Deformation of Honeycomb with Finite Boundary Subjected to Uniaxial Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dai-Heng Chen
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the crushing behavior of hexagonal honeycomb structures with finite boundaries (finite width and height subjected to in-plane uniaxial compressive loading is studied based on the nonlinear finite element analysis. It is found that stress-strain responses for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be classified into two types: Type I and Type II. Such a characteristic is affected by the wall thickness, the work-hardening coefficient and the yield stress for the honeycombs. Furthermore, a transition from the symmetric to asymmetric deformation mode can be observed in Type I, and these deformed cells were localized in a horizontal layer. However, for the case of Type II response, the symmetric and asymmetric deformation modes can be observed simultaneously, and the region of the asymmetric mode was formed by the cell layer along the diagonal direction. As a result, the shear deformation behavior was developed along that direction. Moreover, the effect of work-hardening on the deformation behavior for the honeycombs with finite boundaries can be explained from that for infinite honeycombs.
Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.
1979-01-01
A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.
Finite Element Analysis of Saferooms Subjected to Tornado Impact Loads
Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.
2017-10-01
A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes - where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.
2017-11-01
FE finite element MAC modal assurance criteria SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SDIC stereo-digital image correlation SLAD Survivability...ARL-TR-8224 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with...NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal
Volume changes in hydrogels subjected to finite deformations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville
2013-01-01
Constitutive equations are derived for the elastic response of hydrogels under an arbitrary deformationwith finite strains. An expression is proposed for the free energy density of a hydrogel based on the Floryconcept of a network of flexible chains with constrained junctions whose reference...... configuration differsfrom the initial configuration of a fully swollen gel. Adjustable parameters in the stress–strain relationsare found by fitting observations on poly(acrylamide) and gellan hydrogels under uniaxial tension andcompression. The effect of elongation ratio on osmotic Poisson’s ratio is examined...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Onishchenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frater, J.; Lestingi, J.; Padovan, J.
1977-01-01
This paper describes the development of an improved semi-analytical finite element for the stress analysis of anisotropic axisymmetric solids subjected to nonsymmetric loads. Orthogonal functions in the form of finite Fourier exponential transforms, which satisfy the equations of equilibrium of the theory of elasticity for an anisotropic solid of revolution, are used to expand the imposed loadings and displacement field. It is found that the orthogonality conditions for the assumed solution reduce the theta-dependency, thus reducing the three dimensional problem to an infinite series of two dimensional problems. (Auth.)
Dispersion analysis of the Pn -Pn-1DG mixed finite element pair for atmospheric modelling
Melvin, Thomas
2018-02-01
Mixed finite element methods provide a generalisation of staggered grid finite difference methods with a framework to extend the method to high orders. The ability to generate a high order method is appealing for applications on the kind of quasi-uniform grids that are popular for atmospheric modelling, so that the method retains an acceptable level of accuracy even around special points in the grid. The dispersion properties of such schemes are important to study as they provide insight into the numerical adjustment to imbalance that is an important component in atmospheric modelling. This paper extends the recent analysis of the P2 - P1DG pair, that is a quadratic continuous and linear discontinuous finite element pair, to higher polynomial orders and also spectral element type pairs. In common with the previously studied element pair, and also with other schemes such as the spectral element and discontinuous Galerkin methods, increasing the polynomial order is found to provide a more accurate dispersion relation for the well resolved part of the spectrum but at the cost of a number of unphysical spectral gaps. The effects of these spectral gaps are investigated and shown to have a varying impact depending upon the width of the gap. Finally, the tensor product nature of the finite element spaces is exploited to extend the dispersion analysis into two-dimensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.R. Azzam
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the application of using a skirted foundation system to study the behavior of foundations with structural skirts adjacent to a sand slope and subjected to earthquake loading. The effect of the adopted skirts to safeguard foundation and slope from collapse is studied. The skirts effect on controlling horizontal soil movement and decreasing pore water pressure beneath foundations and beside the slopes during earthquake is investigated. This technique is investigated numerically using finite element analysis. A four story reinforced concrete building that rests on a raft foundation is idealized as a two-dimensional model with and without skirts. A two dimensional plain strain program PLAXIS, (dynamic version is adopted. A series of models for the problem under investigation were run under different skirt depths and lactation from the slope crest. The effect of subgrade relative density and skirts thickness is also discussed. Nodal displacement and element strains were analyzed for the foundation with and without skirts and at different studied parameters. The research results showed a great effectiveness in increasing the overall stability of the slope and foundation. The confined soil footing system by such skirts reduced the foundation acceleration therefore it can be tended to damping element and relieved the transmitted disturbance to the adjacent slope. This technique can be considered as a good method to control the slope deformation and decrease the slope acceleration during earthquakes.
Discrete-ordinates finite-element method for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.
1985-01-01
Advantages and disadvantages of modern discrete-ordinates finite-element methods for the solution of radiative transfer problems in meteorology, climatology, and remote sensing applications are evaluated. After the common basis of the formulation of radiative transfer problems in the fields of neutron transport and atmospheric optics is established, the essential features of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method are described including the limitations of the method and their remedies. Numerical results are presented for 1-D and 2-D atmospheric radiative transfer problems where integral as well as angular dependent quantities are compared with published results from other calculations and with measured data. These comparisons provide a verification of the discrete-ordinates results for a wide spectrum of cases with varying degrees of absorption, scattering, and anisotropic phase functions. Accuracy and computational speed are also discussed. Since practically all discrete-ordinates codes offer a builtin adjoint capability, the general concept of the adjoint method is described and illustrated by sample problems. Our general conclusion is that the strengths of the discrete-ordinates finite-element method outweight its weaknesses. We demonstrate that existing general-purpose discrete-ordinates codes can provide a powerful tool to analyze radiative transfer problems through the atmosphere, especially when 2-D geometries must be considered
An unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA for compressible atmospheric dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kühnlein, Christian, E-mail: christian.kuehnlein@ecmwf.int; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K., E-mail: piotr.smolarkiewicz@ecmwf.int
2017-04-01
An advancement of the unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA (Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm) is presented that formulates the error-compensative pseudo-velocity of the scheme to rely only on face-normal advective fluxes to the dual cells, in contrast to the full vector employed in previous implementations. This is essentially achieved by expressing the temporal truncation error underlying the pseudo-velocity in a form consistent with the flux-divergence of the governing conservation law. The development is especially important for integrating fluid dynamics equations on non-rectilinear meshes whenever face-normal advective mass fluxes are employed for transport compatible with mass continuity—the latter being essential for flux-form schemes. In particular, the proposed formulation enables large-time-step semi-implicit finite-volume integration of the compressible Euler equations using MPDATA on arbitrary hybrid computational meshes. Furthermore, it facilitates multiple error-compensative iterations of the finite-volume MPDATA and improved overall accuracy. The advancement combines straightforwardly with earlier developments, such as the nonoscillatory option, the infinite-gauge variant, and moving curvilinear meshes. A comprehensive description of the scheme is provided for a hybrid horizontally-unstructured vertically-structured computational mesh for efficient global atmospheric flow modelling. The proposed finite-volume MPDATA is verified using selected 3D global atmospheric benchmark simulations, representative of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flow regimes. Besides the added capabilities, the scheme retains fully the efficacy of established finite-volume MPDATA formulations.
ANALYSIS OF NON-CIRCULAR MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO TWISTING LOADS: A FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaitanya Goteti
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Many torque carrying members have circular sections such as shafts. However, there are certain structural members like automotive chassis frames, cross members and machine frames which are often subjected to twisting loads and their cross sections are non circular. several methods were developed to analyze such sections such as Saint Venant’s semi inverse method, Prandtl’s elastic membrane analogy...etc. In this paper, the second order partial differential stress function equation for non-circular torsional members is applied on a rectangular section for different b/h (height /width of section values and the solutions for maximum torsional shear stress are found by employing second order finite difference method. The results are compared to the results obtained from commercial finite element software (ANSYS 10 and by direct solution of the stress function equation using analytical correlations available for rectangular sections. The results obtained by different approaches are in close congruence with a percentage deviation of only 3.22. It is observed that, in implementing second order finite difference scheme, the error in estimating stress is proportional to S2. Where “S” is the grid size. Keywords: Non-Circular Section, Prandtl’s stress function, Finite difference scheme, Grid size
Mamen, B.; Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J.-C.
2013-05-01
Powder injection molding (PIM) is a suitable technology for manufacturing of complex shapes with tungsten powders and has a great potential in many applications. Sintering is one of the most important steps in Powder Injection Molding process. The sintering behaviour of tungsten injection moulded components, under pure hydrogen atmosphere at temperature up to 1700°C using fine 0.4μm and coarse powders 7.0 μm, is investigated by means of the beam bending and dilatometric tests in the Setaram{copyright, serif} analyser. To simulate the shrinkage and shape distortion of tungsten injection moulded components during the sintering process using finite element methods, viscoplastic constitutive law is implemented in ABAQUS software as user subroutine UMAT and incorporated with the identified parameters. Comparison between the numerical simulations results and experimental ones, in term of shrinkages and sintered densities, shows good agreement between the two.
Dynamic analysis of an axially moving beam subject to inner pressure using finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hua, Hongliang; Qiu, Ming; Liao, Zhenqiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)
2017-06-15
A dynamic model of an axially moving flexible beam subject to an inner pressure is present. The coupling principle between a flexible beam and inner pressure is analyzed first, and the potential energy of the inner pressure due to the beam bending is derived using the principle of virtual work. A 1D hollow beam element contain inner pressure is established. The finite element method and Lagrange’s equation are used to derive the motion equations of the axially moving system. The dynamic responses are analyzed by Newmark-β time integration method. Based on the computed dynamic responses, the effects of inner pressure on beam dynamics are discussed. Some interesting phenomenon is observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.S.M. Ayman Ashab
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Majeed Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.
Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; de Vries, Krijn D.; van Sloten, Lucas
2017-01-01
We have developed a code that semi-analytically calculates the radio footprint (intensity and polarization) of an extensive air shower subject to atmospheric electric fields. This can be used to reconstruct the height dependence of atmospheric electric field from the measured radio footprint. The
A finite-volume module for cloud-resolving simulations of global atmospheric flows
Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Kühnlein, Christian; Grabowski, Wojciech W.
2017-07-01
The paper extends to moist-precipitating dynamics a recently documented high-performance finite-volume module (FVM) for simulating global all-scale atmospheric flows (Smolarkiewicz et al., 2016) [62]. The thrust of the paper is a seamless coupling of the conservation laws for moist variables engendered by cloud physics with the semi-implicit, non-oscillatory forward-in-time integrators proven for dry dynamics of FVM. The representation of the water substance and the associated processes in weather and climate models can vary widely in formulation details and complexity levels. The representation adopted for this paper assumes a canonical "warm-rain" bulk microphysics parametrisation, recognised for its minimal physical intricacy while accounting for the essential mathematical complexity of cloud-resolving models. A key feature of the presented numerical approach is global conservation of the water substance to machine precision-implied by the local conservativeness and positivity preservation of the numerics-for all water species including water vapour, cloud water, and precipitation. The moist formulation assumes the compressible Euler equations as default, but includes reduced anelastic equations as an option. The theoretical considerations are illustrated with a benchmark simulation of a tornadic thunderstorm on a reduced size planet, supported with a series of numerical experiments addressing the accuracy of the associated water budget.
Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang
2017-09-01
Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2 = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2 = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2 = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.
Alexis, Kostas; Nikolakopoulos, George; Tzes, Anthony
2011-01-01
In this article a Switching Model Predictive Attitude Controller for an Unmanned quadrotor Helicopter subject to atmospheric disturbances is presented. The proposed control scheme is computed based on a Piecewise Affine (PWA) model of the quadrotor’s attitude dynamics, where the effects of the atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration as additive disturbances. The switchings among the PWA models are ruled by the rate of the rotation angles and for each PWA system a corresponding mod...
Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S
2017-05-03
This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm 3 and 58±11mm 2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magnus K. Gislason
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise and Abaqus (Simulia to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magnus K. Gislason
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise and Abaqus (Simulia to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Chen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the global finite-time partial stabilization problem is discussed for a class of nonholonomic mobile wheeled robots with continuous pure state feedback and subject to input saturation. Firstly, for the mobile robot kinematic model, a “3 inputs, 2 chains, 1 generator” nonholonomic chained form systems can be obtained by using a state and input transformation. The continuous, saturated pure state feedback control law is proposed such that the special chained form systems can be stabilized to zero (except an angle variable in a finite time, i.e., finite-time partial stabilization. Secondly, the rigorous stability analysis of the corresponding closed-loop system is presented by applying Lyapunov theorem combined with the finite-time control theory, and the angle variable can be proved to converge to a constant, moreover, its convergent limit may be accurately estimated in advance. Finally, the simulation results show the correctness and the validity of the proposed controller not only for the chained system but also for the original mobile robots system.
Semi-analytical finite element analysis of elastic waveguides subjected to axial loads.
Loveday, Philip W
2009-03-01
Predicting the influence of axial loads on the wave propagation in structures such as rails requires numerical analysis. Conventional three-dimensional finite element analysis has previously been applied to this problem. The process is tedious as it requires that a number of different length models be solved and that the user identify the computed modes of propagation. In this paper, the more specialised semi-analytical finite element method is extended to account for the effect of axial load. The semi-analytical finite element method includes the wave propagation as a complex exponential in the element formulation and therefore only a two-dimensional mesh of the cross-section of the waveguide is required. It was found that the stiffness matrix required to describe the effect of axial load is proportional to the mass matrix, which makes the extension to existing software trivial. The method was verified by application to an aluminium rod, where after phase and group velocities of propagating waves in a rail were computed to demonstrate the method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. M. Jaini
Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture.
Accurate Finite Element Modelling of Chipboard Single-Stud Floor Panels subjected to Dynamic Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sjöström, A.; Flodén, O.; Persson, K.
2012-01-01
In multi-storey buildings, the use of lightweight material has many advantages. The low weight, the low energy consumption and the sustainability of the material are some attractive benefits from using lightweight materials. Compared with heavier structures i.e. concrete the challenge...... in constructing a building compliant with building codes vis-a-vis the propagation of sound and vibrations within the structure is a challenge. Focusing on junctions in a multi-storey lightweight buildings, a modular finite element model is developed to be used for analyses of vibration transmission...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M. [Electric Boat Corp., Groton, CT (United States)
1997-11-01
A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% and to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Zeng
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The strain rate sensitivity of concrete material was discovered approximately one hundred years ago, and it has a marked effect on the behaviour of concrete members subjected to dynamic loadings such as strong earthquake and impact loading. Because of the great importance of the confined reinforced concrete (RC columns in RC structures, the dynamic behaviour of the columns induced by the strain rate effect has been studied, but only few experiments and analyses have been conducted. To investigate the behaviour of overlapping hoop-confined square reinforced normal-strength concrete columns, considering the strain rate effect at a strain rate of 10-5/sec to 10-1/sec induced by earthquake excitation, an explicit dynamic finite element analysis (FEA model was developed in ABAQUS to predict the behaviour of confined RC columns subjected to the rapid concentric loading. A locally modified stress-strain relation of confined concrete with the strain rate sensitivity of the concrete material and the confining effect of overlapping hoops were proposed to complete the simulation of the dynamic behaviour of concrete with the concrete plastic-constitutive model in ABAQUS. The finite element predictions are consistent with the existing test results. Based on the FEA model, a parametric investigation was conducted to capture more information about the behaviour of confined RC columns under varying loading rates.
Reliability Analysis of Retaining Walls Subjected to Blast Loading by Finite Element Approach
GuhaRay, Anasua; Mondal, Stuti; Mohiuddin, Hisham Hasan
2018-02-01
Conventional design methods adopt factor of safety as per practice and experience, which are deterministic in nature. The limit state method, though not completely deterministic, does not take into account effect of design parameters, which are inherently variable such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, etc. for soil. Reliability analysis provides a measure to consider these variations into analysis and hence results in a more realistic design. Several studies have been carried out on reliability of reinforced concrete walls and masonry walls under explosions. Also, reliability analysis of retaining structures against various kinds of failure has been done. However, very few research works are available on reliability analysis of retaining walls subjected to blast loading. Thus, the present paper considers the effect of variation of geotechnical parameters when a retaining wall is subjected to blast loading. However, it is found that the variation of geotechnical random variables does not have a significant effect on the stability of retaining walls subjected to blast loading.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldridge, David Franklin; Collier, Sandra L. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Marlin, David H. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Ostashev, Vladimir E. (NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory); Symons, Neill Phillip; Wilson, D. Keith (U.S. Army Cold Regions Research Engineering Lab.)
2005-05-01
This document is intended to serve as a users guide for the time-domain atmospheric acoustic propagation suite (TDAAPS) program developed as part of the Department of Defense High-Performance Modernization Office (HPCMP) Common High-Performance Computing Scalable Software Initiative (CHSSI). TDAAPS performs staggered-grid finite-difference modeling of the acoustic velocity-pressure system with the incorporation of spatially inhomogeneous winds. Wherever practical the control structure of the codes are written in C++ using an object oriented design. Sections of code where a large number of calculations are required are written in C or F77 in order to enable better compiler optimization of these sections. The TDAAPS program conforms to a UNIX style calling interface. Most of the actions of the codes are controlled by adding flags to the invoking command line. This document presents a large number of examples and provides new users with the necessary background to perform acoustic modeling with TDAAPS.
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Mir Tahmaseb Kashani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic analysis of prestressed, bending-torsion coupled beams is revisited. The axially loaded beam is assumed to be slender, isotropic, homogeneous, and linearly elastic, exhibiting coupled flexural-torsional displacement caused by the end moment. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli bending and St. Venant torsion beam theories, the vibration and stability of such beams are explored. Using the closed-form solutions of the uncoupled portions of the governing equations as the basis functions of approximation space, the dynamic, frequency-dependent, interpolation functions are developed, which are then used in conjunction with the weighted residual method to develop the Dynamic Finite Element (DFE of the system. Having implemented the DFE in a MATLAB-based code, the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem is then solved to determine the coupled natural frequencies of illustrative beam examples, subjected to various boundary and load conditions. The proposed method is validated against limited available experimental and analytical data, those obtained from an in-house conventional Finite Element Method (FEM code and FEM-based commercial software (ANSYS. In comparison with FEM, the DFE exhibits higher convergence rates and in the absence of end moment it produces exact results. Buckling analysis is also carried out to determine the critical end moment and compressive force for various load combinations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kangkang Yu
Full Text Available This study is to distinguish the objective and subjective measures of atmospheric visibility, and investigate the relationship between the two measures as well as the effect on the people's behavioral intentions on air pollution in China. A mixed method was adopted in this study combining both lab experiments to measure objective atmospheric visibility and a questionnaire survey to measure subjective atmospheric visibility. The regression results show that: (a The people's perception of atmospheric visibility is based on objective information about the ambient air (Relative Humidity, PM2.5, Atmospheric Visibility and there are some turning points that could enable people to distinguish good and poor air quality; (b The people's perception of visibility has a significant effect on either their willingness-to-accept (WTA the visibility or on their willingness-to-pay (WTP for improving the air quality;
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Gouda
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A finite element model (FEM was constructed using specialized three-dimensional (3D software to investigate the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections subjected to a moment-to-shear ratio of 0.15 m. The FEM was then verified against the experimental results of full-scale interior slab-column connections reinforced with glass fiber reinforcement polymer (GFRP bars previously tested by the authors. The FEM results showed that the constructed model was able to predict the behavior of the slabs with reasonable accuracy. Afterward, the verified model was used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effects of reinforcement ratio, perimeter-to-depth ratio, and column aspect ratio on the punching shear behavior of such connections. The test results showed that increasing the tested parameters enhanced the overall behavior of the connections in terms of decreasing deflections and reinforcement strain and increasing the ultimate capacity. In addition, the obtained punching shear stresses of the connections were compared to the predictions of the Canadian standard and the American guideline for FRP-reinforced concrete structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochekseraii, Sadegh Babaii
2004-01-01
Theoretical analysis based on the finite element (FE) method for plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends of various geometries, subject to in-plane bending moment, were carried out using both ABAQUS and ANSYS structural FE programs covering both linear small displacement and non-linear large displacement analysis. Parametric surveys presented interesting features including an increase in plastic collapse in-plane bending moments after mitre angles of around 40 deg. . Results obtained using either ANSYS or ABAQUS could not be compared against any available experimental data as they differ significantly in areas like strain hardening and other features of a real material that did not exist in the FE modelling. However, single case comparison with the only reported experimental work, known to the author, showed that large displacement FE analysis led to more realistic predictions. It is, therefore, concluded that despite complex behaviour of a real material as compared to material models available in FE analysis, effective plastic collapse moments can be predicted using the small displacement FE analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Wang
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús Vega Encabo
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
1978-01-01
A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.
Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Liu, Z C; Yang, K; Cui, F
2015-08-01
Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can be generated from computed tomography (CT) datasets of a bone. A key step is assigning material properties automatically onto finite element models, which remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a node-based assignment approach and also compares it with the element-based approach in the literature. Both approaches were implemented using ABAQUS. The assignment procedure is divided into two steps: generating the data file of the image intensity of a bone in a MATLAB program and reading the data file into ABAQUS via user subroutines. The node-based approach assigns the material properties to each node of the finite element mesh, while the element-based approach assigns the material properties directly to each integration point of an element. Both approaches are independent from the type of elements. A number of FE meshes are tested and both give accurate solutions; comparatively the node-based approach involves less programming effort. The node-based approach is also independent from the type of analyses; it has been tested on the nonlinear analysis of a Sawbone femur. The node-based approach substantially improves the level of automation of the assignment procedure of bone material properties. It is the simplest and most powerful approach that is applicable to many types of analyses and elements. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lillo Gallardo, Patricio Andres
Canada has aggressive targets for introducing wind energy across the country, but also faces challenges in achieving these goals due to the harsh Canadian climate. One issue which has received little attention in other countries not experiencing these extremes is the behaviour of composite blades in winter conditions. The scope of the work presented is to analyze the static stresses and fatigue response in cold climates using finite element models of the blade. The work opens with a quantification of the extremes of cold experienced in candidate Canadian wind turbine deployment locations. The thesis then narrows its focus to a consideration of the stresses in the root of the composite blades, specifically two common blade-hub connection methods: embedded root carrots and T-bolts. Finite element models of the root are proposed to properly simulate boundary conditions, applied loading and thermal stresses for a 1.5 MW wind turbine. It is shown that the blade root is strongly affected by the thermal stresses caused by the mismatch and orthotrophy of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the blade root constituents. Fatigue analysis of a blade is then presented using temperature dependent material properties including estimated fatigue coefficients.It was found that the natural frequencies of a 1.5 MW wind turbine blade are not significantly altered at cold temperatures. Additionally, cold temperatures slightly increase stresses in the composite blade skin when the blade is loaded, due to an increase in stiffness. Cold temperatures also lead to higher cyclic flapwise bending moments acting on the blade. However, this increase was found not to affect the lifetime fatigue damage. Finally, it was found that the cold climate as seen in Canada improves the fatigue strength of the saturated composite materials used in the blade. The predicted fatigue damage of the triaxial fabric and the spar cap layers in cold climates was therefore predicted to be half that of the
Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei
2018-04-01
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr
2015-01-01
The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...
García, E.; Oliver, A.; Diaz, O.; Diez, Y.; Gubern-Mérida, A.; Martí, R.; Martí, J.
2017-03-01
Patient-specific finite element (FE) models of the breast have received increasing attention due to the potential capability of fusing images from different modalities. During the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to X-ray mammography registration procedure, the FE model is compressed mimicking the mammographic acquisition. Subsequently, suspicious lesions in the MRI volume can be projected into the 2D mammographic space. However, most registration algorithms do not provide the reverse information, avoiding to obtain the 3D geometrical information from the lesions localized in the mammograms. In this work we introduce a fast method to localize the 3D position of the lesion within the MRI, using both cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammographic projections, indexing the tetrahedral elements of the biomechanical model by means of an uniform grid. For each marked lesion in the Full-Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM), the X-ray path from source to the marker is calculated. Barycentric coordinates are computed in the tetrahedrons traversed by the ray. The list of elements and coordinates allows to localize two curves within the MRI and the closest point between both curves is taken as the 3D position of the lesion. The registration errors obtained in the mammographic space are 9.89 +/- 3.72 mm in CC- and 8.04 +/- 4.68 mm in MLO-projection and the error in the 3D MRI space is equal to 10.29 +/- 3.99 mm. Regarding the uniform grid, it is computed spending between 0.1 and 0.7 seconds. The average time spent to compute the 3D location of a lesion is about 8 ms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nawaz
Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohmâs law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search Î·max and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jiroušek, Ondřej; Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Jandejsek, Ivan; Vavřík, Daniel
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 2012-2016 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/12/0824 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : X-ray radiography and digital radiography * computerized tomography and computed radiography * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/02/C02012
Leaf expansion of soybean subjected to high and low atmospheric vapour pressure deficits.
Devi, M Jyostna; Taliercio, Earl W; Sinclair, Thomas R
2015-04-01
Vapour pressure deficit (VPD) is considered an important environmental factor that might affect leaf expansion and transpiration rate (TR) in plants. Two slow-wilting soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes PI 416937 and PI 471938 along with commercial cultivar Hutcheson were subjected to low (1.2-1.6 kPa) and high VPD (2.8-3 kPa) environments to study their leaf expansion and TR over five days. Among the three genotypes, PI 416937 had the lowest increase in its TR (34%) at high VPD compared with low VPD and the greatest decrease in leaf area (31%). In contrast, Hutcheson had the highest increase in TR (87%) under high VPD and the lowest decrease in leaf expansion rate (18%). Expansin and extensin genes were isolated in PI 416937 to determine if changes in leaf expansion were associated with changes at the molecular level. The four studied genes were all suppressed after five days in the high VPD environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Giordano, Chiara; Zappalà, Stefano; Kleiven, Svein
2017-08-01
Computational models incorporating anisotropic features of brain tissue have become a valuable tool for studying the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The tissue deformation in the direction of white matter tracts (axonal strain) was repeatedly shown to be an appropriate mechanical parameter to predict injury. However, when assessing the reliability of axonal strain to predict injury in a population, it is important to consider the predictor sensitivity to the biological inter-subject variability of the human brain. The present study investigated the axonal strain response of 485 white matter subject-specific anisotropic finite element models of the head subjected to the same loading conditions. It was observed that the biological variability affected the orientation of the preferential directions (coefficient of variation of 39.41% for the elevation angle-coefficient of variation of 29.31% for the azimuth angle) and the determination of the mechanical fiber alignment parameter in the model (gray matter volume 55.55-70.75%). The magnitude of the maximum axonal strain showed coefficients of variation of 11.91%. On the contrary, the localization of the maximum axonal strain was consistent: the peak of strain was typically located in a 2 cm 3 volume of the brain. For a sport concussive event, the predictor was capable of discerning between non-injurious and concussed populations in several areas of the brain. It was concluded that, despite its sensitivity to biological variability, axonal strain is an appropriate mechanical parameter to predict traumatic brain injury.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Alnuaimi
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear analysis of three reinforced and two partially prestressed concrete solid beams based on a 20 node isoparametric element using an in-house 3D finite element program. Anon linear elastic isotropic model, proposed by Kotsovos, was used to model concrete behaviour, while steel was modelled as an embedded element exhibiting elastic-perfectly plastic response. Allowance was made for shear retention and for tension stiffening in concrete after cracking. Only in a fixed direction, smeared cracking modelling was adopted. The beams dimensions were 300x300 mm cross section, 3800 mm length and were subjected to combined bending, torsion and shear. Experimental results were compared with the non-linear predictions. The comparison was judged by load displacement relationship, steel strain, angle of twist, failure load, crack pattern and mode of failure. Good agreement was observed between the predicted ultimate load and the experimentally measured loads. It was concluded that the present program can confidently be used to predict the behaviour and failure load of reinforced and partially prestressed concrete solid beams subjected to a combined load of bending, torsion and shear.
Albogha, Mhd Hassan; Kitahara, Toru; Todo, Mitsugu; Hyakutake, Hiroto; Takahashi, Ichiro
2016-01-01
To investigate the most reliable stress or strain parameters in subject-specific finite element (FE) models to predict success or failure of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs). Subject-specific FE analysis was applied to 28 OMIs used for anchorage. Each model was developed using two computed tomography data sets, the first taken before OMI placement and the second taken immediately after placement. Of the 28 OMIs, 6 failed during the first 5 months, and 22 were successful. The bone compartment was divided into four zones in the FE models, and peak stress and strain parameters were calculated for each. Logistic regression of the failure (vs success) of OMIs on the stress and strain parameters in the models was conducted to verify the ability of these parameters to predict OMI failure. Failure was significantly dependent on principal strain parameters rather than stress parameters. Peak maximum principal strain in the bone 0.5 to 1 mm from the OMI surface was the best predictor of failure (R(2) = 0.8151). We propose the use of the maximum principal strain as a criterion for predicting OMI failure in FE models.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Fault plane solutions of the January 26th, 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence. 413. Air-sea coupling. Some salient features of the atmosphere observed over the north Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX 131. Airy stress function. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault at finite depth. 587. Analytic signal.
Rodríguez Martínez, José Antonio; Rittel, D.; Zaera Polo, Ramón Eulalio; Osovski, S.
2013-01-01
The paper presents a finite element study of the dynamic necking formation and energy absorption in AISI 304 steel sheets. The analysis emphasizes the effects of strain induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) and plastic strain development on flow localization and sample ductility. The material behavior is described by a constitutive model proposed by the authors which includes the SIMT at high strain rates. The process of martensitic transformation is alternatively switched on and off in t...
Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J
2002-03-01
The impact of temperature fluctuations in a simulated cold distribution chain, typical of commercial practice, was investigated on both the microbial and sensorial quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA) packaged minimally processed vegetables. The internal O2 concentration of the designed packages could be predicted for the different steps of the simulated distribution chain by applying an integrated mathematical system. The internal atmosphere in the packages remained in its aerobic range during storage in the chain due to the application of high permeable packaging films for O2 and CO2. Spoilage microorganisms were proliferating fast on minimally processed bell peppers and lettuce. Yeasts showed to be the shelf-life limiting group. Visual properties limited the sensorial shelf-life. Listeria monocytogenes was able to multiply on cucumber slices, survived on minimally processed lettuce and decreased in number on bell peppers due to the combination of low pH and refrigeration. Aeromonas caviae was multiplying on both cucumber slices and mixed lettuce, but was as well inhibited by the low pH of bell peppers. Storage temperature control was found to be of paramount importance for the microbial (spoilage and safety) and sensorial quality evaluation of EMA-packaged minimally processed vegetables.
Ballester-Bolinches, Adolfo; Asaad, Mohamed
2010-01-01
The study of finite groups factorised as a product of two or more subgroups has become a subject of great interest during the last years with applications not only in group theory, but also in other areas like cryptography and coding theory. It has experienced a big impulse with the introduction of some permutability conditions. The aim of this book is to gather, order, and examine part of this material, including the latest advances made, give some new approach to some topics, and present some new subjects of research in the theory of finite factorised groups.
Trigwell, Steve; Boucher, Derrick; Calle, Carlos
2006-01-01
The use of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma was used at KSC to increase the hydrophilicity of spaceport materials to enhance their surface charge dissipation and prevent possible ESD in spaceport operations. Significant decreases in charge decay times were observed after tribocharging the materials using the standard KSC tribocharging test. The polarity and amount of charge transferred was dependent upon the effective work function differences between the respective materials. In this study, polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to a He+O2 APGD. The pre and post treatment surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with some plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE, significant surface oxidation was observed, as indicated by XPS showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angle from 98.9 deg to 61.2 deg. For the PTFE, no C-O bonding appeared and the surface contact angle increased indicating the APGD only succeeded in cleaning the PTFE surface without affecting the surface structure. The calculations using the PM3 and DFT methods were performed on single and multiple oligomers to simulate a wide variety of oxidation scenarios. Calculated work function results suggest that regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =0 or a combination thereof, the experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation are unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and that its increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. The calculations for PTFE argue strongly against significant oxidation of that material, as confirmed by the XPS results.
Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Long Bin; Lee, Shu Jin; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Heow Pueh
2015-06-01
In spite of anatomic proximity of the facial skeleton and cranium, there is lack of information in the literature regarding the relationship between facial and brain injuries. This study aims to correlate brain injuries with facial injuries using finite element method (FEM). Nine common impact scenarios of facial injuries are simulated with their individual stress wave propagation paths in the facial skeleton and the intracranial brain. Fractures of cranio-facial bones and intracranial injuries are evaluated based on the tolerance limits of the biomechanical parameters. General trend of maximum intracranial biomechanical parameters found in nasal bone and zygomaticomaxillary impacts indicates that severity of brain injury is highly associated with the proximity of location of impact to the brain. It is hypothesized that the midface is capable of absorbing considerable energy and protecting the brain from impact. The nasal cartilages dissipate the impact energy in the form of large scale deformation and fracture, with the vomer-ethmoid diverging stress to the "crumpling zone" of air-filled sphenoid and ethmoidal sinuses; in its most natural manner, the face protects the brain. This numerical study hopes to provide surgeons some insight in what possible brain injuries to be expected in various scenarios of facial trauma and to help in better diagnosis of unsuspected brain injury, thereby resulting in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with facial trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šorel, Michal; Šíma, Jiří
2004-01-01
Roč. 62, - (2004), s. 93-110 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA MŠk LN00A056 Keywords : radial basis function * neural network * finite automaton * Boolean circuit * computational power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.641, year: 2004
Solution of Finite Element Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
An important step in solving any problem by the finite element method is the solution of the global equations. Numerical solution of linear equations is a subject covered in most courses in numerical analysis. However, the equations encountered in most finite element applications have some special...... features that justify the development of specialized solution algorithms....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
com. Email: singh_shivaraj@rediffmail.com. In this article we provide a solution to a problem in the famous analysis book [1] by Rudin. It does not use trans- finite induction, and readers may find it more transpar- ent than the treatment in [2]. Here is ...
Coudou, Nicolas; Buckingham, Sophia; Bricteux, Laurent; van Beeck, Jeroen
2018-04-01
The phenomenon of meandering of the wind-turbine wake comprises the motion of the wake as a whole in both horizontal and vertical directions as it is advected downstream. The oscillatory motion of the wake is a crucial factor in wind farms, because it increases the fatigue loads, and, in particular, the yaw loads on downstream turbines. To address this phenomenon, experimental investigations are carried out in a wind-tunnel flow simulating an atmospheric boundary layer with the Coriolis effect neglected. A 3 × 3 scaled wind farm composed of three-bladed rotating wind-turbine models is subject to a neutral boundary layer over a slightly-rough surface, i.e. corresponding to offshore conditions. Particle-image-velocimetry measurements are performed in a horizontal plane at hub height in the wakes of the three wind turbines occupying the wind-farm centreline. These measurements allow determination of the wake centrelines, with spectral analysis indicating the characteristic wavelength of the wake-meandering phenomenon. In addition, measurements with hot-wire anemometry are performed along a vertical line in the wakes of the same wind turbines, with both techniques revealing the presence of wake meandering behind all three turbines. The spectral analysis performed with the spatial and temporal signals obtained from these two measurement techniques indicates a Strouhal number of ≈ 0.20 - 0.22 based on the characteristic wake-meandering frequency, the rotor diameter and the flow speed at hub height.
Incompleteness in the finite domain
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pudlák, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76
Incompleteness in the finite domain
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pudlák, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/ journals /bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76
Gandy, Matthew
2017-07-01
What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.
Iribarne, J V
1973-01-01
The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...
Locally Finite Root Supersystems
Yousofzadeh, Malihe
2013-01-01
We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.
On symmetric pyramidal finite elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Liu, L.; Davies, K. B.; Yuan, K.; Křížek, Michal
2004-01-01
Roč. 11, 1-2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 1492-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : mesh generation * finite element method * composite elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.108, year: 2004
Nilpotent -local finite groups
Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio
2014-10-01
We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byeong Hae
1992-02-01
This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
plitude waves and finite amplitude waves. This article provides a brief introduction to finite amplitude wave theories. Some of the general characteristics of waves as well as the importance of finite amplitude wave theories are touched upon. 2. Small Amplitude Waves. The topmost and the lowest levels of the waves are re-.
Lebel, Luke; Bourgouin, Pierre; Chouhan, Sohan; Ek, Nils; Korolevych, Volodymyr; Malo, Alain; Bensimon, Dov; Erhardt, Lorne
2016-05-01
Three radiological dispersal devices were detonated in 2012 under controlled conditions at Defence Research and Development Canada's Experimental Proving Grounds in Suffield, Alberta. Each device comprised a 35-GBq source of (140)La. The dataset obtained is used in this study to assess the MLCD, ADDAM, and RIMPUFF atmospheric dispersion models. As a continuation of Lebel et al. (2016), this paper examines different methodologies for making dose estimates with atmospheric dispersion models.
Representation theory of finite monoids
Steinberg, Benjamin
2016-01-01
This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...
Supersymmetric theories and finiteness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helayel-Neto, J.A.
1989-01-01
We attempt here to present a short survey of the all-order finite Lagrangian field theories known at present in four-and two-dimensional space-times. The question of the possible relevance of these ultraviolet finite models in the formulation of consistent unified frameworks for the fundamental forces is also addressed to. (author)
1996-01-01
Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.
1986-10-01
A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.
Finite elements and approximation
Zienkiewicz, O C
2006-01-01
A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o
Inflation with finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellini, M.; Michoacan, Univ. Michoacana de S.Nicola de Hidalgo
1998-01-01
In this work the inflationary scenario of the Universe with finite temperature is studied. In this context, thermal equilibrium is closely maintained at the end of inflation. The example of the de Sitter expansion is developed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruetter, Juerg
1997-01-01
It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination
Supersymmetry at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1983-01-01
Finite-temperature supersymmetry (SUSY) is characterized by unbroken Ward identities for SUSY variations of ensemble averages of Klein-operator inserted imaginary time-ordered products of fields. Path-integral representations of these products are defined and the Feynman rules in superspace are given. The finite-temperature no-renormalization theorem is derived. Spontaneously broken SUSY at zero temperature is shown not to be restored at high temperature. (orig.)
On p-supersolvability of finite groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Supersolvability; p-nilpotency; weakly τ-embedded subgroups. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 20D10, 20D20. 1. Introduction. Throughout the paper, all groups are finite. Recall that a subgroup H of a group G is said to permute with a subgroup ...
A Note on Powers in Finite Fields
Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2016-01-01
The study of solutions to polynomial equations over finite fields has a long history in mathematics and is an interesting area of contemporary research. In recent years, the subject has found important applications in the modelling of problems from applied mathematical fields such as signal analysis, system theory, coding theory and cryptology. In…
The Finite Embeddability Property for Residuated Groupoids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Haniková, Zuzana; Horčík, Rostislav
2014-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-13 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : residuated groupoid * distributive lattice * finite embeddability property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014
On higher order pyramidal finite elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Liu, L.; Davies, K.B.; Křížek, Michal; Guan, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2011), s. 131-140 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : pyramidal polynomial basis functions * finite element method * composite elements * three-dimensional mortar elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2011
Simplicial Finite Elements in Higher Dimensions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brandts, J.; Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal
2007-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 251-265 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/1503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : n-simplex * finite element method * superconvergence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Atmospheric composition, physics and chemistry. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem .... Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen. (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects. 451. Petrological and geochemical ...
About the Finite Element Method Applied to Thick Plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Ibănescu
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper approaches of plates subjected to transverse loads, when the shear force and the actual boundary conditions are considered, by using the Finite Element Method. The isoparametric finite elements create real facilities in formulating the problems and great possibilities in creating adequate computer programs.
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel
Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; Díaz, I.; Cano, H.
2011-01-01
The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel
Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz, Iván; Cano, H.
2011-01-01
The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...
Verification of Linear (In)Dependence in Finite Precision Arithmetic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rohn, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 3-4 (2014), s. 323-328 ISSN 1661-8289 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : linear dependence * linear independence * pseudoinverse matrix * finite precision arithmetic * verification * MATLAB file Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Finite groups all of whose minimal subgroups are NE∗ -subgroups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
subgroups are classified. Keywords. NE-subgroup; NE∗-subgroup; the generalized fitting subgroup; saturated formation. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 20D10, 20D20. 1. Introduction. All groups considered will be finite. We use conventional ...
Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
2007-01-01
on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite......, discrete Gabor coefficients. Reconstruction of a signal from its Gabor coefficients is done by the use of a so-called dual window. This thesis presents a number of iterative algorithms to compute dual and self-dual windows. The Linear Time Frequency Toolbox is a Matlab/Octave/C toolbox for doing basic...... discrete time/frequency and Gabor analysis. It is intended to be both an educational and a computational tool. The toolbox was developed as part of this Ph.D. project to provide a solid foundation for the field of computational Gabor analysis....
Flexoelectric effect in finite samples
Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Yurkov, Alexander S.
2012-08-01
Static flexoelectric effect in a finite sample of a solid is addressed in terms of phenomenological theory for the case of a thin plate subjected to bending. It has been shown that despite an explicit asymmetry inherent to the bulk constitutive electromechanical equations which take into account the flexoelectric coupling, there exists a situation where electromechanical response for a finite sample is "symmetric." "Symmetric" means that if a sensor and an actuator are made of a flexoelectric element, performance of such devices can be characterized by the same effective piezoelectric coefficient. This behavior is consistent with the thermodynamic arguments offered earlier, being in conflict with the current point of view on the matter in literature. This result was obtained using standard mechanical boundary conditions valid for the case where the polarization vanishes at the surface. It was shown that, for the case where the polarization at the surface is not zero, the aforementioned symmetry of electromechanical response may be violated if standard mechanical boundary conditions are used, leading to a conflict with the thermodynamic arguments. It is suggested that this conflict may be resolved when using modified mechanical boundary conditions. It is also shown that the contribution of surface piezoelectricity to the flexoelectric response of a finite sample is expected to be comparable to that of the static bulk contribution (including materials with high values of the dielectric constant) and to scale as the bulk value of the dielectric constant (similar to the bulk contribution). This finding implies that if the experimentally measured flexoelectric coefficient scales as the dielectric constant of the material, this does not imply that the measured flexoelectric response is controlled by the static bulk contribution to the flexoelectric effect.
Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kratzert, K.
2002-11-01
The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is still only partly understood. Though it has been proven that temperature always breaks supersymmetry, the spontaneous nature of this breaking remains unclear, in particular the role of the Goldstone fermion. The aim of this work is to unify two existing approaches to the subject. From a hydrodynamic point of view, it has been argued under very general assumptions that in any supersymmetric quantum field theory at finite temperature there should exist a massless fermionic collective excitation, named phonino because of the analogy to the phonon. In the framework of a self-consistent resummed perturbation theory, it is shown for the example of the Wess-Zumino model that this mode fits very well into the quantum field theoretical framework pursued by earlier works. Interpreted as a bound state of boson and fermion, it contributes to the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identities in a way showing that supersymmetry is indeed broken spontaneously with the phonino playing the role of the Goldstone fermion. The second part of the work addresses the case of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that also here the phonino exists and must be interpreted as the Goldstone mode. This knowledge allows a generalization to a wider class of models. (orig.)
Undecidability and finite automata
Endrullis, Jörg; Shallit, Jeffrey; Smith, Tim
2017-01-01
Using a novel rewriting problem, we show that several natural decision problems about finite automata are undecidable (i.e., recursively unsolvable). In contrast, we also prove three related problems are decidable. We apply one result to prove the undecidability of a related problem about
Weiser, Martin
2016-01-01
All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapetanakis, D. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Mondragon, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.)
1993-09-01
We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.; Zoupanos, G.
1993-01-01
We present phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the case of two models with three families the top quark mass is predicted to be 178.8 GeV. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mondragon, M.
1993-01-01
It is shown how to obtain phenomenologically viable SU(5) unified models which are finite to all orders before the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A very interesting feature of the models with three families is that they predict the top quark mass to be around 178 GeV. 16 refs
Finite groups with the set of the number of subgroups of possible ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Finite group; the number of subgroups of possible order. 1. Introduction. Throughout this paper, groups mentioned are finite and p is a prime. An important topic in the group theory is to investigate the number of subgroups of possible order, and con- versely it is also an important subject to determine the structure of a finite ...
Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis
Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.
2016-06-01
The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Thermodynamic structure of the marine atmosphere over the region 80–87◦ E along 13◦ N during August. (phase II) BOBMEX-99. 295. Containment reinforcement. Behaviour of masonry structures during the Bhuj earthquake of January 2001. 431. Continental earthquakes. Flexure of the Indian plate and intraplate earth-.
Supersymmetry at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, M.W. de.
1986-01-01
The consequences of the incorporation of finite temperature effects in fields theories are investigated. Particularly, we consider the sypersymmetric non-linear sigma model, calculating the effective potencial in the large N limit. Initially, we present the 1/N expantion formalism and, for the O(N) model of scalar field, we show the impossibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Next, we study the same model at finite temperature and in the presence of conserved charges (the O(N) symmetry's generator). We conclude that these conserved charges explicitly break the symmetry. We introduce a calculation method for the thermodynamic potential of the theory in the presence of chemical potentials. We present an introduction to Supersymmetry in the aim of describing some important concepts for the treatment at T>0. We show that Suppersymmetry is broken for any T>0, in opposition to what one expects, by the solution of the Hierachy Problem. (author) [pt
Chalmers, J Alan
1957-01-01
Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takaaki Kajita
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.
Algebraic coding theory over finite commutative rings
Dougherty, Steven T
2017-01-01
This book provides a self-contained introduction to algebraic coding theory over finite Frobenius rings. It is the first to offer a comprehensive account on the subject. Coding theory has its origins in the engineering problem of effective electronic communication where the alphabet is generally the binary field. Since its inception, it has grown as a branch of mathematics, and has since been expanded to consider any finite field, and later also Frobenius rings, as its alphabet. This book presents a broad view of the subject as a branch of pure mathematics and relates major results to other fields, including combinatorics, number theory and ring theory. Suitable for graduate students, the book will be of interest to anyone working in the field of coding theory, as well as algebraists and number theorists looking to apply coding theory to their own work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H.R. Ghoreishy
2008-02-01
Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.
Limitations of Shallow Networks Representing Finite Mappings
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kůrková, Věra
submitted 5.1. (2018) ISSN 0941-0643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shallow and deep networks * sparsity * variational norms * functions on large finite domains * concentration of measure * pseudo-noise sequences * perceptron networks Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.505, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volland, H.
1984-01-01
The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wieczorek, Izabela
2015-01-01
, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
2012-01-01
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool...... to understanding, especially but not exclusively in observational and interview-based studies. Psychodynamic or psychoanalytic approaches to research add an emphasis on unconscious motivational processes in both researchers and research participants that impact research experience and data. Building upon Anglo......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....
Performance Analysis of M-atmospheric FSO Links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Garrido-Balsellss, José María; Jurado-Navas, Antonio
2016-01-01
In this paper, a generalization of the Málaga atmospheric optical communications links treated as a finite number of Generalized-K distributed sub-channels is analyzed in terms of the average bit error rate and outage probability....
Anderson, Ian
2011-01-01
Coherent treatment provides comprehensive view of basic methods and results of the combinatorial study of finite set systems. The Clements-Lindstrom extension of the Kruskal-Katona theorem to multisets is explored, as is the Greene-Kleitman result concerning k-saturated chain partitions of general partially ordered sets. Connections with Dilworth's theorem, the marriage problem, and probability are also discussed. Each chapter ends with a helpful series of exercises and outline solutions appear at the end. ""An excellent text for a topics course in discrete mathematics."" - Bulletin of the Ame
Optical Finite Element Processor
Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.
1986-01-01
A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.
Kalita, Jiten C.; Biswas, Sougata; Panda, Swapnendu
2018-04-01
Till date, the sequence of vortices present in the solid corners of steady internal viscous incompressible flows was thought to be infinite. However, the already existing and most recent geometric theories on incompressible viscous flows that express vortical structures in terms of critical points in bounded domains indicate a strong opposition to this notion of infiniteness. In this study, we endeavor to bridge the gap between the two opposing stream of thoughts by diagnosing the assumptions of the existing theorems on such vortices. We provide our own set of proofs for establishing the finiteness of the sequence of corner vortices by making use of the continuum hypothesis and Kolmogorov scale, which guarantee a nonzero scale for the smallest vortex structure possible in incompressible viscous flows. We point out that the notion of infiniteness resulting from discrete self-similarity of the vortex structures is not physically feasible. Making use of some elementary concepts of mathematical analysis and our own construction of diametric disks, we conclude that the sequence of corner vortices is finite.
The Determining Finite Automata Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. S. Vinogradova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The theory of formal languages widely uses finite state automata both in implementation of automata-based approach to programming, and in synthesis of logical control algorithms.To ensure unambiguous operation of the algorithms, the synthesized finite state automata must be deterministic. Within the approach to the synthesis of the mobile robot controls, for example, based on the theory of formal languages, there are problems concerning the construction of various finite automata, but such finite automata, as a rule, will not be deterministic. The algorithm of determinization can be applied to the finite automata, as specified, in various ways. The basic ideas of the algorithm of determinization can be most simply explained using the representations of a finite automaton in the form of a weighted directed graph.The paper deals with finite automata represented as weighted directed graphs, and discusses in detail the procedure for determining the finite automata represented in this way. Gives a detailed description of the algorithm for determining finite automata. A large number of examples illustrate a capability of the determinization algorithm.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...
Statistical finite element analysis.
Khalaji, Iman; Rahemifar, Kaamran; Samani, Abbas
2008-01-01
A novel technique is introduced for tissue deformation and stress analysis. Compared to the conventional Finite Element method, this technique is orders of magnitude faster and yet still very accurate. The proposed technique uses preprocessed data obtained from FE analyses of a number of similar objects in a Statistical Shape Model framework as described below. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the body organs have limited variability, especially in terms of their geometry. As such, it is well suited for calculating tissue displacements of body organs. The proposed technique can be applied in many biomedical applications such as image guided surgery, or virtual reality environment development where tissue behavior is simulated for training purposes.
Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.
1961-01-01
The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.
Axial anomaly at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.
1985-01-01
The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)
Finite strain discrete dislocation plasticity
Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E
2003-01-01
A framework for carrying out finite deformation discrete dislocation plasticity calculations is presented. The discrete dislocations are presumed to be adequately represented by the singular linear elastic fields so that the large deformations near dislocation cores are not modeled. The finite
Stochastic delocalization of finite populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyrhofer, Lukas; Hallatschek, Oskar
2013-01-01
The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the
Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming
Heister, Timo
2010-01-01
Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Introduction to orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups
Riehm, Carl R
2011-01-01
Orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups lie at the crossroads of two more traditional subjects of mathematics-linear representations of finite groups, and the theory of quadratic, skew symmetric and Hermitian forms-and thus inherit some of the characteristics of both. This book is written as an introduction to the subject and not as an encyclopaedic reference text. The principal goal is an exposition of the known results on the equivalence theory, and related matters such as the Witt and Witt-Grothendieck groups, over the "classical" fields-algebraically closed, rea
Structural Topology Optimization Based on the Smoothed Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vahid Shobeiri
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the smoothed finite element method, incorporated with the level set method, is employed to carry out the topology optimization of continuum structures. The structural compliance is minimized subject to a constraint on the weight of material used. The cell-based smoothed finite element method is employed to improve the accuracy and stability of the standard finite element method. Several numerical examples are presented to prove the validity and utility of the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those obtained by several standard finite element-based examples in order to access the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method. The common numerical instabilities of the structural topology optimization problems such as checkerboard pattern and mesh dependency are studied in the examples.
Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering
Morgan, MA
2013-01-01
This second volume in the Progress in Electromagnetic Research series examines recent advances in computational electromagnetics, with emphasis on scattering, as brought about by new formulations and algorithms which use finite element or finite difference techniques. Containing contributions by some of the world's leading experts, the papers thoroughly review and analyze this rapidly evolving area of computational electromagnetics. Covering topics ranging from the new finite-element based formulation for representing time-harmonic vector fields in 3-D inhomogeneous media using two coupled sca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Manoelito M. de
1997-01-01
We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)
Finite element modeling of lipid bilayer membranes
Feng, Feng; Klug, William S.
2006-12-01
A numerical simulation framework is presented for the study of biological membranes composed of lipid bilayers based on the finite element method. The classic model for these membranes employs a two-dimensional-fluid-like elastic constitutive law which is sensitive to curvature, and subjects vesicles to physically imposed constraints on surface area and volume. This model is implemented numerically via the use of C1-conforming triangular Loop subdivision finite elements. The validity of the framework is tested by computing equilibrium shapes from previously-determined axisymmetric shape-phase diagram of lipid bilayer vesicles with homogeneous material properties. Some of the benefits and challenges of finite element modeling of lipid bilayer systems are discussed, and it is indicated how this framework is natural for future investigation of biologically realistic bilayer structures involving nonaxisymmetric geometries, binding and adhesive interactions, heterogeneous mechanical properties, cytoskeletal interactions, and complex loading arrangements. These biologically relevant features have important consequences for the shape mechanics of nonidealized vesicles and cells, and their study requires not simply advances in theory, but also advances in numerical simulation techniques, such as those presented here.
quadratic spline finite element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Bahadir
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
Radioactivity in air was measured by a network of continuously operating air samplers at nineteen locations near the Site perimeter and five locations somewhat distant from the Site. The Site perimeter samplers provided for general coverage in all directions but with emphasis in the prevalent downwind directions to the south and east of the Site including the communities of Benton City, Richland, Pasco, Connell, and Othello. The distant air sample locations provided background airborne radioactivity data for comparison. These samplers were located at Sunnyside, Moses Lake, Washtucna, Walla Walla, and at McNary Dam. Airborne radionuclide concentrations during 1982 were lower than those observed in 1981 because of the gradual decline of atmospheric fallout associated with a foreign atmospheric nuclear test that occurred in the fall of 1980. Airborne radioactivity data collected during 1982 did not indicate the presence of detectable levels of Hanford origin radionuclides in the offsite environs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wieczorek, Izabela
2016-01-01
A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...
On finitely strained magnetoelastic solids
Kankanala, Sundeep Venkat
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a class of magnetoelastic solids whose mechanical properties can be altered by the application of magnetic fields. MREs, which are particle filled elastomers, have been developed and proposed as unique solutions for a number of engineering applications, such as tunable engine and chassis mounts in automobiles. In this dissertation we present a study of the magnetoelastic coupling in finitely deformable MREs. Two different continuum formulations for these solids are presented: an Eulerian based direct approach using the second law of thermodynamics plus the conservation laws of mechanics and a new, Lagrangian type formulation based on the unconstrained minimization of a potential energy functional. It is shown that both approaches yield the same governing equations and boundary conditions. Following a discussion of general properties of the free energy function of MREs, a particular such function is used to illustrate the magnetoelastic coupling phenomena in a cylinder subjected to traction or torsion under the presence of external magnetic fields. Motivated by the classical magnetoelastic buckling problem, the general theory is then applied to the solution of the stability of a rectangular block subjected to a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. The variational approach employed utilizes an unconstrained energy minimization. The analytical solution for the critical buckling fields for both the anti-symmetric and symmetric modes are obtained for three different constitutive laws. The corresponding result for beams is extracted asymptotically for a special material and the solution is compared to previously published results. The last part of this work delves into the constitutive modeling of MBEs. Uniaxial experiments are conducted to study the effect of particle chain orientation on the magnetostriction and magnetization responses of an MRE for different levels of compressive and tensile
Finite Size Scaling of Perceptron
Korutcheva, Elka; Tonchev, N.
2000-01-01
We study the first-order transition in the model of a simple perceptron with continuous weights and large, bit finite value of the inputs. Making the analogy with the usual finite-size physical systems, we calculate the shift and the rounding exponents near the transition point. In the case of a general perceptron with larger variety of inputs, the analysis only gives bounds for the exponents.
Programming the finite element method
Smith, I M; Margetts, L
2013-01-01
Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c
Bending analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a number of finite element analyses have been carried out for various side-to-thickness ratios, aspect ratios and modulus ratios to study the effect of transverse shear deformation on deflection and stresses of laminated composite plates subjected to uniformly distributed load. The numerical results showed, ...
Geometry of finite deformations and time-incremental analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fiala, Zdeněk
2016-01-01
Roč. 81, May (2016), s. 230-244 ISSN 0020-7462 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : solid mechanics * finite deformations * time-incremental analysis * Lagrangian system * evolution equation of Lie type Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.074, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020746216000330
A nonlinear dynamic corotational finite element model for submerged pipes
De Vries, F. H.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Van Den Boogaard, A. H.; Huisman, A.
2017-01-01
A three dimensional finite element model is built to compute the motions of a pipe that is being laid on the seabed. This process is geometrically nonlinear, therefore co-rotational beam elements are used. The pipe is subject to static and dynamic forces. Static forces are due to gravity, current
On finite sequences conditionally uniform given minima and maxima
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pilar Iglesias, Z.; Matúš, František; Pereira, C. A. B.; Tanaka, N. I.
2004-01-01
Roč. 66, č. 3 (2004), s. 428-439 ISSN 0972-7671 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA275105; GA MŠk VS96008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : aggregate measures * exchangeability * finite forms of de Finetti-type theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
The Lanczos and Conjugate Gradient Algorithms in Finite Precision Arithmetic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meurant, G.; Strakoš, Zdeněk
2006-01-01
Roč. 15, - (2006), s. 471-542 ISSN 0962-4929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Lanczos method * conjugate gradient method * finite precision arithmetic * numerical stability * iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
On the dynamic buckling of stochastically imperfect finite cylindrical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The dynamic buckling load of stochastically imperfect finite right circular cylindrical shells subjected to step loading is determined by means of regular perturbation procedures .The imperfection is assumed to be a Gaussian random function of position and consequently is homogeneous. The result obtained is implicit in the ...
Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles
Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse
2005-01-01
Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...
Plane stress analysis of wood members using isoparametric finite elements, a computer program
Gary D. Gerhardt
1983-01-01
A finite element program is presented which computes displacements, strains, and stresses in wood members of arbitrary shape which are subjected to plane strain/stressloading conditions. This report extends a program developed by R. L. Taylor in 1977, by adding both the cubic isoparametric finite element and the capability to analyze nonisotropic materials. The...
Finite groups with the set of the number of subgroups of possible ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Throughout this paper, groups mentioned are finite and p is a prime. An important topic in the group theory is to investigate the number of subgroups of possible order, and con- versely it is also an important subject to determine the structure of a finite group by considering the number of its subgroups of possible orders.
Application of compact finite-difference schemes to simulations of stably stratified fluid flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bodnár, Tomáš; Beneš, L.; Fraunie, P.; Kozel, Karel
2012-01-01
Roč. 219, č. 7 (2012), s. 3336-3353 ISSN 0096-3003 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stratification * finite-difference * finite-volume * Runge-Kutta Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300311010988
Modelling bucket excavation by finite element
Pecingina, O. M.
2015-11-01
Changes in geological components of the layers from lignite pits have an impact on the sustainability of the cup path elements and under the action of excavation force appear efforts leading to deformation of the entire assembly. Application of finite element method in the optimization of components leads to economic growth, to increase the reliability and durability of the studied machine parts thus the machine. It is obvious usefulness of knowledge the state of mechanical tensions that the designed piece or the assembly not to break under the action of tensions that must cope during operation. In the course of excavation work on all bucket cutting force components, the first coming into contact with the material being excavated cutting edge. Therefore in the study with finite element analysis is retained only cutting edge. To study the field of stress and strain on the cutting edge will be created geometric patterns for each type of cup this will be subject to static analysis. The geometric design retains the cutting edge shape and on this on the tooth cassette location will apply an areal force on the abutment tooth. The cutting edge real pattern is subjected to finite element study for the worst case of rock cutting by symmetrical and asymmetrical cups whose profile is different. The purpose of this paper is to determine the displacement and tensions field for both profiles considering the maximum force applied on the cutting edge and the depth of the cutting is equal with the width of the cutting edge of the tooth. It will consider the worst case when on the structure will act both the tangential force and radial force on the bucket profile. For determination of stress and strain field on the form design of cutting edge profile will apply maximum force assuming uniform distribution and on the edge surface force will apply a radial force. After geometric patterns discretization on the cutting knives and determining stress field, can be seen that at the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stenslund, Anette
revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell......, hospital-based and museum-staged. Prompted by the ambition to acknowledge the museum’s need to have its activities rooted in thorough investigation of the given culture on show, the dual analytical disposition is a sine qua non spanning varied fields and disciplines. The conceptual discussion offered...... in the thesis is spurred on by philosophical phenomenology predominantly paired with sociological and anthropological theory. It finds support in empirical work from both a hospital and a museum setting. Thus, it draws on a three-month ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2012 in a Danish hospital, including...
Solid finite elements through three decades
Venkatesh, DN; Shrinivasa, U
1994-01-01
conventionally, solid finite elements have been looked upon as just generalizations of two-dimensional finite elements. In this article we trace their development starting from the days of their inception. Keeping in tune with our perceptions on developing finite elements, without taking recourse to any extra variational techniques, we discuss a few of the techniques which have been applied to solid finite elements. Finally we critically examine our own work on formulating solid finite elemen...
Would be the Atmosphere Chaotic?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isimar de Azevedo Santos
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The atmosphere has often been considered “chaotic” when in fact the “chaos” is a manifestation of the models that simulate it, which do not include all the physical mechanisms that exist within it. A weather prediction cannot be perfectly verified after a few days of integration due to the inherent nonlinearity of the equations of the hydrodynamic models. The innovative ideas of Lorenz led to the use of the ensemble forecast, with clear improvements in the quality of the numerical weather prediction. The present study addresses the statement that “even with perfect models and perfect observations, the ‘chaotic’ nature of the atmosphere would impose a finite limit of about two weeks to the predictability of the weather” as the atmosphere is not necessarily “chaotic”, but the models used in the simulation of atmospheric processes are. We conclude, therefore, that potential exists for developments to increase the horizon of numerical weather prediction, starting with better models and observations.
Finite and profinite quantum systems
Vourdas, Apostolos
2017-01-01
This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...
Finite element methods for engineers
Fenner, Roger T
2013-01-01
This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...
On characters of finite groups
Broué, Michel
2017-01-01
This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).
Sound radiation from finite surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunskog, Jonas
2013-01-01
A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...... in the radiation formula directly, and no pre-windowing is needed. Examples are given for the radiation efficiency, and the results are compared with results found in the literature....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Berezovski, A.; Kolman, Radek; Blažek, Jiří; Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : elastic wave propagation * finite element method * isogeometric analysis * finite volume method * stress discontinuities * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/25_Berezovski_Rev1.pdf
Finite connectivity attractor neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wemmenhove, B; Coolen, A C C
2003-01-01
We study a family of diluted attractor neural networks with a finite average number of (symmetric) connections per neuron. As in finite connectivity spin glasses, their equilibrium properties are described by order parameter functions, for which we derive an integral equation in replica symmetric approximation. A bifurcation analysis of this equation reveals the locations of the paramagnetic to recall and paramagnetic to spin-glass transition lines in the phase diagram. The line separating the retrieval phase from the spin-glass phase is calculated at zero temperature. All phase transitions are found to be continuous
Finite connectivity attractor neural networks
Wemmenhove, B.; Coolen, A. C. C.
2003-09-01
We study a family of diluted attractor neural networks with a finite average number of (symmetric) connections per neuron. As in finite connectivity spin glasses, their equilibrium properties are described by order parameter functions, for which we derive an integral equation in replica symmetric approximation. A bifurcation analysis of this equation reveals the locations of the paramagnetic to recall and paramagnetic to spin-glass transition lines in the phase diagram. The line separating the retrieval phase from the spin-glass phase is calculated at zero temperature. All phase transitions are found to be continuous.
Variational collocation on finite intervals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amore, Paolo; Cervantes, Mayra; Fernandez, Francisco M
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study a set of functions, defined on an interval of finite width, which are orthogonal and which reduce to the sinc functions when the appropriate limit is taken. We show that these functions can be used within a variational approach to obtain accurate results for a variety of problems. We have applied them to the interpolation of functions on finite domains and to the solution of the Schroedinger equation, and we have compared the performance of the present approach with others
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.
Atmospheric Models/Global Atmospheric Modeling
1998-09-30
Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling Timothy F. Hogan Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, CA 93943-5502 phone: (831) 656-4705 fax: (831...to 00-00-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Models /Global Atmospheric Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...initialization of increments, improved cloud prediction, and improved surface fluxes) have been transition to 6.4 (Global Atmospheric Models , PE 0603207N, X-0513
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, T.J.; Karr, G.R.
1989-01-01
Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics are examined in reviews and reports, with an emphasis on finite-element methods. Sections are devoted to adaptive meshes, atmospheric dynamics, combustion, compressible flows, control-volume finite elements, crystal growth, domain decomposition, EM-field problems, FDM/FEM, and fluid-structure interactions. Consideration is given to free-boundary problems with heat transfer, free surface flow, geophysical flow problems, heat and mass transfer, high-speed flow, incompressible flow, inverse design methods, MHD problems, the mathematics of finite elements, and mesh generation. Also discussed are mixed finite elements, multigrid methods, non-Newtonian fluids, numerical dissipation, parallel vector processing, reservoir simulation, seepage, shallow-water problems, spectral methods, supercomputer architectures, three-dimensional problems, and turbulent flows
Finite Element Modelling of Cold Formed Stainless Steel Columns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Macdonald
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained from a finite element investigation into the load capacity of column members of lipped channel cross-section, cold formed from Type 304 stainless steel, subjected to concentric and eccentric compression loading. The main aims of this investigation were to determine the effects which the non-linearity of the stress-strain behaviour of the material would have on the column behaviour under concentric or eccentric loading. Stress-strain curves derived from tests and design codes are incorporated into non-linear finite element analyses of eccentrically loaded columns and the results obtained are compared with those obtained on the basis of experiments on stainless steel channel columns with the same properties and dimensions. Comparisons of the finite element results and the test results are also made with existing design specifications and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the comparisons.
Climate of the upper atmosphere
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bremer, J.; Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Altadill, D.; Pal, B.; Burešová, Dalia; Franceschi de, G.; Jacobi, C.; Kouris, S. S.; Perrone, L.; Turunen, E.
2009-01-01
Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 273-299 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * trends * atmospheric waves * ionospheric variability * incoherent radar * space weather Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009
The finite element response Matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, H.; Martin, W.R.
1983-01-01
A new method for global reactor core calculations is described. This method is based on a unique formulation of the response matrix method, implemented with a higher order finite element method. The unique aspects of this approach are twofold. First, there are two levels to the overall calculational scheme: the local or assembly level and the global or core level. Second, the response matrix scheme, which is formulated at both levels, consists of two separate response matrices rather than one response matrix as is generally the case. These separate response matrices are seen to be quite beneficial for the criticality eigenvalue calculation, because they are independent of k /SUB eff/. The response matrices are generated from a Galerkin finite element solution to the weak form of the diffusion equation, subject to an arbitrary incoming current and an arbitrary distributed source. Calculational results are reported for two test problems, the two-dimensional International Atomic Energy Agency benchmark problem and a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor test problem (Biblis reactor), and they compare well with standard coarse mesh methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, the accuracy (and capability) is comparable to fine mesh for a fraction of the computational cost. Extension of the method to treat heterogeneous assemblies and spatial depletion effects is discussed
Godin, Oleg A.
2015-04-01
Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine
Sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence
Yamashita, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Shigeru; 山下, 博; 大林, 茂
2009-01-01
The effect of the homogeneous atmospheric turbulence on the sonic boom propagation has been investigated. The turbulence field is represented by a finite sum of discrete Fourier modes based on the von Karman and Pao energy spectrum. The sonic boom signature is calculated by the modified Waveform Parameter Method, considering the turbulent velocities. The results show that in 59 % of the cases, the intensity of the sonic boom had decreased, and in other 41 % of the cases had increased the soni...
Lattice QCD at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeTar, C.
1988-01-01
Recent progress in the numerical simulation of QCD at finite temperature is reviewed. Eight topics are treated briefly: (1) T c scaling, (2) Equation of state, (3) Baryon susceptibility, (4) The QCD Phase Diagram, (5) J/Ψ Binding in the Plasma, (6) The Screening Spectrum of the Plasma, (7) Gauge Symmetry Breaking at High T, (8) Progress in Computing Power. (author)
Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees
Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.
1993-01-01
A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.
Ward identities at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DOlivo, J.C.; Torres, M.; Tututi, E.
1996-01-01
The Ward identities for QED at finite temperature are derived using the functional real-time formalism. They are verified by an explicit one-loop calculation. An effective causal vertex is constructed which satisfy the Ward identity with the associated retarded self-energy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Finite-temperature confinement transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svetitsky, B.
1984-01-01
The formalism of lattice gauge theory at finite temperature is introduced. The framework of universality predictions for critical behavior is outlined, and recent analytic work in this direction is reviewed. New Monte Carlo information for the SU(4) theory are represented, and possible results of the inclusion of fermions in the SU(3) theory are listed
Finite element analysis of thrust angle contact ball slewing bearing
Deng, Biao; Guo, Yuan; Zhang, An; Tang, Shengjin
2017-12-01
In view of the large heavy slewing bearing no longer follows the rigid ring hupothesis under the load condition, the entity finite element model of thrust angular contact ball bearing was established by using finite element analysis software ANSYS. The boundary conditions of the model were set according to the actual condition of slewing bearing, the internal stress state of the slewing bearing was obtained by solving and calculation, and the calculated results were compared with the numerical results based on the rigid ring assumption. The results show that more balls are loaded in the result of finite element method, and the maximum contact stresses between the ball and raceway have some reductions. This is because the finite element method considers the ferrule as an elastic body. The ring will produce structure deformation in the radial plane when the heavy load slewing bearings are subjected to external loads. The results of the finite element method are more in line with the actual situation of the slewing bearing in the engineering.
A course in finite group representation theory
Webb, Peter
2016-01-01
This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.
Prediction with measurement errors in finite populations.
Singer, Julio M; Stanek, Edward J; Lencina, Viviana B; González, Luz Mery; Li, Wenjun; Martino, Silvina San
2012-02-01
We address the problem of selecting the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of the latent value (e.g., serum glucose fasting level) of sample subjects with heteroskedastic measurement errors. Using a simple example, we compare the usual mixed model BLUP to a similar predictor based on a mixed model framed in a finite population (FPMM) setup with two sources of variability, the first of which corresponds to simple random sampling and the second, to heteroskedastic measurement errors. Under this last approach, we show that when measurement errors are subject-specific, the BLUP shrinkage constants are based on a pooled measurement error variance as opposed to the individual ones generally considered for the usual mixed model BLUP. In contrast, when the heteroskedastic measurement errors are measurement condition-specific, the FPMM BLUP involves different shrinkage constants. We also show that in this setup, when measurement errors are subject-specific, the usual mixed model predictor is biased but has a smaller mean squared error than the FPMM BLUP which point to some difficulties in the interpretation of such predictors.
Introduction to finite temperature and finite density QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo
2014-01-01
It has been pointed out that QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) in the circumstances of medium at finite temperature and density shows numbers of phenomena similar to the characteristics of solid state physics, e.g. phase transitions. In the past ten years, the very high temperature and density matter came to be observed experimentally at the heavy ion collisions. At the same time, the numerical QCD analysis at finite temperature and density attained quantitative level analysis possible owing to the remarkable progress of computers. In this summer school lecture, it has been set out to give not only the recent results, but also the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry, the fundamental theory of finite temperature and further expositions as in the following four sections. The first section is titled as 'Introduction to Finite Temperature and Density QCD' with subsections of 1.1 standard model and QCD, 1.2 phase transition and phase structure of QCD, 1.3 lattice QCD and thermodynamic quantity, 1.4 heavy ion collision experiments, and 1.5 neutron stars. The second one is 'Equilibrium State' with subsections of 2.1 chiral symmetry, 2.2 vacuum state: BCS theory, 2.3 NJL (Nambu-Jona-Lasinio) model, and 2.4 color superconductivity. The third one is 'Static fluctuations' with subsections of 3.1 fluctuations, 3.2 moment and cumulant, 3.3 increase of fluctuations at critical points, 3.4 analysis of fluctuations by lattice QCD and Taylor expansion, and 3.5 experimental exploration of QCD phase structure. The fourth one is 'Dynamical Structure' with 4.1 linear response theory, 4.2 spectral functions, 4.3 Matsubara function, and 4.4 analyses of dynamical structure by lattice QCD. (S. Funahashi)
Finite elements methods in mechanics
Eslami, M Reza
2014-01-01
This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...
Automation of finite element methods
Korelc, Jože
2016-01-01
New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.
Factorization properties of finite spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simkhovich, B; Mann, A; Zak, J, E-mail: boriskas@tx.technion.ac.i, E-mail: ady@physics.technion.ac.i, E-mail: zak@physics.technion.ac.i [Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2010-01-29
In 1960 Schwinger (J Schwinger 1960 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 46 570-9) proposed the algorithm for factorization of unitary operators in the finite M-dimensional Hilbert space according to a coprime decomposition of M. Using a special permutation operator A we generalize the Schwinger factorization to every decomposition of M. We obtain the factorized pairs of unitary operators and show that they obey the same commutation relations as Schwinger's. We apply the new factorization to two problems. First, we show how to generate two kq-like mutually unbiased bases for any composite dimension. Then, using a Harper-like Hamiltonian model in the finite dimension M = M{sub 1}M{sub 2}, we show how to design a physical system with M{sub 1} energy levels, each having degeneracy M{sub 2}.
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen
1998-01-01
We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...
The construction of finite solvable groups revisited
Eick, Bettina; Horn, Max
2013-01-01
We describe a new approach towards the systematic construction of finite groups up to isomorphism. This approach yields a practical algorithm for the construction of finite solvable groups up to isomorphism. We report on a GAP implementation of this method for finite solvable groups and exhibit some sample applications.
Proving Finite Satisfiability of Deductive Databases
Bry, François; Manthey, Rainer
1987-01-01
It is shown how certain refutation methods can be extended into semi-decision procedures that are complete for both unsatisfiability and finite satisfiability. The proposed extension is justified by a new characterization of finite satisfiability. This research was motivated by a database design problem: Deduction rules and integrity constraints in definite databases have to be finitely satisfiable
Characterization of finite spaces having dispersion points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Bsoul, A. T
1997-01-01
In this paper we shall characterize the finite spaces having dispersion points. Also, we prove that the dispersion point of a finite space with a dispersion points fixed under all non constant continuous functions which answers the question raised by J. C obb and W. Voxman in 1980 affirmatively for finite space. Some open problems are given. (author). 16 refs
Quantum Chromodynamic at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magalhaes, N.S.
1987-01-01
A formal expression to the Gibbs free energy of topological defects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD)by using the semiclassical approach in the context of field theory at finite temperature and in the high temperature limit is determined. This expression is used to calculate the free energy of magnetic monopoles. Applying the obtained results to a method in which the free energy of topological defects of a theory may indicate its different phases, its searched for informations about phases of QCD. (author) [pt
Spinor pregeometry at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimoto, Seiji.
1985-10-01
We derive the effective action for gravity at finite temperature in spinor pregeometry. The temperature-dependent effective potential for the vierbein which is parametrized as e sub(kμ) = b.diag(1, xi, xi, xi) has the minimum at b = 0 for fixed xi, and behaves as -xi 3 for fixed b. These results indicate that the system of fundamental matters in spinor pregeometry cannot be in equilibrium. (author)
Strange matter at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinhardt, H.; Dang, B.V.
1987-12-01
The properties of strange quark matter at finite temperatures and in equilibrium with respect to weak interaction are explored on the basis of the MIT bag model picture of QCD. Furthermore, to determine the stability of strange quark matter analogous investigations are also performed for nuclear matter within Walecka's model field theory. It is found that strange quark matter can be stable at zero external pressure only for temperatures below 20 MeV. (orig.)
Finite mathematics models and applications
Morris, Carla C
2015-01-01
Features step-by-step examples based on actual data and connects fundamental mathematical modeling skills and decision making concepts to everyday applicability Featuring key linear programming, matrix, and probability concepts, Finite Mathematics: Models and Applications emphasizes cross-disciplinary applications that relate mathematics to everyday life. The book provides a unique combination of practical mathematical applications to illustrate the wide use of mathematics in fields ranging from business, economics, finance, management, operations research, and the life and social sciences.
Propagator for finite range potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacciari, Ilaria; Moretti, Paolo
2006-01-01
The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown
Perturbative QCD at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altherr, T.
1989-03-01
We discuss an application of finite temperature QCD to lepton-pair production in a quark-gluon plasma. The perturbative calculation is performed within the realtime formalism. After cancellation of infrared and mass singularities, the corrections at O (α s ) are found to be very small in the region where the mass of the Drell-Yan pair is much larger than the temperature of the plasma. Interesting effects, however, appear at the annihilation threshold of the thermalized quarks
Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels
2016-01-01
This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...
Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit
Kopasakis, George (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.
On angle conditions in the finite element method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brandts, J.; Hannukainen, A.; Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal
2011-01-01
Roč. 56, - (2011), s. 81-95 ISSN 1575-9822 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : simplicial finite elements * minimum and maximum angle condition * ball conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.sema.org.es/ojs/index.php?journal=journal&page=article&op=viewArticle&path%5B%5D=612
Imposing orthogonality to hierarchic higher-order finite elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šolín, P.; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Zítka, M.; Ávila, F.
2007-01-01
Roč. 76, 1-3 (2007), s. 211-217 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/04/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : optimal shape functions * energetic inner product * Laplace equation * symmetric linear elliptic problems * numerical experiments * hp-finite element method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2007
Extension of p-local finite groups
Broto, Carles; Castellana, Natalia; Grodal, Jesper; Levi, Ran; Oliver, Bob
2005-01-01
A p-local finite group consists of a finite p-group S, together with a pair of categories which encode ``conjugacy'' relations among subgroups of S, and which are modelled on the fusion in a Sylow p-subgroup of a finite group. It contains enough information to define a classifying space which has many of the same properties as p-completed classifying spaces of finite groups. In this paper, we study and classify extensions of p-local finite groups, and also compute the fundamental group of the...
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....
Stochastic models for atmospheric dispersion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2003-01-01
Simple stochastic differential equation models have been applied by several researchers to describe the dispersion of tracer particles in the planetary atmospheric boundary layer and to form the basis for computer simulations of particle paths. To obtain the drift coefficient, empirical vertical...... positions close to the boundaries. Different rules have been suggested in the literature with justifications based on simulation studies. Herein the relevant stochastic differential equation model is formulated in a particular way. The formulation is based on the marginal transformation of the position...... dependent particle velocity into a position independent Gaussian velocity. Boundary conditions are obtained from Itos rule of stochastic differentiation. The model directly point at a canonical rule of reflection for the approximating random walk with finite time step. This reflection rule is different from...
Hadronic electroweak processes in a finite volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agadjanov, Andria
2017-01-01
In the present thesis, we study a number of hadronic electroweak processes in a finite volume. Our work is motivated by the ongoing and future lattice simulations of the strong interaction theory called quantum chromodynamics. According to the available computational resources, the numerical calculations are necessarily performed on lattices with a finite spatial extension. The first part of the thesis is based on the finite volume formalism which is a standard method to investigate the processes with the final state interactions, and in particular, the elastic hadron resonances, on the lattice. Throughout the work, we systematically apply the non-relativistic effective field theory. The great merit of this approach is that it encodes the low-energy dynamics directly in terms of the effective range expansion parameters. After a brief introduction into the subject, we formulate a framework for the extraction of the ΔNγ * as well as the B→K * transition form factors from lattice data. Both processes are of substantial phenomenological interest, including the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Moreover, we provide a proper field-theoretical definition of the resonance matrix elements, and advocate it in comparison to the one based on the infinitely narrow width approximation. In the second part we consider certain aspects of the doubly virtual nucleon Compton scattering. The main objective of the work is to answer the question whether there is, in the Regge language, a so-called fixed pole in the process. To answer this question, the unknown subtraction function, which enters one of the dispersion relations for the invariant amplitudes, has to be determined. The external field method provides a feasible approach to tackle this problem on the lattice. Considering the nucleon in a periodic magnetic field, we derive a simple relation for the ground state energy shift up to a second order in the field strength. The obtained result encodes the value of the
Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the
Entropy conservative finite element schemes
Tadmor, E.
1986-01-01
The question of entropy stability for discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end, two main ingredients are used: entropy variables and the construction of certain entropy conservative schemes in terms of piecewise-linear finite element approximations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable, if and (for three-point schemes) only if, they contain more numerical viscosity than the abovementioned entropy conservation ones.
Functionals of finite Riemann surfaces
Schiffer, Menahem
1954-01-01
This advanced monograph on finite Riemann surfaces, based on the authors' 1949-50 lectures at Princeton University, remains a fundamental book for graduate students. The Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society hailed the self-contained treatment as the source of ""a plethora of ideas, each interesting in its own right,"" noting that ""the patient reader will be richly rewarded."" Suitable for graduate-level courses, the text begins with three chapters that offer a development of the classical theory along historical lines, examining geometrical and physical considerations, existence theo
Finite Higgs mass without Supersymmetry
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Quirós, Mariano
2001-01-01
We identify a class of chiral models where the one-loop effective potential for Higgs scalar fields is finite without any requirement of supersymmetry. It corresponds to the case where the Higgs fields are identified with the components of a gauge field along compactified extra dimensions. We present a six dimensional model with gauge group U(3)xU(3) and quarks and leptons accomodated in fundamental and bi-fundamental representations. The model can be embedded in a D-brane configuration of type I string theory and, upon compactification on a T^2/Z_2 orbifold, it gives rise to the standard model with two Higgs doublets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neves, Julio C. Goes; Balbi, Diego J. G. [Promom Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the results obtained in the study of local stress in wall of large diameter pipe. The case study consists of to analyze a pipeline system with 66 inch, which is responsible for transporting oil, oven to the Tower of vacuum distillation unit in a petroleum refining. The absence of internal pressure leads to a critical with respect to the collapse of the walls of the tube in long sections, without the presence of additional elements increase the rigidity of the geometry. The ASME Section VIII Division 1 advocates the use of additional plates, called stiffeners, which aim to curb the efforts from this condition. Thus, it is necessary structural assessment of critical portions of the system in implementing this solution. Therefore, complementary approaches have been proposed, passing by ASME B31.3, Section VIII Division 1, moreover, a computer simulation of stresses through the finite element method, which the results were analyzed according to criteria of tensions presents in ASME Code Section VIII Division 2. (author)
Raising out of finite CP in Nguni: the case of fanele | Zeller ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Nguni modal verb fanele can select a finite clause in the subjunctive mood as its complement. Typically, the thematic subject of this clausal complement remains in the embedded subject position, in which case the matrix verb fanele is prefixed with the expletive marker ku-. However, in another possible construction with ...
Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morcillo, M.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.
La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.
On divergence of finite measures and their applicability in statistics and information theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vajda, Igor; Stummer, W.
2009-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 169-187 ISSN 0233-1888 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Local and global divergences of finite measures * Divergences of sigma-finite measures * Statistical censoring * Pinsker's inequality, Ornstein's distance * Differential power entropies Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/vajda-on divergence of finite measures and their applicability in statistics and information theory.pdf
Convolution and Equidistribution Sato-Tate Theorems for Finite-Field Mellin Transforms
Katz, Nicholas M
2012-01-01
Convolution and Equidistribution explores an important aspect of number theory--the theory of exponential sums over finite fields and their Mellin transforms--from a new, categorical point of view. The book presents fundamentally important results and a plethora of examples, opening up new directions in the subject. The finite-field Mellin transform (of a function on the multiplicative group of a finite field) is defined by summing that function against variable multiplicative characters. The basic question considered in the book is how the values of the Mellin transform are distributed (in
Solar influences on atmospheric circulation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Mošna, Zbyšek; Kouba, Daniel; Asenovska, Y.
90-91, SI (2012), s. 15-25 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Solar activity * North Atlantic Oscillation * Solar dynamo * Solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001393
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which-as shown on the contact process-provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
On estimating the loss of quantification in PET due to finite detector resolution.
Bice, A N; Wong, D F; Wagner, H N
1987-01-01
In positron emission computed tomography, images are reconstructed from projection data of the slice. Such projection data are inherently subject to bias owing to the detection of coincident annihilation photons with detectors of finite resolution. The influence of these unavoidable effects on reconstructed data is reviewed and a straight forward method is outlined for calculating the loss of quantification of small objects owing to finite detector resolution. A sample calculation using idealized point spread functions is presented.
Recent Developments in DAO's Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System
daSilva, Arlindo; Lin, S.-J.; Joiner, J.; Dee, D.; Frank, D.; Norris, P.; Poli, P.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. The data assimilation method implemented in CODAS incorporates a simplified version of the model bias estimation and correction algorithm, as described by Dee and da Silva (1998). In this talk we will briefly describe the general system formulation, and focus on the impact of 3 data types recently introduced, namely: 1) cloud tracks winds from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectrometer by the US Air Force, and 3) temperature and moisture information derived from GPS refractivity occultation measurements. The impact of these data types on observation-minus-6hr forecast (O-F) statistics, as well as 5-day forecast skills will be discussed. In addition we will assess the impact of cloud assimilation on top of the atmosphere radiation fields estimated from CERES measurements.
Finite Unification: Theory and Predictions
Heinemeyer, S; Zoupanos, G
2010-01-01
All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which not only realise an old field theoretic dream but also have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. The reduction of the dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exist RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of all beta-functions in certain N=1 GUTs even to all orders. Furthermore developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations, i.e. reduction of couplings, in this dimensionful sector of the theory too. Based on the above theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTS have been constructed. Here we present FUT models based on the SU(5) and SU(3)^3 gauge groups and their predictions. Of particular intere...
Biset functors for finite groups
Bouc, Serge
2010-01-01
This volume exposes the theory of biset functors for finite groups, which yields a unified framework for operations of induction, restriction, inflation, deflation and transport by isomorphism. The first part recalls the basics on biset categories and biset functors. The second part is concerned with the Burnside functor and the functor of complex characters, together with semisimplicity issues and an overview of Green biset functors. The last part is devoted to biset functors defined over p-groups for a fixed prime number p. This includes the structure of the functor of rational representations and rational p-biset functors. The last two chapters expose three applications of biset functors to long-standing open problems, in particular the structure of the Dade group of an arbitrary finite p-group.This book is intended both to students and researchers, as it gives a didactic exposition of the basics and a rewriting of advanced results in the area, with some new ideas and proofs.
Flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms approaching the infinite wind farm regime
Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2017-04-01
Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully
Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.
2009-01-01
Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O3, CH4, N2O and particles...
Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions
Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, K.; Sutton, M.A.; Ambus, P.; Raivonen, M.; Duyzer, J.; Simpson, D.; Fagerli, H.; Fuzzi, S.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Granier, C.; Neftel, A.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Laj, P.; Maione, M.; Monks, P.S.; Burkhardt, J.; Daemmgen, U.; Neirynck, J.; Personne, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Flechard, C.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Coyle, M.; Gerosa, G.; Loubet, B.; Altimir, N.; Gruenhage, L.; Ammann, C.; Cieslik, S.; Paoletti, E.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Cellier, P.; Cape, J.N.; Horvath, L.; Loreto, F.; Niinemets, U.; Palmer, P.I.; Rinne, J.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Nilsson, D.; Pryor, S.; Gallagher, M.W.; Vesala, T.; Skiba, U.; Brueggemann, N.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Williams, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Facchini, M.C.; Leeuw, de G.; Flossman, A.; Chaumerliac, N.; Erisman, J.W.
2009-01-01
Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O-3, CH4, N2O and particles
Finite size scaling and lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, B.A.
1986-01-01
Finite size (Fisher) scaling is investigated for four dimensional SU(2) and SU(3) lattice gauge theories without quarks. It allows to disentangle violations of (asymptotic) scaling and finite volume corrections. Mass spectrum, string tension, deconfinement temperature and lattice β-function are considered. For appropriate volumes, Monte Carlo investigations seem to be able to control the finite volume continuum limit. Contact is made with Luescher's small volume expansion and possibly also with the asymptotic large volume behavior. 41 refs., 19 figs
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine
Ortega, R.
1995-01-01
An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.
A first course in finite elements
Fish, Jacob
2007-01-01
Developed from the authors, combined total of 50 years undergraduate and graduate teaching experience, this book presents the finite element method formulated as a general-purpose numerical procedure for solving engineering problems governed by partial differential equations. Focusing on the formulation and application of the finite element method through the integration of finite element theory, code development, and software application, the book is both introductory and self-contained, as well as being a hands-on experience for any student. This authoritative text on Finite Elements:Adopts
Piping noise transmission loss calculations using finite element analysis
Eberhart, Richard; Catron, Fred W.; Fagerlund, Allen C.; Karczub, Denis G.; Mann, J. Adin
2005-09-01
The prediction of noise radiated by piping downstream of a control valve is subject to various uncertainties. One of the significant sources of uncertainty is the pipe-wall transmission loss. Due to the difficulties in experimentally measuring pipe-wall transmission loss accurately, and practical difficulties of taking into account pipe length and boundary conditions, an analytical approach for the calculation of transmission loss is required. The feasibility of uncoupled structural-acoustic finite element based calculations of transmission loss is being investigated for this purpose. By developing the use of finite element based calculations of transmission loss, it is hoped to provide a simple analysis procedure to quantify the effects of pipe length and boundary conditions on the noise level downstream of control valves in practical piping systems. It should also assist in the refinement of analytical/statistical calculations of transmission loss and noise radiation.
A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HWANG,STEPHEN C.; MCMEEKING,ROBERT M.
2000-02-17
A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.
Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmika Pandya
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
Learning Extended Finite State Machines
Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard
2014-01-01
We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.
Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, W.W.
1980-12-12
Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.
Finite volume schemes for Vlasov
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crouseilles Nicolas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present finite volume schemes for the numerical approximation of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation (FOV CEMRACS 2011 project. Stability analysis is performed for the linear advection and links with semi-Lagrangian schemes are made. Finally, numerical results enable to compare the different methods using classical plasma test cases. Des schémas de type volumes finis sont étudiés ici pour l’approximation de l’équation de Vlasov-Poisson (projet FOV, CEMRACS 2011. Une analyse de stabilité est effectuée dans le cas de l’advection linéaire et plusieurs liens sont faits entre les méthodes volumes finis et semi-Lagrangiennes. Enfin, les méthodes sont comparées sur des cas tests académiques de la physique des plasmas.
Phase transition in finite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)
Nuclear deformation at finite temperature.
Alhassid, Y; Gilbreth, C N; Bertsch, G F
2014-12-31
Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.
Nuclear Deformation at Finite Temperature
Alhassid, Y.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Bertsch, G. F.
2014-12-01
Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.
Finite rotation shells basic equations and finite elements for Reissner kinematics
Wisniewski, K
2010-01-01
This book covers theoretical and computational aspects of non-linear shells. Several advanced topics of shell equations and finite elements - not included in standard textbooks on finite elements - are addressed, and the book includes an extensive bibliography.
A Model of the Primordial Lunar Atmosphere
Saxena, Prabal; Elkins-Tanton, Lindy; Petro, Noah; Mandell, Avi
2017-01-01
We create the first quantitative model for the early lunar atmosphere, coupled with a magma ocean crystallization model. Immediately after formation, the moon's surface was subject to a radiative environment that included contributions from the early Sun, a post-impact Earth that radiated like a mid-type M dwarf star, and a cooling global magma ocean. This radiative environment resulted in a largely Earth-side atmosphere on the Moon, ranging from approximately 10(exp 4) to approximately 10(exp 2) pascals, composed of heavy volatiles (Na and SiO). This atmosphere persisted through lid formation and was additionally characterized by supersonic winds that transported significant quantities of moderate volatiles and likely generated magma ocean waves. The existence of this atmosphere may have influenced the distribution of some moderate volatiles and created temperature asymmetries which influenced ocean flow and cooling. Such asymmetries may characterize young, tidally locked rocky bodies with global magma oceans and subject to intense irradiation.
Iterative solutions of finite difference diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, S.V.G.; Khandekar, D.C.; Trasi, M.S.
1981-01-01
The heterogeneous arrangement of materials and the three-dimensional character of the reactor physics problems encountered in the design and operation of nuclear reactors makes it necessary to use numerical methods for solution of the neutron diffusion equations which are based on the linear Boltzmann equation. The commonly used numerical method for this purpose is the finite difference method. It converts the diffusion equations to a system of algebraic equations. In practice, the size of this resulting algebraic system is so large that the iterative methods have to be used. Most frequently used iterative methods are discussed. They include : (1) basic iterative methods for one-group problems, (2) iterative methods for eigenvalue problems, and (3) iterative methods which use variable acceleration parameters. Application of Chebyshev theorem to iterative methods is discussed. The extension of the above iterative methods to multigroup neutron diffusion equations is also considered. These methods are applicable to elliptic boundary value problems in reactor design studies in particular, and to elliptic partial differential equations in general. Solution of sample problems is included to illustrate their applications. The subject matter is presented in as simple a manner as possible. However, a working knowledge of matrix theory is presupposed. (M.G.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1994-12-31
Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.
Planetary Atmospheric Electricity
Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M
2008-01-01
This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...
Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...
Anisotropy of solar radiation leaving the Earth-atmosphere system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suttles, J.T.
1981-05-01
The anisotropic nature of solar radiation leaving the Earth atmosphere system is investigated. The problem of the transfer of solar radiation in the Earth atmosphere system is solved using an appropriate numerical solution technique and solutions are compared with measurements of upwelling radiance from available satellite data. The numerical solution technique used is based on an existing finite difference method which is extended to include azimuthal variations, spectral variations for the entire solar wavelength range, and specular as well as diffuse reflection at the surface. The Earth atmosphere system is approximated locally as a plane parallel layer with detailed vertical profiles of the physical and optical properties of the important atmospheric gases and aerosols. The cloudy atmosphere is approximated by a plane parallel, homogeneous layer
Numerical solution of atmospheric boundary layer flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benes, L.; Kozel, K. [Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Sladek, I. [Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics
2000-07-01
The work deals with numerical solution of the 3D viscous turbulent steady flows in the atmospheric boundary layer including pollution propagation. The theoretical model consists of a system of Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows (continuity and momentum equations) and two equations for concentration and potential temperature in conservative form. Turbulent flow is considered using an algebraic model of turbulence. Numerical solution is based on artificial compressibility method. Numerically is realized using by the finite volume method and multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. The work presents 3D flow for high Re{proportional_to}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} over a hill or a system of hills. (orig.)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-09-10
Sep 10, 2017 ... ... involve condensation and precipitation. So, in order to examine the potential water in the atmosphere, atmospheric water harvester model was developed since it is one of the sustainable alternative water resources [6]. Normally, the atmosphere contains water in the form of water vapor, moisture and so ...
Atmospheric refraction : a history
Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S
2005-01-01
We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of
A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rick Statman
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.
Finite-Element Software for Conceptual Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindemann, J.; Sandberg, G.; Damkilde, Lars
2010-01-01
and research. Forcepad is an effort to provide a conceptual design and teaching tool in a finite-element software package. Forcepad is a two-dimensional finite-element application based on the same conceptual model as image editing applications such as Adobe Photoshop or Microsoft Paint. Instead of using...
Non-linear finite element modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...
Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board
A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik
1999-01-01
In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...
Finite Topological Spaces as a Pedagogical Tool
Helmstutler, Randall D.; Higginbottom, Ryan S.
2012-01-01
We propose the use of finite topological spaces as examples in a point-set topology class especially suited to help students transition into abstract mathematics. We describe how carefully chosen examples involving finite spaces may be used to reinforce concepts, highlight pathologies, and develop students' non-Euclidean intuition. We end with a…
On p-supersolvability of finite groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
[2] Ballester-Bolinches A, Ezquerro L M and Skiba A N, On second maximal subgroups of. Sylow subgroups of finite groups, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 215 (2011) 705–714. [3] Ballester-Bolinches A and Pedraza-Aguilera M C, On minimal subgroups of finite groups,. Acta Math. Hungar. 73 (1996) 335–342. [4] Chen X and Guo W ...
Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-12-01
As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.
On the orders of finite semisimple groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4 ... The aim of this paper is to investigate the order coincidences among the finite semisimple groups and to give a reasoning of such order coincidences through the transitive ... We investigate the situation for finite semisimple groups of Lie type.
Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories
Visser, Albert
In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed
Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories
Visser, Albert
2012-01-01
In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question
On Finite $J$-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics
Lee, Sungwook
2014-01-01
In his recent paper arXiv:1312.7738, the author discussed $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics and showed that $PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics is essentially $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics. In this paper, the author discusses finite $J$-Hermitian quantum mechanics which is derived naturally from its continuum one and its relationship with finite $PT$-symmetric quantum mechanics.
Least-squares finite element methods
Bochev, Pavel
2009-01-01
Since their emergence, finite element methods have taken a place as one of the most versatile and powerful methodologies for the approximate numerical solution of Partial Differential Equations. This book presents the theory and practice of least-square finite element methods, their strengths and weaknesses, successes, and open problems
Topology optimization using the finite volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
2005-01-01
Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, s......: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman Scientific Technical......Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...
Averaging theorems in finite deformation plasticity
Nemat-Nasser, S C
1999-01-01
The transition from micro- to macro-variables of a representative volume element (RVE) of a finitely deformed aggregate (e.g., a composite or a polycrystal) is explored. A number of exact fundamental results on averaging techniques, $9 valid at finite deformations and rotations of any arbitrary heterogeneous continuum, are obtained. These results depend on the choice of suitable kinematic and dynamic variables. For finite deformations, the deformation gradient and $9 its rate, and the nominal stress and its rate, are optimally suited for the averaging purposes. A set of exact identities is presented in terms of these variables. An exact method for homogenization of an ellipsoidal inclusion in an $9 unbounded finitely deformed homogeneous solid is presented, generalizing Eshelby's method for application to finite deformation problems. In terms of the nominal stress rate and the rate of change of the deformation gradient, $9 measured relative to any arbitrary state, a general phase-transformation problem is con...
An introduction to finite tight frames
Waldron, Shayne F D
2018-01-01
This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...
An isoparametric shell of revolution finite element for harmonic loadings of any order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.J.; Charman, C.M.
1981-01-01
A general isoparametric shell of revolution finite element subjected to any order harmonic loading is presented. Derivation of the element properties, its implementation in a general purpose finite element program, and its application to a sample problem are discussed. The element is isoparametric, that is, the variation of the displacements along the meridian of the shell and the shape of the meridian itself are approximated in an identical manner. The element has been implemented in the computer program MODSAP. A sample problem of a cooling tower subjected to wind loading is presented. (orig./HP)
Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.
2017-01-01
We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10"9 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.
Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2017-02-20
We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.
Optimization of finite-size errors in finite-temperature calculations of unordered phases.
Iyer, Deepak; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
2015-06-01
It is common knowledge that the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensembles are equivalent in thermodynamically large systems. Here, we study finite-size effects in the latter two ensembles. We show that contrary to naive expectations, finite-size errors are exponentially small in grand canonical ensemble calculations of translationally invariant systems in unordered phases at finite temperature. Open boundary conditions and canonical ensemble calculations suffer from finite-size errors that are only polynomially small in the system size. We further show that finite-size effects are generally smallest in numerical linked cluster expansions. Our conclusions are supported by analytical and numerical analyses of classical and quantum systems.
What is finiteness? (Abhishek Banerjee) (Indian Institute of Science)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Do finites get enough respect? • Finiteness is easy, no? • Just count whether 1, 2, 3,... • But then we miss out on the true richness of the concept of finitness. • There's more finiteness around. In fact, finiteness is what helps us really understand things. 5 ...
Beatty, Millard F; Young, Todd R
2012-03-01
The undamped, finite amplitude horizontal motion of a load supported symmetrically between identical incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic springs, each subjected to an initial finite uniaxial static stretch, is formulated in general terms. The small amplitude motion of the load about the deformed static state is discussed; and the periodicity of the arbitrary finite amplitude motion is established for all such elastic materials for which certain conditions on the engineering stress and the strain energy function hold. The exact solution for the finite vibration of the load is then derived for the classical neo-Hookean model. The vibrational period is obtained in terms of the complete Heuman lambda-function whose properties are well-known. Dependence of the period and hence the frequency on the physical parameters of the system is investigated and the results are displayed graphically.
Social exclusion in finite populations
Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long
2015-04-01
Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.
FEBio: finite elements for biomechanics.
Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Ateshian, Gerard A; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2012-01-01
In the field of computational biomechanics, investigators have primarily used commercial software that is neither geared toward biological applications nor sufficiently flexible to follow the latest developments in the field. This lack of a tailored software environment has hampered research progress, as well as dissemination of models and results. To address these issues, we developed the FEBio software suite (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software/febio), a nonlinear implicit finite element (FE) framework, designed specifically for analysis in computational solid biomechanics. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical basis of FEBio and its main features. FEBio offers modeling scenarios, constitutive models, and boundary conditions, which are relevant to numerous applications in biomechanics. The open-source FEBio software is written in C++, with particular attention to scalar and parallel performance on modern computer architectures. Software verification is a large part of the development and maintenance of FEBio, and to demonstrate the general approach, the description and results of several problems from the FEBio Verification Suite are presented and compared to analytical solutions or results from other established and verified FE codes. An additional simulation is described that illustrates the application of FEBio to a research problem in biomechanics. Together with the pre- and postprocessing software PREVIEW and POSTVIEW, FEBio provides a tailored solution for research and development in computational biomechanics.
Finite element coiled cochlea model
Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad
2015-12-01
Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.
Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel
Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian
2014-04-01
Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.
Numerical solution of acoustic scattering by finite perforated elastic plates.
Cavalieri, A V G; Wolf, W R; Jaworski, J W
2016-04-01
We present a numerical method to compute the acoustic field scattered by finite perforated elastic plates. A boundary element method is developed to solve the Helmholtz equation subjected to boundary conditions related to the plate vibration. These boundary conditions are recast in terms of the vibration modes of the plate and its porosity, which enables a direct solution procedure. A parametric study is performed for a two-dimensional problem whereby a cantilevered perforated elastic plate scatters sound from a point quadrupole near the free edge. Both elasticity and porosity tend to diminish the scattered sound, in agreement with previous work considering semi-infinite plates. Finite elastic plates are shown to reduce acoustic scattering when excited at high Helmholtz numbers k 0 based on the plate length. However, at low k 0 , finite elastic plates produce only modest reductions or, in cases related to structural resonance, an increase to the scattered sound level relative to the rigid case. Porosity, on the other hand, is shown to be more effective in reducing the radiated sound for low k 0 . The combined beneficial effects of elasticity and porosity are shown to be effective in reducing the scattered sound for a broader range of k 0 for perforated elastic plates.
Statistical osteoporosis models using composite finite elements: a parameter study.
Wolfram, Uwe; Schwen, Lars Ole; Simon, Ulrich; Rumpf, Martin; Wilke, Hans-Joachim
2009-09-18
Osteoporosis is a widely spread disease with severe consequences for patients and high costs for health care systems. The disease is characterised by a loss of bone mass which induces a loss of mechanical performance and structural integrity. It was found that transverse trabeculae are thinned and perforated while vertical trabeculae stay intact. For understanding these phenomena and the mechanisms leading to fractures of trabecular bone due to osteoporosis, numerous researchers employ micro-finite element models. To avoid disadvantages in setting up classical finite element models, composite finite elements (CFE) can be used. The aim of the study is to test the potential of CFE. For that, a parameter study on numerical lattice samples with statistically simulated, simplified osteoporosis is performed. These samples are subjected to compression and shear loading. Results show that the biggest drop of compressive stiffness is reached for transverse isotropic structures losing 32% of the trabeculae (minus 89.8% stiffness). The biggest drop in shear stiffness is found for an isotropic structure also losing 32% of the trabeculae (minus 67.3% stiffness). The study indicates that losing trabeculae leads to a worse drop of macroscopic stiffness than thinning of trabeculae. The results further demonstrate the advantages of CFEs for simulating micro-structured samples.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Reddy, J. N
2005-01-01
... structures subjected to ballistic impact. The model is three dimensional and computational in nature, utilizing the finite element method, and this model is being implemented to the explicit code DYNA3D...
An Automated Method for Landmark Identification and Finite-Element Modeling of the Lumbar Spine.
Campbell, Julius Quinn; Petrella, Anthony J
2015-11-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the automated creation of finite-element models of the lumbar spine. Custom scripts were written to extract bone landmarks of lumbar vertebrae and assemble L1-L5 finite-element models. End-plate borders, ligament attachment points, and facet surfaces were identified. Landmarks were identified to maintain mesh correspondence between meshes for later use in statistical shape modeling. 90 lumbar vertebrae were processed creating 18 subject-specific finite-element models. Finite-element model surfaces and ligament attachment points were reproduced within 1e-5 mm of the bone surface, including the critical contact surfaces of the facets. Element quality exceeded specifications in 97% of elements for the 18 models created. The current method is capable of producing subject-specific finite-element models of the lumbar spine with good accuracy, quality, and robustness. The automated methods developed represent advancement in the state of the art of subject-specific lumbar spine modeling to a scale not possible with prior manual and semiautomated methods.
Stabilized Finite Elements in FUN3D
Anderson, W. Kyle; Newman, James C.; Karman, Steve L.
2017-01-01
A Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) stabilized finite-element discretization has been implemented as a library into the FUN3D unstructured-grid flow solver. Motivation for the selection of this methodology is given, details of the implementation are provided, and the discretization for the interior scheme is verified for linear and quadratic elements by using the method of manufactured solutions. A methodology is also described for capturing shocks, and simulation results are compared to the finite-volume formulation that is currently the primary method employed for routine engineering applications. The finite-element methodology is demonstrated to be more accurate than the finite-volume technology, particularly on tetrahedral meshes where the solutions obtained using the finite-volume scheme can suffer from adverse effects caused by bias in the grid. Although no effort has been made to date to optimize computational efficiency, the finite-element scheme is competitive with the finite-volume scheme in terms of computer time to reach convergence.
Clifford algebra in finite quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moser, M.
1997-12-01
We consider the most general power counting renormalizable and gauge invariant Lagrangean density L invariant with respect to some non-Abelian, compact, and semisimple gauge group G. The particle content of this quantum field theory consists of gauge vector bosons, real scalar bosons, fermions, and ghost fields. We assume that the ultimate grand unified theory needs no cutoff. This yields so-called finiteness conditions, resulting from the demand for finite physical quantities calculated by the bare Lagrangean. In lower loop order, necessary conditions for finiteness are thus vanishing beta functions for dimensionless couplings. The complexity of the finiteness conditions for a general quantum field theory makes the discussion of non-supersymmetric theories rather cumbersome. Recently, the F = 1 class of finite quantum field theories has been proposed embracing all supersymmetric theories. A special type of F = 1 theories proposed turns out to have Yukawa couplings which are equivalent to generators of a Clifford algebra representation. These algebraic structures are remarkable all the more than in the context of a well-known conjecture which states that finiteness is maybe related to global symmetries (such as supersymmetry) of the Lagrangean density. We can prove that supersymmetric theories can never be of this Clifford-type. It turns out that these Clifford algebra representations found recently are a consequence of certain invariances of the finiteness conditions resulting from a vanishing of the renormalization group β-function for the Yukawa couplings. We are able to exclude almost all such Clifford-like theories. (author)
Coase's conjecture in finite horizon
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ostatnický, Michal
-, č. 241 (2004), s. 1-41 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Coase's conjecture * monopoly * discounting Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp241.pdf
Building Finite Element Models to Investigate Zebrafish Jaw Biomechanics.
Brunt, Lucy H; Roddy, Karen A; Rayfield, Emily J; Hammond, Chrissy L
2016-12-03
Skeletal morphogenesis occurs through tightly regulated cell behaviors during development; many cell types alter their behavior in response to mechanical strain. Skeletal joints are subjected to dynamic mechanical loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational method, frequently used in engineering that can predict how a material or structure will respond to mechanical input. By dividing a whole system (in this case the zebrafish jaw skeleton) into a mesh of smaller 'finite elements', FEA can be used to calculate the mechanical response of the structure to external loads. The results can be visualized in many ways including as a 'heat map' showing the position of maximum and minimum principal strains (a positive principal strain indicates tension while a negative indicates compression. The maximum and minimum refer the largest and smallest strain). These can be used to identify which regions of the jaw and therefore which cells are likely to be under particularly high tensional or compressional loads during jaw movement and can therefore be used to identify relationships between mechanical strain and cell behavior. This protocol describes the steps to generate Finite Element models from confocal image data on the musculoskeletal system, using the zebrafish lower jaw as a practical example. The protocol leads the reader through a series of steps: 1) staining of the musculoskeletal components, 2) imaging the musculoskeletal components, 3) building a 3 dimensional (3D) surface, 4) generating a mesh of Finite Elements, 5) solving the FEA and finally 6) validating the results by comparison to real displacements seen in movements of the fish jaw.
Finite Markov processes and their applications
Iosifescu, Marius
2007-01-01
A self-contained treatment of finite Markov chains and processes, this text covers both theory and applications. Author Marius Iosifescu, vice president of the Romanian Academy and director of its Center for Mathematical Statistics, begins with a review of relevant aspects of probability theory and linear algebra. Experienced readers may start with the second chapter, a treatment of fundamental concepts of homogeneous finite Markov chain theory that offers examples of applicable models.The text advances to studies of two basic types of homogeneous finite Markov chains: absorbing and ergodic ch
Finite-dimensional division algebras over fields
Jacobson, Nathan
2009-01-01
Finite-Dimensional Division Algebras over fields determine, by the Wedderburn Theorem, the semi-simple finite-dimensional algebras over a field. They lead to the definition of the Brauer group and to certain geometric objects, the Brauer-Severi varieties. The book concentrates on those algebras that have an involution. Algebras with involution appear in many contexts; they arose first in the study of the so-called 'multiplication algebras of Riemann matrices'. The largest part of the book is the fifth chapter, dealing with involutorial simple algebras of finite dimension over a field. Of parti
Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.
1999-01-01
This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)
A Note on Powers in Finite Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2016-01-01
, system theory, coding theory and cryptology. In this connection it is of interest to know criteria for the existence of squares and other powers in arbitrary finite fields. Making good use of polynomial division in polynomial rings over finite fields, we have examined a classical criterion of Euler...... for squares in odd prime fields, giving it a formulation which is apt for generalization to arbitrary finite fields and powers. Our proof uses algebra rather than classical number theory, which makes it convenient when presenting basic methods of applied algebra in the classroom....
Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)
2016-02-01
In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.
An introduction to finite projective planes
Albert, Abraham Adrian
2015-01-01
Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and
Electrical machine analysis using finite elements
Bianchi, Nicola
2005-01-01
OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I
The theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups
Rédei, L; Stark, M; Gravett, K A H
1966-01-01
The Theory of Finitely Generated Commutative Semigroups describes a theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups which is founded essentially on a single """"fundamental theorem"""" and exhibits resemblance in many respects to the algebraic theory of numbers. The theory primarily involves the investigation of the F-congruences (F is the the free semimodule of the rank n, where n is a given natural number). As applications, several important special cases are given. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with preliminaries on finitely generated commutative semigroups before
Books and monographs on finite element technology
Noor, A. K.
1985-01-01
The present paper proviees a listing of all of the English books and some of the foreign books on finite element technology, taking into account also a list of the conference proceedings devoted solely to finite elements. The references are divided into categories. Attention is given to fundamentals, mathematical foundations, structural and solid mechanics applications, fluid mechanics applications, other applied science and engineering applications, computer implementation and software systems, computational and modeling aspects, special topics, boundary element methods, proceedings of symmposia and conferences on finite element technology, bibliographies, handbooks, and historical accounts.
A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks
Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
2017-09-01
Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.
Estimating Subjective Probabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
2014-01-01
that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...
Estimating Subjective Probabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...
Johnson, E. H.
1975-01-01
The optimal design was investigated of simple structures subjected to dynamic loads, with constraints on the structures' responses. Optimal designs were examined for one dimensional structures excited by harmonically oscillating loads, similar structures excited by white noise, and a wing in the presence of continuous atmospheric turbulence. The first has constraints on the maximum allowable stress while the last two place bounds on the probability of failure of the structure. Approximations were made to replace the time parameter with a frequency parameter. For the first problem, this involved the steady state response, and in the remaining cases, power spectral techniques were employed to find the root mean square values of the responses. Optimal solutions were found by using computer algorithms which combined finite elements methods with optimization techniques based on mathematical programming. It was found that the inertial loads for these dynamic problems result in optimal structures that are radically different from those obtained for structures loaded statically by forces of comparable magnitude.
Fair weather atmospheric electricity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, R G
2011-01-01
Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.
Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trafton, L.M.
1989-01-01
A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir
Atmosphere physics and chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.
2005-10-01
Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)
Sources of atmospheric ammonia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harriss, R.C.; Michaels, J.T.
1982-01-01
The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States
Automating the generation of finite element dynamical cores with Firedrake
Ham, David; Mitchell, Lawrence; Homolya, Miklós; Luporini, Fabio; Gibson, Thomas; Kelly, Paul; Cotter, Colin; Lange, Michael; Kramer, Stephan; Shipton, Jemma; Yamazaki, Hiroe; Paganini, Alberto; Kärnä, Tuomas
2017-04-01
The development of a dynamical core is an increasingly complex software engineering undertaking. As the equations become more complete, the discretisations more sophisticated and the hardware acquires ever more fine-grained parallelism and deeper memory hierarchies, the problem of building, testing and modifying dynamical cores becomes increasingly complex. Here we present Firedrake, a code generation system for the finite element method with specialist features designed to support the creation of geoscientific models. Using Firedrake, the dynamical core developer writes the partial differential equations in weak form in a high level mathematical notation. Appropriate function spaces are chosen and time stepping loops written at the same high level. When the programme is run, Firedrake generates high performance C code for the resulting numerics which are executed in parallel. Models in Firedrake typically take a tiny fraction of the lines of code required by traditional hand-coding techniques. They support more sophisticated numerics than are easily achieved by hand, and the resulting code is frequently higher performance. Critically, debugging, modifying and extending a model written in Firedrake is vastly easier than by traditional methods due to the small, highly mathematical code base. Firedrake supports a wide range of key features for dynamical core creation: A vast range of discretisations, including both continuous and discontinuous spaces and mimetic (C-grid-like) elements which optimally represent force balances in geophysical flows. High aspect ratio layered meshes suitable for ocean and atmosphere domains. Curved elements for high accuracy representations of the sphere. Support for non-finite element operators, such as parametrisations. Access to PETSc, a world-leading library of programmable linear and nonlinear solvers. High performance adjoint models generated automatically by symbolically reasoning about the forward model. This poster will present
Understanding Callisto's Atmosphere
Spencer, John
2016-10-01
We plan to address first-order questions about the nature and origin of the mysterious atmosphere of Callisto, including its composition, longitudinal distribution, formation, and support mechanisms. This investigation is made possible by the remarkable sensitivity of the COS instrument, which has recently detected faint 1304 A and 1356 A O I emission from Callisto's leading / Jupiter-facing quadrant. The emission is probably due to dissociation of O2 molecules in Callisto's atmosphere by photo-electrons, and resonant scattering from an extended atomic O corona. We suspect, from Galileo ionospheric data, that the atmosphere may be much denser, and brighter in emission, on the trailing hemisphere, as expected for a sputter-generated atmosphere, and propose to test the sputter generation hypothesis with 4-orbit COS integrations on the leading and trailing hemispheres. If the trailing side emissions are indeed brighter, the improved SNR there will also allow much improved determination of atmospheric and coronal composition and optical depth. The observations will set the stage for, and aid in planning of, the extensive observations of Callisto's environment planned for the JUICE mission. Because Callisto's atmospheric oxygen emissions are indirectly illuminated by sunlight, which is uniform and quantifiable, it is much easier to understand atmospheric spatial distribution, and thus origin, than on Europa and Ganymede were emissions depend on magnetospheric excitation which is spatially variable and poorly understood. Callisto's atmosphere thus provides a unique chance to better understand the oxygen atmospheres of all the icy Galilean moons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie
2012-01-01
This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...
Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.L.
1989-01-01
An evaluation is made of observational evidence adduced to date for the various extant models of the Io atmosphere. SO2 and its various photochemical products have been noted to play a major role in the atmosphere; such atomic species as Na and K are present in smaller quantities, and play an important role in the atmosphere's ion chemistry. The vapor pressure equilibrium between condensed SO 2 on the surface and the atmospheric gas is an important factor in the global control of SO 2 gas distribution, but cannot account for the neutral densities at the terminator required for ionospheric models in view of realistic surface temperature distributions
Finite element methods a practical guide
Whiteley, Jonathan
2017-01-01
This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
A finite element solution of transonic flow
Tatum, K. E.
1978-01-01
The use of finite elements is explored in a field in which its use has previously not been deemed very feasible, that of transonic flow. The specific problem chosen is that of steady small-disturbance transonic flow. The nonlinear equations are formulated with an artificial viscosity term added to yield the proper domain of dependence and directional bias in supersonic regions and across imbedded shock waves. Justification is given for the problem and means of solution chosen, and the potential advantages of the finite element procedure over standard finite difference procedures are discussed. Several possible improvements on the method as presently derived are stated. Computational mesh requirements and certain mesh variations are described. Some results equivalent to finite difference calculations are given as a sample solution.
Advanced finite element method in structural engineering
Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei
2009-01-01
This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.
Multigrid methods for mortar finite elements
Wohlmuth, Barbara
2000-01-01
Multigrid methods for mortar finite elements / R. Krause ; B. Wohlmuth. - In: Multigrid methods VI / Erik Dick ... (ed.). - Berlin u.a. : Springer, 2000. - S. 136-142 (Lecture notes in computational science and engineering ; 14)
Jauch-Piron logics with finiteness conditions
Rogalewicz, Vladimír
1991-04-01
We show that there are no non-Boolean block-finite orthomodular posets possessing a unital set of Jauch-Piron states. Thus, an orthomodular poset representing a quantum physical system must have infinitely many blocks.
Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII
Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian
2014-01-01
The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...
Deterministic equation solving over finite fields
Woestijne, Christiaan Evert van de
2006-01-01
It is shown how to solve diagonal forms in many variables over finite fields by means of a deterministic efficient algorithm. Applications to norm equations, quadratic forms, and elliptic curves are given.
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Super-renormalizable and finite gravitational theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Modesto
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We hereby introduce and extensively study a class of non-polynomial higher derivative theories of gravity that realize a ultraviolet (UV completion of Einstein general relativity. These theories are unitary (ghost free and at most only one-loop divergences survive. The outcome is a class of theories super-renormalizable in even dimension and finite in odd dimension. Moreover, we explicitly prove in D=4 that there exists an extension of the theory that is completely finite and all the beta functions vanish even at one-loop. These results can be easily extended in extra dimensions and it is likely that the higher dimensional theory can be made finite, too. Therefore we have the possibility for “finite quantum gravity” in any dimension.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa (tensile) and minimum value of ... These results shows that the residual stresses obtained by prediction from the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.
Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume
Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi
2018-02-01
Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)
Discrete mechanics Based on Finite Element Methods
Chen, Jing-bo; Guo, Han-Ying; Wu, Ke
2002-01-01
Discrete Mechanics based on finite element methods is presented in this paper. We also explore the relationship between this discrete mechanics and Veselov discrete mechanics. High order discretizations are constructed in terms of high order interpolations.
Critical-Point Structure in Finite Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leviatan, A.
2006-01-01
Properties of quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Special emphasis is paid to the dynamics at the critical-point of a general first-order phase transition
Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions
Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.
2006-01-01
Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis
Thompson, Mary Kathryn
2017-01-01
ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...
Mean field canonical treatments at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossignoli, R.
1990-01-01
A method is proposed to make mean field and higher order canonical treatments at finite temperature. Definite improvements are made over the usual Hartree-Fock thermal (great canonical) treatment. (Author). 10 refs., 3 figs
Finite elements in CAD and ADINA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathe, K.J.
1986-01-01
The use of finite element methods in computer-aided-design - CAD - is discussed. Some current capabilities are presented and important future developments are outlined. The discussion focusses on the use of the ADINA program in CAD applications. (orig.)
The finite-difference and finite-element modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moszo, P.; Kristek, J.; Galis, M.; Pazak, P.; Balazovijech, M.
2006-01-01
Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion is an irreplaceable tool in investigation of the Earth's structure, processes in the Earth, and particularly earthquake phenomena. Among various numerical methods, the finite-difference method is the dominant method in the modeling of earthquake motion. Moreover, it is becoming more important in the seismic exploration and structural modeling. At the same time we are convinced that the best time of the finite-difference method in seismology is in the future. This monograph provides tutorial and detailed introduction to the application of the finite-difference, finite-element, and hybrid finite-difference-finite-element methods to the modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion. The text does not cover all topics and aspects of the methods. We focus on those to which we have contributed. (Author)
Finite element approximation of the Isaacs equation
Salgado, Abner J.; Zhang, Wujun
2015-01-01
We propose and analyze a two-scale finite element method for the Isaacs equation. The fine scale is given by the mesh size $h$ whereas the coarse scale $\\varepsilon$ is dictated by an integro-differential approximation of the partial differential equation. We show that the method satisfies the discrete maximum principle provided that the mesh is weakly acute. This, in conjunction with weak operator consistency of the finite element method, allows us to establish convergence of the numerical s...
Finite Element Model of Gear Induction Hardening
Hodek, J; Zemko, M; Shykula, P
2015-01-01
International audience; This paper presents a finite element model of a gear induction hardening process. The gear was surface-heated by an induction coil and quickly cooled by spraying water. The finite element model was developed as a three-dimensional model. The electromagnetic field, temperature field, stress distribution and microstructure distribution were examined. Temperature and microstructural characteristics were measured and used. The gear material data was obtained in part by mea...
Generators for finite depth subfactor planar algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The main result of Kodiyalam and Tupurani [3] shows that a subfactor planar algebra of finite depth is singly generated with a finite presentation. If P is a subfactor planar algebra of depth k, it is shown there that a single 2k-box generates P. It is natural to ask what the smallest s is such that a single s-box generates P. While ...
The finite element method in electromagnetics
Jin, Jianming
2014-01-01
A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The
Finite Optimal Stopping Problems: The Seller's Perspective
Hemmati, Mehdi; Smith, J. Cole
2011-01-01
We consider a version of an optimal stopping problem, in which a customer is presented with a finite set of items, one by one. The customer is aware of the number of items in the finite set and the minimum and maximum possible value of each item, and must purchase exactly one item. When an item is presented to the customer, she or he observes its…
Surgery simulation using fast finite elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bro-Nielsen, Morten
1996-01-01
This paper describes our recent work on real-time surgery simulation using fast finite element models of linear elasticity. In addition, we discuss various improvements in terms of speed and realism......This paper describes our recent work on real-time surgery simulation using fast finite element models of linear elasticity. In addition, we discuss various improvements in terms of speed and realism...
Thomas Fermi model of finite nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boguta, J.; Rafelski, J.
1977-01-01
A relativistic Thomas-Fermi model of finite-nuclei is considered. The effective nuclear interaction is mediated by exchanges of isoscalar scalar and vector mesons. The authors include also a self-interaction of the scalar meson field and the Coulomb repulsion of the protons. The parameters of the model are constrained by the average nuclear properties. The Thomas-Fermi equations are solved numerically for finite, stable nuclei. The particular case of 208 82 Pb is considered in more detail. (Auth.)
Development of one-dimensional atmosphere-bare soil model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-10-01
As the first step of modeling of dynamical behaviors of air and water as media of radionuclide migration in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil system, a one-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere-bare soil system was developed. The atmospheric part, which is based on the existing one-dimensional meteorological model PHYD1V3, consists of prognostic equations for horizontal wind components, potential temperature, specific humidity, fog water, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence length scale. This part also consists of a second-order turbulence closure model and solar-atmospheric radiation model. The soil part consists of prognostic equations for soil temperature, volumetric water content and specific humidity in soil air. Both parts are interfaced to each other with the ground surface water and heat budget equations. This model employs a finite difference scheme with multi-layer description for the both part. (author)
How subjective are subjective language complaints.
Martins, I P; Mares, I; Stilwell, P A
2012-05-01
Subjective language complaints (SLC) are common during ageing but have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine their association with demographic and clinical variables and objective cognitive performance. A sample of 479 individuals aged 50 years or above (average 66 ± 9.1 years), followed in primary care, with no history of brain disorder were asked two questions concerning SLC, fulfilled a depression scale and undertook a battery of cognitive tests. Response to questions regarding proper name retrieval (PNR) and word finding difficulties (WFD) was studied and their contribution to each measure of the battery calculated by repeated linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, education, living alone and depressive symptoms. Word finding difficulties (47.6%) were more frequently reported than problematic PNR (10.9%). Both were more common in women, in subjects with depressive symptoms and in those living alone, but were unrelated with age or education. Both symptoms contributed significantly to the variance in tests of semantic fluency and episodic memory. PNR was also associated with immediate phonological memory. Subjective language complaints are especially common amongst individuals living alone and/or with depressive symptoms. They are associated with a worse cognitive performance in some memory and language-executive tests. Further studies are needed to understand their predictive value for cognitive decline. © 2012 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.
Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds
Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.
2011-01-01
Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kruisová, Alena; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal; Román-Manso, B.; Miranzo, P.; Belmonte, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 821, č. 2016 (2016), s. 364-371 ISSN 1662-7482. [Engineering Mechanics 2015. Svratka, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : finite elelment method * metamaterials * acoustic waves * band gaps Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Structural and Economic Viability of 2D/3D Finite Element Analysis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Consequently, this paper examines the structural and economic viability of arched conical roof truss system based on 2D/3D finite element method analysis. Analysis of the results showed that truss members were subjected to higher axial forces in 2D analysis than 3D analysis, which will result to overdesign of the structural ...
Finite element simulation of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine
de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries
2013-01-01
Thermoacoustic engines use heat to produce acoustic power. The subject of this manuscript is modeling of thermoacoustic engines. A finite element simulation has been performed on a theoretical example of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine. The simulation solves the linearized
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Pták, Svatopluk; Valdek, U.
2009-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 2 (2009), s. 103-121 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400760509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : stress wave propagation * finite element method * validity of models Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolář, Petr; Růžek, Bohuslav
2012-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 435-447 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120805; GA ČR GAP210/10/1728 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : finite seismic source * stopping phases * West Bohemia earthquke swarm Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011
On the Steinhaus and Bergman properties for infinite products of finite groups
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Thomas, S.; Zapletal, Jindřich
2012-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2012), s. 1250002 ISSN 1793-7442 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : ultrafilters * products of finite groups * automatic continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1793744212500028
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Plešek, Jiří; Kolman, Radek; Landa, Michal
2004-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 1 (2004), s. 282-287 ISSN 0001-4966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : resonant ultrasound spectroscopy * finite element method * elastic constants Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.482, year: 2004
Dielectric response of arbitrary-shaped clusters studied by the finite element method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rychetský, Ivan; Klíč, Antonín
2012-01-01
Roč. 427, č. 1 (2012), s. 143-147 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : effective permittivity * two-component composite * integral representation * finite element analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2012
On efficient estimation in continuous models based on finitely quantized observations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vajda, Igor; Morales, D.; Pardo, L.
2006-01-01
Roč. 35, Č. 9 (2006), s. 1629-1653 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA1075403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Asymptotic normality * consistency * efficiency * finite quantizations Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2006
Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Biodeterioration of Plantain ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fruits of two local plantain cultivars and a disease-resistant tetraploid hybrid were subjected to modified atmosphere packaging. The same organisms namely Colletotricum musae, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium monilifomae, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, were isolated from the local cultivars and the ...
Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.
2006-01-01
Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1253-1254 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global change * Upper Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006
Finite element stress analysis of extruded outlet tee junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilroy, J.E.; Clark, J.S.; Tosh, P.A.
1985-01-01
The stress analysis of branch pipe intersections and nozzles in large diameter, thin walled pipework systems, subjected to moment loadings, is an area of concern to pipework designers. This is of particular concern in the pipework design of the liquid metal heat transport systems used in Fast Reactor Power Plants. The authors have used the NASTRAN finite element program to model a 10 x 10 x 8 x 3/8 in. extruded outlet tee, subjected to internal pressure, in-plane, out-of-plane and torsion moments applied to both the branch pipe and the run pipe legs of the tee. The results of the analysis are compared with the stresses obtained experimentally on a similar sized tee. (author)
Large variation finite element method for beams with stochastic stiffness
Rollot, O
2003-01-01
The behavior of beams with stochastic stiffness subjected to either deterministic or stochastic loading is studied via finite element method. The results are contrasted with exact solution to check the accuracy of the FEM for the case of large variations. It represents a generalization of the previous study in which the stiffness matrix was decomposed as a product of three matrices, two of which are numerical ones and the third matrix involves the uncertain stiffness analytically. To illustrate the proposed method, we evaluate the mean and the auto-correlation functions of the displacement of beams under various boundary conditions. Two statically determinate beams (clamped-free or simply-supported) and two statically indeterminate beams (clamped-simply-supported or clamped are both ends) are investigated in this study. The beams are subjected to a deterministic uniform pressure or a stochastic excitation.
A nonlinear dynamic corotational finite element model for submerged pipes
de Vries, F. H.; Geijselaers, H. J. M.; van den Boogaard, A. H.; Huisman, A.
2017-12-01
A three dimensional finite element model is built to compute the motions of a pipe that is being laid on the seabed. This process is geometrically nonlinear, therefore co-rotational beam elements are used. The pipe is subject to static and dynamic forces. Static forces are due to gravity, current and buoyancy. The dynamic forces exerted by the water are incorporated using Morison’s equation. The dynamic motions are computed using implicit time integration. For this the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor method is selected. The Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is used to solve the equations in every time step. During laying, the pipe is connected to the pipe laying vessel, which is subject to wave motion. Response amplitude operators are used to determine the motions of the ship and thus the motions of the top end of the pipe.
A Teaching Experience: Aeroelasticity and the Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Lázaro
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The aeroelastic modelling of aircraft structures is a fundamental area for the students of Aerospace Engineering Degree. This subject has a strongly multidisciplinary character and involves other several subjects like mechanics, vibrations, aerodynamics, structural analysis. Consequently, the students find stimulating the challenge of merging their knowledge at different areas. In this paper, a teaching experience on the solution of the aeroelastic problem of a 3D-wing through six different computer tasks is presented. The main objective is to attempt a relatively complex problem using a simple version of the Finite Element Method with only four degrees of freedom. The students begin creating the shape functions of the discrete model and finish solving the flutter instability problem.
Large variation finite element method for beams with stochastic stiffness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rollot, Olivier; Elishakoff, Isaac
2003-01-01
The behavior of beams with stochastic stiffness subjected to either deterministic or stochastic loading is studied via finite element method. The results are contrasted with exact solution to check the accuracy of the FEM for the case of large variations. It represents a generalization of the previous study in which the stiffness matrix was decomposed as a product of three matrices, two of which are numerical ones and the third matrix involves the uncertain stiffness analytically. To illustrate the proposed method, we evaluate the mean and the auto-correlation functions of the displacement of beams under various boundary conditions. Two statically determinate beams (clamped-free or simply-supported) and two statically indeterminate beams (clamped-simply-supported or clamped are both ends) are investigated in this study. The beams are subjected to a deterministic uniform pressure or a stochastic excitation
High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains
Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2013-01-01
Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.
Williams, M. H.
1982-01-01
A new approach is presented to diffraction problems involving plane strip barriers or slit apertures. These are problems that display the effects of multiple interacting edges. The approach taken here provides exact, compact solutions. The theory is introduced through a series of examples that are, in fact, the 'standard' problems of the subject, diffraction of a plane oblique wave by a slit, for example. In each case, the solutions are found to depend explicitly on a single 'special' function and its Fourier transform. These fundamental functions are described, with the emphasis placed on practical computational methods. The example problems are all couched in the language of acoustics.
Urban atmospheric contamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldasano Jose, M.
1997-01-01
The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wieczorek, Izabela
2014-01-01
composed of bubbles of affects – that is, the particles that are charged with power and normativity. References Grtiffero, T. (2014 (2010)). Atmospheres: Aesthetics of Emotional Spaces. Ashgate Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, A. (2013). Atmospheres of law: Senses, affects, lawscapes, in Emotion, Space...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ventzel Riis, Nina
2012-01-01
-between of the materials. This is what we identify as atmosphere, an enveloping phenomenon that surrounds and affects our sensuous system and well-being when we approach, enter, stay or move in a building. When we leave the building again we carry this atmospheric multi-sensory experience with us without adequate methods...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liebst, Lasse Suonperä
2012-01-01
understanding of atmospheres as aesthetically ‘radiating’ from the surfaces of space, thinks physiognomically, the article argues for a spatial morphological perspective on atmospheres. Thus, post-phenomeno¬logically, it is argued that the atmospheric given is given by the density of pedestrians, which...... are ‘compressed’ by the spatial morphologies of urban space. In this perspective atmospheres are to be understood as an emergent property that develops when the spatial morphological compression of urban life passes a certain threshold, that is, when the affective rhythm of the urban assemblages becomes...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....
Griffith, Caitlin Ann
2007-09-01
Saturn's largest moon, Titan, sports an atmosphere 10 times thicker than Earth's. Like Earth, the moon's atmosphere is N2 based and possesses a rich organic chemistry. In addition, similar to the terrestrial hydrological cycle, Titan has a methane cycle, with methane clouds, rain and seas. Presently, there is a revolution in our understanding of the moon, as data flows in and is analyzed from the NASA and ESA Cassini-Huygens mission. For example, seas were detected only this year. Here I will discuss the evolution of our understanding of Titan's atmosphere, its composition, chemistry, dynamics and origin. Current open questions will also be presented. Studies of Titan's atmosphere began and evolved to the present state in less time than that of a single scientist's career. This short interlude of activity demonstrates the rigors of the scientific method, and raises enticing questions about the workings and evolution of an atmosphere.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)
[Care production and subjectivity].
Martines, Wania Regina Veiga; Machado, Ana Lúcia
2010-01-01
This is a theoretical reflection concerning the link between production of care and subjectivity, and the ideas that support this connection. It was performed a search for studies that had been previously elaborated in the database from University of São Paulo. The discussions upon de findings were based on some ideas of post-modernity and its criticism to the instrumental rationality, that relies on contemporaneous conceptions and actions concerning care. Recovering the subject and their very subjectivity production means to recover a kind of care that mix the edge between objective and subjective and bets on an integrated view of daily human productions and actions.
Trends in Atmospheric Properties of Neptune-Size Exoplanets
Crossfield, Ian; Kreidberg, Laura
2018-01-01
Short-period planets with sizes 2-6 Earth radii and extremely common, yet until recently few have been subjected to detailed atmospheric scrutiny. I will discuss recent efforts to discover new planets in this class suitable for atmospheric characterization, and the results of recent and ongoing atmospheric studies of these planets. I will also discuss the prospects for characterization of the large numbers of new planets expected to be found by TESS.
Modeling finite-volume effects and chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor QCD thermodynamics
Klein, Bertram
2017-11-01
Finite-volume effects in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) have been a subject of much theoretical interest for more than two decades. They are in particular important for the analysis and interpretation of QCD simulations on a finite, discrete space-time lattice. Most of these effects are closely related to the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of the chiral flavor symmetry and the emergence of pions as light Goldstone bosons. These long-range fluctuations are strongly affected by putting the system into a finite box, and an analysis with different methods can be organized according to the interplay between pion mass and box size. The finite volume also affects critical behavior at the chiral phase transition in QCD. In the present review, I will be mainly concerned with modeling such finite volume effects as they affect the thermodynamics of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors. I review recent work on the analysis of finite-volume effects which makes use of the quark-meson model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. To account for the effects of critical long-range fluctuations close to the phase transition, most of the calculations have been performed using non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) methods. I give an overview over the application of these methods to a finite volume. The method, the model and the results are put into the context of related work in random matrix theory for very small volumes, chiral perturbation theory for larger volumes, and related methods and approaches. They are applied towards the analysis of finite-volume effects in lattice QCD simulations and their interpretation, mainly in the context of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors.
On the variability of sea drag in finite water depth
Toffoli, A.; Loffredo, L.; Le Roy, P.; LefèVre, J.-M.; Babanin, A. V.
2012-11-01
The coupling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the ocean surface in large-scale models is usually parameterized in terms of the sea drag coefficient, which is routinely estimated as a function of mean wind speed. The scatter of data around such parametric dependencies, however, is very significant and imposes a serious limitation on the forecasts and predictions that make use of sea surface drag parameterizations. The analysis of an atmospheric and wave data set collected in finite water depth at the Lake George measurement site (Australia) suggests that this variability relates to a number of parameters at the air-sea interface other than wind speed alone. In particular, results indicate that the sea drag depends on water depth and wave steepness, which make the wave profile more vertically asymmetric, and the concentration of water vapor in the air, which modifies air density and friction velocity. These dependencies are used to derive parametric functions based on the combined contribution of wind, waves and relative humidity. A standard statistical analysis confirms a substantial improvement in the prediction of the drag coefficient and sea surface roughness when additional parameters are taken into account.
Ensemble-based data assimilation schemes for atmospheric chemistry models
Barbu, A.L.
2010-01-01
The atmosphere is a complex system which includes physical, chemical and biological processes. Many of these processes affecting the atmosphere are subject to various interactions and can be highly nonlinear. This complexity makes it necessary to apply computer models in order to understand the
MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY
2011-01-01
The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169
Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol A; Aronoff, Mark; Sandler, Wendy
2007-11-01
The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form-meaning correspondence: the signer's body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event - including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology.
Subjective poverty line definitions
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
1991-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
Transport in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil continuum
Moene, A.F.; Dam, van J.C.
2014-01-01
Traditionally, soil science, atmospheric science, hydrology, plant science and agriculture have been studied largely as separate subjects. These systems are clearly interlinked, however, and in recent years a great deal of interdisciplinary research has been undertaken to better understand the
Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy
2018-02-01
Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2
Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)
2017-08-10
The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.
Reference Atmosphere for Mercury
Killen, Rosemary M.
2002-01-01
We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.
Ratcheting of pressurized piping subjected to seismic loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scavuzzo, R.J.; Lam, P.C.; Gau, J.S.
1992-01-01
The ABAQUS finite element code was used to model a pressurized pipe and subjected to cyclic bending loads to investigate ratcheting. A 1-in. schedule 40 pipe was loaded with a slow (static) cyclic load. The pipe internal pressure was varied from 0 to 6000 psi. In this paper, two types of materials were considered: an elastic perfectly plastic and a bilinear elastic-plastic material. Two types of finite elements of the ABAQUS program were compared to analytical solutions to evaluate the element accuracy in the plastic regime. Depending upon loading conditions and specified material properties, three different responses were observed from the finite element analyses: cyclic plasticity, ratcheting of the hoop strain, or shakedown. These analytical results are compared to some experimental measurements
A Comparison of Continuous Mass-lumped Finite Elements and Finite Differences for 3D
Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.
2012-01-01
The finite-difference method is widely used for time-domain modelling of the wave equation because of its ease of implementation of high-order spatial discretization schemes, parallelization and computational efficiency. However, finite elements on tetrahedral meshes are more accurate in complex
The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, S. N.; Kim, H. N.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, H. J.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to determine a two dimensional axisymmetric model through a comparative study between a three dimensional and an axisymmetric finite element analysis of the reactor coolant piping nozzle subject to internal pressure. The finite element analysis results show that the stress adopting the axisymmetric model with the radius of equivalent spherical vessel are well agree with that adopting the three dimensional model. The radii of equivalent spherical vessel are 3.5 times and 7.3 times of the radius of the reactor coolant piping for the safety injection nozzle and for the residual heat removal nozzle, respectively
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolman, Radek; Plešek, Jiří; Červ, Jan; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Pařík, Petr
2016-01-01
Roč. 106, č. 2 (2016), s. 113-128 ISSN 0029-5981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA TA ČR(CZ) TH01010772 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : bilinear and biquadratic serendipity finite element s * finite element method * stability analysis * temporal and spatial dispersion * wave propagation Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.5010/full
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A fully-coupled partitioned finite volume–finite volume and hybrid finite volume–finite element fluid-structure interaction scheme is presented. The fluid domain is modelled as a viscous incompressible isothermal region governed by the Navier...
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, T.
2007-01-01
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any
Finite element analysis of tibial fractures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner
2010-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the tibial shaft are relatively common injuries. There are indications that tibial shaft fractures share characteristics in terms of site, type and local fracture mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to set up a mathematical, computer-based model using finite element...... of bony healing. The biomechanical results are the basis for fracture healing, biomechanical fall analysis and stability analysis of osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A finite element model of the bony part of the lower leg was generated on the basis of computed tomography data from the Visible Human...... Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...
Centralizers in simple locally finite groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.
Geometrically unfitted finite element methods and applications
Burman, Erik; Larson, Mats; Olshanskii, Maxim
2017-01-01
This book provides a snapshot of the state of the art of the rapidly evolving field of integration of geometric data in finite element computations. The contributions to this volume, based on research presented at the UCL workshop on the topic in January 2016, include three review papers on core topics such as fictitious domain methods for elasticity, trace finite element methods for partial differential equations defined on surfaces, and Nitsche’s method for contact problems. Five chapters present original research articles on related theoretical topics, including Lagrange multiplier methods, interface problems, bulk-surface coupling, and approximation of partial differential equations on moving domains. Finally, two chapters discuss advanced applications such as crack propagation or flow in fractured poroelastic media. This is the first volume that provides a comprehensive overview of the field of unfitted finite element methods, including recent techniques such as cutFEM, traceFEM, ghost penalty, and aug...
Essentially finitely indecomposable QTAG-Modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alveera Mehdi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A right module $M$ over an associative ring with unity is a $QTAG$-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of $M$ is a direct sum of uniserial modules. There are many fascinating results related to these modules and essentially indecomposable modules are extensively researched. Motivated by these modules we generalize them as essentially finitely indecomposable modules whose every direct decomposition $M=\\bigoplus\\limits_{k\\in I} M_k$ implies that there exists a positive integer $n$ such that $H_n(M_i=0$ for all $M_i$'s except for a finite number of $M_i$'s. Here we investigate these modules and their relationship with $HT$-modules. The cases when the modules are not $HT$-modules are especially highlighted.
Shear sum rules at finite chemical potential
David, Justin R.; Jain, Sachin; Thakur, Somyadip
2012-03-01
We derive sum rules which constrain the spectral density corresponding to the retarded propagator of the T xy component of the stress tensor for three gravitational duals. The shear sum rule is obtained for the gravitational dual of the mathcal{N} = {4} Yang-Mills, theory of the M2-branes and M5-branes all at finite chemical potential. We show that at finite chemical potential there are additional terms in the sum rule which involve the chemical potential. These modifications are shown to be due to the presence of scalars in the operator product expansion of the stress tensor which have non-trivial vacuum expectation values at finite chemical potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marx, Gy.
1975-01-01
The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)
Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...
Martin, Craig
2015-08-01
The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piver, W T
1991-01-01
Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...
Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canfield, Donald Eugene
2014-01-01
This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liebst, Lasse Suonperä
2012-01-01
The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....
Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2005-11-01
This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.
Electron–phonon coupling from finite differences
Monserrat, Bartomeu
2018-02-01
The interaction between electrons and phonons underlies multiple phenomena in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Examples include superconductivity, electronic transport, and the temperature dependence of optical spectra. A first-principles description of electron–phonon coupling enables the study of the above phenomena with accuracy and material specificity, which can be used to understand experiments and to predict novel effects and functionality. In this topical review, we describe the first-principles calculation of electron–phonon coupling from finite differences. The finite differences approach provides several advantages compared to alternative methods, in particular (i) any underlying electronic structure method can be used, and (ii) terms beyond the lowest order in the electron–phonon interaction can be readily incorporated. But these advantages are associated with a large computational cost that has until recently prevented the widespread adoption of this method. We describe some recent advances, including nondiagonal supercells and thermal lines, that resolve these difficulties, and make the calculation of electron–phonon coupling from finite differences a powerful tool. We review multiple applications of the calculation of electron–phonon coupling from finite differences, including the temperature dependence of optical spectra, superconductivity, charge transport, and the role of defects in semiconductors. These examples illustrate the advantages of finite differences, with cases where semilocal density functional theory is not appropriate for the calculation of electron–phonon coupling and many-body methods such as the GW approximation are required, as well as examples in which higher-order terms in the electron–phonon interaction are essential for an accurate description of the relevant phenomena. We expect that the finite difference approach will play a central role in future studies of the electron–phonon interaction.
Atmospheric dynamics of tidally synchronized extrasolar planets.
Cho, James Y-K
2008-12-13
Tidally synchronized planets present a new opportunity for enriching our understanding of atmospheric dynamics on planets. Subject to an unusual forcing arrangement (steady irradiation on the same side of the planet throughout its orbit), the dynamics on these planets may be unlike that on any of the Solar System planets. Characterizing the flow pattern and temperature distribution on the extrasolar planets is necessary for reliable interpretation of data currently being collected, as well as for guiding future observations. In this paper, several fundamental concepts from atmospheric dynamics, likely to be central for characterization, are discussed. Theoretical issues that need to be addressed in the near future are also highlighted.
FECAP - FINITE ELEMENT COMPOSITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR A MICROCOMPUTER
Bowles, D. E.
1994-01-01
Advanced composite materials have gained use in the aerospace industry over the last 20 years because of their high specific strength and stiffness, and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Design of composite structures requires the analysis of composite material behavior. The Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, is a special purpose finite element analysis program for analyzing composite material behavior with a microcomputer. Composite materials, in regard to this program, are defined as the combination of at least two distinct materials to form one nonhomogeneous anisotropic material. FECAP assumes a state of generalized plane strain exists in a material consisting of two or more orthotropic phases, subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loading. The finite element formulation used in FECAP is displacement based and requires the minimization of the total potential energy for each element with respect to the unknown variables. This procedure leads to a set of linear simultaneous equations relating the unknown nodal displacements to the applied loads. The equations for each element are assembled into a global system, the boundary conditions are applied, and the system is solved for the nodal displacements. The analysis may be performed using either 4-mode linear or 8-mode quadratic isoparametric elements. Output includes the nodal displacements, and the element stresses and strains. FECAP was written for a Hewlett Packard HP9000 Series 200 Microcomputer with the HP Basic operating system. It was written in HP BASIC 3.0 and requires approximately 0.5 Mbytes of RAM in addition to what is required for the operating system. A math coprocessor card is highly recommended. FECAP was developed in 1988.
Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics
Lindzen, Richard A.
2005-08-01
Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.
Atmospheric Models for Aerocapture
Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta L.; Keller, Vernon W.
2004-01-01
There are eight destinations in the solar System with sufficient atmosphere for aerocapture to be a viable aeroassist option - Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and its moon Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. Engineering-level atmospheric models for four of these targets (Earth, Mars, Titan, and Neptune) have been developed for NASA to support systems analysis studies of potential future aerocapture missions. Development of a similar atmospheric model for Venus has recently commenced. An important capability of all of these models is their ability to simulate quasi-random density perturbations for Monte Carlo analyses in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithm, and for thermal systems design. Similarities and differences among these atmospheric models are presented, with emphasis on the recently developed Neptune model and on planned characteristics of the Venus model. Example applications for aerocapture are also presented and illustrated. Recent updates to the Titan atmospheric model are discussed, in anticipation of applications for trajectory and atmospheric reconstruct of Huygens Probe entry at Titan.
A High Order Filter with Galerkin Finite Element Method for the Spherical Local domain Model
Lee, C. H.; Cheong, H. B.; Kang, H. G.
2017-12-01
A High Order Filter with Galerkin Finite Element Method for the Spherical Local domain ModelChung-Hui Lee1 and Hyeong-Bin Cheong and Hyun-Gyu KangDepartment of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea (1 chlee@pukyong.ac.kr) A high-order filter with Galerkin finite element method is constructed by applying a two dimensional finite element method with quadrilateral basis functions to the spherical limited area domain. The quadrilateral basis function is defined as four shape-functions on separate four grid-boxes which share the same gridpoint. A first-order derivative is represented with an algebraic equation consisting of nine point stencil. Helmholtz equation on a sphere is the basic component of the high order filter and the filtering is performed by solving this equation with two dimensional finite element method. As the theory describes, for spherical Laplacian operator and first-order derivative, the convergence rates of the error were revealed to be second-order and fourth-order, respectively. In addition, since the convergence rate of errors for the filter in this study was the same as the filter with Fourier finite element method, the accuracy of the filter is comparable to the filter based on the Fourier finite element method. The high-order filter was applied to the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) as hyper-viscosity and its performance was compared with those of the built-in viscosity scheme of the WRF model. As a result of the tropical cyclone simulation, the forecast error for the high-order filter and the built-in viscosity were similar for the minimum pressure and track prediction. However, for the precipitation and rainfall distribution, the prediction with high-order filter appeared closer to observations than those with built-in viscosity.
Finite continuum quasi distributions from lattice QCD
Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas
2018-03-01
We present a new approach to extracting continuum quasi distributions from lattice QCD. Quasi distributions are defined by matrix elements of a Wilson-line operator extended in a spatial direction, evaluated between nucleon states at finite momentum. We propose smearing this extended operator with the gradient flow to render the corresponding matrix elements finite in the continuum limit. This procedure provides a nonperturbative method to remove the power-divergence associated with the Wilson line and the resulting matrix elements can be directly matched to light-front distributions via perturbation theory.
Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.
1988-01-01
The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt
Finite elements for analysis and design
Akin, J E; Davenport, J H
1994-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee
Finite W-algebras and intermediate statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbarin, F.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.
1994-09-01
New realizations of finite W-algebras are constructed by relaxing the usual conditions. Then finite W-algebras are recognized in the Heisenberg quantization recently proposed by Leinaas and Myrheim, for a system of two identical particles in d dimensions. As the anyonic parameter is directly associated to the W-algebra involved in the d=1 case, it is natural to consider that the W-algebra framework is well adapted for a possible generalization of the anyon statistics. (author). 13 refs
Quadrature representation of finite element variational forms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.
2012-01-01
This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations. An alter......This chapter addresses the conventional run-time quadrature approach for the numerical integration of local element tensors associated with finite element variational forms, and in particular automated optimizations that can be performed to reduce the number of floating point operations...
Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo via finite-element trial spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, Jim E.; Tooley, Jared P.; Blamer, Brandon J.
2011-01-01
Exponentially-Convergent Monte Carlo (ECMC) methods, also known as adaptive Monte Carlo and residual Monte Carlo methods, were the subject of intense research over a decade ago, but they never became practical for solving the realistic problems. We believe that the failure of previous efforts may be related to the choice of trial spaces that were global and thus highly oscillatory. As an alternative, we consider finite-element trial spaces, which have the ability to treat fully realistic problems. As a first step towards more general methods, we apply piecewise-linear trial spaces to the spatially-continuous two-stream transport equation. Using this approach, we achieve exponential convergence and computationally demonstrate several fundamental properties of finite-element based ECMC methods. Finally, our results indicate that the finite-element approach clearly deserves further investigation. (author)
3D Finite Element Modeling of Single Bolt Connections under Static and Dynamic Tension Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily Guzas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has funded research to examine a range of finite element approaches used for modeling bolted connections subjected to various loading conditions. Research focused on developing finite element bolt representations that were accurate and computationally efficient. A variety of finite element modeling approaches, from detailed models to simplified ones, were used to represent the behavior of single solid bolts under static and dynamic tension loading. Test cases utilized models of bolted connection test arrangements (static tension and dynamic tension developed for previous research and validated against test data for hollow bore bolts (Behan et al., 2013. Simulation results for solid bolts are validated against experimental data from physical testing of bolts in these load configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reddy, B.S.; Sharan, A.M.
1985-01-01
The heat transfer process in some of the metallurgical processes is quite involved; for example, during the cooling of castings or heating of ingots before forging. These castings or ingots can be very complicated shapes. Therefore, the solution of heat transfer problems by exact methods is not possible. In such situations, the heat transfer process is studied either by finite difference or finite element method. The heat transfer process in this problem involves all the three modes of heat transfer which are: the conduction, convection and radiation. In this paper, the equations for the heat transfer process of a solid subjected to nonlinear boundary conditions using the finite element analysis have been derived. Then, these equations are solved using the Gauss-Seidel iteration technique. (author)
NV&EOL G/AP Aerosol Atmospheric Models
1978-09-07
Aerosol Atmospheric Models o TO Director, Visionics PROm BSIT, VISD (Wt)l7 Sep 78 t CMTI I. In order to adequately model performance of E-0 sensors for...11 2 073 DELNV-VI SUBJECT: NV&EOL G/AP Aerosol Atmospheric Models 4. The models and fit data for the 3-5 vs. visible curves are the following: r2...corresponding to this fit is shown in Figure 6..... 2 DELNV-VI SUBJECT: NV&EOL G/AP Aerosol Atmospheric Models 9. The following expressions have been
UFOMOD - atmospheric dispersion and deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panitz, H.J.; Matzerath, C.; Paesler-Sauer, J.
1989-10-01
The report gives an introduction into the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and deposition which has been implemented in the new program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences after nuclear accidents. According to the new structure of UFOMOD, different trajectory models with ranges of validity near to the site and at far distances are applied. Emphasis is laid on the description of the segmented plume model MUSEMET and its affilated submodels, being the removal of activity from the cloud by dry and wet deposition, and special effects like plume rise and the behaviour of plumes released into building wakes. In addition, the evaluation of γ-dose correction factors to take account of the finite extent of the radioactive plume in the near range (up to about 20 km) are described. Only brief introductions are given into the principles of the other models available: the puff model RIMPUFF, the long-range puff model MESOS, and the special straight-line Gaussian model ISOLA which are used if low-level long-duration releases are considered. To define starting times of weather sequences and the probabilities of occurrence of these sequences, it is convenient to perform stratified sampling. Therefore, the preprocessing program package METSAM has been developed to perform for generic ACAs a random sampling of weather sequences out off a population of classified weather conditions. The sampling procedure and a detailed input/output (I/O) description is presented and an additional appendix, respectively. A general overview on the I/O structure of MUSEMET as well as a brief user guide to run the KfK version of the MESOS code are also given in the appendix. (orig.) [de
Impact on the earth, ocean and atmosphere
Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.
1987-01-01
On the basis of finite-difference techniques, cratering flow calculations are used to obtain the spatial attenuation of shock pressure with radius along the impact axis for the impact of silicate rock and iron impactors on a silicate half-space at speeds of 5 to 45 km/sec. Upon impact of a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object onto a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate half-space planet at 30 km/sec, it is found that from 12 to 15 percent of the incident energy is coupled into the water. The mass of atmosphere lost due to impacts of 1 to 5 km radius projectiles is calculated.
Finite difference order doubling in two dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Centre, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Jolicard, Georges [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut Utinam (UMR CNRS 6213), Observatoire de Besancon, 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP1615, 25010 Besancon cedex (France)
2008-03-28
An order doubling process previously used to obtain eighth-order eigenvalues from the fourth-order Numerov method is applied to the perturbed oscillator in two dimensions. A simple method of obtaining high order finite difference operators is reported and an odd parity boundary condition is found to be effective in facilitating the smooth operation of the order doubling process.
Flexural vibrations of finite composite poroelastic cylinders
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
infinite hollow poroelastic cylinders. Axially symmetric vibrations of finite composite poroe- lastic cylinders that are bonded end to end are investigated by Shah & Tajuddin (2009). The analysis of the flexural vibrations in cylindrical structures has wide applications in the field of acoustics structural design and Biomechanics, ...
Finite Algorithms for Robust Linear Regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun
1990-01-01
The Huber M-estimator for robust linear regression is analyzed. Newton type methods for solution of the problem are defined and analyzed, and finite convergence is proved. Numerical experiments with a large number of test problems demonstrate efficiency and indicate that this kind of approach may...
∗-supplemented subgroups of finite groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
complemented in G. In 1998, Ballester-Bolinches and Pedraza-Aguilera [2] introduced. S-quasinormally embedded ... concept of M-supplemented subgroups and characterized the structure of finite groups by ... A subgroup H of a group G is said to be M∗-supplemented in G if there exists a subgroup. K of G such that G = HK ...
The Finite Lamplighter Groups: A Guided Tour
Siehler, Jacob A.
2012-01-01
In this article, we present a family of finite groups, which provide excellent examples of the basic concepts of group theory. To work out the center, conjuagacy classes, and commutators of these groups, all that's required is a bit of linear algebra.
Finite element analysis of photonic crystal fibers
Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
2005-01-01
A finite-element-based vectorial optical mode solver, furnished with Bayliss-Gunzburger-Turkel-like transparent boundary conditions, is used to rigorously analyze photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). Both the real and imaginary part of the modal indices can be computed in a relatively small computational
Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders
1997-01-01
damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...
Legendre Elliptic Curves over Finite Fields
Auer, Roland; Top, Jakob
2002-01-01
We show that every elliptic curve over a finite field of odd characteristic whose number of rational points is divisible by 4 is isogenous to an elliptic curve in Legendre form, with the sole exception of a minimal respectively maximal elliptic curve. We also collect some results concerning the
On partially saturated formations of finite groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballester-Bolinches, Adolfo; Calvo, Clara; Shemetkov, L A
2007-01-01
Various types of partially saturated formations and connections between them are considered. It is shown that partially saturated formations can be characterized as classes of finite groups with generalized central series. A theorem on the decomposition of an FG-module into a sum of two submodules with special properties is proved. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Thermoelectric properties of finite graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2011-01-01
We present calculations of the electronic and thermal transport properties of graphene antidot lattices with a finite length along the transport direction. The calculations are based on the π-tight-binding model and the Brenner potential. We show that both electronic and thermal transport...
The geometry of finite equilibrium sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich
2009-01-01
We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...
Finite element modelling of solidification phenomena
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The process of solidification process is complex in nature and the simulation of such process is required in industry before it is actually undertaken. Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer process accompanying the solidification process. The metal and the mould along with the air gap formation is ...
Finite-size effects from giant magnons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arutyunov, Gleb [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: g.arutyunov@phys.uu.nl; Frolov, Sergey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: frolovs@aei.mpg.de; Zamaklar, Marija [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: marzam@aei.mpg.de
2007-08-27
In order to analyze finite-size effects for the gauge-fixed string sigma model on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}, we construct one-soliton solutions carrying finite angular momentum J. In the infinite J limit the solutions reduce to the recently constructed one-magnon configuration of Hofman and Maldacena. The solutions do not satisfy the level-matching condition and hence exhibit a dependence on the gauge choice, which however disappears as the size J is taken to infinity. Interestingly, the solutions do not conserve all the global charges of the psu(2,2-vertical bar4) algebra of the sigma model, implying that the symmetry algebra of the gauge-fixed string sigma model is different from psu(2,2-vertical bar4) for finite J, once one gives up the level-matching condition. The magnon dispersion relation exhibits exponential corrections with respect to the infinite J solution. We also find a generalisation of our one-magnon configuration to a solution carrying two charges on the sphere. We comment on the possible implications of our findings for the existence of the Bethe ansatz describing the spectrum of strings carrying finite charges.
Adsorption of Lithium on Finite Graphitic Clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Cabria, I.; Lopez, M.J.
2009-01-01
The apparent discrepancies between density functional (DFT) and Moller-Plesset (MP2) calculations for the interaction of lithium with graphene recently pointed out by Ferre-Vilaplana (J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 3998) are discussed. In his calculations, this author used a finite coronene cluster, C...
Fast finite elements for surgery simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bro-Nielsen, Morten
1997-01-01
This paper discusses volumetric deformable models for modeling human body parts and organs in surgery simulation systems. These models are built using finite element models for linear elastic materials. To achieve real-time response condensation has been applied to the system stiffness matrix...
Finite Feedback Cycling in Structural Equation Models
Hayduk, Leslie A.
2009-01-01
In models containing reciprocal effects, or longer causal loops, the usual effect estimates assume that any effect touching a loop initiates an infinite cycling of effects around that loop. The real world, in contrast, might permit only finite feedback cycles. I use a simple hypothetical model to demonstrate that if the world permits only a few…
Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
these methods. Keywords. hp-Finite element method; continuous Galerkin methods; wave solutions; Gibbs' phenomenon. 1. Introduction. Galerkin methods belong to the class of solution methods for PDEs where the solution residue is minimized giving rise to the well-known weak formulation of problems. In this approach,.
Equivalent drawbead model in finite element simulations
Carleer, Bart D.; Carleer, B.D.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Lee, J.K.; Kinzel, G.L.; Wagoner, R.
1996-01-01
In 3D simulations of the deep drawing process the drawbead geometries are seldom included. Therefore equivalent drawbeads are used. In order to investigate the drawbead behaviour a 2D plane strain finite element model was used. For verification of this model experiments were performed. The analyses
Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects
Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.
2010-01-01
A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.
The circle equation over finite fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2017-01-01
Interesting patterns in the geometry of a plane algebraic curve C can be observed when the defining polynomial equation is solved over the family of finite fields. In this paper, we examine the case of C the classical unit circle defined by the circle equation x2 + y2 = 1. As a main result, we es...
Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, Storm
2009-01-01
Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.
A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs
Bardzell, Michael
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…
Finite Cycle Gibbs Measures on Permutations of
Armendáriz, Inés; Ferrari, Pablo A.; Groisman, Pablo; Leonardi, Florencia
2015-03-01
We consider Gibbs distributions on the set of permutations of associated to the Hamiltonian , where is a permutation and is a strictly convex potential. Call finite-cycle those permutations composed by finite cycles only. We give conditions on ensuring that for large enough temperature there exists a unique infinite volume ergodic Gibbs measure concentrating mass on finite-cycle permutations; this measure is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the specifications with identity boundary conditions. We construct as the unique invariant measure of a Markov process on the set of finite-cycle permutations that can be seen as a loss-network, a continuous-time birth and death process of cycles interacting by exclusion, an approach proposed by Fernández, Ferrari and Garcia. Define as the shift permutation . In the Gaussian case , we show that for each , given by is an ergodic Gibbs measure equal to the thermodynamic limit of the specifications with boundary conditions. For a general potential , we prove the existence of Gibbs measures when is bigger than some -dependent value.
Finiteness of PST self-dual models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Piguet, Olivier; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2000-12-01
The Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin model for describing chiral forms is considered at the quantum level. We study the ultraviolet and infrared behaviour of the model in two, four and six dimensions in the framework of algebraic renormalization. The absence of anomalies, as well as the finiteness, up to non-physical renormalizations, are shown in all dimensions analyzed. (author)
Counting Subspaces of a Finite Vector Space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. Counting Subspaces of a Finite Vector Space – 1. Amritanshu Prasad. General Article Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 pp 977-987. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Chiral symmetry breaking in finite quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero, J.C.; Pleitez, V.
1987-01-01
The dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in a finite Abelian gauge theory using a variational approach for the effective potential for composite operators is discussed. It is shown that, at least in a variational approach, the fermion either remains massless or gets a dynamical mass for every non-zero coupling constant. (Author) [pt
Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.
2002-01-01
We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...
Interaction, transference, and subjectivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
2012-01-01
is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further......Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamre, Bjørn; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd
2016-01-01
This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault......’s understanding of the relation between normality and deviancy. On the other hand, an examination of Danish Foucauldian disability research shows that this conception of ‘the deviant subject’ has changed over time. Hence, the present expectations of ‘the disabled’ are – more or less – influenced by contemporary...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated....
Finite differences versus finite elements in slab geometry, even-parity transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, W.F. Jr.; Noh, T.
1993-01-01
There continues to be considerable interest in the application of the even-parity transport equation to problems of radiation transfer and neutron transport. The motivation for this interest arises from several potential advantages of this equation when compared with the more traditional first-order form of the equation. First, assuming that the scalar flux is of primary interest, the angular domain under consideration is one-half of that required for the first-order equation. Thus, for the same degree of accuracy, one would hopefully require substantiably fewer unknown values of the dependent variable to be determined. Secondly, the elliptic-like nature of the set of even-parity equations should allow certain parallel computer architectures to be used more readily. In a recent paper, it was shown that for neutron transport applications in slab geometry, finite differencing the even-parity equation on the cell edges yields algebraic equations with numerical properties that are superior to the traditional diamond difference approach. Specifically, a positive, second-order method with a rapidly convergent iteration approach emerged from cell-edge differencing. Additionally, for radiation transfer problems that are optically thick, it was shown that cell-edge differencing demonstrates better behavior than does diamond-differencing. However, some problems in accuracy could occur due to vacuum boundaries as well as at interfaces between very different types of material regions. These problems emerge from a boundary-layer analysis of the so called open-quotes thickclose quotes diffusion limit. For neutronics calculations, which are the subject of this paper, however, the open-quotes thickclose quotes diffusion limit analysis has little applicability, and the cell-edge differencing derived previously seems to have considerable promise. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J
2007-01-01
Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological
Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere
Oliveira, C.
2009-04-01
Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmmethod was applied on a portion of the aerosol collected on the quartz filters to quantify black or elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC). Another portion of the quartz filters was Soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane and the resulting extracts fractionated by flash chromatography prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis regarding their organic content. The inorganic content of particulate
Computational electrodynamics the finite-difference time-domain method
Taflove, Allen
2005-01-01
This extensively revised and expanded third edition of the Artech House bestseller, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, offers engineers the most up-to-date and definitive resource on this critical method for solving Maxwell's equations. The method helps practitioners design antennas, wireless communications devices, high-speed digital and microwave circuits, and integrated optical devices with unsurpassed efficiency. There has been considerable advancement in FDTD computational technology over the past few years, and the third edition brings professionals the very latest details with entirely new chapters on important techniques, major updates on key topics, and new discussions on emerging areas such as nanophotonics. What's more, to supplement the third edition, the authors have created a Web site with solutions to problems, downloadable graphics and videos, and updates, making this new edition the ideal textbook on the subject as well.
Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel
2013-01-01
The need for realistic electric field calculations in human noninvasive brain stimulation is undisputed to more accurately determine the affected brain areas. However, using numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) is methodologically complex, starting with the creation...... high-quality head models from magnetic resonance images and their usage in subsequent field calculations based on the FEM. The pipeline starts by extracting the borders between skin, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, gray and white matter. The quality of the resulting surfaces is subsequently improved...... the successful usage of the pipeline in six subjects, including field calculations for transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The quality of the head volume meshes is validated both in terms of capturing the underlying anatomy and of the well-shapedness of the mesh...
Performance evaluation of generalized M-modeled atmospheric optical communications links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Garrido-Balsellss, José María; Jurado-Navas, Antonio
2016-01-01
, the behavior of the atmospheric optical channel is treated as a superposition of a finite number of Generalized-K distributed sub-channels, controlled by a discrete Negative-Binomial distribution dependent on the turbulence parameters. Unlike other studies, here, the closed-form mathematical expressions...
Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)
2008-10-15
The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Ulrik
Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...
Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedynitch Anatoli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.
Composition of Estonian atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.
1996-01-01
Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology
Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere
Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.
1999-01-01
This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Novotný, Karel
2014-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.
1977-01-01
Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model
Exploiting ''Subjective'' Annotations
Reidsma, Dennis; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Artstein, R.; Boleda, G.; Keller, F.; Schulte im Walde, S.
2008-01-01
Many interesting phenomena in conversation can only be annotated as a subjective task, requiring interpretative judgements from annotators. This leads to data which is annotated with lower levels of agreement not only due to errors in the annotation, but also due to the differences in how annotators
Jansen, MA, Robert
2016-01-01
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
Atmospheric transport of radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.V.
1978-01-01
The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man
Atmospheric Absorption Cell Characterization.
1982-06-01
was adequate for making empty cell measurements and filling the cell with artificial atmospheres. The procedure used in pumping and fillin the cell...carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. The artificial atmospheres in the cell used for these measurements are summarized in Table IV. Figures...LD_l -_10J J« LUZ . jr-U «—• »r—• «-CD CO — Q- —a CD -j" \\z — OC I — h- \\_IC\\J CM LUD -ÜU T 1 r 00*001 00 00*09 00*0
Finite element, discontinuous Galerkin, and finite difference evolution schemes in spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zumbusch, G
2009-01-01
Numerical schemes for Einstein's vacuum equation are developed. Einstein's equation in harmonic gauge is second-order symmetric hyperbolic. It is discretized in four-dimensional spacetime by finite differences, finite elements and interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods, the latter being related to Regge calculus. The schemes are split into space and time and new time-stepping schemes for wave equations are derived. The methods are evaluated for linear and nonlinear test problems of the Apples-with-Apples collection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Akhrass, Dina
2014-01-01
Simulations in solid mechanics exhibit several difficulties, as dealing with incompressibility, with nonlinearities due to finite strains, contact laws, or constitutive laws. The basic motivation of our work is to propose efficient finite element methods capable of dealing with incompressibility in finite strain context, and using elements of low order. During the three last decades, many approaches have been proposed in the literature to overcome the incompressibility problem. Among them, mixed formulations offer an interesting theoretical framework. In this work, a three-field mixed formulation (displacement, pressure, volumetric strain) is investigated. In some cases, this formulation can be condensed in a two-field (displacement - pressure) mixed formulation. However, it is well-known that the discrete problem given by the Galerkin finite element technique, does not inherit the 'inf-sup' stability condition from the continuous problem. Hence, the interpolation orders in displacement and pressure have to be chosen in a way to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska stability conditions when using Galerkin approaches. Interpolation orders must be chosen so as to satisfy this condition. Two possibilities are considered: to use stable finite element satisfying this requirement, or to use finite element that does not satisfy this condition, and to add terms stabilizing the FE Galerkin formulation. The latter approach allows the use of equal order interpolation. In this work, stable finite element P2/P1 and P2/P1/P1 are used as reference, and compared to P1/P1 and P1/P1/P1 formulations stabilized with a bubble function or with a VMS method (Variational Multi-Scale) based on a sub-grid-space orthogonal to the FE space. A finite strain model based on logarithmic strain is selected. This approach is extended to three and two field mixed formulations with stable or stabilized elements. These approaches are validated on academic cases and used on industrial cases. (author)
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provide a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to a selection rule that favors the rare trajectories of interest. However, such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time- and finite population size- effects that can render their use delicate. Using the continuous-time cloning algorithm, we analyze the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of the rare trajectories. We use these scalings in order to propose a numerical approach which allows to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators.
Comparison study of finite element and basis set methods for finite size scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antillon, Edwin; Moy, Winton; Wei Qi; Kais, Sabre
2009-01-01
We compare two methods of obtaining critical parameters for a quantum Hamiltonian using a finite size scaling approach. A finite element and basis set method were used in conjunction with the finite size scaling to obtain the critical parameters for the Hulthen potential. The critical parameters obtained analytically were the coupling constant λ c =(1/2), the critical exponents for the energy α=2 and for the 'correlation length 'ν=1. The extrapolated results for finite size scaling with the basis set method are λ c =0.499 99, α=1.9960, and ν=0.999 10. The results for the finite element solutions are λ c =0.501 84, α=1.999 93, and ν=1.000 79 for the linear interpolation and λ c =0.500 00, α=2.000 11, and ν=1.000 32 for the Hermite interpolation. The results for each method compare very well with the analytical results obtained for the Hulthen potential. However, the finite element method is easier to implement and may be combined with ab initio and density functional theory to obtain quantum critical parameters for more complex systems.
The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.
Akın, Ahmet
2012-08-01
The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.
Atmospheric Models for Engineering Applications
Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Justus, C. G.
2002-01-01
This paper will review the historical development of reference and standard atmosphere models and their applications. The evolution of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere will be addressed, along with the Range Reference Atmospheres and, in particular, the NASA Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM). The extensive scope and content of the GRAM will be addressed since it represents the most extensive and complete 'Reference' atmosphere model in use today. Its origin was for engineering applications and that remains today as its principal use.
Multijet atmospheric plasma device for biomedical applications
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Hubička, Zdeněk; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr
2011-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 135-141 ISSN 1947-5764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * plasma sources * biomedical applications Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
Moment resistance of steel pipes subjected to combined loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozkan, Istemi F.; Mohareb, Magdi
2009-01-01
The first part of this paper provides a review of recent investigations on steel pipes subjected to combined loads. Attention is given to studies involving both numerical and experimental components aimed at quantifying the modified moment resistance of pipes subjected to internal pressure and axial force. The comparison of experimental and finite element results indicate that the nonlinear shell finite element analysis is a reliable tool for predicting moment capacities of pipes. The second part of the paper reports two additional full-scale tests recently conducted at the University of Ottawa aimed at expanding the existing experimental database to pipes subjected to more complex load combinations involving twisting moment and shear (in addition to axial force, internal pressure, and bending). The finite element analysis for both tests is shown to provide excellent predictions of pipe moment capacity. The third part of the paper is a systematic parametric study based on the FEA model verified in previous and present investigations, aimed to assess the ability of pipe sections to attain their modified elastic and/or plastic moment resistance as predicted by analytically derived interaction equations. The parameters investigated are the applied torsion, internal pressure, axial force, and the diameter-to-thickness ratio of the pipe
Finite element modeling for materials engineers using Matlab
Oluwole, Oluleke
2014-01-01
Finite Element Modeling for Materials Engineers Using MATLAB® combines the finite element method with MATLAB to offer materials engineers a fast and code-free way of modeling for many materials processes.
Finite Element Based Design and Optimization for Piezoelectric Accelerometers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.; Yao, Q.
1998-01-01
A systematic Finite Element design and optimisation procedure is implemented for the development of piezoelectric accelerometers. Most of the specifications of accelerometers can be obtained using the Finite Element simulations. The deviations between the simulated and calibrated sensitivities...
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, T.
2007-10-31
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes
Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara
2016-01-01
Suction caissons are being increasingly used as offshore foundation solutions in shallow and intermediate water depths. The convenient installation method through the application of suction has rendered this type of foundation as an attractive alternative to the more traditional monopile foundation...... for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...... models of the caisson-soil are developed in order to derive the failure envelopes considering both sand and clay profiles. The numerical modelling is being validated by the failure mechanisms reported in the literature for skirted foundations. The sensitivity of the load response curves on the selection...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wieczorek, Izabela
2014-01-01
Physical Presence in Space.” Oase #91, Building Atmosphere, 21-33 Sloterdijk, Peter. (2005) 2008. “The Crystal Palace.” Translated by Michael Darroch. Public 37: Public?, 12-15. Originally published in Peter Sloterdijk. Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals: Für eine philoso-phische Theorie der Globalisierung, 265...
Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics
Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex
2011-12-01
The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.
Results from atmospheric neutrinos
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. With the announcement of new evidence for muon neutrino disappearance observed by the super-Kamiokande experiment, the more than a decade old atmospheric neutrino anomaly moved from a possible indication for neutrino oscillations to an apparently inescapable fact. The evidence is reviewed, and new ...
Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
within and below cloud scavenging, whereby the wet aerosol particles are collected by falling raindrops. In occult deposition, wetted particles (fog and mist) are deposited by impaction or turbulent transfer [3]. A high proportion of atmospheric heavy metals entering aquatic systems is in small particulate « IJlm) or soluble ...
Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such ... Hence, the transfer of air borne particles to land or water surfaces ... relative importance of these processes depends primarily on the size of the particles. Anthropogenically added particulates and aerosols in atmosphere show a broad size distribution from.
Seasonal atmospheric extinction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhail, J.S.
1979-01-01
Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)
Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC
2014-01-01
This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.
Atmospheric and laser propagation
Eijk, A.M.J. van; Stein, K.
2017-01-01
This paper reviews three phenomena that affect the propagation of electro-optical radiation through the atmosphere: absorption and scattering, refraction and turbulence. The net effect on imaging or laser systems is a net reduction of the effective range, or a degradation of the information
Climate and atmospheric research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, G.; Schumacher, R.
1992-01-01
This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW) [de
Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
2014-09-01
This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutsenogij, K.P.; Kutsenogij, P.K.
2008-01-01
In the paper review the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on space-time variability of physical, chemical and biological atmospheric characteristics and its influence on climate, ecology and environmental quality under the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic load is submitted
Results from atmospheric neutrinos
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
With the announcement of new evidence for muon neutrino disappearance observed by the super-Kamiokande experiment, the more than a decade old atmospheric neutrino anomaly moved from a possible indication for neutrino oscillations to an apparently inescapable fact. The evidence is reviewed, and new indications ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Megie, G.
1994-01-01
The ozone sources, roles and distribution are reviewed, and the atmosphere dynamic effects on ozone circulation are discussed; chlorine and CFC are the two main perturbative agents of the ozone layer and their effects are described and analyzed; impacts of the limitation of the CFC and chlorine utilization are discussed. 5 figs., 9 tabs
Two inquiries about finite groups and well-behaved quotients
Blum-Smith, Ben
2018-01-01
This thesis addresses questions in representation and invariant theory of finite groups. The first concerns singularities of quotient spaces under actions of finite groups. We introduce a class of finite groups such that the quotients have at worst abelian quotient singularities. We prove that supersolvable groups belong to this class and show that nonabelian finite simple groups do not belong to it. The second question concerns the Cohen-Macaulayness of the invariant ring $\\mathbb{Z}[x_1,\\do...
Finite Automata Based on Quantum Logic and Their Determinization
Li, Yongming
2007-01-01
We give the quantum subset construction of orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata, then we show the equivalence between orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata, orthomodular lattice-valued deterministic finite automata and orthomodular lattice-valued finite automata with empty string-moves. Based on these equivalences, we study the algebraic operations on orthomodular lattice-valued regular languages, then we establish Kleene theorem in the frame of quantum logic.
Error-controlled adaptive finite elements in solid mechanics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stein, Erwin; Ramm, E
2003-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Error-controlled Adaptive Finite-element-methods . . . . . . . . . . . . Missing Features and Properties of Today's General Purpose FE Programs for Structural...
Niemeijer, Sander
2017-04-01
The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Gao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.
Topology optimization using the finite volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...... in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...
Blocks of finite groups and their invariants
Sambale, Benjamin
2014-01-01
Providing a nearly complete selection of up-to-date methods and results on block invariants with respect to their defect groups, this book covers the classical theory pioneered by Brauer, the modern theory of fusion systems introduced by Puig, the geometry of numbers developed by Minkowski, the classification of finite simple groups, and various computer assisted methods. In a powerful combination, these tools are applied to solve many special cases of famous open conjectures in the representation theory of finite groups. Most of the material is drawn from peer-reviewed journal articles, but there are also new previously unpublished results. In order to make the text self-contained, detailed proofs are given whenever possible. Several tables add to the text's usefulness as a reference. The book is aimed at experts in group theory or representation theory who may wish to make use of the presented ideas in their research.
Effect of finite β on stellarator transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.
1984-04-01
A theory of the modification of stellarator transport due to the presence of finite plasma pressure is developed, and applied to a range of stellarator configurations. For many configurations of interest, plasma transport can change by more than an order of magnitude in the progression from zero pressure to the equilibrium β limit of the device. Thus, a stellarator with transport-optimized vacuum fields can have poor confinement at the desired operating β. Without an external compensating field, increasing β tends to degrade confinement, unless the initial field structure is very carefully chosen. The theory permits one to correctly determine this vacuum structure, in terms of the desired structure of the field at a prescribed operating β. With a compensating external field, the deleterious effect of finite β on transport can be partially eliminated
Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques
Steeve, B. E.
1996-01-01
The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.
Multicomplementary operators via finite Fourier transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimov, Andrei B; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L; Guise, Hubert de
2005-01-01
A complete set of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases exists in a Hilbert space of dimension d, whenever d is a power of a prime. We discuss a simple construction of d + 1 disjoint classes (each one having d - 1 commuting operators) such that the corresponding eigenstates form sets of unbiased bases. Such a construction works properly for prime dimension. We investigate an alternative construction in which the real numbers that label the classes are replaced by a finite field having d elements. One of these classes is diagonal, and can be mapped to cyclic operators by means of the finite Fourier transform, which allows one to understand complementarity in a similar way as for the position-momentum pair in standard quantum mechanics. The relevant examples of two and three qubits and two qutrits are discussed in detail
On polynormality in finite solvable groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamadou Sadialiou Bah
2003-05-01
In the study of the arrangement of intermediate subgroups a wide use has been made of certain properties describing the way conjugacy classes of subgroups are embedded in the groups: abnormality, pronormality, paranormality, and their weak analogues. It was proved that pronormality and abnormality coincide with their weak analogues for solvable groups. This was a generalisation of known results of Peng and Taunt for finite solvable groups. In this paper we prove a conjecture of Borevich asserting a similar result for paranormality and polynormality (which is a sort of weak paranormality). Further we show that we get a stronger result when the given subgroup is nilpotent: In a finite solvable group any nilpotent polynormal subgroup is pronormal. (author)
Finite Element Modeling of Cracks and Joints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jozef Čížik
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The application of finite element method to the analysis of discontinuous structural systems has received a considerable interest in recent years. Examples of problems in which discontinuities play a prominent role in the physical behaviour of a system are numerous and include various types of contact problems and layered or jointed systems. This paper gives a state-of-the-art report on the different methods developed to date for the finite element modelling of cracks and joints in discontinuous systems. Particular attention, however, has been given to the use of joint/interface elements, since their application is considered to be most appropriate for modelling of all kinds of discontinuities that may present in a structural system. A chronology of development of the main types of joint elements, including their pertinent characteristics, is also given. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods and types of joint elements presented are briefly discussed, together with various applications of interest.
Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods
Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena
2015-01-01
Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...
Mathematics and computer science: coping with finiteness.
Knuth, D E
1976-12-11
By presenting these examples, I have tried to illustrate four main points. 1) Finite numbers can be really enormous, and the known universe is very small. Therefore the distinction between finite and infinite is not as relevant as the distinction between realistic and unrealistic. 2) In many cases there are subtle ways to solve very large problems quickly, in spite of the fact that they appear at first to require examination of too many possibilities. 3) There are also cases where we can prove that a fairly natural problem is intrinsically hard, far beyond our conceivable capabilities. 4) It takes a good deal of skill to decide whether a given problem is in the easy or hard class; but even if a problem does turn out to be hard there are useful and interesting ways to change it into one that can be done satisfactorily.
Meson spectral functions at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.
2002-01-01
The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature
Meson spectral functions at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.
2001-10-01
The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)
Meson spectral functions at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S
2002-03-01
The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature.
Meson spectral functions at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
2001-10-01
The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)
Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 16
Lee , Huei-Huang
2015-01-01
Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 16 is a comprehensive and easy to understand workbook. It utilizes step-by-step instructions to help guide readers to learn finite element simulations. Twenty seven real world case studies are used throughout the book. Many of these cases are industrial or research projects the reader builds from scratch. All the files readers may need if they have trouble are available for download on the publishers website. Companion videos that demonstrate exactly how to preform each tutorial are available to readers by redeeming the access code that comes in the book. Relevant background knowledge is reviewed whenever necessary. To be efficient, the review is conceptual rather than mathematical. Key concepts are inserted whenever appropriate and summarized at the end of each chapter. Additional exercises or extension research problems are provided as homework at the end of each chapter. A learning approach emphasizing hands-on experiences spreads through this entire book. A...
A finite element method for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.
1983-01-01
A completely boundary-free maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation is derived from the completely boundary-free maximum principle for the mixed-parity Boltzmann equation. When continuity is imposed on the trial function for directions crossing interfaces the completely boundary-free principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation reduces to a maximum principle previously established directly from first principles and indirectly by the Euler-Lagrange method. Present finite element methods for the first-order Boltzmann equation are based on a weighted-residual method which permits the use of discontinuous trial functions. The new principle for the first-order equation can be used as a basis for finite-element methods with the same freedom from boundary conditions as those based on the weighted-residual method. The extremum principle as the parent of the variationally-derived weighted-residual equations ensures their good behaviour. (author)
Finite element reliability analysis of fatigue life
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harkness, H.H.; Belytschko, T.; Liu, W.K.
1992-01-01
Fatigue reliability is addressed by the first-order reliability method combined with a finite element method. Two-dimensional finite element models of components with cracks in mode I are considered with crack growth treated by the Paris law. Probability density functions of the variables affecting fatigue are proposed to reflect a setting where nondestructive evaluation is used, and the Rosenblatt transformation is employed to treat non-Gaussian random variables. Comparisons of the first-order reliability results and Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the accuracy of the first-order reliability method is quite good in this setting. Results show that the upper portion of the initial crack length probability density function is crucial to reliability, which suggests that if nondestructive evaluation is used, the probability of detection curve plays a key role in reliability. (orig.)
Finite element analysis of human joints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described
Finite element analysis of tibial fractures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner
2010-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the tibial shaft are relatively common injuries. There are indications that tibial shaft fractures share characteristics in terms of site, type and local fracture mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to set up a mathematical, computer-based model using finite element...... analysis of the bones of the lower leg to examine if such a model is adequate for prediction of fracture locations and patterns. In future studies, we aim to use these biomechanical results to examine fracture prevention, among others, and to simulate different types of osteosynthesis and the process...... of bony healing. The biomechanical results are the basis for fracture healing, biomechanical fall analysis and stability analysis of osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A finite element model of the bony part of the lower leg was generated on the basis of computed tomography data from the Visible Human...
Time-optimal control with finite bandwidth
Hirose, M.; Cappellaro, P.
2018-04-01
Time-optimal control theory provides recipes to achieve quantum operations with high fidelity and speed, as required in quantum technologies such as quantum sensing and computation. While technical advances have achieved the ultrastrong driving regime in many physical systems, these capabilities have yet to be fully exploited for the precise control of quantum systems, as other limitations, such as the generation of higher harmonics or the finite response time of the control apparatus, prevent the implementation of theoretical time-optimal control. Here we present a method to achieve time-optimal control of qubit systems that can take advantage of fast driving beyond the rotating wave approximation. We exploit results from time-optimal control theory to design driving protocols that can be implemented with realistic, finite-bandwidth control fields, and we find a relationship between bandwidth limitations and achievable control fidelity.
On the reliability of finite element solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, K.S.R.K.
1975-01-01
The extent of reliability of the finite element method for analysis of nuclear reactor structures, and that of reactor vessels in particular and the need for the engineer to guard against the pitfalls that may arise out of both physical and mathematical models have been high-lighted. A systematic way of checking the model to obtain reasonably accurate solutions is presented. Quite often sophisticated elements are suggested for specific design and stress concentration problems. The desirability or otherwise of these elements, their scope and utility vis-a-vis the use of large stack of conventional elements are discussed from the view point of stress analysts. The methods of obtaining a check on the reliability of the finite element solutions either through modelling changes or an extrapolation technique are discussed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both with resp......The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both...... with respect to performance and resulting rotor geometry. It is here shown that for tip speed ratios greater than three, all models result in the same geometry at the outer part of the rotor, whereas the inner part always is different, both with respect to plan form and with respect to twist distribution....
Finite element analysis of human joints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.
1996-09-01
Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.
Finite element modelling of TRIP steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papatriantafillou, I.; Aravas, N.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)
2004-11-01
A constitutive model that describes the mechanical behaviour of steels exhibiting ''Transformation Induced Plasticity'' (TRIP) during martensitic transformation is presented. Multiphase TRIP steels are considered as composite materials with a ferritic matrix containing bainite and retained austenite, which gradually transforms into martensite. The effective properties and overall behaviour of TRIP steels are determined by using homogenization techniques for non-linear composites. The developed constitutive model considers the different hardening behaviour of the individual phases and estimates the apportionment of plastic strain and stress between the individual phases of the composite. A methodology for the numerical integration of the resulting elastoplastic constitutive equations in the context of the finite element method is developed and the constitutive model is implemented in a general-purpose finite element program. The prediction of the model in uniaxial tension agrees well with the experimental data. The problem of necking of a bar in uniaxial tension is studied in detail. (orig.)
Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator
Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu
To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR PERIFLEX COUPLINGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
URDEA Mihaela
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The Periflex shaft couplings with rubber sleeve have a hig elasticity and link two shafts in diesel-engine and electric drives. They are simple from the point of view of construction, easily mounted and dismounted. The main goal of this paper is to present a finite element analysis for the Periflex coupling using the Generative Structural Analysis from CATIA software package. This paper presents important information about how to prepare an assembly for creating a static analysis case and also the important steps for developing a finite element analysis. It is very important that the analysis model should have the same behavior as the real, also the loading model. The results are images corresponding to Von Mises Stresses and Translational Displacement magnitude.
Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis
Kim, Nam-Ho
2015-01-01
This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: · Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems · Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory · ...
Quark bag coupling to finite size pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.
1982-01-01
A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)
Thermal quench at finite 't Hooft coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Ebrahim
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Using holography we have studied thermal electric field quench for infinite and finite 't Hooft coupling constant. The set-up we consider here is D7-brane embedded in (α′ corrected AdS-black hole background. It is well-known that due to a time-dependent electric field on the probe brane, a time-dependent current will be produced and it will finally relax to its equilibrium value. We have studied the effect of different parameters of the system on equilibration time. As the most important results, for massless fundamental matter, we have observed a universal behaviour in the rescaled equilibration time in the very fast quench regime for different values of the temperature and α′ correction parameter. It seems that in the slow quench regime the system behaves adiabatically. We have also observed that the equilibration time decreases in finite 't Hooft coupling limit.
Introduction to finite and spectral element methods using Matlab
Pozrikidis, Constantine
2014-01-01
The Finite Element Method in One Dimension. Further Applications in One Dimension. High-Order and Spectral Elements in One Dimension. The Finite Element Method in Two Dimensions. Quadratic and Spectral Elements in Two Dimensions. Applications in Mechanics. Viscous Flow. Finite and Spectral Element Methods in Three Dimensions. Appendices. References. Index.
The Total Number of Parameters in the Finite Element ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Rectangular finite elements are important in Finite Element Method. This paper establishes a general formula for obtaining the total number of parameters associated with any finite element rectangulation of a domain. This number is also the dimension of the trail space as well as the size of the associated linear system.
Parallel direct solver for finite element modeling of manufacturing processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P.A.F.
2017-01-01
The central processing unit (CPU) time is of paramount importance in finite element modeling of manufacturing processes. Because the most significant part of the CPU time is consumed in solving the main system of equations resulting from finite element assemblies, different approaches have been...... developed to optimize solutions and reduce the overall computational costs of large finite element models....
Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.