transistor and the ferromagnetic hard disk. The discovery of an analogous quantum system is a challenging open problem, plagued with a variety of no-go theorems. Several approaches have been devised to overcome these theorems by taking advantage of their loopholes. The state-of-the-art developments in this field are reviewed in an informative and pedagogical way. The main principles of self-correcting quantum memories are given and several milestone examples from the literature of two-, three- and higher-dimensional quantum memories are analyzed.

  13. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  14. Phase transitions at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Friman, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    I discuss the analytic structure of thermodynamic quantities for complex values of thermodynamic variables within Landau theory. In particular, the singularities connected with phase transitions of second order, first order and cross over types are examined. A conformal mapping is introduced, which may be used to explore the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter at finite values of the baryon chemical potential $\\mu$ starting from lattice QCD results at $\\mu^{2}\\leq 0$. This method allows us to improve the convergence of a Taylor expansion about $\\mu=0$ and to enhance the sensitivity to physical singularities in the complex $\\mu$ plane. The technique is illustrated by an application to a second-order transition in a chiral effective model.

  15. Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids: A finite element-finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Radial flow of slightly compressible fluids: A finite element-finite differences approach. JA Akpobi, ED Akpobi ...

  16. A comparative study of finite element and finite difference methods for Cauchy-Riemann type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.

  17. Finite rotation shells basic equations and finite elements for Reissner kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, K

    2010-01-01

    This book covers theoretical and computational aspects of non-linear shells. Several advanced topics of shell equations and finite elements - not included in standard textbooks on finite elements - are addressed, and the book includes an extensive bibliography.

  18. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  19. Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, B H

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.

  20. Distinguishing division algebras by finite splitting fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krashen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of determining the number of division algebras which share the same collection of finite splitting fields. As a corollary we are able to determine when two central division algebras may be distinguished by their finite splitting fields over certain fields.

  1. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  2. Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2006-01-01

    A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.

  3. Finite mutation classes of coloured quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Torkildsen, Hermund André

    2010-01-01

    We consider the general notion of coloured quiver mutation and show that the mutation class of a coloured quiver $Q$, arising from an $m$-cluster tilting object associated with $H$, is finite if and only if $H$ is of finite or tame representation type, or it has at most 2 simples. This generalizes a result known for 1-cluster categories.

  4. Finite dust clusters in dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melzer, A; Buttenschoen, B; Miksch, T; Passvogel, M [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A, E-mail: melzer@physik.uni-greifswald.d [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Olshausenstr. 40-60, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    We review recent experiments on the formation of finite systems of charged microspheres in dusty plasmas. There, finite arrangements of these dust clusters can be studied in different geometries ranging from 1D to 3D. The structure and the mode dynamics in these systems will be discussed.

  5. On a Equation in Finite Algebraically Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcan, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    Solving equations in finite algebraically structures (semigroups with identity, groups, rings or fields) many times is not easy. Even the professionals can have trouble in such cases. Therefore, in this paper we proposed to solve in the various finite groups or fields, a binomial equation of the form (1). We specify that this equation has been…

  6. Finite-Element Software for Conceptual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Sandberg, G.; Damkilde, Lars

    2010-01-01

    and research. Forcepad is an effort to provide a conceptual design and teaching tool in a finite-element software package. Forcepad is a two-dimensional finite-element application based on the same conceptual model as image editing applications such as Adobe Photoshop or Microsoft Paint. Instead of using...

  7. On Polynomial Functions over Finite Commutative Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Jun JIANG; Guo Hua PENG; Qi SUN; Qi Fan ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Let R be an arbitrary finite commutative local ring. In this paper, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a function over R to be a polynomial function. Before this paper, necessary and sufficient conditions for a function to be a polynomial function over some special finite commutative local rings were obtained.

  8. Type Ⅱ codes over finite rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUGHERTY; Steven; T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we generalize the concept of Type Ⅱ codes to arbitrary finite rings. We focus on Type Ⅱ codes over finite chain rings and use the Chinese Remainder Theorem on these codes to study Type Ⅱ codes over principal ideal rings.

  9. Dynamical CP violation at finite temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SUN Xiao-Yu; LIANG Chao

    2012-01-01

    By using the generalized Yang-Mills model,CP violation behavior at finite temperature is investigated,and it is shown that dynamical CP violation of the generalized Yang-Mills model at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperature.

  10. Dynamic Pricing and Learning with Finite Inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.P.; Boer, A.V. den

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  11. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud V.; Zwart, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  12. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud; Zwart, Bert

    2013-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season, perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy

  13. ON COMPLEMENTED SUBGROUPS OF FINITE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A subgroup H of a finite group G is said to be complemented in G if there exists a subgroup K of G such that G = HK and H ∩ K = 1. In this case, K is called a complement of H in G.In this note some results on complemented subgroups of finite groups are obtained.

  14. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  15. The Cyclic Graph of a Finite Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Long Ma

    2013-01-01

    and characterize certain finite groups whose cyclic graphs have some properties. Then, we present some properties of the cyclic graphs of the dihedral groups D2n and the generalized quaternion groups Q4n for some n. Finally, we present some parameters about the cyclic graphs of finite noncyclic groups of order up to 14.

  16. The finite-dimensional Freeman thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Lee

    2008-06-01

    I suggest a modification--and mathematization--of Freeman's thesis on the relations among "perception", "the finite brain", and "the world", based on my recent proposal that the theory of finite topological spaces is both an adequate and a natural mathematical foundation for human psychology.

  17. On a Result for Finite Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Ghosh, Lagnojita

    2006-01-01

    In an undergraduate course on stochastic processes, Markov chains are discussed in great detail. Textbooks on stochastic processes provide interesting properties of finite Markov chains. This note discusses one such property regarding the number of steps in which a state is reachable or accessible from another state in a finite Markov chain with M…

  18. Classifying Finitely Generated Indecomposable RA Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelissen, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    In 1995, E. Jespers, G. Leal and C. Polcino Milies classified all finite ring alternative loops (RA loops for short) which are not direct products of proper subloops. In this paper we extend this result to finitely generated RA loops and provide an explicit description of all such loops.

  19. Finite Topological Spaces as a Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstutler, Randall D.; Higginbottom, Ryan S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of finite topological spaces as examples in a point-set topology class especially suited to help students transition into abstract mathematics. We describe how carefully chosen examples involving finite spaces may be used to reinforce concepts, highlight pathologies, and develop students' non-Euclidean intuition. We end with a…

  20. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  1. Variation of hadron masses in finite nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, K; Tsushima, K; Saito, Koichi; Thomas, Anthony W.; Tsushima, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Using a self-consistent, Hartree description for both infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei based on a relativistic quark model (the quark-meson coupling model), we investigate the variation of the masses of the non-strange vector mesons, the hyperons and the nucleon in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei.

  2. On Finite $J$-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungwook

    2014-01-01

    In his recent paper arXiv:1312.7738, the author discussed $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics and showed that $PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics is essentially $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics. In this paper, the author discusses finite $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics which is derived naturally from its continuum one and its relationship with finite $PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  3. Finite Topological Spaces as a Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstutler, Randall D.; Higginbottom, Ryan S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of finite topological spaces as examples in a point-set topology class especially suited to help students transition into abstract mathematics. We describe how carefully chosen examples involving finite spaces may be used to reinforce concepts, highlight pathologies, and develop students' non-Euclidean intuition. We end with a…

  4. Scaling functions of two-neutron separation energies of $^{20}C$ with finite range potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shalchi, M A; Yamashita, M T; Tomio, Lauro; Frederico, T

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of an Efimov excited state is studied within a three-body Faddeev formalism for a general neutron-neutron-core system, where neutron-core is bound and neutron-neutron is unbound, by considering zero-ranged as well as finite-ranged two-body interactions. For the finite-ranged interactions we have considered a one-term separable Yamaguchi potential. The main objective is to study range corrections in a scaling approach, with focus in the exotic carbon halo nucleus $^{20}C$.

  5. Scaling functions of two-neutron separation energies of 20C with finite range potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchi, M. A.; Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro; Frederico, T.

    2016-03-01

    The behaviour of an Efimov excited state is studied within a three-body Faddeev formalism for a general neutron-neutron-core system, where neutron-core is bound and neutron-neutron is unbound, by considering zero-ranged as well as finite-ranged two-body interactions. For the finite-ranged interactions we have considered a one-term separable Yamaguchi potential. The main objective is to study range corrections in a scaling approach, with focus in the exotic carbon halo nucleus 20C.

  6. Scaling functions of two-neutron separation energies of 20C with finite range potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalchi M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of an Efimov excited state is studied within a three-body Faddeev formalism for a general neutron-neutron-core system, where neutron-core is bound and neutron-neutron is unbound, by considering zero-ranged as well as finite-ranged two-body interactions. For the finite-ranged interactions we have considered a one-term separable Yamaguchi potential. The main objective is to study range corrections in a scaling approach, with focus in the exotic carbon halo nucleus 20C.

  7. Stochastic delocalization of finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyrhofer, Lukas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the

  8. Constructing Finite Automata with Invertibility by Transformation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Renji; CHEN Shihua

    2000-01-01

    Ra, Pb transformations were successfully applied to establish invertibility theory for linear and quasi-linear finite automata over finite fields. In a previous paper, the authors generalized Ra, Rb transformations to deal with nonlinear memory finite automata, and gave sufficient conditions for weak inverse and for weakly invertible memory finite automata and inversion processes concerned;methods by transformation to generate a kind of nonlinear memory finite automata satisfying one of these sufficient conditions were also given.This paper extends the concepts, methods and results to general finite automata, in which states consist of finite input history, finite output history and finite "inner state" history.

  9. Electroweak relaxation from finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We study theories which naturally select a vacuum with parametrically small Electroweak Scale due to finite temperature effects in the early universe. In particular, there is a scalar with an approximate shift symmetry broken by a technically natural small coupling to the Higgs, and a temperature dependent potential. As the temperature of the universe drops, the scalar follows the minimum of its potential altering the Higgs mass squared parameter. The scalar also has a periodic potential with amplitude proportional to the Higgs expectation value, which traps it in a vacuum with a small Electroweak Scale. The required temperature dependence of the potential can occur through strong coupling effects in a hidden sector that are suppressed at high temperatures. Alternatively, it can be generated perturbatively from a one-loop thermal potential. In both cases, for the scalar to be displaced, a hidden sector must be reheated to temperatures significantly higher than the visible sector. However this does not violate observational constraints provided the hidden sector energy density is transferred to the visible sector without disrupting big bang nucleosynthesis. We also study how the mechanism can be implemented when the visible sector is completed to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at a high scale. Models with a UV cutoff of 10 TeV and no fields taking values over a range greater than 1012 GeV are possible, although the scalar must have a range of order 108 times the effective decay constant in the periodic part of its potential.

  10. Social exclusion in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  11. Fabrication of a multifunctional carbon nanotube "cotton" yarn by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Hua; Li, Ya-Li; Feng, Jian-Min; Kang, Yan-Ru; Han, Shuai-Shuai

    2012-09-21

    A continuous cotton-like carbon nanotube fiber yarn, consisting of multiple threads of high purity double walled carbon nanotubes, was fabricated in a horizontal CVD gas flow reactor with water vapor densification by the direct chemical vapor deposition spinning process. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous shrinking of the CNT sock-like assembly in the gas flow. This allows well controlled continuous winding of the dense thread inside the reactor. The CNT yarn is quite thick (1-3 mm), has a highly porous structure (99%) while being mechanically strong and electrically conductive. The water vapor interaction leads to homogeneous oxidation of the CNTs, offering the yarn oxygen-functionalized surfaces. The unique structure and surface of the CNT yarn provide it multiple processing advantages and properties. It can be mechanically engineered into a dense yarn, infiltrated with polymers to form a composite and mixed with other yarns to form a blend, as demonstrated in this research. Therefore, this CNT yarn can be used as a "basic yarn" for various CNT based structural and functional applications.

  12. Carbon nanotubes induce inflammation but decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, D; Follot, S; Gentilhomme, E; Flahaut, E; Arnaud, R; Dabouis, V; Castellarin, C; Debouzy, J C

    2010-06-04

    With the rapid spread of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applications, the respiratory toxicity of these compounds has attracted the attention of many scientists. Several studies have reported that after lung administration, CNTs could induce granuloma, fibrosis, or inflammation. By comparison with the mechanisms involved with other toxic particles such as asbestos, this effect could be attributed to an increase of oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to test this hypothesis in vivo. Mice were intranasally instilled with 1.5mg/kg of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). Six, 24, or 48h after administration, inflammation and localisation of DWCNTs in lungs were microscopically observed. Local oxidative perturbations were investigated using ESR spin trapping experiments, and systemic inflammation was assessed by measuring the plasma concentration of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IGF-1, Leptin, G-CSF, and VEGF. Examination of lungs and the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the plasma (Leptin and IL-6 at 6h) confirmed the induction of an inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory reaction was accompanied by a decrease in the local oxidative stress. This effect could be attributed to the scavenger capability of pure CNTs.

  13. Conductivity-Dependent Strain Response of Carbon Nanotube Treated Bacterial Nanocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the strain sensitivity of flexible, electrically conductive, and nanostructured cellulose which was prepared by modification of bacterial cellulose with double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical conductivity depends on the modifying agent and its dispersion process. The conductivity of the samples obtained from bacterial cellulose (BNC pellicles modified with DWCNT was in the range from 0.034 S·cm−1 to 0.39 S·cm−1, and for BNC pellicles modified with MWCNTs it was from 0.12 S·cm−1 to 1.6 S·cm−1. The strain-induced electromechanical response, resistance versus strain, was monitored during the application of tensile force in order to study the sensitivity of the modified nanocellulose. A maximum gauge factor of 252 was found from the highest conductive sample treated by MWCNT. It has been observed that the sensitivity of the sample depends on the conductivity of the modified cellulose.

  14. Axisymmetric compressive buckling of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under different boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Qi Sun; Kai-Xin Liu; You-Shi Hong

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the axisymmetric compressive buckling behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) under different boundary conditions based on continuum mechanics model.A buckling condition is derived for determining the critical buckling load and associated buckling mode of MWNTs,and numerical results are worked out for MWNTs with different aspect ratios under fixed and simply supported boundary conditions.It is shown that the critical buckling load of MWNTs is insensitive to boundary conditions,except for nanotubes with smaller radii and very small aspect ratio.The associated buckling modes for different layers of MWNTs are in-phase,and the buckling displacement ratios for different layers are independent of the boundary conditions and the length of MWNTs.Moreover,for simply supported boundary conditions,the critical buckling load is compared with the corresponding one for axial compressive buckling,which indicates that the critical buckling load for axial compressive buckling can be well approximated by the corresponding one for axisymmetric compressive buckling.In particular,for axial compressive buckling of double-walled carbon nanotubes,an analytical expression is given for approximating the critical buckling load.The present investigation may be of some help in further understanding the mechanical properties of MWNTs.

  15. Tuning of Activated Carbon for Solvent-Free Oxidation of Cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC was prepared from carbonization of phosphoric acid soaked peanut shell at 380°C under inert atmosphere followed by activation with hydrogen peroxide. The AC was characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, TGA, and BET surface area and pore size analyzer. The potential of AC as a catalyst for solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (the mixture is known as KA oil in the presence of molecular oxygen at moderate temperature was investigated in a self-designed double-walled three-necked batch reactor. The effect of different reaction parameters/additive was optimized. The maximum productivity value (2.14 mmolg−1 h−1, without base, and 4.85 mmolg−1 h−1, with 0.2 mmol NaOH of the desired product was achieved under optimal reaction parameters: vol 12.5 mL, cat 0.4 g, time 14 h, oxygen flow 40 mL/min (pO2 760 Torr, stirring 1100 rpm, and temp 75°C. The AC shows recyclability for multiple runs without any significant loss in activity. Thus, the AC can be an efficient catalyst, due to low cost, ease of synthesis, easy recovery, nonleaching, and recyclability for multiple uses for the solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane.

  16. Development of a 3D finite element acoustic model to predict the sound reduction index of stud based double-leaf walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, A.; Wang, C. J.; Yahiaoui, K.; Mynors, D. J.; Morgan, T.; Nguyen, V. B.; English, M.

    2014-11-01

    Building standards incorporating quantitative acoustical criteria to ensure adequate sound insulation are now being implemented. Engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically efficient double-wall structures. Accordingly, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation of double-leaf wall structures are needed. This paper presents the development of a numerical tool that can predict the frequency dependent sound reduction index R of stud based double-leaf walls at one-third-octave band frequency range. A fully vibro-acoustic 3D model consisting of two rooms partitioned using a double-leaf wall, considering the structure and acoustic fluid coupling incorporating the existing fluid and structural solvers are presented. The validity of the finite element (FE) model is assessed by comparison with experimental test results carried out in a certified laboratory. Accurate representation of the structural damping matrix to effectively predict the R values are studied. The possibilities of minimising the simulation time using a frequency dependent mesh model was also investigated. The FEA model presented in this work is capable of predicting the weighted sound reduction index Rw along with A-weighted pink noise C and A-weighted urban noise Ctr within an error of 1 dB. The model developed can also be used to analyse the acoustically induced frequency dependent geometrical behaviour of the double-leaf wall components to optimise them for best acoustic performance. The FE modelling procedure reported in this paper can be extended to other building components undergoing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) to evaluate their acoustic insulation.

  17. Finite connections for supercritical Bernoulli bond percolation in 2D

    CERN Document Server

    Campanino, Massimo; Louidor, Oren

    2009-01-01

    Two vertices are said to be finitely connected if they belong to the same cluster and this cluster is finite. We derive sharp asymptotics for finite connection probabilities for supercritical Bernoulli bond percolation on Z^2.

  18. Generalized rectangular finite difference beam propagation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujecki, Slawomir

    2008-08-10

    A method is proposed that allows for significant improvement of the numerical efficiency of the standard finite difference beam propagation algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method derive from the fact that it allows for an arbitrary selection of the preferred direction of propagation. It is demonstrated that such flexibility is particularly useful when studying the properties of obliquely propagating optical beams. The results obtained show that the proposed method achieves the same level of accuracy as the standard finite difference beam propagation method but with lower order Padé approximations and a coarser finite difference mesh.

  19. Finite Markov processes and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifescu, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A self-contained treatment of finite Markov chains and processes, this text covers both theory and applications. Author Marius Iosifescu, vice president of the Romanian Academy and director of its Center for Mathematical Statistics, begins with a review of relevant aspects of probability theory and linear algebra. Experienced readers may start with the second chapter, a treatment of fundamental concepts of homogeneous finite Markov chain theory that offers examples of applicable models.The text advances to studies of two basic types of homogeneous finite Markov chains: absorbing and ergodic ch

  20. Finite-dimensional division algebras over fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Finite-Dimensional Division Algebras over fields determine, by the Wedderburn Theorem, the semi-simple finite-dimensional algebras over a field. They lead to the definition of the Brauer group and to certain geometric objects, the Brauer-Severi varieties. The book concentrates on those algebras that have an involution. Algebras with involution appear in many contexts; they arose first in the study of the so-called 'multiplication algebras of Riemann matrices'. The largest part of the book is the fifth chapter, dealing with involutorial simple algebras of finite dimension over a field. Of parti

  1. Finite element analysis of optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaya, N.; Lagasse, P. E.; Vandenbulcke, P.

    1981-06-01

    Several finite element programs for the computation of the guided modes of optical waveguides are presented. The advantages and limitations of a very general program for the analysis of anisotropic guides are presented. A possible solution to the problem of the spurious numerical modes, encountered when calculating higher order modes, is proposed. For isotropic waveguides, it is shown that both EH- and HE-type modes can be very accurately approximated by two different scalar finite element programs. Finally, a boundary perturbation method is outlined that makes it possible to calculate the attenuation coefficient of leaky modes in single material guides, starting from a finite element calculation.

  2. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  3. Integrality of representations of finite groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    Since the early days of representation theory of finite groups in the 19th century, it was known that complex linear representations of finite groups live over number fields, that is, over finite extensions of the field of rational numbers. While the related question of integrality of representations was answered negatively by the work of Cliff, Ritter and Weiss as well as by Serre and Feit, it was not known how to decide integrality of a given representation. In this thesis we show tha...

  4. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  5. The theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Rédei, L; Stark, M; Gravett, K A H

    1966-01-01

    The Theory of Finitely Generated Commutative Semigroups describes a theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups which is founded essentially on a single """"fundamental theorem"""" and exhibits resemblance in many respects to the algebraic theory of numbers. The theory primarily involves the investigation of the F-congruences (F is the the free semimodule of the rank n, where n is a given natural number). As applications, several important special cases are given. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with preliminaries on finitely generated commutative semigroups before

  6. Will Finite Elements Replace Structural Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a personal view regarding the need for a continued interest and activity in structural methods in general, while viewing finite elements and the computer as simply two specific tools for assisting in this endeavor. An attempt is made to provide some insight as to why finite element methods seem to have "won the war," and to give examples of their more (and less) intelligent use. Items addressed include a highlight of unnecessary limitations of many existing standard finite element codes and where it is felt that further development work is needed.

  7. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G; Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  8. Superconvergence of tricubic block finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce interpolation operator of projection type in three dimen- sions, from which we derive weak estimates for tricubic block finite elements. Then using the estimate for the W 2, 1-seminorm of the discrete derivative Green’s function and the weak estimates, we show that the tricubic block finite element solution uh and the tricubic interpolant of projection type Πh3u have superclose gradient in the pointwise sense of the L∞-norm. Finally, this supercloseness is applied to superconvergence analysis, and the global superconvergence of the finite element approximation is derived.

  9. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  10. Dynamic response of a carbon nanotube-based rotary nano device with different carbon-hydrogen bonding layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hang [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Cai, Kun, E-mail: caikun1978@163.com [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Wan, Jing [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Zhaoliang, E-mail: coopcg@163.com [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100 (China); Chen, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The rotational transmission performance of a rotational transmission system (RTS) with different types of C−H bonding layouts on the edge of motor and rotor is investigated using MD simulation method. • The L–J interaction between covalently bonded hydrogen atoms and sp1 carbon atoms is too weak to support a stable rotational transmission when only the motor or rotor has bonded hydrogen atoms. • When both the motor and rotor have the same C−H bonding layout on their adjacent ends, a stable output rotational speed of rotor can be obtained. • A low input rotational speed (e.g., 100 GHz) would lead to a synchronous rotational transmission if the system has (+0.5H) C−H bonding layout. - Abstract: In a nano rotational transmission system (RTS) which consists of a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as the motor and a coaxially arranged double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) as a bearing, the interaction between the motor and the rotor in bearing, which has great effects on the response of the RTS, is determined by their adjacent edges. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the interaction is analyzed when the adjacent edges have different carbon-hydrogen (C−H) bonding layouts. In the computational models, the rotor in bearing and the motor with a specific input rotational speed are made from the same armchair SWCNT. Simulation results demonstrate that a perfect rotational transmission could happen when the motor and rotor have the same C−H bonding layout on their adjacent ends. If only half or less of the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are bonded with hydrogen atoms, the strong attraction between the lower speed (100 GHz) motor and rotor leads to a synchronous rotational transmission. If only the motor or the rotor has C−H bonds on their adjacent ends, no rotational transmission happens due to weak interaction between the bonded hydrogen atoms on one end with the sp{sup 1} bonded carbon atoms on the other

  11. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W.Z.

    1994-01-01

    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  13. Zero modes in finite range magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Nash, C

    2000-01-01

    We find a class of Fermion zero modes of Abelian Dirac operators in three dimensional Euclidean space where the gauge potentials and the related magnetic fields are nonzero only in a finite space region.

  14. A Finite Axiomatization of G-Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    We show that a form of dependence known as G-dependence (originally introduced by Grelling) admits a very natural finite axiomatization, as well as Armstrong relations. We also give an explicit translation between functional dependence and G-dependence.

  15. Critical-Point Structure in Finite Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2006-01-01

    Properties of quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Special emphasis is paid to the dynamics at the critical-point of a general first-order phase transition.

  16. Finite element methods a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  17. Moving Finite Elements in 2-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-06

    34 . - ; .-’- . - . -- .- -. . - -.. -- ; -. - - - - - ." . ,- . -••. - - ; . IOSR : TR. SAI-84/1299 (0 N MOVING FINITE ELEMENTS IN 2-I Final Report AFOSR Contract: F4962U-81-C-UO73 Program Manager

  18. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  19. Conformal Data from Finite Entanglement Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Stojevic, Vid; McCulloch, I P; Tagliacozzo, L; Verstraete, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we apply the formalism of translation invariant (continuous) matrix product states in the thermodynamic limit to $(1+1)$ dimensional critical models. Finite bond dimension bounds the entanglement entropy and introduces an effective finite correlation length, so that the state is perturbed away from criticality. The assumption that the scaling hypothesis holds for this kind of perturbation is known in the literature as finite entanglement scaling. We provide further evidence for the validity of finite entanglement scaling and based on this formulate a scaling algorithm to estimate the central charge and critical exponents of the conformally invariant field theories describing the critical models under investigation. The algorithm is applied to three exemplary models; the cMPS version to the non-relativistic Lieb-Liniger model and the relativistic massless boson, and MPS version to the one-dimensional quantum Ising model at the critical point. Another new aspect to our approach is that we directly...

  20. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  1. Finite element modeling of corneal strip extensometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available numerically modelled in several studies, this study focusses on accurately modelling the strip extensiometry test. Two methods were considered to simulate the experimental conditions namely, a single phase and a two phase method. A finite element model...

  2. Superconvergence for rectangular serendipity finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Chuanmiao(陈传淼)

    2003-01-01

    Based on an orthogonal expansion and orthogonality correction in an element, superconvergenceat symmetric points for any degree rectangular serendipity finite element approximation to second order ellipticproblem is proved, and its behaviour up to the boundary is also discussed.

  3. Finite Fault Database (ANSS ComCat)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A Finite Fault is a modeled representation of the spatial extent, amplitude and duration of fault rupture (slip) of an earthquake, and is generated via the inversion...

  4. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  5. Super-renormalizable and finite gravitational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn; Rachwał, Lesław, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    We hereby introduce and extensively study a class of non-polynomial higher derivative theories of gravity that realize a ultraviolet (UV) completion of Einstein general relativity. These theories are unitary (ghost free) and at most only one-loop divergences survive. The outcome is a class of theories super-renormalizable in even dimension and finite in odd dimension. Moreover, we explicitly prove in D=4 that there exists an extension of the theory that is completely finite and all the beta functions vanish even at one-loop. These results can be easily extended in extra dimensions and it is likely that the higher dimensional theory can be made finite, too. Therefore we have the possibility for “finite quantum gravity” in any dimension.

  6. Kernel representations for behaviors over finite rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, M.; Pinto, R.; Polderman, J.W.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider dynamical systems finite rings. The rings that we study are the integers modulo a power of a given prime. We study the theory of representations for such systems, in particular kernel representations.

  7. On triple factorisations of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, S Hassan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and develops a general framework for studying triple factorisations of the form $G=ABA$ of finite groups $G$, with $A$ and $B$ subgroups of $G$. We call such a factorisation nondegenerate if $G\

  8. Continuous finite element methods for Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By applying the continuous finite element methods of ordinary differential equations, the linear element methods are proved having second-order pseudo-symplectic scheme and the quadratic element methods are proved having third-order pseudosymplectic scheme respectively for general Hamiltonian systems, and they both keep energy conservative. The finite element methods are proved to be symplectic as well as energy conservative for linear Hamiltonian systems. The numerical results are in agreement with theory.

  9. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.

    1995-11-01

    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.

  10. Quantized gravitoelectromagnetism theory at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, A F

    2016-01-01

    The Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) theory is considered in a lagrangian formulation using the Weyl tensor components. A perturbative approach to calculate processes at zero temperature has been used. Here the GEM at finite temperature is analyzed using Thermo Field Dynamics, real time finite temperature quantum field theory. Transition amplitudes involving gravitons, fermions and photons are calculated for various processes. These amplitudes are likely of interest in astrophysics.

  11. Surgery simulation using fast finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes our recent work on real-time surgery simulation using fast finite element models of linear elasticity. In addition, we discuss various improvements in terms of speed and realism......This paper describes our recent work on real-time surgery simulation using fast finite element models of linear elasticity. In addition, we discuss various improvements in terms of speed and realism...

  12. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    6 pages, 2 figures, 18 references. Published in proceedings of Colloque EDP-Normandie held at Caen (France), on 28 & 29 October 2010. Other author papers can be dowloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh/; Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the m...

  13. Transport of finiteness structures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    We describe a general construction of finiteness spaces which subsumes the interpretations of all positive connectors of linear logic. We then show how to apply this construction to prove the existence of least fixpoints for particular functors in the category of finiteness spaces: these include the functors involved in a relational interpretation of lazy recursive algebraic datatypes along the lines of the coherence semantics of system T.

  14. Finite volume schemes for Boussinesq type equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions.

  15. Finite temperature reservoir engineering and entanglement dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fedortchenko, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose experimental methods to engineer reservoirs at arbitrary temperature which are feasible with current technology. Our results generalize to mixed states the possibility of quantum state engineering through controlled decoherence. Finite temperature engineered reservoirs can lead to the experimental observation of thermal entanglement --the appearance and increase of entanglement with temperature-- to the study of the dependence of finite time disentanglement and revival with tempera...

  16. Finite Type Non—Minimal Submanifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鸿藻; 吴报强

    1992-01-01

    The notion of finite type xubmanifolds was introduced by B.Y.Chen.In this paper we consider the characteristics and the classifications of finite type non-minimal submanifolds.The characteristic theorems of 2-type Chen submanifolds、mass-symmetric hypersurfaces and Dupin hypersurfaces in Esm are obtained.The classification theorems of 3-type hypersurfaces and null 2-type curves in Esm are also proved.

  17. The finite element method in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The

  18. Enhancing The Hyperpolarizabilities Of Finite Polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.

    1992-01-01

    Improved strategy for exploiting unusual optical properties to enhance molecular hyperpolarizabilities by introducing "defect" quantum-mechanical states and produce molecules switched photochemically or electrochemically between states characterized by different second molecular hyperpolarizabilities. Strategy, conjugation and/or substitution defects, electrically neutral or charged dopant orimpurity atoms or groups thereof, incorporated into finite polyene. Defects in finite polyenes alter second molecular hyperpolarizabilities. Transient large second hyperpolarizabilities attainable in molecules of structure II.

  19. A NOTE ON FINITE ELEMENT WAVELETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌秋辉; 陈翰麟

    2001-01-01

    The refinability and approximation order of finite element multi-scale vector are discussed in [1]. But the coefficients in the conditions of approximation order of finite element multi-scale vector are incorrect there. The main purpose of this note is to make a correction of the error in the main result of [1]. These coefficients are very important for the properties of wavelets, such as vanishing moments and regularity.

  20. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  1. Distances in Finite Spaces from Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Iochum, B; Martinetti, P

    2001-01-01

    Following the general principles of noncommutative geometry, it is possible to define a metric on the space of pure states of the noncommutative algebra generated by the coordinates. This metric generalizes the usual Riemannian one. We investigate some general properties of this metric in the finite commutative case which corresponds to a metric on a finite set, and also give some examples of computations in both commutative and noncommutative cases.

  2. Finite Temperature Casimir Effect for Corrugated Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; SHAO Cheng-Gang; LUO Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Using the path-integral method, the corrections to the Casimir energy due to the combined effect of surface roughness and the finite temperature are calculated. For the specific case of two sinusoidally corrugated plates,the lateral Casimir force at finite temperature is obtained. The amplitude of the lateral Casimir force has a maximum at an optimal wavelength of λ≈ 2H with the mean plate distance H. This optimal parameter relation is almost independent of temperature.

  3. Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Slot 4 bu f fer s hort- term storel Slot N Long- ’erm store The model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin . Primary memory here is as rehearsal...7 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, Califormia AD-A245 342 THESIS Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition by Philip G. Beieri December 1991...ELEMEN1 No.) NO. No. ACCESSION NO. I1. TITLE (include Securitn Classification) FINITE MEMORY MODEL FOR HAPTIC RECOGNITION’ 12. PERSONALEAUTHOR(S) Philip

  4. Characterizations of 1-Way Quantum Finite Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, A; Brodsky, Alex; Pippenger, Nicholas

    1999-01-01

    The 2-way quantum finite automaton introduced by Kondacs and Watrous can accept non-regular languages with bounded error in polynomial time. If we restrict the head of the automaton to moving classically and to moving only in one direction, the acceptance power of this 1-way quantum finite automaton is reduced to a proper subset of the regular languages. In this paper we study two different models of 1-way quantum finite automata. The first model, termed measure-once quantum finite automata, was introduced by Moore and Crutchfield, and the second model, termed measure-many quantum finite automata, was introduced by Kondacs and Watrous. We characterize the measure-once model when it is restricted to accepting with bounded error and show that, without that restriction, it can solve the word problem over the free group. We also show that it can be simulated by a probabilistic finite automaton and describe an algorithm that determines if two measure-once automata are equivalent. We prove several closure propertie...

  5. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  6. Footbridge between finite volumes and finite elements with applications to CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the discretization of second-order elliptic operators in the context of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes. We are strongly motivated by partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), like the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our technique consists of matching up a finite volume discretization based on a given mesh with a finite element representation on the same mesh. An inverse operator is also built, which has the desirable property that in the absence of diffusion, one recovers exactly the finite volume solution. Numerical results are also provided. Copyright

  7. Mechanical tests, static and modal finite element analysis for MWCNT composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BARAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop some numerical experiences based on mechanical tests performed on MWCNT (Multi-wall carbon nanotubes composites created in our Material compartment using finite element commercial codes (here NASTRAN. The results of numerical simulations are consistent with the laboratory tests and encourage us to continue to improve the models using NASTRAN capabilities in order to obtain a realistic simulation of aeronautical structures made of such composites, considering their special properties.

  8. Modeling the heat and mass transfer in the pores of the thermal protection carbon-carbon frame during the gas-phase deposition of silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznik Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the gas-phase deposition into the porous carbon-carbon frame for the gradient thermal protection of reentry vehicles. The paper presents the specifics of creating the representative volume elements of the porous carbon-carbon frames based on the microstructure data from the computed tomography scanner, electronic scanning microscope and porosimetry results. The finite-element models of the representative volume elements are created in order to obtain the net independent solution, including the special finite elements at the phase interfaces. The finite-element and finite-volume method was used for calculation, implemented in MSC.Digimat and ANSYS software packages. The effect of the reagent parameters on the gas-phase deposition process, uniformity and rate of silicon carbide deposition was simulated parametrically, and the results are presented.

  9. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  10. Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used in determining eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are derived by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target; these latter are obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for these distributions are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions are made for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles and are then compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained despite the absence of arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory.

  11. Constacyclic and cyclic codes over finite chain rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jian-fa; MA Wen-ping

    2009-01-01

    The problem of Gray image of constacyclic code over finite chain ring is studied. A Gray map between codes over a finite chain ring and a finite field is defined. The Gray image of a linear constacyclic code over the finite chain ring is proved to be a distance invariant quasi-cyclic code over the finite field. It is shown that every code over the finite field, which is the Gray image of a cyclic code over the finite chain ring, is equivalent to a quasi-cyclic code.

  12. Measuring burstiness for finite event sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing inhomogeneous temporal patterns in natural and social phenomena is important to understand underlying mechanisms behind such complex systems and, hence, even to predict and control them. Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences have been described in terms of bursts that are rapidly occurring events in short time periods alternating with long inactive periods. The bursts can be quantified by a simple measure, called the burstiness parameter, which was introduced by Goh and Barabási [Europhys. Lett. 81, 48002 (2008), 10.1209/0295-5075/81/48002]. The burstiness parameter has been widely used due to its simplicity, which, however, turns out to be strongly affected by the finite number of events in the time series. As the finite-size effects on burstiness parameter have been largely ignored, we analytically investigate the finite-size effects of the burstiness parameter. Then we suggest an alternative definition of burstiness that is free from finite-size effects and yet simple. Using our alternative burstiness measure, one can distinguish the finite-size effects from the intrinsic bursty properties in the time series. We also demonstrate the advantages of our burstiness measure by analyzing empirical data sets.

  13. Finite-time stability and control

    CERN Document Server

    Amato, Francesco; Ariola, Marco; Cosentino, Carlo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria

    2014-01-01

    Finite-time stability (FTS) is a more practical concept than classical Lyapunov stability, useful for checking whether the state trajectories of a system remain within pre-specified bounds over a finite time interval. In a linear systems framework, FTS problems can be cast as convex optimization problems and solved by the use of effective off-the-shelf computational tools such as LMI solvers. Finite-time Stability and Control exploits this benefit to present the practical applications of FTS and finite-time control-theoretical results to various engineering fields. The text is divided into two parts: ·         linear systems; and ·         hybrid systems. The building of practical motivating examples helps the reader to understand the methods presented. Finite-time Stability and Control is addressed to academic researchers and to engineers working in the field of robust process control. Instructors teaching graduate courses in advanced control will also find parts of this book useful for the...

  14. On the Orders of Finite Semisimple Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shripad M Garge

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the order coincidences among the finite semisimple groups and to give a reasoning of such order coincidences through the transitive actions of compact Lie groups. It is a theorem of Artin and Tits that a finite simple group is determined by its order, with the exception of the groups $(A_3(2), A_2(4))$ and $(B_n(q),C_n(q))$ for $n ≥ 3,q$ odd. We investigate the situation for finite semisimple groups of Lie type. It turns out that the order of the finite group $H(\\mathbb{F}_q)$ for a split semisimple algebraic group defined over $\\mathbb{F}_q$, does not determine the group up to isomorphism, but it determines the field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ under some mild conditions. We then put a group structure on the pairs $(H_1,H_2)$ of split semisimple groups defined over a fixed field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ such that the orders of the finite groups $H_1(\\mathbb{F}_q)$ and $H_2(\\mathbb{F}_q)$ are the same and the groups $H_i$ have no common simple direct factors. We obtain an explicit set of generators for this abelian, torsion-free group. We finally show that the order coincidences for some of these generators can be understood by the inclusions of transitive actions of compact Lie groups.

  15. A Comparison of Continuous Mass-lumped Finite Elements and Finite Differences for 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The finite-difference method is widely used for time-domain modelling of the wave equation because of its ease of implementation of high-order spatial discretization schemes, parallelization and computational efficiency. However, finite elements on tetrahedral meshes are more accurate in complex geo

  16. Asymptotic Behavior of the Finite Difference and the Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; FENG Hui

    2005-01-01

    The asymptotic convergence of the solution of the parabolic equation is proved. By the eigenvalues estimation, we obtain that the approximate solutions by the finite difference method and the finite element method are asymptotically convergent. Both methods are considered in continuous time.

  17. A Comparison of Continuous Mass-lumped Finite Elements and Finite Differences for 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The finite-difference method is widely used for time-domain modelling of the wave equation because of its ease of implementation of high-order spatial discretization schemes, parallelization and computational efficiency. However, finite elements on tetrahedral meshes are more accurate in complex

  18. Black hole thermodynamics in finite time

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Finite-time thermodynamics provides the means to revisit ideal thermodynamic equilibrium processes in the light of reality and investigate the energetic "price of haste", i.e. the consequences of carrying out a process in finite time, when perfect equilibrium cannot be awaited due to economic reasons or the nature of the process. Employing the formalism of geometric thermodynamics, a lower bound on the energy dissipated during a process is derived from the thermodynamic length of that process. The notion of length is hereby defined via a metric structure on the space of equilibrium thermodynamics, spanned by a set of thermodynamic variables describing the system. Since the aim of finite-time thermodynamics is to obtain realistic limitations on idealized scenarios, it is a useful tool to reassess the efficiency of thermodynamic processes. We examine its implications for black hole thermodynamics, in particular scenarios inspired by the Penrose process, a thought experiment by which work can be extracted from a...

  19. Evidence for a Finite-Temperature Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, M; Kalok, D; Tamir, I; Mitra, S; Sacépé, B; Shahar, D

    2015-08-27

    In superconductors the zero-resistance current-flow is protected from dissipation at finite temperatures (T) by virtue of the short-circuit condition maintained by the electrons that remain in the condensed state. The recently suggested finite-T insulator and the "superinsulating" phase are different because any residual mechanism of conduction will eventually become dominant as the finite-T insulator sets-in. If the residual conduction is small it may be possible to observe the transition to these intriguing states. We show that the conductivity of the high magnetic-field insulator terminating superconductivity in amorphous indium-oxide exhibits an abrupt drop, and seem to approach a zero conductance at T insulator.

  20. Experimental Finite Element Approach for Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Erklig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determining the strain gauge location points in the problems of stress concentration, and it includes both experimental and numerical results. Strain gauges were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on beam and blocks to related node of elements of finite element models. Linear and nonlinear cases were studied. Cantilever beam problem was selected as the linear case to approve the approach and conforming contact problem was selected as the nonlinear case. An identical mesh structure was prepared for the finite element and the experimental models. The finite element analysis was carried out with ANSYS. It was shown that the results of the experimental and the numerical studies were in good agreement.

  1. Latest Trends in Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Madhav

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the advances in computer graphics and the computational power of the processors which have promoted a method of analysis, applicable to almost all the fields of engineering. The advantages of the computers have been judiciously used in the design of algorithms, based on the principles of finite difference, finite element, boundary element, etc., intended for the analysis of engineering components. The concept of finite element method which has been generalised with the availability of commercial software, is also reviewed with a special emphasis on the future trends. The modelling and visualisation techniques have also been discussed with an inner perspective on future of visual display of multidimensional complex information. The application of these techniques in some fields is also indicated.

  2. Holographic trace anomaly at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Park, Chanyong

    2017-01-01

    Using the holographic renormalization, we investigate the finite temperature and size effect to the energy-momentum tensor of the dual field theory and its renormalization group (RG) flow. Following the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, the dual field theory of the AdS space is well known to be a conformal field theory that has no nontrivial RG flow. Holographically, that theory can be lifted to a finite temperature version by considering a AdS black hole solution. Because the black hole horizon associated with temperature is dimensionful, it breaks the boundary conformal symmetry and leads to a nontrivial RG flow. In this work, we investigate the finite temperature and size correction to a strongly interacting conformal field theory along the Wisonian renormalization group flow.

  3. Universally finite gravitational and gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Modesto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that standard gauge theories are renormalizable in D=4 while Einstein gravity is renormalizable in D=2. This is where the research in the field of two derivatives theories is currently standing. We hereby present a class of weakly non-local higher derivative gravitational and gauge theories universally consistent at quantum level in any spacetime dimension. These theories are unitary (ghost-free and perturbatively renormalizable. Moreover, we can always find a simple extension of these theories that is super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level in even and odd spacetime dimensions. Finally, we propose a super-renormalizable or finite theory for gravity coupled to matter laying the groundwork for a “finite standard model of particle physics” and/or a grand unified theory of all fundamental interactions.

  4. Finite Element Methods and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2005-01-01

    This book serves as a text for one- or two-semester courses for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students and as a professional reference for people who want to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) using finite element methods. The author has attempted to introduce every concept in the simplest possible setting and maintain a level of treatment that is as rigorous as possible without being unnecessarily abstract. Quite a lot of attention is given to discontinuous finite elements, characteristic finite elements, and to the applications in fluid and solid mechanics including applications to porous media flow, and applications to semiconductor modeling. An extensive set of exercises and references in each chapter are provided.

  5. Indexing Finite Language Representation of Population Genotypes

    CERN Document Server

    Sirén, Jouni; Mäkinen, Veli

    2010-01-01

    We propose a way to index population genotype information together with the complete genome sequence so that one can use the index to efficiently align a given sequence to the genome with all plausible genotype recombinations taken into account. This is achieved through converting the multiple alignment of individual genomes into a finite automaton recognizing the language of all substrings read from the alignment by switching the row at any time. The finite automaton is then indexed with an extension of Burrows-Wheeler transform to allow pattern search inside the plausible recombinant sequences generated in this way. The size of the finite automaton and the index created from it stay limited because of the high similarity of the individual genomes in the multiple alignment. In our experiments, the index took even less space than previous ones designed for indexing just the individual genomes. On a short-read alignment experiment, we found about 1% of matches to novel recombinants.

  6. On λ-Finitely Embedded Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.A.S. Karamzadeh; Sh. Rahimpour

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and study the notion of λ-finitely embedded modules (a O-finitely embedded module is just a finitely embedded module). We extend some of the basic results of f.e. modules to λ-f.e. modules. We use this concept to give a new proof of a known result which essentially says that a module M has Krull dimension α if and only if each factor module of M is λ-f.e. for some λ≤α and α is the least ordinal with this property. It is observed that a semiprime ring R has Krull dimension λ if and only if R is λ-f.e. We improve the theorem of Matlis-Papp and some of its consequences.Finally, some known results in the literature are restated in terms of the above notion.

  7. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  8. Centralizers in simple locally finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.

  9. Essentially finitely indecomposable QTAG-Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alveera Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A right module $M$ over an associative ring with unity is a $QTAG$-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of $M$ is a direct sum of uniserial modules. There are many fascinating results related to these modules and essentially indecomposable modules are extensively researched. Motivated by these modules we generalize them as essentially finitely indecomposable modules whose every direct decomposition $M=\\bigoplus\\limits_{k\\in I} M_k$ implies that there exists a positive integer $n$ such that $H_n(M_i=0$ for all $M_i$'s except for a finite number of $M_i$'s. Here we investigate these modules and their relationship with $HT$-modules. The cases when the modules are not $HT$-modules are especially highlighted.

  10. Statistical ensembles and fragmentation of finite nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2017-09-01

    Statistical models based on different ensembles are very commonly used to describe the nuclear multifragmentation reaction in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Canonical model results are more appropriate for finite nuclei calculations while those obtained from the grand canonical ones are more easily calculable. A transformation relation has been worked out for converting results of finite nuclei from grand canonical to canonical and vice versa. The formula shows that, irrespective of the particle number fluctuation in the grand canonical ensemble, exact canonical results can be recovered for observables varying linearly or quadratically with the number of particles. This result is of great significance since the baryon and charge conservation constraints can make the exact canonical calculations extremely difficult in general. This concept developed in this work can be extended in future for transformation to ensembles where analytical solutions do not exist. The applicability of certain equations (isoscaling, etc.) in the regime of finite nuclei can also be tested using this transformation relation.

  11. Finite N from Resurgent Large N

    CERN Document Server

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Vaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Due to instanton effects, gauge-theoretic large N expansions yield asymptotic series, in powers of 1/N^2. The present work shows how to generically make such expansions meaningful via their completion into resurgent transseries, encoding both perturbative and nonperturbative data. Large N resurgent transseries compute gauge-theoretic finite N results nonperturbatively (no matter how small N is). Explicit calculations are carried out within the gauge theory prototypical example of the quartic matrix model. Due to integrability in the matrix model, it is possible to analytically compute (fixed integer) finite N results. At the same time, the large N resurgent transseries for the free energy of this model was recently constructed. Together, it is shown how the resummation of the large N resurgent transseries matches the analytical finite N results up to remarkable numerical accuracy. Due to lack of Borel summability, Stokes phenomena has to be carefully taken into account, implying that instantons play a dominan...

  12. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...

  13. Estimation of mechanical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes using molecular mechanics approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Subba Rao; Sunil Anandatheertha; G Narayana Naik; G Gopalakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    Molecular mechanics based finite element analysis is adopted in the current work to evaluate the mechanical properties of Zigzag, Armchair and Chiral Single wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) of different diameters and chiralities. Three different types of atomic bonds, that is Carbon–Carbon covalent bond and two types of Carbon–Carbon van der Waals bonds are considered in the carbon nanotube system. The stiffness values of these bonds are calculated using the molecular potentials, namely Morse potential function and Lennard-Jones interaction potential function respectively and these stiffness’s are assigned to spring elements in the finite element model of the CNT. The geometry of CNT is built using a macro that is developed for the finite element analysis software. The finite element model of the CNT is constructed, appropriate boundary conditions are applied and the behavior of mechanical properties of CNT is studied.

  14. Dynamic behavior of a black phosphorus and carbon nanotube composite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiao; Cai, Haifang; Cai, Kun; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    A double walled nanotube composite is constructed by placing a black-phosphorene-based nanotube (BPNT) in a carbon nanotube (CNT). When driving the CNT to rotate by stators in a thermal driven rotary nanomotor, the BPNT behaves differently from the CNT. For instance, the BPNT can be actuated to rotate by the CNT, but its rotational acceleration differs from that of the CNT. The BPNT oscillates along the tube axis when it is longer than the CNT. The results obtained indicate that the BPNT functions with high structural stability when acting as a rotor with rotational frequency of ~20 GHz at 250 K. If at a higher temperature than 250 K, say 300 K, the rotating BPNT shows weaker structural stability than its status at 250 K. When the two tubes in the rotor are of equal length, the rotational frequency of the BPNT drops rapidly after the BPNT is collapsed, owing to more broken P-P bonds. When the black-phosphorene nanotube is longer than the CNT, it rotates synchronously with the CNT even if it is collapsed. Hence, in the design of a nanomotor with a rotor from BPNT, the working rotational frequency should be lower than a certain threshold at a higher temperature.

  15. Cubic Curves, Finite Geometry and Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruen, A A; Wehlau, D L

    2011-01-01

    Some geometry on non-singular cubic curves, mainly over finite fields, is surveyed. Such a curve has 9,3,1 or 0 points of inflexion, and cubic curves are classified accordingly. The group structure and the possible numbers of rational points are also surveyed. A possible strengthening of the security of elliptic curve cryptography is proposed using a `shared secret' related to the group law. Cubic curves are also used in a new way to construct sets of points having various combinatorial and geometric properties that are of particular interest in finite Desarguesian planes.

  16. On the Norm of Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxin Wang; Xiuyun Guo

    2007-01-01

    The norm N(G) of a group G is the intersection of normalizers of all the subgroups of G. Let G be a finite group, p a prime dividing the order of G, and P a Sylow p-subgroup of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is p-nilpotent if Ω1(P)≤N(NG(P)),and when p = 2, Ω2(P) = .Some applications of this result are given. Finally, a class of finite p-groups in which the index of the norm is exactly p is described.

  17. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  18. Resonant invisibility with finite range interacting fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguenang, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: nguenang@yahoo.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Fundamental Physics Laboratory: Group of Nonlinear Physics and Complex Systems, Department of Physics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Flach, Sergej, E-mail: flach@pks.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Khomeriki, Ramaz, E-mail: khomeriki@hotmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Tbilisi State University, 3 Chavchavadze, 0128 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States)

    2012-01-09

    We study the eigenstates of two opposite spin fermions on a one-dimensional lattice with finite range interaction. The eigenstates are projected onto the set of Fock eigenstates of the noninteracting case. We find antiresonances for symmetric eigenstates, which eliminate the interaction between two symmetric Fock states when satisfying a corresponding selection rule. -- Highlights: ► We seek the eigenstates of two opposite spin fermions on a one-dimensional lattice with finite range interaction. ► The eigenstates are projected onto the set of Fock eigenstates of the noninteracting case. ► We find antiresonances for symmetric eigenstates when satisfying a corresponding selection rule.

  19. Phenomenology of SU(5) finite unified theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Edificio Juan Jorda, Avda. de Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Mondragon, M [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G, E-mail: heinemey@mail.cern.c, E-mail: myriam@fisica.unam.m, E-mail: zoupanos@mail.cern.c [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus: Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which can be made finite to all-loop orders, leading to a large reduction in the number of free parameters. We confront the predictions of SU(5) FUTs with the top and bottom quark masses, which allows us to discriminate among different models. We include further low-energy phenomenology constraints, such as B physics observables, the bound on the SM Higgs mass and the cold dark matter density, and then are able to make predictions for the lightest Higgs boson mass and the sparticle spectrum.

  20. Finiteness in SU(3){sup 3} models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Ma, E. [Physics Department, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IF-UNAM), Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    We consider N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories based on the group SU(N){sub 1} x SU(N){sub 2} x {sub ...} x SU(N){sub k} with matter content (N, N{sup *}, 1, {sub ...}, 1)+(1, N, N{sup *}, {sub ...}, 1) + {sub ...} + (N{sup *}, 1, 1, {sub ...}, N), which are finite if and only if there are exactly three generations. We study in particular two models with SU(3){sup 3} as gauge group, an all-loop and a two-loop finite model, and we examine their predictions concerning the third generation quark masses. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)