WorldWideScience

Sample records for fingerprinted bacterial artificial

  1. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  2. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of artificial fingerprint by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Cheng, Yezeng

    2008-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the popular used methods of biometrics. However, due to the surface topography limitation, fingerprint recognition scanners are easily been spoofed, e.g. using artificial fingerprint dummies. Thus, biometric fingerprint identification devices need to be more accurate and secure to deal with different fraudulent methods including dummy fingerprints. Previously, we demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images revealed the presence of the artificial fingerprints (made from different household materials, such as cement and liquid silicone rubber) at all times, while the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader. Also we demonstrated that an analysis of the autocorrelation of the OCT images could be used in automatic recognition systems. Here, we exploited the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the artificial fingerprint by OCT to generate vivid 3D image for both the artificial fingerprint layer and the real fingerprint layer beneath. With the reconstructed 3D image, it could not only point out whether there exists an artificial material, which is intended to spoof the scanner, above the real finger, but also could provide the hacker's fingerprint. The results of these studies suggested that Optical Coherence Tomography could be a powerful real-time noninvasive method for accurate identification of artificial fingerprints real fingerprints as well.

  4. Artificial fingerprint recognition by using optical coherence tomography with autocorrelation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yezeng; Larin, Kirill V.

    2006-12-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most widely used methods of biometrics. This method relies on the surface topography of a finger and, thus, is potentially vulnerable for spoofing by artificial dummies with embedded fingerprints. In this study, we applied the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to distinguish artificial materials commonly used for spoofing fingerprint scanning systems from the real skin. Several artificial fingerprint dummies made from household cement and liquid silicone rubber were prepared and tested using a commercial fingerprint reader and an OCT system. While the artificial fingerprints easily spoofed the commercial fingerprint reader, OCT images revealed the presence of them at all times. We also demonstrated that an autocorrelation analysis of the OCT images could be potentially used in automatic recognition systems.

  5. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  6. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. BACs are large enough to transfer intact genes in their native chromosomal setting together with flanking regulatory elements to provide all the signals for correct spatiotemporal gene expression. Until recently, the use of BACs for functional studies has been limited because their large size has inherently presented a major obstacle for introducing modifications using conventional genetic engineering strategies. The development of in vivo homologous recombination strategies based on recombineering in E. coli has helped resolve this problem by enabling facile engineering of high molecular weight BAC DNA without dependence on suitably placed restriction enzymes or cloning steps. These techniques have considerably expanded the possibilities for studying functional genetics using BACs in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Searching for the main anti-bacterial components in artificial Calculus bovis using UPLC and microcalorimetry coupled with multi-linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qing-Ce; Wang, Jia-Bo; Kong, Wei-Jun; Jin, Cheng; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Jing; Gong, Qian-Feng; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2011-12-01

    The fingerprints of artificial Calculus bovis extracts from different solvents were established by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and the anti-bacterial activities of artificial C. bovis extracts on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) growth were studied by microcalorimetry. The UPLC fingerprints were evaluated using hierarchical clustering analysis. Some quantitative parameters obtained from the thermogenic curves of S. aureus growth affected by artificial C. bovis extracts were analyzed using principal component analysis. The spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and anti-bacterial activities were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. The results showed that peak 1 (taurocholate sodium), peak 3 (unknown compound), peak 4 (cholic acid), and peak 6 (chenodeoxycholic acid) are more significant than the other peaks with the standard parameter estimate 0.453, -0.166, 0.749, 0.025, respectively. So, compounds cholic acid, taurocholate sodium, and chenodeoxycholic acid might be the major anti-bacterial components in artificial C. bovis. Altogether, this work provides a general model of the combination of UPLC chromatography and anti-bacterial effect to study the spectrum-effect relationships of artificial C. bovis extracts, which can be used to discover the main anti-bacterial components in artificial C. bovis or other Chinese herbal medicines with anti-bacterial effects. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Full Length Research Paper ... resulted in a search for better techniques for classifying ... only a few laboratories worldwide are able to perform a ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Bacterial ... s with distilled water and blotted dry with tissue paper (Kimberly- ... A test on the quality and quantity of DNA extracted was conducted.

  9. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Pulse Crops: Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kangfu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries...

  10. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  11. Metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial strains isolated from northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, A.; Latif, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas. (author)

  12. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Pulse Crops: Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kangfu

    2012-01-01

    Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of pulse crops are essential genomic resources that have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and enhance molecular breeding in these crops. Here, we review the availability, characteristics, applications, and potential applications of the BAC libraries of pulse crops. PMID:21811383

  13. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Pulse Crops: Characteristics and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangfu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse crops are considered minor on a global scale despite their nutritional value for human consumption. Therefore, they are relatively less extensively studied in comparison with the major crops. The need to improve pulse crop production and quality will increase with the increasing global demand for food security and people's awareness of nutritious food. The improvement of pulse crops will require fully utilizing all their genetic resources. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries of pulse crops are essential genomic resources that have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and enhance molecular breeding in these crops. Here, we review the availability, characteristics, applications, and potential applications of the BAC libraries of pulse crops.

  14. A bacterial artificial chromosome-based physical map of Manihot esculenta ssp.flabellifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhua FU; Zhiqiang XIA; Shujuan WANG; Xin CHEN; Cheng LU; Mingcheng LUO; Hongbin ZHANG; Wenquan WANG

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is known as the third most important food crop in the tropics and also used for industrial feedstock for biofuels.Two new bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed for W14 (M.Esculenta ssp.flabellifolia),a wild ancestor of domesticated cassava.The libraries were constructed with EcoRI and HindⅢ insertion vectors,respectively.The EcoRI library has 29952 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb,while the HindⅢ library consists of 29952 clones with an average insert of 129 kb.The combined libraries contain a total of 59904 clones with an average insert size of 125 kb,representing approximately 10×haploid genome equivalents.A total of 29952 clones were fingerprinted and resulted in a cassava physical map composed of 2485 contigs with an average physical length of 336 kb and 2909 singletons,representing approximately 762 Mb of the cassava genome.5000 clones located at the ends of BAC contigs were selected and sequenced.A total of 6077 SNPs and 231 indels were identified,that covered 459 gene sequences,of which 6 genes were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism.This BAC-based physical map provides valuable tools to understand the genetics and evolution of cassava.

  15. A BAC clone fingerprinting approach to the detection of human genome rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Martin; Bosdet, Ian; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Brebner, Jay; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard; Field, Matthew; Lee, Darlene; Pugh, Trevor; Volik, Stas; Siddiqui, Asim; Jones, Steven; Schein, Jacquie; Collins, Collin; Marra, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. The approach uses alignment of experimental fingerprint patterns to in silico digests of the sequence assembly and is capable of detecting micro-deletions (1-5 kb) and balanced rearrangements. Our method has compelling potential for use as a whole-genome method for the identification and characterization of human genome rearrangements. PMID:17953769

  16. A two primers random amplified polymorphic DNA procedure to obtain polymerase chain reaction fingerprints of bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, R; Velázquez, E; Valverde, A; Mateos, P F; Martínez-Molina, E

    2001-04-01

    Polymerase chain reation (PCR) fingerprints are used to characterize and recognize bacteria and are generally obtained using universal primers that generate an array of DNA amplicons, which can be separated by electrophoresis. Universal primers 8F and 1491 R have been used to amplify specifically 16S rDNA. We have used these primers at an annealing temperature of 50 degrees C. Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products revealed several bands. The band pattern of each bacterial species was different and the strains belonging to the same species shared an identical pattern. The patterns obtained did not show variations with plasmid DNA content or the growth stage of the bacteria. The peculiarity of the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) described in this work lies in the use of two large primers (proximately 20 nt) to obtain the pattern, since normally a only smaller primer is used, and in the new application for the primers used to amplify 16S rDNA. This new procedure, called two primers (TP)-RAPD fingerprinting, is thus rapid, sensitive, reliable, highly reproducible and suitable for experiments with a large number of microorganisms, and can be applied to bacterial taxonomy, ecological studies and for the detection of new bacterial species.

  17. Evaluation of Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis for Bacterial Fingerprinting of Rumen Microbiome Compared to Pyrosequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian gut houses a complex microbial community which is believed to play a significant role in host physiology. In recent years, several microbial community analysis methods have been implemented to study the whole gut microbial environment, in contrast to classical microbiological methods focusing on bacteria which can be cultivated. One of these is automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA, an inexpensive and popular way of analyzing bacterial diversity and community fingerprinting in ecological samples. ARISA uses the natural variability in length of the DNA fragment found between the 16S and 23S genes in different bacterial lineages to infer diversity. This method is now being supplanted by affordable next-generation sequencing technologies that can also simultaneously annotate operational taxonomic units for taxonomic identification. We compared ARISA and pyrosequencing of samples from the rumen microbiome of cows, previously sampled at different stages of development and varying in microbial complexity using several ecological parameters. We revealed close agreement between ARISA and pyrosequencing outputs, especially in their ability to discriminate samples from different ecological niches. In contrast, the ARISA method seemed to underestimate sample richness. The good performance of the relatively inexpensive ARISA makes it relevant for straightforward use in bacterial fingerprinting analysis as well as for quick cross-validation of pyrosequencing data.

  18. Ovary transcriptome profiling via artificial intelligence reveals a transcriptomic fingerprint predicting egg quality in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Chapman

    Full Text Available Inherited gene transcripts deposited in oocytes direct early embryonic development in all vertebrates, but transcript profiles indicative of embryo developmental competence have not previously been identified. We employed artificial intelligence to model profiles of maternal ovary gene expression and their relationship to egg quality, evaluated as production of viable mid-blastula stage embryos, in the striped bass (Morone saxatilis, a farmed species with serious egg quality problems. In models developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs and supervised machine learning, collective changes in the expression of a limited suite of genes (233 representing 90% of the eventual variance in embryo survival. Egg quality related to minor changes in gene expression (<0.2-fold, with most individual transcripts making a small contribution (<1% to the overall prediction of egg quality. These findings indicate that the predictive power of the transcriptome as regards egg quality resides not in levels of individual genes, but rather in the collective, coordinated expression of a suite of transcripts constituting a transcriptomic "fingerprint". Correlation analyses of the corresponding candidate genes indicated that dysfunction of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome, COP9 signalosome, and subsequent control of the cell cycle engenders embryonic developmental incompetence. The affected gene networks are centrally involved in regulation of early development in all vertebrates, including humans. By assessing collective levels of the relevant ovarian transcripts via ANNs we were able, for the first time in any vertebrate, to accurately predict the subsequent embryo developmental potential of eggs from individual females. Our results show that the transcriptomic fingerprint evidencing developmental dysfunction is highly predictive of, and therefore likely to regulate, egg quality, a biologically complex trait crucial to reproductive fitness.

  19. Fingerprinting and diversity of bacterial copA genes in response to soil types, soil organic status and copper contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, David P H; Nowak, Virginie; Bouko, Sabrina; Pascault, Noémie; Mougel, Christophe; Martins, Jean M F; Ranjard, Lionel

    2007-09-01

    A molecular fingerprinting assay was developed to assess the diversity of copA genes, one of the genetic determinants involved in bacterial resistance to copper. Consensus primers of the copA genes were deduced from an alignment of sequences from proteobacterial strains. A PCR detection procedure was optimized for bacterial strains and allowed the description of a novel copA genetic determinant in Pseudomonas fluorescens. The copA DNA fingerprinting procedure was optimized for DNA directly extracted from soils differing in their physico-chemical characteristics and in their organic status (SOS). Particular copA genetic structures were obtained for each studied soil and a coinertia analysis with soil physico-chemical characteristics revealed the strong influence of pH, soil texture and the quality of soil organic matter. The molecular phylogeny of copA gene confirmed that specific copA genes clusters are specific for each SOS. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that this approach was sensitive to short-term responses of copA gene diversity to copper additions to soil samples, suggesting that community adaptation is preferentially controlled by the diversity of the innate copA genes rather than by the bioavailability of the metal.

  20. Using artificial soil sediment mixtures for calibrating fingerprinting techniques at catchment scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Astorga, Romina; Martin, Osvaldo A.; Velasco, Ricardo Hugo; Santos-Villalobos, Sergio de los; Mabit, Lionel; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion and related sediment transportation and deposition are key environmental problems in Central Argentina. Certain land use practices, such as intensive grazing, are considered particularly harmful in causing erosion and sediment mobilization. In our studied catchment, Sub Catchment Estancia Grande (630 hectares), 23 km north east from San Luis, characterized by erosive loess soils, we tested sediment source fingerprinting techniques to identify critical hot spots of land degradation, based on the concentration of 43 elements determined by Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF).

  1. Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Larsen; D. Lee Taylor; Mary Beth Leigh; Diane M. O' Brien

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints...

  2. Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luo, M. C.; Ma, Y. Q.; You, F. M.; Anderson, O. D.; Kopecký, David; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Gill, B.; McGuire, P. E.; Dvorak, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 122 (2010), s. 1-8 ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BREAD WHEAT * TETRAPLOID WHEAT * GENETIC-MAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.206, year: 2010

  3. Physiological and DNA fingerprinting of the bacterial community of Meloidogyne fallax egg masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papert, A; Kok, CJ; van Elsas, JD

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne fallax egg masses were compared with those present in the rhizoplane. Two agricultural soils with different nematode population dynamics were used in a glasshouse study, with either potato or tomato as host plant for the

  4. Physiological and DNA fingerprinting of the bacterial community of Meloidogyne fallax egg masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papert, A; Kok, CJ; van Elsas, JD

    Bacterial communities associated with the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne fallax egg masses were compared with those present in the rhizoplane. Two agricultural soils with different nematode population dynamics were used in a glasshouse study, with either potato or tomato as host plant for the

  5. Artificial acceleration of mammalian cell reprogramming by bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Iwasaki, Mio; Sasaki, Tetsuhiko; Nakagawa, Masato; Okita, Keisuke; Masui, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of cell reprogramming and differentiation involve various signaling factors. Small molecule compounds have been identified to artificially influence these factors through interacting cellular proteins. Although such small molecule compounds are useful to enhance reprogramming and differentiation and to show the mechanisms that underlie these events, the screening usually requires a large number of compounds to identify only a very small number of hits (e.g., one hit among several tens of thousands of compounds). Here, we show a proof of concept that xenospecific gene products can affect the efficiency of cell reprogramming to pluripotency. Thirty genes specific for the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis were forcibly expressed individually along with reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) that can generate induced pluripotent stem cells in mammalian cells, and eight were found to affect the reprogramming efficiency either positively or negatively (hit rate 26.7%). Mechanistic analysis suggested one of these proteins interacted with cytoskeleton to promote reprogramming. Our results raise the possibility that xenospecific gene products provide an alternative way to study the regulatory mechanism of cell identity. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Bacterial DNA Sequence Compression Models Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando J. Pinho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the advances in DNA sequencing techniques have contributed to an unprecedented growth of genomic data. This fact has increased the interest in DNA compression, not only from the information theory and biology points of view, but also from a practical perspective, since such sequences require storage resources. Several compression methods exist, and particularly, those using finite-context models (FCMs have received increasing attention, as they have been proven to effectively compress DNA sequences with low bits-per-base, as well as low encoding/decoding time-per-base. However, the amount of run-time memory required to store high-order finite-context models may become impractical, since a context-order as low as 16 requires a maximum of 17.2 x 109 memory entries. This paper presents a method to reduce such a memory requirement by using a novel application of artificial neural networks (ANN to build such probabilistic models in a compact way and shows how to use them to estimate the probabilities. Such a system was implemented, and its performance compared against state-of-the art compressors, such as XM-DNA (expert model and FCM-Mx (mixture of finite-context models , as well as with general-purpose compressors. Using a combination of order-10 FCM and ANN, similar encoding results to those of FCM, up to order-16, are obtained using only 17 megabytes of memory, whereas the latter, even employing hash-tables, uses several hundreds of megabytes.

  7. Pyroprinting: a rapid and flexible genotypic fingerprinting method for typing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W; VanderKelen, Jennifer; Montana, Aldrin; Dekhtyar, Alexander; Neal, Emily; Goodman, Anya; Kitts, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial strain typing is commonly employed in studies involving epidemiology, population ecology, and microbial source tracking to identify sources of fecal contamination. Methods for differentiating strains generally use either a collection of phenotypic traits or rely on some interrogation of the bacterial genotype. This report introduces pyroprinting, a novel genotypic strain typing method that is rapid, inexpensive, and discriminating compared to the most sensitive methods already in use. Pyroprinting relies on the simultaneous pyrosequencing of polymorphic multicopy loci, such as the intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA operons in bacterial genomes. Data generated by sequencing combinations of variable templates are reproducible and intrinsically digitized. The theory and development of pyroprinting in Escherichia coli, including the selection of similarity thresholds to define matches between isolates, are presented. The pyroprint-based strain differentiation limits and phylogenetic relevance compared to other typing methods are also explored. Pyroprinting is unique in its simplicity and, paradoxically, in its intrinsic complexity. This new approach serves as an excellent alternative to more cumbersome or less phylogenetically relevant strain typing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure-function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450 km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235 m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130 m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions.

  9. Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing a large genomic DNA insert is an important tool for genome physical mapping, map-based cloning, and genome sequencing. To isolate genes via a map-based cloning strategy and to perform physical mapping of the cotton genome, a high-quality BAC library containing large cotton DNA inserts is needed. We have developed a BAC library of the restoring line 0-613-2R for isolating the fertility restorer (Rf1) gene and genomic research in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The BAC library contains 97 825 clones stored in 255 pieces of a 384-well microtiter plate. Random samples of BACs digested with the Notl enzyme indicated that the average insert size is approximately 130 kb, with a range of 80-275 kb,and 95.7% of the BAC clones in the library have an average insert size larger than 100 kb. Based on a cotton genome size of 2 250 Mb, library coverage is 5.7 x haploid genome equivalents. Four clones were selected randomly from the library to determine the stability of the BAC clones. There were no different fingerprints for 0 and 100 generations of each clone digested with Notl and Hindlll enzymes. Thus, the stability of a single BAC clone can be sustained at least for 100 generations. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking the Rf1 gene were chosen to screen the BAC library by pool using PCR method and 25 positive clones were identified with 3.1 positive clones per SSR marker.

  10. Complete Genomes of Classical Swine Fever Virus Cloned into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for the generation of modified pestiviruses. We have used our full-genome amplification strategy for generation of amplicons representing complete genomes of classical swine fever virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stabl...... single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived. Our strategy allows construction of stable infectious BAC DNAs from a single full-length PCR product....

  11. Spatial variations of bacterial community and its relationship with water chemistry in Sanya Bay, South China Sea as determined by DGGE fingerprinting and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Juan; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Dong, Jun-De; Wang, You-Shao; Feng, Jing-Bing; Zhou, Wei-Hua

    2015-10-01

    Bacteria play important roles in the structure and function of marine food webs by utilizing nutrients and degrading the pollutants, and their distribution are determined by surrounding water chemistry to a certain extent. It is vital to investigate the bacterial community's structure and identifying the significant factors by controlling the bacterial distribution in the paper. Flow cytometry showed that the total bacterial abundance ranged from 5.27 × 10(5) to 3.77 × 10(6) cells/mL. Molecular fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by DNA sequencing has been employed to investigate the bacterial community composition. The results were then interpreted through multivariate statistical analysis and tended to explain its relationship to the environmental factors. A total of 270 bands at 83 different positions were detected in DGGE profiles and 29 distinct DGGE bands were sequenced. The predominant bacteria were related to Phyla Protebacteria species (31 %, nine sequences), Cyanobacteria (37.9 %, eleven sequences) and Actinobacteria (17.2 %, five sequences). Other phylogenetic groups identified including Firmicutes (6.9 %, two sequences), Bacteroidetes (3.5 %, one sequences) and Verrucomicrobia (3.5 %, one sequences). Conical correspondence analysis was used to elucidate the relationships between the bacterial community compositions and environmental factors. The results showed that the spatial variations in the bacterial community composition was significantly related to phosphate (P = 0.002, P < 0.01), dissolved organic carbon (P = 0.004, P < 0.01), chemical oxygen demand (P = 0.010, P < 0.05) and nitrite (P = 0.016, P < 0.05). This study revealed the spatial variations of bacterial community and significant environmental factors driving the bacterial composition shift. These results may be valuable for further investigation on the functional microbial structure and expression quantitatively under the polluted

  12. Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, H; Hartung, K; Wieland, G; Kramer, I; Smalla, K

    1999-03-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.

  13. Quantification of 16S rRNAs in complex bacterial communities by multiple competitive reverse transcription-PCR in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felske, A; Akkermans, A D; De Vos, W M

    1998-11-01

    A novel approach was developed to quantify rRNA sequences in complex bacterial communities. The main bacterial 16S rRNAs in Drentse A grassland soils (The Netherlands) were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with bacterium-specific primers and were separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The primer pair used (primers U968-GC and L1401) was found to amplify with the same efficiency 16S rRNAs from bacterial cultures containing different taxa and cloned 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from uncultured soil bacteria. The sequence-specific efficiency of amplification was determined by monitoring the amplification kinetics by kinetic PCR. The primer-specific amplification efficiency was assessed by competitive PCR and RT-PCR, and identical input amounts of different 16S rRNAs resulted in identical amplicon yields. The sequence-specific detection system used for competitive amplifications was TGGE, which also has been found to be suitable for simultaneous quantification of more than one sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied to TGGE fingerprints of soil bacteria to estimate the ratios of the bacterial 16S rRNAs.

  14. Construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome library with approximately 9-fold genome equivalent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airmet, K W; Hinckley, J D; Tree, L T; Moss, M; Blumell, S; Ulicny, K; Gustafson, A K; Weed, M; Theodosis, R; Lehnardt, M; Genho, J; Stevens, M R; Kooyman, D L

    2012-01-01

    The Ilama is an important agricultural livestock in much of South America. The llama is increasing in popularity in the United States as a companion animal. Little work has been done to improve llama production using modern technology. A paucity of information is available regarding the llama genome. We report the construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of about 196,224 clones in the vector pECBAC1. Using flow cytometry and bovine, human, mouse, and chicken as controls, we determined the llama genome size to be 2.4 × 10⁹ bp. The average insert size of the library is 137.8 kb corresponding to approximately 9-fold genome coverage. Further studies are needed to further characterize the library and llama genome. We anticipate that this new library will help facilitate future genomic studies in the llama.

  15. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  16. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of viruses comprising the towne cytomegalovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Adler, Stuart P; Davison, Andrew J; Smith, Larry; Habib, El-Sayed E; McVoy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  17. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Xiaojun; Chantel F.SCHEURING; ZHANG Hongbin; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research.High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I,respectively.The BamH I library consisted of 53760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7680 clones.Approximately 96% of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb,providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents.Similarly,the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones,thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  18. DNA immunization with a herpes simplex virus 2 bacterial artificial chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Schmeisser, Falko; Pedersen, Robin; Woerner, Amy; Weir, Jerry P.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is described. BAC vector sequences were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of HSV-2 by homologous recombination. DNA from cells infected with the resulting recombinant virus was transformed into E. coli, and colonies containing the HSV-2 BAC (HSV2-BAC) were isolated and analyzed for the expected genotype. HSV2-BAC DNA was infectious when transfected back into mammalian cells and the resulting virus was thymidine kinase negative. When used to immunize mice, the HSV2-BAC DNA elicited a strong HSV-2 specific antibody response that was equal to or greater than live virus immunization. Further, HSV2-BAC immunization was protective when animals were challenged with a lethal dose of virus. The utility of the HSV2-BAC for construction of recombinant virus genomes was demonstrated by elimination of the HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) gene. A recombinant HSV-2 BAC with the gD gene deleted was isolated and shown to be incapable of producing infectious virus following transfection unless an HSV gD gene was expressed in a complementing cell line. Immunization of mice with the HSV2 gD-BAC also elicited an HSV-2 specific antibody response and was protective. The results demonstrate the feasibility of DNA immunization with HSV-2 bacterial artificial chromosomes for replicating and nonreplicating candidate HSV-2 vaccines, as well as the utility of BAC technology for construction and maintenance of novel HSV-2 vaccines. The results further suggest that such technology will be a powerful tool for dissecting the immune response to HSV-2

  19. Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Jun; Hushur, Orkash; Kato, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Tohya, Yukinobu; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2006-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an attractive candidate not only for use as a recombinant vaccine to protect dogs from a variety of canine pathogens but also as a viral vector for gene therapy in domestic animals. However, developments in this area have been impeded by the complicated techniques used for eukaryotic homologous recombination. To overcome these problems, we used bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate infectious BACs. Our findings may be summarized as follows: (i) the CHV genome (pCHV/BAC), in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene, was maintained in Escherichia coli; (ii) transfection of pCHV/BAC into A-72 cells resulted in the production of infectious virus; (iii) the BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus CHV/BAC by co-infection with CHV/BAC and a recombinant adenovirus that expressed the Cre recombinase; and (iv) a recombinant virus in which the glycoprotein C gene was deleted was generated by lambda recombination followed by Flp recombination, which resulted in a reduction in viral titer compared with that of the wild-type virus. The infectious clone pCHV/BAC is useful for the modification of the CHV genome using bacterial genetics, and CHV/BAC should have multiple applications in the rapid generation of genetically engineered CHV recombinants and the development of CHV vectors for vaccination and gene therapy in domestic animals.

  20. Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Used as Artificial Substitutes for Dural Defection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented from Acetobacter xylinum. The dural defects of the rabbit model were repaired with BC membranes. All surgeries were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All animals were humanely euthanized by intravenous injection of phenobarbitone, at each time point, after the operation. Then, the histocompatibility and inflammatory effects of BC were examined by histological examination, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western Blot. BC membranes evenly covered the surface of brain without adhesion. There were seldom inflammatory cells surrounding the membrane during the early postoperative period. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as iNOS and COX-2 were lower in the BC group compared to the control group at 7, 14 and 21 days after implantation. BC can repair dural defects in rabbit and has a decreased inflammatory response compared to traditional materials. However, the long-term effects need to be validated in larger animals.

  1. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: correlation to uterine condition and calving management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Friggens, N C; Waldmann, A; Mølbak, L; Callesen, H

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflecting the "fingerprint" of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0-19) and 28 (range 22-38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were found in all cows at both examinations, and the flora was composed of many species, including species not traditionally reported to be present in the bovine uterus. The bacterial composition differed according to days from calving and herd. In all five herds Fusobacterium necrophorum, Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter and Bacteroides/Sphingobacterium/Prevotellaceae were among the most common at both examinations. In four herds there was a percentage decrease of F. necrophorum from first to second examination, and in all herds there was a percentage increase of Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter from first to second examination. No differences in bacterial flora were found between cows with different uterine scores, which were influenced by herd, calving difficulty and retained placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.

  3. Development of canine herpesvirus based antifertility vaccines for foxes using bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, Tanja; Hardy, Christopher M; French, Nigel; Wright, John D; Nagaraja, Nitin; Reubel, Gerhard H

    2006-02-13

    Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology, a canine herpesvirus (CHV)-based recombinant vaccine vector was produced for the development of an antifertility vaccine for foxes. Infectious viruses were recovered following transfection of canid cells with a BAC plasmid carrying the complete CHV genome. In vitro growth characteristics of BAC-derived viruses were similar to that of wildtype (wt)-CHV. Two recombinant antigens, fox zona pellucida protein subunit 3 (fZPC) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as control antigen, were inserted into thymidine kinase (TK) locus of the CHV genome and shown to be efficiently expressed in vitro. Inoculation of foxes with transgenic CHVs induced CHV specific antibodies, but was innocuous and failed to elicit transgene-specific antibody responses. Infectious virus or viral DNA was not detected in mucosal secretions or tissues of vaccinated foxes. The CHV-BAC system proved to be a quick and reliable method to manipulate the CHV genome. It will help to readily apply changes in the vector design in order to improve virus replication in vivo.

  4. Pathogenicity of a Very Virulent Strain of Marek's Disease Herpesvirus Cloned as Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC vectors containing the full-length genomes of several herpesviruses have been used widely as tools to enable functional studies of viral genes. Marek's disease viruses (MDVs are highly oncogenic alphaherpesviruses that induce rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Oncogenic strains of MDV reconstituted from BAC clones have been used to examine the role of viral genes in inducing tumours. Past studies have demonstrated continuous increase in virulence of MDV strains. We have previously reported on the UK isolate C12/130 that showed increased virulence features including lymphoid organ atrophy and enhanced tropism for the central nervous system. Here we report the construction of the BAC clones (pC12/130 of this strain. Chickens were infected with viruses reconstituted from the pC12/130 clones along with the wild-type virus for the comparison of the pathogenic properties. Our studies show that BAC-derived viruses induced disease similar to the wild-type virus, though there were differences in the levels of pathogenicity between individual viruses. Generation of BAC clones that differ in the potential to induce cytolytic disease provide the opportunity to identify the molecular determinants of increased virulence by direct sequence analysis as well as by using reverse genetics approaches on the infectious BAC clones.

  5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a metabolite fingerprinting tool for monitoring the phenotypic changes in complex bacterial communities capable of degrading phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharfe, Emma S; Jarvis, Roger M; Winder, Catherine L; Whiteley, Andrew S; Goodacre, Royston

    2010-12-01

    The coking process produces great volumes of wastewater contaminated with pollutants such as cyanides, sulfides and phenolics. Chemical and physical remediation of this wastewater removes the majority of these pollutants; however, these processes do not remove phenol and thiocyanate. The removal of these compounds has been effected during bioremediation with activated sludge containing a complex microbial community. In this investigation we acquired activated sludge from an industrial bioreactor capable of degrading phenol. The sludge was incubated in our laboratory and monitored for its ability to degrade phenol over a 48 h period. Multiple samples were taken across the time-course and analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. FT-IR was used as a whole-organism fingerprinting approach to monitor biochemical changes in the bacterial cells during the degradation of phenol. We also investigated the ability of the activated sludge to degrade phenol following extended periods (2-131 days) of storage in the absence of phenol. A reduction was observed in the ability of the microbial community to degrade phenol and this was accompanied by a detectable biochemical change in the FT-IR fingerprint related to cellular phenotype of the microbial community. In the absence of phenol a decrease in thiocyanate vibrations was observed, reflecting the ability of these communities to degrade this substrate. Actively degrading communities showed an additional new band in their FT-IR spectra that could be attributed to phenol degradation products from the ortho- and meta-cleavage of the aromatic ring. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy when combined with chemometric analysis is a very powerful high throughput screening approach for assessing the metabolic capability of complex microbial communities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Meizhong; Kim, HyeRan; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ...

  7. Rapid construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosomal (BAC) expression vector using designer DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xinqing; Jin, Yingyu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) vectors are increasingly being used in cloning large DNA fragments containing complex biosynthetic pathways to facilitate heterologous production of microbial metabolites for drug development. To express inserted genes using Streptomyces species as the production hosts, an integration expression cassette is required to be inserted into the BAC vector, which includes genetic elements encoding a phage-specific attachment site, an integrase, an origin of transfer, a selection marker and a promoter. Due to the large sizes of DNA inserted into the BAC vectors, it is normally inefficient and time-consuming to assemble these fragments by routine PCR amplifications and restriction-ligations. Here we present a rapid method to insert fragments to construct BAC-based expression vectors. A DNA fragment of about 130 bp was designed, which contains upstream and downstream homologous sequences of both BAC vector and pIB139 plasmid carrying the whole integration expression cassette. In-Fusion cloning was performed using the designer DNA fragment to modify pIB139, followed by λ-RED-mediated recombination to obtain the BAC-based expression vector. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method by rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector with an insert of about 120 kb that contains the entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of immunosuppressant FK506. The empty BAC-based expression vector constructed in this study can be conveniently used for construction of BAC libraries using either microbial pure culture or environmental DNA, and the selected BAC clones can be directly used for heterologous expression. Alternatively, if a BAC library has already been constructed using a commercial BAC vector, the selected BAC vectors can be manipulated using the method described here to get the BAC-based expression vectors with desired gene clusters for heterologous expression. The rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector facilitates

  8. Screening of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library using highly parallel single nucleotide polymorphism assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficient screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers is feasible provided that a multidimensional pooling strategy is implemented. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be screened in multiplexed format, therefore this marker type lends itself particularly well for medium- to high-throughput applications. Combining the power of multiplex-PCR assays with a multidimensional pooling system may prove to be especially challenging in a polyploid genome. In polyploid genomes two classes of SNPs need to be distinguished, polymorphisms between accessions (intragenomic SNPs) and those differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs). We have assessed whether the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay is suitable for the screening of a BAC library of the polyploid Brassica napus genome. Results A multidimensional screening platform was developed for a Brassica napus BAC library which is composed of almost 83,000 clones. Intragenomic and intergenomic SNPs were included in Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and both SNP classes were used successfully for screening of the multidimensional BAC pools of the Brassica napus library. An optimized scoring method is proposed which is especially valuable for SNP calling of intergenomic SNPs. Validation of the genotyping results by independent methods revealed a success of approximately 80% for the multiplex PCR-based screening regardless of whether intra- or intergenomic SNPs were evaluated. Conclusions Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay can be efficiently used for screening of multidimensional Brassica napus BAC pools. SNP calling was specifically tailored for the evaluation of BAC pool screening data. The developed scoring method can be implemented independently of plant reference samples. It is demonstrated that intergenomic SNPs represent a powerful tool for BAC library screening of a polyploid genome

  9. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health...... and disease. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test...... with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction. RESULTS: From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120-353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143-306) and dental...

  10. Taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial community in belgian sourdough ecosystems as assessed by culture and population fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-04-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the use of soil bacterial 16S rDNA DNA markers in sediment fingerprinting in two small endorheic lagoons in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Landa del Castillo, Blanca; Guzman, Gema; Petticrew, Ellen L.; Owens, Phillip N.

    2016-04-01

    127 % in Dulce and from 80 to 117 % in Zóñar. These rangesare within values reported for other soil chemical and physical properties, although the higher values are above the most commonly reported CVs which tend to be in the range from 30 to 80 %. Some groups, that are relatively stable to the normalization process, can provide enough information for solving a mixing model, although the specific groups vary between the two catchments as expected from previous studies. Overall, all the models for Zóñar tended to provide similar results with low contributions from source areas 1 and 2, and a much larger contribution from source area 3. For this solution, the mixing model was able to replicate the values of all the OTUs included in the model. The predicted values for Dulce were not as stable. The model with 10 OTUs were similar with a very low contribution from source area 2, a moderate contribution from source area 3 and a maximum contribution from source area 1. However, these values differed from those with only three OTUs, and they also differed between themselves when the normalized and non-normalized values were used. This solution also seemed to replicate the averaged measured values of most of the OTÚs included in the model. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of soil bacterial 16S rDNA in sediment fingerprinting studies, although some questions need to be addressed in more detail, including: the temporal evolution of the distribution of the bacterial markers with soil depth; the implications of selective transport by runoff; and the relatively large variability of counts among samples from the same area. We are currently repeating the sampling in one of the subcatchments to provide some insight into these issues. Key words: sediment, fingerprinting, soil, microbial, DNA, lagoon References Joe-Strack, J.A., Petticrew, E.L. 2012. Use of LH-PCR as a DNA fingerprint technique to trace sediment-associated microbial communities from various land

  12. Vitality detection in personal authentication systems using fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Coli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Fingerprints are considered as the sign of each human being, and this has contributed the development of biometric applications based on such features. Since 2002, an important vulnerability has been shown: it is possible to deceive fingerprint scanners through artificial replicas of fingertips. In order to address this shortcoming it is need to recognize a spoofing attempt with artificial fingers looking for some “life signs” each time an user submit a fingerprint (vitality detection problem...

  13. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...... consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  14. Enhancement of pyrene degradation efficacy of Synechocystis sp., by construction of an artificial microalgal-bacterial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa G. Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the ability of microalgae Synechocystis sp. to high molecular weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon pyrene (PYR and artificial microalgal–bacterial consortium at different concentrations. The consortium consisted of one axenic species Synechocystis sp. and two PYR-degrading bacteria with known complementary degradative capabilities viz. Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. The influence of PYR on growth in terms of chlorophyll-a were analysed, and it was found that in the presence of bacteria, Synechocystis sp. tremendously increased in growth as well as biodegradation capability, whereas Synechocystis sp. alone exhibited concentration-dependent decrease in growth and biodegradation ability. Degradation of PYR shows that the consortium could eliminate PYR by 94.1% at 50 mg/L; however, Synechocystis sp alone could degrade up to 36% at 1.5 mg/L after 16 days of incubation. The study revealed that microalgae grew better in the presence of the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and provided them with necessary organics for efficient PYR degradation activities. Moreover, consortium JP-NKA7B2 grows efficiently on other xenobiotic compounds. The artificial consortia JP-NK is thus proven to be an effective and promising system for bioremediating PYR compound and could be suggested in degradation of PYR compound in hydrocarbon-polluted areas in situ and ex situ.

  15. Cognitive Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date

  16. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  17. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  18. Artificially constructed quorum-sensing circuits are used for subtle control of bacterial population density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshou Wang

    Full Text Available Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell-cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model.

  19. Construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Methods A mini-F vector as a BAC that allows the maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli was introduced into the intergenic region between UL15B and UL18 of a DEV vaccine strain by homologous recombination in chicken embryoblasts (CEFs). Then, the full-length DEV clone pDEV-vac was obtained by electroporating circular viral replication intermediates containing the mini-F sequence into E. coli DH10B and identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The infectivity of the pDEV-vac was validated by DEV reconstitution from CEFs transfected with pDEV-vac. The reconstructed virus without mini-F vector sequence was also rescued by co-transfecting the Cre recombinase expression plasmid pCAGGS-NLS/Cre and pDEV-vac into CEF cultures. Finally, the in vitro growth properties and immunoprotection capacity in ducks of the reconstructed viruses were also determined and compared with the parental virus. Results The full genome of the DEV vaccine strain was successfully cloned into the BAC, and this BAC clone was infectious. The in vitro growth properties of these reconstructions were very similar to parental DEV, and ducks immunized with these viruses acquired protection against virulent DEV challenge. Conclusions DEV vaccine virus was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome maintaining full

  20. Viral Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: Generation, Mutagenesis, and Removal of Mini-F Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Karsten Tischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance and manipulation of large DNA and RNA virus genomes had presented an obstacle for virological research. BAC vectors provided a solution to both problems as they can harbor large DNA sequences and can efficiently be modified using well-established mutagenesis techniques in Escherichia coli. Numerous DNA virus genomes of herpesvirus and pox virus were cloned into mini-F vectors. In addition, several reverse genetic systems for RNA viruses such as members of Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae could be established based on BAC constructs. Transfection into susceptible eukaryotic cells of virus DNA cloned as a BAC allows reconstitution of recombinant viruses. In this paper, we provide an overview on the strategies that can be used for the generation of virus BAC vectors and also on systems that are currently available for various virus species. Furthermore, we address common mutagenesis techniques that allow modification of BACs from single-nucleotide substitutions to deletion of viral genes or insertion of foreign sequences. Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process.

  1. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

  2. Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2010-09-01

    The non-replicating poxviral vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is currently a leading candidate for development of novel recombinant vaccines against globally important diseases. The 1980s technology for making recombinant MVA (and other poxviruses) is powerful and robust, but relies on rare recombination events in poxviral-infected cells. In the 21st century, it has become possible to apply bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to poxviruses, as first demonstrated by B. Moss' lab in 2002 for vaccinia virus. A similar BAC clone of MVA was subsequently derived, but while recombination-mediated genetic engineering for rapid production was used of deletion mutants, an alternative method was required for efficient insertion of transgenes. Furthermore "markerless" viruses, which carry no trace of the selectable marker used for their isolation, are increasingly required for clinical trials, and the viruses derived via the new method contained the BAC sequence in their genomic DNA. Two methods are adapted to MVA-BAC to provide more rapid generation of markerless recombinants in weeks rather than months. "En passant" recombineering is applied to the insertion of a transgene expression cassette and the removal of the selectable marker in bacteria; and a self-excising variant of MVA-BAC is constructed, in which the BAC cassette region is rapidly and efficiently lost from the viral genome following rescue of the BAC into infectious virus. These methods greatly facilitate and accelerate production of recombinant MVA, including markerless constructs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes in Leukemia Research: The Experience at the University Cytogenetics Laboratory in Brest, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne De Braekeleer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC system was driven in part by the human genome project in order to construct genomic DNA libraries and physical maps for genomic sequencing. The availability of BAC clones has become a valuable tool for identifying cancer genes. We report here our experience in identifying genes located at breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements and in defining the size and boundaries of deletions in hematological diseases. The methodology used in our laboratory consists of a three-step approach using conventional cytogenetics followed by FISH with commercial probes, then BAC clones. One limitation to the BAC system is that it can only accommodate inserts of up to 300 kb. As a consequence, analyzing the extent of deletions requires a large amount of material. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH using a BAC/PAC system can be an alternative. However, this technique has limitations also, and it cannot be used to identify candidate genes at breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, insertions, and inversions.

  4. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jerry P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors.

  5. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus small capsid protein by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, Narayanan; Yuan Yan

    2010-01-01

    A systematic investigation of interactions amongst KSHV capsid proteins was undertaken in this study to comprehend lesser known KSHV capsid assembly mechanisms. Interestingly the interaction patterns of the KSHV small capsid protein, ORF65 suggested its plausible role in viral capsid assembly pathways. Towards further understanding this, ORF65-null recombinant mutants (BAC-Δ65 and BAC-stop65) employing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system were generated. No significant difference was found in both overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication between stable monolayers of 293T-BAC36 (wild-type) and 293T-BAC-ORF65-null upon induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, though the latter released 30-fold fewer virions to the medium than 293T-BAC36 cells. Sedimentation profiles of capsid proteins of ORF65-null recombinant mutants were non-reflective of their organization into the KSHV capsids and were also undetectable in cytoplasmic extracts compared to noticeable levels in nuclear extracts. These observations collectively suggested the pivotal role of ORF65 in the KSHV capsid assembly processes.

  6. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12, consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger.

  7. Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hu; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for Gossyplum hirsutum acc. TM-1, a genetic and genomic standard line for Upland cotton. The library consists of 147 456 clones with an average insert size of 122.8 kb ranging from 97 to 240 kb. About 96.0% of the clones have inserts over 100 kb. Therefore, this library represents theoretically 7.4 haploid genome equivalents based on an AD genome size of 2 425 Mb. Clones were stored in 384 384- well plates and arrayed into multiplex pools for rapid and reliable library screening. BAC screening was carded out by four-round polymerase chain reactions using 23 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, three sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and one pair of pdmere for a gene associated with fiber development to test the quality of the library. Correspondingly, in total 92 positive BAC clones were Identified with an average four positive clones per SSR marker, ranging from one to eight hits. Additionally, since these SSR markers have been localized to chromosome 12 (A12) and 26 (D12) according to the genetic map, these BAC clonee are expected to serve as seeds for the physical mapping of these two homologous chromosomes, sequentially map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci or genes associated with Important agronomic traits.

  8. Fissile fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article looks at recent research which may allow police and customs officers to detect smuggled weapons-grade plutonium and uranium. Contrary to popular opinion, nuclear materials do not have a nuclear ''fingerprint'' but enough information can be gleaned from sources to confirm what has been learnt from other data. Indeed, two leading nuclear laboratories can look at the same analytical results and draw different conclusions. The case of a lead cylinder seized from a German garage is examined to illustrate the confusion. (UK)

  9. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xunqiang; Chen, Xinjian; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6) images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1) Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2) Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3) A larger sample (83 pairs) was collected. (4) A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5) A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a) A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b) The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c) For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d) For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  10. Fingerprint recognition with identical twin fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunqiang Tao

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition with identical twins is a challenging task due to the closest genetics-based relationship existing in the identical twins. Several pioneers have analyzed the similarity between twins' fingerprints. In this work we continue to investigate the topic of the similarity of identical twin fingerprints. Our study was tested based on a large identical twin fingerprint database that contains 83 twin pairs, 4 fingers per individual and six impressions per finger: 3984 (83*2*4*6 images. Compared to the previous work, our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Two state-of-the-art fingerprint identification methods: P071 and VeriFinger 6.1 were used, rather than one fingerprint identification method in previous studies. (2 Six impressions per finger were captured, rather than just one impression, which makes the genuine distribution of matching scores more realistic. (3 A larger sample (83 pairs was collected. (4 A novel statistical analysis, which aims at showing the probability distribution of the fingerprint types for the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, has been conducted. (5 A novel analysis, which aims at showing which finger from identical twins has higher probability of having same fingerprint type, has been conducted. Our results showed that: (a A state-of-the-art automatic fingerprint verification system can distinguish identical twins without drastic degradation in performance. (b The chance that the fingerprints have the same type from identical twins is 0.7440, comparing to 0.3215 from non-identical twins. (c For the corresponding fingers of identical twins which have same fingerprint type, the probability distribution of five major fingerprint types is similar to the probability distribution for all the fingers' fingerprint type. (d For each of four fingers of identical twins, the probability of having same fingerprint type is similar.

  11. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A; Ohta, Yuko

    2006-05-03

    Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 x 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6-28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50-90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  12. 6q deletion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using bacterial artificial chromosome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsass, Alessia; Mestichelli, Francesca; Ruggieri, Miriana; Gaspari, Paola; Pezzoni, Valerio; Vagnoni, Davide; Angelini, Mario; Angelini, Stefano; Bigazzi, Catia; Falcioni, Sadia; Troiani, Emanuela; Alesiani, Francesco; Catarini, Massimo; Attolico, Immacolata; Scortechini, Ilaria; Discepoli, Giancarlo; Galieni, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are known to occur at relatively low frequency (3-6%) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and they are more frequently observed in 6q21. Few data have been reported regarding other bands on 6q involved by cytogenetic alterations in CLL. The cytogenetic study was performed in nuclei and metaphases obtained after stimulation with a combination of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin-2. Four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones mapping regions in bands 6q16, 6q23, 6q25, 6q27 were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization in 107 CLL cases in order to analyze the occurrence and localization of 6q aberrations. We identified 11 cases (10.2%) with 6q deletion of 107 patients studied with CLL. The trends of survival curves and the treatment-free intervals (TFI) of patients with deletion suggest a better outcome than the other cytogenetic risk groups. We observed two subgroups with 6q deletion as the sole anomaly: two cases with 6q16 deletion, and three cases with 6q25.2-27 deletion. There were differences of age, stage, and TFI between both subgroups. By using BAC probes, we observed that 6q deletion has a higher frequency in CLL and is linked with a good prognosis. In addition, it was observed that the deletion in 6q16 appears to be the most frequent and, if present as the only abnormality, it could be associated with a most widespread disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and a preliminary genome survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoko Hidetoshi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  14. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  15. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Cottingham

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The production, manipulation and rescue of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Vaccinia virus (VAC-BAC in order to expedite construction of expression vectors and mutagenesis of the genome has been described (Domi & Moss, 2002, PNAS99 12415-20. The genomic BAC clone was 'rescued' back to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A46R or B7R did not significantly affect CD8(+ T cell immunogenicity in BALB/c mice, but deletion of B15R enhanced specific CD8(+ T cell responses to one of two endogenous viral epitopes (from the E2 and F2 proteins, in accordance with published work (Staib et al., 2005, J. Gen. Virol.86, 1997-2006. In addition, we found a higher frequency of triple-positive IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 secreting E3-specific CD8+ T-cells 8 weeks after vaccination with MVA lacking B15R. Furthermore, a recombinant vaccine capable of inducing CD8(+ T cells against an epitope from Plasmodium berghei was created using GalK counterselection to insert an antigen expression cassette lacking a tandem marker gene into the traditional thymidine kinase locus of MVA-BAC. MVA continues to feature prominently in clinical trials of recombinant vaccines against diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate in proof-of-concept experiments that MVA-BAC recombineering is a viable route to more rapid and efficient generation of new candidate mutant and recombinant

  16. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  17. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present......, reflecting the “fingerprint” of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  18. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss

    1999-10-29

    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  19. Efficient generation of recombinant RNA viruses using targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosomes containing full-length cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Risager, Peter Christian; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious cDNA clones are a prerequisite for directed genetic manipulation of RNA viruses. Here, a strategy to facilitate manipulation and rescue of classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs) from full-length cDNAs present within bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is described....... This strategy allows manipulation of viral cDNA by targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis within bacteria. Results A new CSFV-BAC (pBeloR26) derived from the Riems vaccine strain has been constructed and subsequently modified in the E2 coding sequence, using the targeted recombination strategy to enable...

  20. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  1. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  2. Fingerprint pores extractor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mngenge, NA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available , this is not always the case because of diseases and hash working conditions that affect fingerprints. In order to maintain high level of security independent of varying fingerprint image quality research suggests the use of other fingerprint features to compliment...

  3. Fingerprints in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, K.

    1994-01-01

    Gene research has shown that factors causing cancer, or carcinogens, may leave marks typical of each particular carcinogen (fingerprints) in the genotype of the cell. Radiation, for instance, may leave such fingerprints in a cancer cell. In particular, the discovery of a gene called p53 has yielded much new information on fingerprints. It has been discovered, for example, that toxic fungus and UV-radiation each leave fingerprints in the p53 gene. Based on the detection of fingerprints, it may be possible in the future to tell a cancer patient what factor had trigged the maglinancy

  4. Aggregation-Induced-Emission Materials with Different Electric Charges as an Artificial Tongue: Design, Construction, and Assembly with Various Pathogenic Bacteria for Effective Bacterial Imaging and Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Jian; Tian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Cui-Yun; Xing, Guo-Wen; Zhou, Lei

    2017-08-30

    Imaging-based total bacterial count and type identification of bacteria play crucial roles in clinical diagnostics, public health, biological and medical science, and environmental protection. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of tetraphenylethenes (TPEs) functionalized with one or two aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups, which were successfully used as fluorescent materials for rapid and efficient staining of eight kinds of representative bacterial species, including pathogenic bacteria Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes and potential bioterrorism agent Yersinia pestis. By comparing the fluorescence intensity changes of the aggregation-induced-emission (AIE) materials before and after bacteria incubation, the sensing mechanisms (electrostatic versus hydrophobic interactions) were simply discussed. Moreover, the designed AIE materials were successfully used as an efficient artificial tongue for bacteria discrimination, and all of the bacteria tested were identified via linear discriminant analysis. Our current work provided a general method for simultaneous broad-spectrum bacterial imaging and species discrimination, which is helpful for bacteria surveillance in many fields.

  5. Bacterial diversity in the sediments of a temperate artificial lake, Rapel reservoir Diversidad bacteriana en sedimentos de un lago artificial temperado, embalse Rapel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DORADOR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapel reservoir is an eutrophic system in Chile that has undergone a series of anthropogenic impacts in recent decades. To provide a better understanding of the processes occurring in the reservoir, we examined bacterial composition from surface sediments using traditional microbiology techniques and molecular biology tools. Our results showed significant temporal variation in the physical and chemical composition of the water column, but no depth-related differences during the study period. To detect temporal changes in bacterial composition, cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were extracted from the surface sediments and their concentration measured. Microbial diversity in sediments was represented by closest relatives of eight different bacterial phyla. The most frequently recovered phylotypes in the clone library of 16S rDNA were related to sulfate-reducing bacteria belong to the Deltaproteobacteria groupEl embalse Rapel es un sistema eutrófico en Chile que ha experimentado diversos impactos antropogénicos en las últimas décadas. Para conocer mejor los posibles procesos que ocurren en el embalse, la composición bacteriana fue estudiada en la zona superficial de los sedimentos utilizando técnicas microbiológicas tradicionales y herramientas de biología molecular. Nuestros resultados mostraron variación temporal significativa en la composición física y química del agua, no encontrándose diferencias de las variables medidas entre superficie y fondo en la columna de agua durante el período de estudio. Para detectar cambios temporales en la concentración y composición bacteriana, se midieron bacterias heterótrofas, heterótrofas oxidantes de fierro y bacterias reductoras de sulfato extraídas de la superficie de los sedimentos. La diversidad bacteriana en los sedimentos estuvo representada por 8 diferentes Phyla del dominio Bacteria. Los filotipos m

  6. Next Generation Sequencing of Classical Swine Fever Virus and Border Disease virus cloned in Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Höper, Dirk; Beer, martin

    2012-01-01

    artificial chromosomes (BACs). From these BACs, RNA copies of the viral genomes can be transcribed in vitro and upon transfection of these RNAs into mammalian cells, autonomous replication of the viral genome occurs and infectious progeny can be rescued. However, we have observed that virus progeny can...

  7. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: what are the risks to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagriffoul, A; Boudenne, J L; Absi, R; Ballet, J J; Berjeaud, J M; Chevalier, S; Creppy, E E; Gilli, E; Gadonna, J P; Gadonna-Widehem, P; Morris, C E; Zini, S

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  8. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagriffoul, A.; Boudenne, J.L.; Absi, R.; Ballet, J.J.; Berjeaud, J.M.; Chevalier, S.; Creppy, E.E.; Gilli, E.; Gadonna, J.P.; Gadonna-Widehem, P.; Morris, C.E.; Zini, S.

    2010-01-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  9. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: What are the risks to human health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagriffoul, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France); Boudenne, J.L. [Universite de Provence, Laboratoire Chimie Provence, UMR6264, 3 Place Victor Hugo case 29 13331 Marseille CEDEX 3 (France); Absi, R. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Ballet, J.J. [Laboratoire d' immunologie et immunopathologie, Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Caen, avenue de la cote de nacre 14000 Caen (France); Berjeaud, J.M. [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau, UMR6008, 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers CEDEX (France); Chevalier, S. [Universite de Rouen, Laboratoire de Microbiologie du Froid, Signaux et Micro-Environnement, EA 4312, Normandie Securite Sanitaire, 55 rue St Germain, 27000 Evreux (France); Creppy, E.E. [Universite Bordeaux 2, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Laboratoire de Toxicologie, 146, rue Leo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux CEDEX (France); Gilli, E. [Universite Paris 8, Departement de geographie, 2, rue de la Liberte, 93526 Saint Denis CEDEX (France); UMR Espace 6012, 98 bd Edouard Herriot, 06204, Nice, CEDEX 3 (France); Gadonna, J.P. [Institut Polytechnique Saint-Louis, Ecole de Biologie Industrielle, Laboratoire EBInnov, 32 Boulevard du Port, 95094 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Gadonna-Widehem, P. [Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, departement STAI, rue P. Waguet BP 30313, 60026 Beauvais CEDEX (France); Morris, C.E. [INRA, Unite de Pathologie Vegetale UR407, F-84140 Montfavet (France); Zini, S., E-mail: sylvie.zini@afsset.fr [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire de l' Environnement et du Travail, 253, avenue du General Leclerc, 94701 Maisons-Alfort (France)

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  10. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of the causal agent of Black Sigatoka fungal leaf spot disease of banana and plantain, Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto-Canché, Blondy; Guillén-Maldonado, Diana Karina; Peraza-Echeverría, Leticia; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; James-Kay, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome library of the causal agent of the Black Sigatoka leaf spot disease of banana and plantain, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, has been constructed using a non-sphaeroplasting technique and characterized using both homologous and heterologous probes. After first and a second size selection of PFGE-fractionated DNA, a ligation was obtained using a 1:4 molar ratio (insert:vector). One hundred random clones were analyzed, and the mean insert size was estimated to be 90 kb. The range of the insert sizes was between 40 and 160 kb. The highest percentage of inserts belonged to the range between 80 and 100 kb; 32% of the inserts had 2 or 3 internal NotI sites. This library consists of 1920 clones, if the genomic size is at least 35 Mb, then this represents 4.9 x genome equivalents, which was supported by hybridization results with homologous and heterologous probes.

  11. Dna fingerprinting - review paper

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Renald

    2006-01-01

    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  12. Photogrammetric fingerprint unwrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, Gerhard; del Pilar Caballo Perucha, Maria; Bauer, Arnold; Nauschnegg, Bernhard

    2008-04-01

    Fingerprints are important biometric cues. Compared to conventional fingerprint sensors the use of contact-free stereoscopic image acquisition of the front-most finger segment has a set of advantages: Finger deformation is avoided, the entire relevant area for biometric use is covered, some technical aspects like sensor maintenance and cleaning are facilitated, and access to a three-dimensional reconstruction of the covered area is possible. We describe a photogrammetric workflow for nail-to-nail fingerprint reconstruction: A calibrated sensor setup with typically 5 cameras and dedicated illumination acquires adjacent stereo pairs. Using the silhouettes of the segmented finger a raw cylindrical model is generated. After preprocessing (shading correction, dust removal, lens distortion correction), each individual camera texture is projected onto the model. Image-to-image matching on these pseudo ortho images and dense 3D reconstruction obtains a textured cylindrical digital surface model with radial distances around the major axis and a grid size in the range of 25-50 µm. The model allows for objective fingerprint unwrapping and novel fingerprint matching algorithms since 3D relations between fingerprint features are available as additional cues. Moreover, covering the entire region with relevant fingerprint texture is particularly important for establishing a comprehensive forensic database. The workflow has been implemented in portable C and is ready for industrial exploitation. Further improvement issues are code optimization, unwrapping method, illumination strategy to avoid highlights and to improve the initial segmentation, and the comparison of the unwrapping result to conventional fingerprint acquisition technology.

  13. Physics and fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss-de Haan, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    This article discusses a variety of aspects in the detection and development of fingerprints and the physics involved in it. It gives an introduction to some basic issues like composition and properties of fingerprint deposits and a rudimentary framework of dactyloscopy; it covers various techniques for the visualization of latent fingerprints; and it concludes with a view of current research topics. The techniques range from very common procedures, such as powdering and cyanoacrylate fuming, to more demanding methods, for example luminescence and vacuum metal deposition, to fairly unusual approaches like autoradiography. The emphasis is placed on the physical rather than the forensic aspects of these topics while trying to give the physicist—who is not dealing with fingerprinting and forensic science on a daily basis—a feeling for the problems and solutions in the visualization of latent fingerprints.

  14. Advances in fingerprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pompi; Russell, David A

    2012-04-10

    Fingerprints have been used in forensic investigations for the identification of individuals since the late 19th century. However, it is now clear that fingerprints can provide significantly more information about an individual. Here, we highlight the considerable advances in fingerprinting technology that can simultaneously provide chemical information regarding the drugs ingested and the explosives and drugs handled by a person as well as the identity of that individual. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  16. Online fingerprint verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  17. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  18. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZα-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  19. Artificial neural network-based predictive model for bacterial growth in a simulated medium of modified-atmosphere-packed cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, W; Nakai, S

    2001-04-01

    The data of Devilieghere et al. (Int. J. Food Microbiol. 1999, 46, 57--70) on bacterial growth in a simulated medium of modified-atmosphere-packed cooked meat products was processed for estimating maximum specific growth rate mu(max) and lag phase lambda of Lactobacillus sake using artificial neural networks-based model (ANNM) computation. The comparison between ANNM and response surface methodology (RSM) model showed that the accuracy of ANNM prediction was higher than that of RSM. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional plots of the response surfaces revealed that the relationships of water activity a(w), temperature T, and dissolved CO(2) concentration with mu(max) and lambda were complicated, not just linear or second-order relations. Furthermore, it was possible to compute the sensitivity of the model outputs against each input parameter by using ANNM. The results showed that mu(max) was most sensitive to a(w), T, and dissolved CO(2) in this order; whereas lambda was sensitive to T the most, followed by a(w), and dissolved CO(2) concentrations.

  20. Identification and Mapping of Simple Sequence Repeat Markers from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome End Sequences for Genome Characterization and Genetic–Physical Map Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana M. Córdoba

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeat (SSR loci are useful for diversity characterization and genetic–physical mapping. Different in silico microsatellite search methods have been developed for mining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences for SSRs. The overall goal of this study was genome characterization based on SSRs in 89,017 BAC end sequences (BESs from the G19833 common bean ( L. library. Another objective was to identify new SSR taking into account three tandem motif identification programs (Automated Microsatellite Marker Development [AMMD], Tandem Repeats Finder [TRF], and SSRLocator [SSRL]. Among the microsatellite search engines, SSRL identified the highest number of SSRs; however, when primer design was attempted, the number dropped due to poor primer design regions. Automated Microsatellite Marker Development software identified many SSRs with valuable AT/TA or AG/TC motifs, while TRF found fewer SSRs and produced no primers. A subgroup of 323 AT-rich, di-, and trinucleotide SSRs were selected from the AMMD results and used in a parental survey with DOR364 and G19833, of which 75 could be mapped in the corresponding population; these represented 4052 BAC clones. Together with 92 previously mapped BES- and 114 non-BES-derived markers, a total of 280 SSRs were included in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based map, integrating a total of 8232 BAC clones in 162 contigs from the physical map.

  1. Missing data reconstruction using Gaussian mixture models for fingerprint images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Yeole, Rushikesh D.; Rao, Shishir P.; Mulawka, Marzena; Troy, Mike; Reinecke, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 25 May 2016, was replaced with a revised version on 16 June 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF, but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. One of the most important areas in biometrics is matching partial fingerprints in fingerprint databases. Recently, significant progress has been made in designing fingerprint identification systems for missing fingerprint information. However, a dependable reconstruction of fingerprint images still remains challenging due to the complexity and the ill-posed nature of the problem. In this article, both binary and gray-level images are reconstructed. This paper also presents a new similarity score to evaluate the performance of the reconstructed binary image. The offered fingerprint image identification system can be automated and extended to numerous other security applications such as postmortem fingerprints, forensic science, investigations, artificial intelligence, robotics, all-access control, and financial security, as well as for the verification of firearm purchasers, driver license applicants, etc.

  2. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...

  3. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  4. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  5. Functional Genome Mining for Metabolites Encoded by Large Gene Clusters through Heterologous Expression of a Whole-Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Yemin; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Guixi; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Kang, Qianjin; He, Xinyi; Lin, Shuangjun; Pang, Xiuhua; Deng, Zixin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing projects in the last decade revealed numerous cryptic biosynthetic pathways for unknown secondary metabolites in microbes, revitalizing drug discovery from microbial metabolites by approaches called genome mining. In this work, we developed a heterologous expression and functional screening approach for genome mining from genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in Streptomyces spp. We demonstrate mining from a strain of Streptomyces rochei, which is known to produce streptothricins and borrelidin, by expressing its BAC library in the surrogate host Streptomyces lividans SBT5, and screening for antimicrobial activity. In addition to the successful capture of the streptothricin and borrelidin biosynthetic gene clusters, we discovered two novel linear lipopeptides and their corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as a novel cryptic gene cluster for an unknown antibiotic from S. rochei. This high-throughput functional genome mining approach can be easily applied to other streptomycetes, and it is very suitable for the large-scale screening of genomic BAC libraries for bioactive natural products and the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. IMPORTANCE Microbial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters for unknown small metabolites with potential biological activities. Several genome mining approaches have been developed to activate and bring these cryptic metabolites to biological tests for future drug discovery. Previous sequence-guided procedures relied on bioinformatic analysis to predict potentially interesting biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we describe an efficient approach based on heterologous expression and functional screening of a whole-genome library for the mining of bioactive metabolites from Streptomyces. The usefulness of this function-driven approach was demonstrated by the capture of four large biosynthetic gene clusters for metabolites of various chemical types, including

  6. Fingerprinting with Wow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eugene; Craver, Scott

    2006-02-01

    Wow, or time warping caused by speed fluctuations in analog audio equipment, provides a wealth of applications in watermarking. Very subtle temporal distortion has been used to defeat watermarks, and as components in watermarking systems. In the image domain, the analogous warping of an image's canvas has been used both to defeat watermarks and also proposed to prevent collusion attacks on fingerprinting systems. In this paper, we explore how subliminal levels of wow can be used for steganography and fingerprinting. We present both a low-bitrate robust solution and a higher-bitrate solution intended for steganographic communication. As already observed, such a fingerprinting algorithm naturally discourages collusion by averaging, owing to flanging effects when misaligned audio is averaged. Another advantage of warping is that even when imperceptible, it can be beyond the reach of compression algorithms. We use this opportunity to debunk the common misconception that steganography is impossible under "perfect compression."

  7. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  8. Towards reconstruction of overlapping fingerprints using plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical analysis is commonly used in the field of forensic science where the precise discrimination of primary evidence is of significant importance. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) exceeds other spectroscopic methods in terms of the time required for pre- and post-sample preparation, the insensitivity to sample phase state be it solid, liquid, or gas, and the detection of two-dimensional spectral mapping from real time point measurements. In this research, fingerprint samples on various surface materials are considered in the chemical detection and reconstruction of fingerprints using the two-dimensional LIBS technique. Strong and distinct intensities of specific wavelengths represent visible ink, natural secretion of sweat, and contaminants from the environment, all of which can be present in latent fingerprints. The particular aim of the work presented here is to enhance the precision of the two-dimensional recreation of the fingerprints present on metal, plastic, and artificially prepared soil surface using LIBS with principal component analysis. By applying a distinct wavelength discrimination for two overlapping fingerprint samples, separation into two non-identical chemical fingerprints was successfully performed.

  9. Partial Device Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, M.; Hernandez Ganan, C.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In computing, remote devices may be identified by means of device fingerprinting, which works by collecting a myriad of clientside attributes such as the device’s browser and operating system version, installed plugins, screen resolution, hardware artifacts, Wi-Fi settings, and anything else

  10. Synergism of cattle and bison inoculum on ruminal fermentation and select bacterial communities in an artificial rumen (Rusitec fed barley straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B Oss

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of increasing the proportion of bison relative to cattle inoculum on fermentation and microbial populations within an artificial rumen (Rusitec. The experiment was a completely randomized design with a factorial treatment structure (proportion cattle:bison inoculum; 0:100, 33:67, 67:33 and 100:0 replicated in two Rusitec apparatuses (n=8 fermenters. The experiment was 15 d with 8 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Fermenters were fed a diet of 70:30 barley straw:concentrate (DM basis. True digestibility of DM was determined after 48 h of incubation from d 13-15, and daily ammonia (NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA production were measured on d 9-12. Protozoa counts were determined at d 9, 11, 13 and 15 and particle-associated bacteria (PAB from d 13-15. Select bacterial populations in the PAB were measured using RT-qPCR. Fermenter was considered the experimental unit and day of sampling as a repeated measure. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum resulted in a quadratic effect (P0.05. Increasing bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 concentrate aNDF disappearance, total and concentrate N disappearance as well as total daily VFA and acetate production. A positive quadratic response (P<0.05 was observed for daily NH3-N, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isovalerate and isobutyrate production, as well as the acetate:propionate ratio. Increasing the proportion of bison inoculum linearly increased (P<0.05 total protozoa numbers. No effects were observed on pH, total gas and methane production, microbial N synthesis, or copies of 16S rRNA associated with total bacteria, Selenomonas ruminantium or Prevotella bryantii. Increasing bison inoculum had a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on Fibrobacter succinogenes, and tended to linearly (P<0.10 increase Ruminococcus flavefaciens and decrease (P<0.05 Ruminococcus albus copy numbers. In conclusion, bison inoculum increased the degradation of feed protein and fibre. A mixture

  11. Gabor filter based fingerprint image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Fingerprint recognition technology has become the most reliable biometric technology due to its uniqueness and invariance, which has been most convenient and most reliable technique for personal authentication. The development of Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an urgent need for modern information security. Meanwhile, fingerprint preprocessing algorithm of fingerprint recognition technology has played an important part in Automatic Fingerprint Identification System. This article introduces the general steps in the fingerprint recognition technology, namely the image input, preprocessing, feature recognition, and fingerprint image enhancement. As the key to fingerprint identification technology, fingerprint image enhancement affects the accuracy of the system. It focuses on the characteristics of the fingerprint image, Gabor filters algorithm for fingerprint image enhancement, the theoretical basis of Gabor filters, and demonstration of the filter. The enhancement algorithm for fingerprint image is in the windows XP platform with matlab.65 as a development tool for the demonstration. The result shows that the Gabor filter is effective in fingerprint image enhancement technology.

  12. Data Compression of Fingerprint Minutiae

    OpenAIRE

    VISHAL SHRIVASTAVA; SUMIT SHARMA

    2012-01-01

    Biometric techniques have usual advantages over conventional personal identification technique. Among various commercially available biometric techniques such as face, fingerprint, Iris etc., fingerprint-based techniques are the most accepted recognition system. Fingerprints are trace or impression of patterns created byfriction ridges of the skin in the fingers and thumbs. Steganography usually used in smart card is a safe technique for authenticating a person. In steganography, biometric ch...

  13. [An analysis of the DNA fingerprinting of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-mei; Han, Ying; Wang, Ji-heng; Wang, Zhi-hong

    2007-02-01

    DNA fingerprinting for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and healthy subjects was carried out to compare the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups. DNA fingerprinting for IBD patients and healthy persons was set up with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) technology and the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups compared. DNA fingerprinting of the IBD patients and healthy subjects was identified and a significant difference was noticed between them. There were lots of bands in the DNA fingerprinting of the healthy subjects but few in that of the IBD patients. Strikingly, same distribution of the principal band of DNA fingerprinting was noticed in IBD patients. The variety of intestinal flora in healthy subjects is more apparent than that in IBD patients. An unique principal band might be the sequence of the presence of specific etiopathogenetic bacterium, or it might be the combined sequence of mixed bacterial flora.

  14. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  15. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  16. Reference point detection for improved fingerprint matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.; Veen, van der M.; Bazen, A.; Delp, E.J.; Wong, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important stages of fingerprint recognition is the registration of the fingerprints with respect to the original template. This is not a straightforward task as fingerprint images may have been subject to rotations and translations. Popular techniques for fingerprint registration use a

  17. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  18. Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1993-01-01

    It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs

  19. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahansky, Martin; Dolezel, Michal; Urbanek, Jaroslav; Brezinova, Eva; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2012-01-01

    There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described. PMID:22654483

  20. A comparison of artificial neural networks and partial least squares modelling for the rapid detection of the microbial spoilage of beef fillets based on Fourier transform infrared spectral fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagou, Efstathios Z; Mohareb, Fady R; Argyri, Anthoula A; Bessant, Conrad M; Nychas, George-John E

    2011-06-01

    A series of partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to correlate spectral data from FTIR analysis with beef fillet spoilage during aerobic storage at different temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C) using the dataset presented by Argyri et al. (2010). The performance of the PLS models was compared with a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) developed using the same dataset. FTIR spectra were collected from the surface of meat samples in parallel with microbiological analyses to enumerate total viable counts. Sensory evaluation was based on a three-point hedonic scale classifying meat samples as fresh, semi-fresh, and spoiled. The purpose of the modelling approach employed in this work was to classify beef samples in the respective quality class as well as to predict their total viable counts directly from FTIR spectra. The results obtained demonstrated that both approaches showed good performance in discriminating meat samples in one of the three predefined sensory classes. The PLS classification models showed performances ranging from 72.0 to 98.2% using the training dataset, and from 63.1 to 94.7% using independent testing dataset. The ANN classification model performed equally well in discriminating meat samples, with correct classification rates from 98.2 to 100% and 63.1 to 73.7% in the train and test sessions, respectively. PLS and ANN approaches were also applied to create models for the prediction of microbial counts. The performance of these was based on graphical plots and statistical indices (bias factor, accuracy factor, root mean square error). Furthermore, results demonstrated reasonably good correlation of total viable counts on meat surface with FTIR spectral data with PLS models presenting better performance indices compared to ANN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flow cytometric fingerprinting for microbial strain discrimination and physiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Benjamin; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Baets, Bernard; Boon, Nico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of microbial populations is fundamental, not only for developing a deeper understanding of microbial communities but also for their engineering in biotechnological applications. Many methods have been developed to study their characteristics and over the last few decades, molecular analysis tools, such as DNA sequencing, have been used with considerable success to identify the composition of microbial populations. Recently, flow cytometric fingerprinting is emerging as a promising and powerful method to analyze bacterial populations. So far, these methods have primarily been used to observe shifts in the composition of microbial communities of natural samples. In this article, we apply a flow cytometric fingerprinting method to discriminate among 29 Lactobacillus strains. Our results indicate that it is possible to discriminate among 27 Lactobacillus strains by staining with SYBR green I and that the discriminatory power can be increased by combined SYBR green I and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, we illustrate the impact of physiological changes on the fingerprinting method by demonstrating how flow cytometric fingerprinting is able to discriminate the different growth phases of a microbial culture. The sensitivity of the method is assessed by its ability to detect changes in the relative abundance of a mix of polystyrene beads down to 1.2%. When a mix of bacteria was used, the sensitivity was as between 1.2% and 5%. The presented data demonstrate that flow cytometric fingerprinting is a sensitive and reproducible technique with the potential to be applied as a method for the dereplication of bacterial isolates. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Improving Accuracy and Simplifying Training in Fingerprinting-Based Indoor Location Algorithms at Room Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting-based algorithms are popular in indoor location systems based on mobile devices. Comparing the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator from different radio wave transmitters, such as Wi-Fi access points, with prerecorded fingerprints from located points (using different artificial intelligence algorithms, fingerprinting-based systems can locate unknown points with a few meters resolution. However, training the system with already located fingerprints tends to be an expensive task both in time and in resources, especially if large areas are to be considered. Moreover, the decision algorithms tend to be of high memory and CPU consuming in such cases and so does the required time for obtaining the estimated location for a new fingerprint. In this paper, we study, propose, and validate a way to select the locations for the training fingerprints which reduces the amount of required points while improving the accuracy of the algorithms when locating points at room level resolution. We present a comparison of different artificial intelligence decision algorithms and select those with better results. We do a comparison with other systems in the literature and draw conclusions about the improvements obtained in our proposal. Moreover, some techniques such as filtering nonstable access points for improving accuracy are introduced, studied, and validated.

  3. Distributed construction of quantum fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris; Shi, Yaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Quantum fingerprints are useful quantum encodings introduced by Buhrman, Cleve, Watrous, and de Wolf (Physical Review Letters, Volume 87, Number 16, Article 167902, 2001; quant-ph/0102001) in obtaining an efficient quantum communication protocol. We design a protocol for constructing the fingerprint in a distributed scenario. As an application, this protocol gives rise to a communication protocol more efficient than the best known classical protocol for a communication problem.

  4. Generating One Biometric Feature from Another: Faces from Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seref Sagiroglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces from another (only fingerprints. An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces.

  5. Generating One Biometric Feature from Another: Faces from Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Necla; Sagiroglu, Seref

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks for generating one biometric feature (faces) from another (only fingerprints). An automatic and intelligent system was designed and developed to analyze the relationships among fingerprints and faces and also to model and to improve the existence of the relationships. The new proposed system is the first study that generates all parts of the face including eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, ears and face border from only fingerprints. It is also unique and different from similar studies recently presented in the literature with some superior features. The parameter settings of the system were achieved with the help of Taguchi experimental design technique. The performance and accuracy of the system have been evaluated with 10-fold cross validation technique using qualitative evaluation metrics in addition to the expanded quantitative evaluation metrics. Consequently, the results were presented on the basis of the combination of these objective and subjective metrics for illustrating the qualitative properties of the proposed methods as well as a quantitative evaluation of their performances. Experimental results have shown that one biometric feature can be determined from another. These results have once more indicated that there is a strong relationship between fingerprints and faces. PMID:22399877

  6. An SDN-Based Fingerprint Hopping Method to Prevent Fingerprinting Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively.

  7. Fingerprint Change: Not Visible, But Tangible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Francesca V; De Giorgi, Annamaria; Bozzetti, Cecilia; Squadrilli, Anna; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Leonardi, Francesco; Bisogno, Luigi; Garofano, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    Hand-foot syndrome, a chemotherapy-induced cutaneous toxicity, can cause an alteration in fingerprints causing a setback for cancer patients due to the occurrence of false rejections. A colon cancer patient was fingerprinted after not having been able to use fingerprint recognition devices after 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. The fingerprint images were digitally processed to improve fingerprint definition without altering the papillary design. No evidence of skin toxicity was present. Two months later, the situation returned to normal. The fingerprint evaluation conducted on 15 identification points highlighted the quantitative and qualitative fingerprint alteration details detected after the end of chemotherapy and 2 months later. Fingerprint alteration during chemotherapy has been reported, but to our knowledge, this particular case is the first ever reported without evident clinical signs. Alternative fingerprint identification methods as well as improved biometric identification systems are needed in case of unexpected situations. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Robust efficient video fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  9. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-03-14

    Magnetic resonance is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of a magnetic resonance experiment has remained largely unchanged for almost 50 years, being mainly restricted to the qualitative probing of only a limited set of the properties that can in principle be accessed by this technique. Here we introduce an approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization--which we term 'magnetic resonance fingerprinting' (MRF)--that permits the simultaneous non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue. MRF thus provides an alternative way to quantitatively detect and analyse complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to identify the presence of a specific target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity and speed of a magnetic resonance study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern-recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and can thus improve measurement accuracy.

  10. Generating cancelable fingerprint templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Nalini K; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan H; Bolle, Ruud M

    2007-04-01

    Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key." The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.

  11. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  12. A simple, high throughput method to locate single copy sequences from Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC libraries using High Resolution Melt analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caligari Peter DS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high-throughput anchoring of genetic markers into contigs is required for many ongoing physical mapping projects. Multidimentional BAC pooling strategies for PCR-based screening of large insert libraries is a widely used alternative to high density filter hybridisation of bacterial colonies. To date, concerns over reliability have led most if not all groups engaged in high throughput physical mapping projects to favour BAC DNA isolation prior to amplification by conventional PCR. Results Here, we report the first combined use of Multiplex Tandem PCR (MT-PCR and High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis on bacterial stocks of BAC library superpools as a means of rapidly anchoring markers to BAC colonies and thereby to integrate genetic and physical maps. We exemplify the approach using a BAC library of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Super pools of twenty five 384-well plates and two-dimension matrix pools of the BAC library were prepared for marker screening. The entire procedure only requires around 3 h to anchor one marker. Conclusions A pre-amplification step during MT-PCR allows high multiplexing and increases the sensitivity and reliability of subsequent HRM discrimination. This simple gel-free protocol is more reliable, faster and far less costly than conventional PCR screening. The option to screen in parallel 3 genetic markers in one MT-PCR-HRM reaction using templates from directly pooled bacterial stocks of BAC-containing bacteria further reduces time for anchoring markers in physical maps of species with large genomes.

  13. Cluster analysis of Helicobacter pylori genomic DNA fingerprints suggests gastroduodenal disease-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, M F; Chan, K Y; Versalovic, J; Koeuth, T; Graham, D Y; Lupski, J R

    1995-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is now accepted as the most common cause of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. The etiologies of many infectious diseases have been attributed to specific or clonal strains of bacterial pathogens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA between repetitive DNA sequences, REP elements (REP-PCR), has been utilized to generate DNA fingerprints to examine similarity among strains within a bacterial species. Genomic DNA from H. pylori isolates obtained from 70 individuals (39 duodenal ulcers and 31 simple gastritis) was PCR-amplified using consensus probes to repetitive DNA elements. The H. pylori DNA fingerprints were analyzed for similarity and correlated with disease presentation using the NTSYS-pc computer program. Each H. pylori strain had a distinct DNA fingerprint except for two pairs. Single-colony DNA fingerprints of H. pylori from the same patient were identical, suggesting that each patient harbors a single strain. Computer-assisted cluster analysis of the REP-PCR DNA fingerprints showed two large clusters of isolates, one associated with simple gastritis and the other with duodenal ulcer disease. Cluster analysis of REP-PCR DNA fingerprints of H. pylori strains suggests that duodenal ulcer isolates, as a group, are more similar to one another and different from gastritis isolates. These results suggest that disease-specific strains may exist.

  14. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  15. On the introduction of secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fingerprint classification is an important one because of the need to, before executing a database search procedure, virtually break the fingerprint template database into smaller, manageable partitions. This is done in order to avoid...

  16. Fingerprint matching with optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolla, Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition is an important security technique with a steadily growing usage for the identification and verification of individuals. However, current fingerprint acquisition systems have certain disadvantages, which include...

  17. Fingerprint separation: an application of ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Among all existing biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method, which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Fingerprint-based identification is the most recognized tool in biometrics because of its reliability and accuracy. Fingerprint identification is done by matching questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions from fingers, palms, and toes to determine if the impressions are from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.). There are many fingerprint matching algorithms which automate and facilitate the job of fingerprint matching, but for any of these algorithms matching can be difficult if the fingerprints are overlapped or mixed. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm for separating overlapped or mixed fingerprints so that the performance of the matching algorithms will improve when they are fed with these inputs. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been used as a tool to separate the overlapped or mixed fingerprints.

  18. Fingerprint fake detection by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  19. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  20. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  1. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  2. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  3. Sex Determination from Fingerprint Ridge Density | Gungadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted with an aim to establish a relationship between sex and fingerprint ridge density. The fingerprints were taken from 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) in the age group of 18-60 years. After taking fingerprints, the ridges were counted in the upper portion of the radial border of each print for all ...

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  5. Efficiency and Flexibility of Fingerprint Scheme Using Partial Encryption and Discrete Wavelet Transform to Verify User in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ali A

    2014-01-01

    Now, the security of digital images is considered more and more essential and fingerprint plays the main role in the world of image. Furthermore, fingerprint recognition is a scheme of biometric verification that applies pattern recognition techniques depending on image of fingerprint individually. In the cloud environment, an adversary has the ability to intercept information and must be secured from eavesdroppers. Unluckily, encryption and decryption functions are slow and they are often hard. Fingerprint techniques required extra hardware and software; it is masqueraded by artificial gummy fingers (spoof attacks). Additionally, when a large number of users are being verified at the same time, the mechanism will become slow. In this paper, we employed each of the partial encryptions of user's fingerprint and discrete wavelet transform to obtain a new scheme of fingerprint verification. Moreover, our proposed scheme can overcome those problems; it does not require cost, reduces the computational supplies for huge volumes of fingerprint images, and resists well-known attacks. In addition, experimental results illustrate that our proposed scheme has a good performance of user's fingerprint verification.

  6. Influence of Skin Diseases on Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Drahansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many people who suffer from some of the skin diseases. These diseases have a strong influence on the process of fingerprint recognition. People with fingerprint diseases are unable to use fingerprint scanners, which is discriminating for them, since they are not allowed to use their fingerprints for the authentication purposes. First in this paper the various diseases, which might influence functionality of the fingerprint-based systems, are introduced, mainly from the medical point of view. This overview is followed by some examples of diseased finger fingerprints, acquired both from dactyloscopic card and electronic sensors. At the end of this paper the proposed fingerprint image enhancement algorithm is described.

  7. An investigation of fake fingerprint detection approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asraful Syifaa'; Hassan, Rohayanti; Othman, Razib M.

    2017-10-01

    The most reliable biometrics technology, fingerprint recognition is widely used in terms of security due to its permanence and uniqueness. However, it is also vulnerable to the certain type of attacks including presenting fake fingerprints to the sensor which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. Particularly, the aim is to identify the most recent literature related to the fake fingerprint recognition and only focus on software-based approaches. A systematic review is performed by analyzing 146 primary studies from the gross collection of 34 research papers to determine the taxonomy, approaches, online public databases, and limitations of the fake fingerprint. Fourteen software-based approaches have been briefly described, four limitations of fake fingerprint image were revealed and two known fake fingerprint databases were addressed briefly in this review. Therefore this work provides an overview of an insight into the current understanding of fake fingerprint recognition besides identifying future research possibilities.

  8. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-01-01

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  10. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jim Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS, successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM, based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  11. Graphene Nanopres for DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Towfiq; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Haraldsen, J. T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; di Ventra, M.; Wikfeldt, K. T.

    2013-03-01

    The recent progress in nanopore experiments with transverse current is important for the development of fast, accurate and cheap finger-printing techniques for single nucleotide. Despite its enormous potential for the next generation DNA sequencing technology, the presence of large noise in the temporal spectrum of transverse current remains a big challenge for getting highly accurate interpretation of data. In this paper we present our abinitio calculations, and propose graphene based device for DNA fingerprinting. We calculate transmission current through graphene for each DNA base (A,C,G,T). As shown in our work, a proper time-series analysis of a signal provides a higher quality information in identifying single bio-molecule is translocating through the nanopores. This work is supported by LANL, Nordita, US DOE, AFOSR, and NIH.

  12. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Spanache Florin

    2017-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus a...

  13. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.; Wong, Y. H.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction

  14. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  15. Microorganism Identification Based On MALDI-TOF-MS Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elssner, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus; Maier, Thomas; Kruppa, Gary

    Advances in MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry have enabled the ­development of a rapid, accurate and specific method for the identification of bacteria directly from colonies picked from culture plates, which we have named the MALDI Biotyper. The picked colonies are placed on a target plate, a drop of matrix solution is added, and a pattern of protein molecular weights and intensities, "the protein fingerprint" of the bacteria, is produced by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained protein mass fingerprint representing a molecular signature of the microorganism is then matched against a database containing a library of previously measured protein mass fingerprints, and scores for the match to every library entry are produced. An ID is obtained if a score is returned over a pre-set threshold. The sensitivity of the techniques is such that only approximately 104 bacterial cells are needed, meaning that an overnight culture is sufficient, and the results are obtained in minutes after culture. The improvement in time to result over biochemical methods, and the capability to perform a non-targeted identification of bacteria and spores, potentially makes this method suitable for use in the detect-to-treat timeframe in a bioterrorism event. In the case of white-powder samples, the infectious spore is present in sufficient quantity in the powder so that the MALDI Biotyper result can be obtained directly from the white powder, without the need for culture. While spores produce very different patterns from the vegetative colonies of the corresponding bacteria, this problem is overcome by simply including protein fingerprints of the spores in the library. Results on spores can be returned within minutes, making the method suitable for use in the "detect-to-protect" timeframe.

  16. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  17. [Artificial organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Thibaut; Dupret-Bories, Agnès; Debry, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research has been fighting against organ failure and shortage of donations by supplying artificial organs for many years. With the raise of new technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, many organs can benefit of an artificial equivalent: thanks to retinal implants some blind people can visualize stimuli, an artificial heart can be proposed in case of cardiac failure while awaiting for a heart transplant, artificial larynx enables laryngectomy patients to an almost normal life, while the diabetic can get a glycemic self-regulation controlled by smartphones with an artificial device. Dialysis devices become portable, as well as the oxygenation systems for terminal respiratory failure. Bright prospects are being explored or might emerge in a near future. However, the retrospective assessment of putative side effects is not yet sufficient. Finally, the cost of these new devices is significant even if the advent of three dimensional printers may reduce it. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. OPTIMAL EXPERIMENT DESIGN FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FINGERPRINTING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo; Haldar, Justin P.; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cram��r-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experi...

  19. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  20. Study on internal to surface fingerprint correlation using optical coherence tomography and internal fingerprint extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, LN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of, the above-mentioned works. Internal fingerprint zone detection is an improvement as it uses fuzzy c-means to improve clustering performance, uses better cluster result postprocessing, and improves upon the fine-tuning procedure through... Internal fingerprint extraction consists of two main parts: fingerprint zone detection and extraction. Zone detection uses fuzzy c-means clustering to approximate the location of the papillary junction (i.e., the internal fingerprint zone). Edge detection...

  1. Fingerprint multicast in secure video streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray

    2006-01-01

    Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.

  2. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  3. Information Theoretical Analysis of Identification based on Active Content Fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadzadeh, Farzad; Willems, Frans M. J.; Voloshinovskiy, Sviatoslav

    2014-01-01

    Content fingerprinting and digital watermarking are techniques that are used for content protection and distribution monitoring. Over the past few years, both techniques have been well studied and their shortcomings understood. Recently, a new content fingerprinting scheme called {\\em active content fingerprinting} was introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Active content fingerprinting aims to modify a content to extract robuster fingerprints than the conventional content fingerprinting....

  4. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  5. Textile Fingerprinting for Dismount Analysis in the Visible, Near, and Shortwave Infrared Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    that are skin -colored or contain water based liquid ( vegetation and dirt) similar to the human skin [55]. This algorithm is 10 efficient at detection of...efforts to identify materials based on their spectral signatures. More specifically, HSI has been used for skin and clothing classification and detection...and artificial neural networks. A model for uniquely identifying (fingerprinting) textiles are designed, where color and composition ard deternimed in

  6. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  7. In Silico Genomic Fingerprints of the Bacillus anthracis Group Obtained by Virtual Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueman Jaimes-Díaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the capacity of Virtual Hybridization to identify between highly related bacterial strains. Eight genomic fingerprints were obtained by virtual hybridization for the Bacillus anthracis genome set, and a set of 15,264 13-nucleotide short probes designed to produce genomic fingerprints unique for each organism. The data obtained from each genomic fingerprint were used to obtain hybridization patterns simulating a DNA microarray. Two virtual hybridization methods were used: the Direct and the Extended method to identify the number of potential hybridization sites and thus determine the minimum sensitivity value to discriminate between genomes with 99.9% similarity. Genomic fingerprints were compared using both methods and phylogenomic trees were constructed to verify that the minimum detection value is 0.000017. Results obtained from the genomic fingerprints suggest that the distribution in the trees is correct, as compared to other taxonomic methods. Specific virtual hybridization sites for each of the genomes studied were also identified.

  8. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  9. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhoury, SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  10. Tools for quality control of fingerprint databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, B. Scott; Libert, John M.; Lepley, Margaret A.

    2010-04-01

    Integrity of fingerprint data is essential to biometric and forensic applications. Accordingly, the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division has sponsored development of software tools to facilitate quality control functions relative to maintaining its fingerprint data assets inherent to the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and Next Generation Identification (NGI). This paper provides an introduction of two such tools. The first FBI-sponsored tool was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and examines and detects the spectral signature of the ridge-flow structure characteristic of friction ridge skin. The Spectral Image Validation/Verification (SIVV) utility differentiates fingerprints from non-fingerprints, including blank frames or segmentation failures erroneously included in data; provides a "first look" at image quality; and can identify anomalies in sample rates of scanned images. The SIVV utility might detect errors in individual 10-print fingerprints inaccurately segmented from the flat, multi-finger image acquired by one of the automated collection systems increasing in availability and usage. In such cases, the lost fingerprint can be recovered by re-segmentation from the now compressed multi-finger image record. The second FBI-sponsored tool, CropCoeff was developed by MITRE and thoroughly tested via NIST. CropCoeff enables cropping of the replacement single print directly from the compressed data file, thus avoiding decompression and recompression of images that might degrade fingerprint features necessary for matching.

  11. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  12. Fingerprint matching on smart card: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baruni, Kedimotse P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint Match-on-Card (MoC) offers the highest degree of privacy and security to cardholders as the fingerprint never leaves the secure environment of a smart card. The level of security of a biometric system is evaluated by the location where...

  13. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  14. DNA fingerprints come to court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, a new technique, which produces a visual representation of a person's genome, enables the identification of perpetrators from as little as a single hair root, providing they have left some biologic evidence-hair, skin cells, blood, or semen-at the scene of the crime. DNA fingerprinting was developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, PhD, in 1985. Jeffreys, professor genetics at the University of Leicester, built upon a discovery, five years earlier, of certain hypervariable regions called minisatellites in unexpressed areas of DNA. The hypervariability was evidenced in the number of repetitions of certain sequences of base pairs. It was this aspect that revealed to Jeffreys something that had eluded other investigators. He realized that these minisatellite regions had a potential for identification far greater than that of conventional genetic markers, which are defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). RFLPs are characterized by the substitution of one base pair for another, resulting in the presence or absence of a restriction enzyme site. Thus, each offers a limited number of alleles. In contrast, minisatellite regions have an accordion-like range of length, as the number of repetitions of a given sequence varies widely from person to person

  15. Molecular Fingerprints of the Human Fecal Microbiota From 9 to 18 Months Old and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2011-01-01

    supplementation with 5mL of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age, stool samples were collected from 132 healthy Danish infants. Molecular fingerprints of the bacterial DNA were obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results: The T-RFLP profiles indicated...

  16. Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria: Ecophysiology and Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Lindsey, J.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Although the iron-dependent physiology of marine and freshwater cyanobacterial strains has been the focus of extensive study, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs have been conducted. One of the few studies that have been conducted [B. Pierson, 1999] found that cyanobacterial members of iron depositing bacterial mat communities might increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ and that ferrous iron concentrations up to 1 mM significantly stimulated light dependent consumption of bicarbonate, suggesting a specific role for elevated iron in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs. Our recent studies pertaining to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria populating iron-depositing hot springs in Great Yellowstone area (Western USA) indicated a number of different isolates exhibiting elevated tolerance to Fe(3+) (up to 1 mM). Moreover, stimulation of growth was observed with increased Fe(3+) (0.02-0.4 mM). Molecular fingerprinting of unialgal isolates revealed a new cyanobacterial genus and species Chroogloeocystis siderophila, an unicellular cyanobacterium with significant EPS sheath harboring colloidal Fe(3+) from iron enriched media. Our preliminary data suggest that some filamentous species of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria are capable of exocytosis of iron precipitated in cytoplasm. Prior to 2.4 Ga global oceans were likely significantly enriched in soluble iron [Lindsay et al, 2003], conditions which are not conducive to growth of most contemporary oxygenic cyanobacteria. Thus, iron-tolerant CB may have played important physiological and evolutionary roles in Earths history.

  17. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  18. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  19. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  20. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  1. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  2. The nature of expertise in fingerprint matching: experts can do a lot with a little.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Thompson

    Full Text Available Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of "information" available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect-experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints-but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert

  3. The nature of expertise in fingerprint matching: experts can do a lot with a little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of "information" available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect-experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints-but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony.

  4. ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini M.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.

  5. Attendance fingerprint identification system using arduino and single board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, M. A.; Seniman; Arisandi, D.; Hasanah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fingerprint is one of the most unique parts of the human body that distinguishes one person from others and is easily accessed. This uniqueness is supported by technology that can automatically identify or recognize a person called fingerprint sensor. Yet, the existing Fingerprint Sensor can only do fingerprint identification on one machine. For the mentioned reason, we need a method to be able to recognize each user in a different fingerprint sensor. The purpose of this research is to build fingerprint sensor system for fingerprint data management to be centralized so identification can be done in each Fingerprint Sensor. The result of this research shows that by using Arduino and Raspberry Pi, data processing can be centralized so that fingerprint identification can be done in each fingerprint sensor with 98.5 % success rate of centralized server recording.

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  7. Fingerprint prediction using classifier ensembles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molale, P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ); logistic discrimination (LgD), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), artificial neural network (ANN), association rules (AR) decision tree (DT), naive Bayes classifier (NBC) and the support vector machine (SVM). The performance of several multiple classifier systems...

  8. Fingerprint re-alignment: a solution based on the true fingerprint center point

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solution Based on the True Fingerprint Center Point Ishmael S. Msiza, Brain Leke-Betechuoh, and Tendani Malumedzha Biometrics Research Group ? Information Security CSIR, Modelling & Digital Science Unit Pretoria, Republic of South Africa e... with a pattern that belongs to the Tented Arch (TA) fingerprint class. Fingerprints that belong to the TA class have a single core and a single delta, with the core located almost directly above the delta, as depicted in figure 3 (b). Many singular...

  9. FINGERPRINT MATCHING BASED ON PORE CENTROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malathi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been exponential growth in the use of bio- metrics for user authentication applications. Automated Fingerprint Identification systems have become popular tool in many security and law enforcement applications. Most of these systems rely on minutiae (ridge ending and bifurcation features. With the advancement in sensor technology, high resolution fingerprint images (1000 dpi pro- vide micro level of features (pores that have proven to be useful fea- tures for identification. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for fingerprint matching based on pores by reliably extracting the pore features The extraction of pores is done by Marker Controlled Wa- tershed segmentation method and the centroids of each pore are con- sidered as feature vectors for matching of two fingerprint images. Experimental results shows that the proposed method has better per- formance with lower false rates and higher accuracy.

  10. Optimal experiment design for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Zhao; Haldar, Justin P; Setsompop, Kawin; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting is an emerging quantitative MR imaging technique that simultaneously acquires multiple tissue parameters in an efficient experiment. In this work, we present an estimation-theoretic framework to evaluate and design MR fingerprinting experiments. More specifically, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), a lower bound on the covariance of any unbiased estimator, to characterize parameter estimation for MR fingerprinting. We then formulate an optimal experiment design problem based on the CRB to choose a set of acquisition parameters (e.g., flip angles and/or repetition times) that maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio efficiency of the resulting experiment. The utility of the proposed approach is validated by numerical studies. Representative results demonstrate that the optimized experiments allow for substantial reduction in the length of an MR fingerprinting acquisition, and substantial improvement in parameter estimation performance.

  11. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.; Bretschneider, Simon A.; Bergmann, Victor W.; Li, Dan; Klasen, Alexander; Mars, Julian; Tremel, Wolfgang; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Butt, Hans-Jü rgen; Mezger, Markus; Berger, Rü diger; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Weber, Stefan A. L.

    2016-01-01

    sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route

  12. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  13. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  14. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the n...

  15. Bacterial Exposures and Associations with Atopy and Asthma in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valkonen

    Full Text Available The increase in prevalence of asthma and atopic diseases in Western countries has been linked to aspects of microbial exposure patterns of people. It remains unclear which microbial aspects contribute to the protective farm effect.The objective of this study was to identify bacterial groups associated with prevalence of asthma and atopy, and to quantify indoor exposure to some of these bacterial groups.A DNA fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, was applied to mattress dust samples of farm children and control children in the context of the GABRIEL Advanced study. Associations between signals in DGGE and atopy, asthma and other allergic health outcomes were analyzed. Quantitative DNA based assays (qPCR for four bacterial groups were applied on the dust samples to seek quantitative confirmation of associations indicated in DNA fingerprinting.Several statistically significant associations between individual bacterial signals and also bacterial diversity in DGGE and health outcomes in children were observed. The majority of these associations showed inverse relationships with atopy, less so with asthma. Also, in a subsequent confirmation study using a quantitative method (qPCR, higher mattress levels of specifically targeted bacterial groups - Mycobacterium spp., Bifidobacteriaceae spp. and two different clusters of Clostridium spp. - were associated with a lower prevalence of atopy.DNA fingerprinting proved useful in identifying bacterial signals that were associated with atopy in particular. These findings were quantitatively confirmed for selected bacterial groups with a second method. High correlations between the different bacterial exposures impede a clear attribution of protective effects to one specific bacterial group. More diverse bacterial flora in mattress dust may link to microbial exposure patterns that protect against development of atopic diseases.

  16. An Efficient Reconfigurable Architecture for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S. Bhairannawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint identification is an efficient biometric technique to authenticate human beings in real-time Big Data Analytics. In this paper, we propose an efficient Finite State Machine (FSM based reconfigurable architecture for fingerprint recognition. The fingerprint image is resized, and Compound Linear Binary Pattern (CLBP is applied on fingerprint, followed by histogram to obtain histogram CLBP features. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT Level 2 features are obtained by the same methodology. The novel matching score of CLBP is computed using histogram CLBP features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Similarly, the DWT matching score is computed using DWT features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Further, the matching scores of CLBP and DWT are fused with arithmetic equation using improvement factor. The performance parameters such as TSR (Total Success Rate, FAR (False Acceptance Rate, and FRR (False Rejection Rate are computed using fusion scores with correlation matching technique for FVC2004 DB3 Database. The proposed fusion based VLSI architecture is synthesized on Virtex xc5vlx30T-3 FPGA board using Finite State Machine resulting in optimized parameters.

  17. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  19. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  1. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  2. Sediment source fingerprinting as an aid to catchment management: A review of the current state of knowledge and a methodological decision-tree for end-users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.L; Pulley, S.; Foster, I.D.L; Gellis, Allen; Porto, P.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The growing awareness of the environmental significance of fine-grained sediment fluxes through catchment systems continues to underscore the need for reliable information on the principal sources of this material. Source estimates are difficult to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but sediment source fingerprinting or tracing procedures, have emerged as a potentially valuable alternative. Despite the rapidly increasing numbers of studies reporting the use of sediment source fingerprinting, several key challenges and uncertainties continue to hamper consensus among the international scientific community on key components of the existing methodological procedures. Accordingly, this contribution reviews and presents recent developments for several key aspects of fingerprinting, namely: sediment source classification, catchment source and target sediment sampling, tracer selection, grain size issues, tracer conservatism, source apportionment modelling, and assessment of source predictions using artificial mixtures. Finally, a decision-tree representing the current state of knowledge is presented, to guide end-users in applying the fingerprinting approach.

  3. An effective one-dimensional anisotropic fingerprint enhancement algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhendong; Xie, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric technologies. The performance of the minutiae extraction and the speed of the fingerprint verification system rely heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images, so the enhancement of the low fingerprint is a critical and difficult step in a fingerprint verification system. In this paper we proposed an effective algorithm for fingerprint enhancement. Firstly we use normalization algorithm to reduce the variations in gray level values along ridges and valleys. Then we utilize the structure tensor approach to estimate each pixel of the fingerprint orientations. At last we propose a novel algorithm which combines the advantages of onedimensional Gabor filtering method and anisotropic method to enhance the fingerprint in recoverable region. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the database of Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004, and the results show that our algorithm performs within less time.

  4. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  5. Multiscale reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Eric Y; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    To reduce the acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in vivo data using the highly undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD), and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256 × 256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2 s, representing a three-fold reduction in acquisition time. The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. Magn Reson Med 75:2481-2492, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  7. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    query time, no extra space and no preprocessing achieves significantly better average case performance. We show a new algorithm, Fingerprint k , which for a parameter k, 1 ≤ k ≤ [log n], on a string of length n and alphabet size σ, gives O(k n1/k) query time using O(k n) space and O(k n + sort......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst....... The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear...

  8. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  9. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  10. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  11. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  12. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-03

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing

  13. Latent fingerprints on different type of screen protective films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the quality of latent fingerprint on different types of screen protective films including screen protector, matte screen protector, anti-fingerprint clear screen protector and anti-fingerprint matte screen protector by using black powder method in developing latent fingerprints. The fingerprints were performed by 10 volunteers whose fingers (right index, right thumb, left index and left thumb were stubbing at different types of screen protective films and subsequently latent fingerprints were developed by brushing with black powder. Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS counted the numbers of minutiae points from 320 latent fingerprints. Anti-fingerprint matte screen protective film produced the best quality of latent fingerprint with an average minutiae point 72.65, followed by matte screen protective film, clear screen protective film and anti-fingerprint clear screen protective film with an average minutiae point of 155.2, 135.0 and 72.65 respectively. The quality of latent fingerprints developed between a clear and a matte surface of screen protective films showed a significant difference (sig>0.05, whereas the coat and the non-coat with anti-fingerprint chemical revealed a non-significant difference (sig<0.05 in their number of minutiae points.

  14. On Realistically Attacking Tor with Website Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Website fingerprinting allows a local, passive observer monitoring a web-browsing client’s encrypted channel to determine her web activity. Previous attacks have shown that website fingerprinting could be a threat to anonymity networks such as Tor under laboratory conditions. However, there are significant differences between laboratory conditions and realistic conditions. First, in laboratory tests we collect the training data set together with the testing data set, so the training data set is fresh, but an attacker may not be able to maintain a fresh data set. Second, laboratory packet sequences correspond to a single page each, but for realistic packet sequences the split between pages is not obvious. Third, packet sequences may include background noise from other types of web traffic. These differences adversely affect website fingerprinting under realistic conditions. In this paper, we tackle these three problems to bridge the gap between laboratory and realistic conditions for website fingerprinting. We show that we can maintain a fresh training set with minimal resources. We demonstrate several classification-based techniques that allow us to split full packet sequences effectively into sequences corresponding to a single page each. We describe several new algorithms for tackling background noise. With our techniques, we are able to build the first website fingerprinting system that can operate directly on packet sequences collected in the wild.

  15. Near-Optimal Fingerprinting with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Gábor György

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that people show large behavioural uniqueness. This has serious privacy implications as most individuals become increasingly re-identifiable in large datasets or can be tracked, while they are browsing the web, using only a couple of their attributes, called as their fingerprints. Often, the success of these attacks depends on explicit constraints on the number of attributes learnable about individuals, i.e., the size of their fingerprints. These constraints can be budget as well as technical constraints imposed by the data holder. For instance, Apple restricts the number of applications that can be called by another application on iOS in order to mitigate the potential privacy threats of leaking the list of installed applications on a device. In this work, we address the problem of identifying the attributes (e.g., smartphone applications that can serve as a fingerprint of users given constraints on the size of the fingerprint. We give the best fingerprinting algorithms in general, and evaluate their effectiveness on several real-world datasets. Our results show that current privacy guards limiting the number of attributes that can be queried about individuals is insufficient to mitigate their potential privacy risks in many practical cases.

  16. Efficient Filtering of Noisy Fingerprint Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Liliana Costin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint identification is an important field in the wide domain of biometrics with many applications, in different areas such: judicial, mobile phones, access systems, airports. There are many elaborated algorithms for fingerprint identification, but none of them can guarantee that the results of identification are always 100 % accurate. A first step in a fingerprint image analysing process consists in the pre-processing or filtering. If the result after this step is not by a good quality the upcoming identification process can fail. A major difficulty can appear in case of fingerprint identification if the images that should be identified from a fingerprint image database are noisy with different type of noise. The objectives of the paper are: the successful completion of the noisy digital image filtering, a novel more robust algorithm of identifying the best filtering algorithm and the classification and ranking of the images. The choice about the best filtered images of a set of 9 algorithms is made with a dual method of fuzzy and aggregation model. We are proposing through this paper a set of 9 filters with different novelty designed for processing the digital images using the following methods: quartiles, medians, average, thresholds and histogram equalization, applied all over the image or locally on small areas. Finally the statistics reveal the classification and ranking of the best algorithms.

  17. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  18. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  19. Bacterial identification and subtyping using DNA microarray and DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Mossoba, Magdi M; Allard, Marc M; Lienau, E Kurt; Brown, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    The era of fast and accurate discovery of biological sequence motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is here. The co-evolution of direct genome sequencing and DNA microarray strategies not only will identify, isotype, and serotype pathogenic bacteria, but also it will aid in the discovery of new gene functions by detecting gene expressions in different diseases and environmental conditions. Microarray bacterial identification has made great advances in working with pure and mixed bacterial samples. The technological advances have moved beyond bacterial gene expression to include bacterial identification and isotyping. Application of new tools such as mid-infrared chemical imaging improves detection of hybridization in DNA microarrays. The research in this field is promising and future work will reveal the potential of infrared technology in bacterial identification. On the other hand, DNA sequencing by using 454 pyrosequencing is so cost effective that the promise of $1,000 per bacterial genome sequence is becoming a reality. Pyrosequencing technology is a simple to use technique that can produce accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA sequences with a great speed. The deposition of massive amounts of bacterial genomic information in databanks is creating fingerprint phylogenetic analysis that will ultimately replace several technologies such as Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. In this chapter, we will review (1) the use of DNA microarray using fluorescence and infrared imaging detection for identification of pathogenic bacteria, and (2) use of pyrosequencing in DNA cluster analysis to fingerprint bacterial phylogenetic trees.

  20. Solving the Mystery of Fading Fingerprints with London Dispersion Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; DeLorenzo, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the kidnapping of a child whose fingerprints were not found inside the crime vehicle. Discusses the investigation that followed and led to knowledge of the differences between the fingerprints of children and adults. (DDR)

  1. DNA fingerprinting approaches to trace Escherichia coli sharing between dogs and owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziri, Z; Derakhshandeh, A; Firouzi, R; Motamedifar, M; Shojaee Tabrizi, A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of cross-species sharing of Escherichia coli between healthy dogs and humans living in the same household. Two faecal E. coli isolates from 25 healthy dog-owner pairs and 16 healthy control humans were tested using three fingerprinting methods. The prevalence of within-household sharing of E. coli was 4, 8 and 8% using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR analyses respectively. Within-household bacterial sharing was more prevalent than across-household sharing (P fingerprinting techniques will help to find ways for reducing the economic impact of E. coli infections. This study support claims that public health concerns regarding the cross-species sharing of E. coli are warranted but this risk is minimal. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Fingerprinting Mobile Devices Using Personalized Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Apple removed access to various device hardware identifiers that were frequently misused by iOS third-party apps to track users. We are, therefore, now studying the extent to which users of smartphones can still be uniquely identified simply through their personalized device configurations. Using Apple’s iOS as an example, we show how a device fingerprint can be computed using 29 different configuration features. These features can be queried from arbitrary thirdparty apps via the official SDK. Experimental evaluations based on almost 13,000 fingerprints from approximately 8,000 different real-world devices show that (1 all fingerprints are unique and distinguishable; and (2 utilizing a supervised learning approach allows returning users or their devices to be recognized with a total accuracy of 97% over time

  3. Comparing Categorical and Probabilistic Fingerprint Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Brandon; Mitchell, Gregory; Scurich, Nicholas

    2018-04-23

    Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms. We studied model language developed by the U.S. Defense Forensic Science Center to summarize results of statistical analysis of the similarity between prints. Participant ratings of the likelihood the defendant left prints at the crime scene and committed the crime were similar when exposed to categorical and strong probabilistic match evidence. Participants reduced these likelihoods when exposed to the weaker probabilistic evidence, but did not otherwise discriminate among the prints assigned different match probabilities. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  5. Diversity of DNA fingerprints in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, A; Swinne, D; Staib, F; Bennett, J E; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1995-07-01

    DNA fingerprint patterns of 156 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates (26 AIDS patients, 46 non-AIDS patients, and 40 environmental sources) from both varieties (126 C. neoformans var. neoformans and 30 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates) and from seven countries were analyzed by using the DNA probe UT-4p. Nine and twelve distinct DNA fingerprint patterns were observed for isolates of the C. neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii, respectively. No pattern was unique to AIDS patients, non-AIDS patients, or the environment. Pattern II was observed more often in non-AIDS patients (8 of 23) than in AIDS patients (0 of 25). Pattern V was the most prevalent pattern (42 of 82) in clinical and environmental isolates. Isolates from three AIDS patients in Burundi and Zaire exhibited patterns identical to each other but different from those of isolates collected from their houses (i.e., dust of floors, walls, etc.) or a nearby pigeon coop. DNA fingerprint stability was determined for 53 isolates from nine non-AIDS patients at different time intervals during 5 to 128 weeks of antifungal therapy. For eight patients, the fingerprint pattern was stable while the ninth may have had a mixed infection. Pattern II was observed in 4 of 9 patients, which is similar to 4 of 14 in other non-AIDS patients as reported here. In spite of the extensive pattern heterogeneity among 15 C. neoformans var. gattii isolates in Australia, the patterns observed in seven California isolates were quite different from those in Australia. Among isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii, one fingerprint pattern (designated b) was observed in several countries of the Far East. The fingerprint patterns of two of three environmental isolates from Eucalyptus camaldulensis trees in Australia were identical to those of 2 of the 12 clinical isolates from the country.

  6. Fingerprint enhancement using a multispectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert K.; Nixon, Kristin A.

    2005-03-01

    The level of performance of a biometric fingerprint sensor is critically dependent on the quality of the fingerprint images. One of the most common types of optical fingerprint sensors relies on the phenomenon of total internal reflectance (TIR) to generate an image. Under ideal conditions, a TIR fingerprint sensor can produce high-contrast fingerprint images with excellent feature definition. However, images produced by the same sensor under conditions that include dry skin, dirt on the skin, and marginal contact between the finger and the sensor, are likely to be severely degraded. This paper discusses the use of multispectral sensing as a means to collect additional images with new information about the fingerprint that can significantly augment the system performance under both normal and adverse sample conditions. In the context of this paper, "multispectral sensing" is used to broadly denote a collection of images taken under different illumination conditions: different polarizations, different illumination/detection configurations, as well as different wavelength illumination. Results from three small studies using an early-stage prototype of the multispectral-TIR (MTIR) sensor are presented along with results from the corresponding TIR data. The first experiment produced data from 9 people, 4 fingers from each person and 3 measurements per finger under "normal" conditions. The second experiment provided results from a study performed to test the relative performance of TIR and MTIR images when taken under extreme dry and dirty conditions. The third experiment examined the case where the area of contact between the finger and sensor is greatly reduced.

  7. FINGERPRINT DETECTION AND RECOGNIZATION TECHNIQUES USING GABOR FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Verma*, Prof. Bhagwati Charan Patel

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints are most extensively and effectively appropriate for the proof of identity in present days. Mostly because of their uniqueness among the people, public acceptance, originality, stability through life, and their least risk of invasion. Fingerprint technology, which is basically a biometric system, is utilized to identify an individual based on their physical qualities. Fingerprint matching is the trendiest biometric method appropriate to provide authentication. Fingerprint verific...

  8. Interoperability between Fingerprint Biometric Systems: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, I.; Mason, S.; Lugini, L.; Marasco, E.; Cukic, B.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerprints are likely the most widely used biometric in commercial as well as law enforcement applications. With the expected rapid growth of fingerprint authentication in mobile devices their importance justifies increased demands for dependability. An increasing number of new sensors,applications and a diverse user population also intensify concerns about the interoperability in fingerprint authentication. In most applications, fingerprints captured for user enrollment with one device may...

  9. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  10. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  11. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  12. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the importance of the image processing of fingerprint images prior to image enrolment or comparison, the set of fingerprint images in databases (a) and (b) of the FVC (Fingerprint Verification Competition) 2000 database were analyzed using a features extraction algorithm. This paper presents the results of ...

  13. 8 CFR 1236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 1236.5... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every... photographed. Such fingerprints and photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law...

  14. Screen Fingerprints as a Novel Modality for Active Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Screen fingerprint is the new cyber biometric modality that we have proposed to measure and analyze active authentication. The screen finger ...as a new biometric modality for active authentication. Such a fingerprint is acquired by taking a screen recording of the computer being used and...extracting discriminative visual feature from the recording. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active authentication, screen fingerprints, biometrics 16. SECURITY

  15. An investigation on the problem of thinning in fingerprint processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reli abi lity and thus require additional ...

  16. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  17. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  18. Exploring innovative techniques for identifying geochemical elements as fingerprints of sediment sources in an agricultural catchment of Argentina affected by soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Astorga, Romina; de Los Santos Villalobos, Sergio; Velasco, Hugo; Domínguez-Quintero, Olgioly; Pereira Cardoso, Renan; Meigikos Dos Anjos, Roberto; Diawara, Yacouba; Dercon, Gerd; Mabit, Lionel

    2018-05-15

    Identification of hot spots of land degradation is strongly related with the selection of soil tracers for sediment pathways. This research proposes the complementary and integrated application of two analytical techniques to select the most suitable fingerprint tracers for identifying the main sources of sediments in an agricultural catchment located in Central Argentina with erosive loess soils. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed in the mid-infrared range (DRIFT-MIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) were used for a suitable fingerprint selection. For using DRIFT-MIR spectroscopy as fingerprinting technique, calibration through quantitative parameters is needed to link and correlate DRIFT-MIR spectra with soil tracers. EDXRF was used in this context for determining the concentrations of geochemical elements in soil samples. The selected tracers were confirmed using two artificial mixtures composed of known proportions of soil collected in different sites with distinctive soil uses. These fingerprint elements were used as parameters to build a predictive model with the whole set of DRIFT-MIR spectra. Fingerprint elements such as phosphorus, iron, calcium, barium, and titanium were identified for obtaining a suitable reconstruction of the source proportions in the artificial mixtures. Mid-infrared spectra produced successful prediction models (R 2  = 0.91) for Fe content and moderate useful prediction (R 2  = 0.72) for Ti content. For Ca, P, and Ba, the R 2 were 0.44, 0.58, and 0.59 respectively.

  19. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Castellano

    Full Text Available Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and

  20. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  1. Coupled cryoconite ecosystem structure-function relationships are revealed by comparing bacterial communities in alpine and Arctic glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Arwyn; Mur, Luis A. J.; Girdwood, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Cryoconite holes are known as foci of microbial diversity and activity on polar glacier surfaces, but are virtually unexplored microbial habitats in alpine regions. In addition, whether cryoconite community structure reflects ecosystem functionality is poorly understood. Terminal restriction...... revealed Proteobacteria were particularly abundant, with Cyanobacteria likely acting as ecosystem engineers in both alpine and Arctic cryoconite communities. However, despite these generalities, significant differences in bacterial community structures, compositions and metabolomes are found between alpine...... fragment length polymorphism and Fourier transform infrared metabolite fingerprinting of cryoconite from glaciers in Austria, Greenland and Svalbard demonstrated cryoconite bacterial communities are closely correlated with cognate metabolite fingerprints. The influence of bacterial-associated fatty acids...

  2. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Location Fingerprinting (LF) is a promising location technique for many awareness applications in pervasive computing. However, as research on LF systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed LF systems. Developers of LF systems are also lacking...

  3. Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous wireless clients measure signal strength differently. This is a fundamental problem for indoor location fingerprinting, and it has a high impact on the positioning accuracy. Mapping-based solutions have been presented that require manual and error-prone calibration for each new clie...

  4. Pseudo Identities Based on Fingerprint Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delvaux, Nicolas; Chabanne, Herve; Bringer, Julien; Kindarji, Bruno; Lindeberg, Patrik; Midgren, Johannes; Breebaart, Jeroen; Akkermans, Ton; van der Veen, M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kindt, Els; Simoens, Koen; Busch, Christoph; Bours, Patrick; Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Yang, Bian; Stern, Julien; Rust, Carsten; Cucinelli, Bruno; Skepastianos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integrated project TURBINE which is funded under the EU 7th research framework programme. This research is a multi-disciplinary effort on privacy enhancing technology, combining innovative developments in cryptography and fingerprint recognition. The objective of this project

  5. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  6. Genetic fingerprinting and phylogenetic diversity of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic fingerprinting of 18 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Nigeria using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was carried out. Ten out of 100 Operon primers showed polymorphism among the isolates tested generating 88 bands, 51 of which were polymorphic with sizes ranging between 200 and ...

  7. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  8. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Geochemical fingerprints and pebbles zircon geochronology: Implications for the provenance and tectonic setting of Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Zhucheng Basin (Jiaodong peninsula, North China). Jin-Long Ni Jun-Lai Liu Xiao-Ling Tang ...

  9. Protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin

    2007-01-01

      Peptide mass fingerprinting is an effective way of identifying, e.g., gel-separated proteins, by matching experimentally obtained peptide mass data against large databases. However, several factors are known to influence the quality of the resulting matches, such as proteins contaminating the s...

  10. Indoor Localization Accuracy Estimation from Fingerprint Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikitin, Artyom; Laoudias, Christos; Chatzimilioudis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    on arbitrary FMs coined ACCES. Our framework comprises a generic interpolation method using Gaussian Processes (GP), upon which a navigability score at any location is derived using the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Our approach does not rely on the underlying physical model of the fingerprint data. Our...

  11. Peptide Mass Fingerprinting of Egg White Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Lisa T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Use of advanced mass spectrometry techniques in the undergraduate setting has burgeoned in the past decade. However, relatively few undergraduate experiments examine the proteomics tools of protein digestion, peptide accurate mass determination, and database searching, also known as peptide mass fingerprinting. In this experiment, biochemistry…

  12. Collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting: a unified framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Trappe, Wade; Wang, Z. Jane; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2004-06-01

    Digital fingerprints are unique labels inserted in different copies of the same content before distribution. Each digital fingerprint is assigned to an inteded recipient, and can be used to trace the culprits who use their content for unintended purposes. Attacks mounted by multiple users, known as collusion attacks, provide a cost-effective method for attenuating the identifying fingerprint from each coluder, thus collusion poses a reeal challenge to protect the digital media data and enforce usage policies. This paper examines a few major design methodologies for collusion-resistant fingerprinting of multimedia, and presents a unified framework that helps highlight the common issues and the uniqueness of different fingerprinting techniques.

  13. Fingerprint and Face Identification for Large User Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Ko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the current biometric (fingerprint and face technology, lessons learned during the investigative analysis performed to ascertain the benefits of using combined fingerprint and facial technologies, and recommendations for the use of current available fingerprint and face identification technologies for optimum identification performance for applications using large user population. Prior fingerprint and face identification test study results have shown that their identification accuracies are strongly dependent on the image quality of the biometric inputs. Recommended methodologies for ensuring the capture of acceptable quality fingerprint and facial images of subjects are also presented in this paper.

  14. Magnetic fingerprint in marine sediments: clues from cultivated Magnetovibrio blakemorei and recent cores from Brazilian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovane, L.; Florindo, F.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Pellizari, V. H.; Brandini, F. P.; de Almeida, L. A.; Carneiro, F. R.; Braga, E. D.; Lins, U.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic properties (first order reversal curves, ferromagnetic resonance and decomposition of saturation remanent magnetization acquisition) of Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1, a marine magnetotactic bacterium, differ from those of other magnetotactic species from sediments deposited in lakes and marine habitats previously studied. This finding suggests that magnetite produced by some magnetotactic bacteria retains magnetic properties in relation to the crystallographic structure of the magnetic phase produced and thus might represent a 'magnetic fingerprint' for a specific magnetotactic bacterium. The technique used to determine this fingerprint is a non-destructive, new technology that might allow for the identification and presence of specific species or types of magnetotactic bacteria in certain environments such as sediment. We also show some preliminary results on the biogeochemical factors that control magnetotactic bacterial populations, documenting the environment and the preservation of bacterial magnetite, which dominates the palaeomagnetic signal throughout recent sediments from Brazilian Coast. We searched for magnetotactic bacteria in order to understand the ecosystems and environmental change related to their presence in sediments. We focused on studying the environmental conditions that allow for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes in sediments including determining magnetotactic bacterial populations in marine settings, measuring crucial nutrient availability in the water column and in sediments, and examining particulate delivery to the seafloor.

  15. Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers for fingerprint sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yipeng

    Fingerprint identification is the most prevalent biometric technology due to its uniqueness, universality and convenience. Over the past two decades, a variety of physical mechanisms have been exploited to capture an electronic image of a human fingerprint. Among these, capacitive fingerprint sensors are the ones most widely used in consumer electronics because they are fabricated using conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology. However, capacitive fingerprint sensors are extremely sensitive to finger contamination and moisture. This thesis will introduce an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a PMUT array, which offers a potential solution to this problem. In addition, it has the potential to increase security, as it allows images to be collected at various depths beneath the epidermis, providing images of the sub-surface dermis layer and blood vessels. Firstly, PMUT sensitivity is maximized by optimizing the layer stack and electrode design, and the coupling coefficient is doubled via series transduction. Moreover, a broadband PMUT with 97% fractional bandwidth is achieved by utilizing a thinner structure excited at two adjacent mechanical vibration modes with overlapping bandwidth. In addition, we proposed waveguide PMUTs, which function to direct acoustic waves, confine acoustic energy, and provide mechanical protection for the PMUT array. Furthermore, PMUT arrays were fabricated with different processes to form the membrane, including front-side etching with a patterned sacrificial layer, front-side etching with additional anchor, cavity SOI wafers and eutectic bonding. Additionally, eutectic bonding allows the PMUT to be integrated with CMOS circuits. PMUTs were characterized in the mechanical, electrical and acoustic domains. Using transmit beamforming, a narrow acoustic beam was achieved, and high-resolution (sub-100 microm) and short-range (~1 mm) pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging was demonstrated using a steel

  16. Dealing with Insufficient Location Fingerprints in Wi-Fi Based Indoor Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet of Things has accelerated research in the indoor location fingerprinting technique, which provides value-added localization services for existing WLAN infrastructures without the need for any specialized hardware. The deployment of a fingerprinting based localization system requires an extremely large amount of measurements on received signal strength information to generate a location fingerprint database. Nonetheless, this requirement can rarely be satisfied in most indoor environments. In this paper, we target one but common situation when the collected measurements on received signal strength information are insufficient, and show limitations of existing location fingerprinting methods in dealing with inadequate location fingerprints. We also introduce a novel method to reduce noise in measuring the received signal strength based on the maximum likelihood estimation, and compute locations from inadequate location fingerprints by using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Our experiment results show that our proposed method can achieve better localization performance even when only a small quantity of RSS measurements is available. Especially when the number of observations at each location is small, our proposed method has evident superiority in localization accuracy.

  17. Aging fingerprints in combustion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, V.; Mooser, R.; Tritscher, T.; Křepelová, A.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Dommen, J.; Watts, B.; Raabe, J.; Huthwelker, T.; Ammann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Soot particles can significantly influence the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation as well as by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, despite their environmental (as well as economic and political) importance, the way these properties are affected by atmospheric processing is still a subject of discussion. In this work, soot particles emitted from two different cars, a EURO 2 transporter, a EURO 3 passenger vehicle, and a wood stove were investigated on a single-particle basis. The emitted exhaust, including the particulate and the gas phase, was processed in a smog chamber with artificial solar radiation. Single particle specimens of both unprocessed and aged soot were characterized using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Comparison of the spectra from the unprocessed and aged soot particles revealed changes in the carbon functional group content, such as that of carboxylic carbon, which can be ascribed to both the condensation of secondary organic compounds on the soot particles and oxidation of primary soot particles upon photochemical aging. Changes in the morphology and size of the single soot particles were also observed upon aging. Furthermore, we show that the soot particles take up water in humid environments and that their water uptake capacity increases with photochemical aging.

  18. Fast probabilistic file fingerprinting for big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, Konstantin; Laur, Sven; Smant, Geert; Vilo, Jaak; Prins, Pjotr

    2013-01-01

    Biological data acquisition is raising new challenges, both in data analysis and handling. Not only is it proving hard to analyze the data at the rate it is generated today, but simply reading and transferring data files can be prohibitively slow due to their size. This primarily concerns logistics within and between data centers, but is also important for workstation users in the analysis phase. Common usage patterns, such as comparing and transferring files, are proving computationally expensive and are tying down shared resources. We present an efficient method for calculating file uniqueness for large scientific data files, that takes less computational effort than existing techniques. This method, called Probabilistic Fast File Fingerprinting (PFFF), exploits the variation present in biological data and computes file fingerprints by sampling randomly from the file instead of reading it in full. Consequently, it has a flat performance characteristic, correlated with data variation rather than file size. We demonstrate that probabilistic fingerprinting can be as reliable as existing hashing techniques, with provably negligible risk of collisions. We measure the performance of the algorithm on a number of data storage and access technologies, identifying its strengths as well as limitations. Probabilistic fingerprinting may significantly reduce the use of computational resources when comparing very large files. Utilisation of probabilistic fingerprinting techniques can increase the speed of common file-related workflows, both in the data center and for workbench analysis. The implementation of the algorithm is available as an open-source tool named pfff, as a command-line tool as well as a C library. The tool can be downloaded from http://biit.cs.ut.ee/pfff.

  19. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  20. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  1. Rapid identification of dairy lactic acid bacteria by M13-generated, RAPD-PCR fingerprint databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Lia; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2005-11-01

    About a thousand lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from dairy products, especially cheeses, were identified and typed by species-specific PCR and RAPD-PCR, respectively. RAPD-PCR profiles, which were obtained by using the M13 sequence as a primer, allowed us to implement a large database of different fingerprints, which were analysed by BioNumerics software. Cluster analysis of the combined RAPD-PCR fingerprinting profiles enabled us to implement a library, which is a collection of library units, which in turn is a selection of representative database entries. A library unit, in this case, can be considered to be a definable taxon. The strains belonged to 11 main RAPD-PCR fingerprinting library units identified as Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis. The possibility to routinely identify newly typed, bacterial isolates by consulting the library of the software was valued. The proposed method could be suggested to refine previous strain identifications, eliminate redundancy and dispose of a technologically useful LAB strain collection. The same approach could also be applied to identify LAB strains isolated from other food ecosystems.

  2. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  3. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  4. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  5. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  6. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-08-01

    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  7. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  8. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices.

  9. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  10. SURVEY ON E-FINGERPRINT TICKET

    OpenAIRE

    Zakkam Solomon; Meghana K M; Manjula; Roshini B

    2017-01-01

    Earlier work has demonstrated that when going in a transport the installment accomplished for ticket is with money .The transport ticket has such an installment figure which makes the voyager or the conductor shy of cash as far as change. This makes the conductor to keep the change with himself .This makes bother to the explorers. Subsequently there is a requirement for better workplace. To conquer this issue we are making utilization of fingerprints of the voyager which are connected to the ...

  11. Fingerprint matching algorithm for poor quality images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedpal Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to establish an efficient platform for fingerprint matching for low-quality images. Generally, fingerprint matching approaches use the minutiae points for authentication. However, it is not such a reliable authentication method for low-quality images. To overcome this problem, the current study proposes a fingerprint matching methodology based on normalised cross-correlation, which would improve the performance and reduce the miscalculations during authentication. It would decrease the computational complexities. The error rate of the proposed method is 5.4%, which is less than the two-dimensional (2D dynamic programming (DP error rate of 5.6%, while Lee's method produces 5.9% and the combined method has 6.1% error rate. Genuine accept rate at 1% false accept rate is 89.3% but at 0.1% value it is 96.7%, which is higher. The outcome of this study suggests that the proposed methodology has a low error rate with minimum computational effort as compared with existing methods such as Lee's method and 2D DP and the combined method.

  12. Laser speckle decorrelation for fingerprint acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Biometry is gaining popularity as a physical security approach in situations where a high level of security is necessary. Currently, biometric solutions are embedded in a very large and heterogeneous group of applications. One of the most sensible is for airport security access to boarding gates. More airports are introducing biometric solutions based on face, fingerprint or iris recognition for passenger identification. In particular, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric, and they are mandatorily included in electronic identification documents. One important issue, which is difficult to address in traditional fingerprint acquisition systems, is preventing contact between subsequent users; sebum, which can be a potential vector for contagious diseases. Currently, non-contact devices are used to overcome this problem. In this paper, a new contact device based on laser speckle decorrelation is presented. Our system has the advantage of being compact and low-cost compared with an actual contactless system, allowing enhancement of the sebum pattern imaging contrast in a simple and low-cost way. Furthermore, it avoids the spreading of contagious diseases. (paper)

  13. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M

    2007-07-04

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  14. A network identity authentication system based on Fingerprint identification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Bin; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liu, Yuan

    2005-10-01

    Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, most of the automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is not run via Internet/Intranet environment to meet today's increasing Electric commerce requirements. This paper describes the design and implementation of the archetype system of identity authentication based on fingerprint biometrics technology, and the system can run via Internet environment. And in our system the COM and ASP technology are used to integrate Fingerprint technology with Web database technology, The Fingerprint image preprocessing algorithms are programmed into COM, which deployed on the internet information server. The system's design and structure are proposed, and the key points are discussed. The prototype system of identity authentication based on Fingerprint have been successfully tested and evaluated on our university's distant education applications in an internet environment.

  15. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Saxifraga stolonifera Meerb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Dong Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprints and the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of aqueous extracts from Saxifraga stolonifera. The fingerprints of S. stolonifera from various sources were established by HPLC and evaluated by similarity analysis (SA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA. Nine samples were obtained from these 24 batches of different origins, according to the results of SA, HCA and the common chromatographic peaks area. A testosterone-induced mouse model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH was used to establish the anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities of these nine S. stolonifera samples. The model was evaluated by analyzing prostatic index (PI, serum acid phosphatase (ACP activity, concentrations of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT, prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP and type II 5α-reductase (SRD5A2. The spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities were investigated using Grey Correlation Analysis (GRA and partial least squares regression (PLSR. The results showed that a close correlation existed between the fingerprints and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia activities, and peak 14 (chlorogenic acid, peak 17 (quercetin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and peak 18 (quercetin 3-O-β-l-rhamno-pyranoside in the HPLC fingerprints might be the main active components against anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia. This work provides a general model for the study of spectrum-effect relationships of S. stolonifera by combing HPLC fingerprints with a testosterone-induced mouse model of BPH, which can be employed to discover the principle components of anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia bioactivity.

  16. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, Josphineleela; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric syste...

  17. Aspects of physicochemical methods for the detection of latent fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews physicochemical methods of detecting latent finger-prints on a wide range of materials commonly found at the scene of a crime, with particular emphasis placed on the newer autoradiographic techniques. This is set against a description of studies on the fundamental nature of the latent fingerprint and its host substrate, with a brief review of the history of reagents used in latent fingerprint examination. (author)

  18. Enhance Criminal Investigation by Proposed Fingerprint Recognition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.H.; Maolod, A.T.; Mohammad, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Law enforcement officers and forensic specialists spend hours thinking about how fingerprints solve crimes, and trying to find, collect, record and compare these unique identifiers that can connect a specific person to a specific crime. These individuals understand that a basic human feature that most people take for granted, can be one of the most effective tools in crime solving.This research exploits our previous work to be applicable in criminal investigation field. The present study aims to solve the advance crime by strength fingerprint’s criminal investigation to control the alterations happen intentionally to criminals’ fingerprint. That done by suggest strategy introduce an optimal fingerprint image feature’s vector to the person and then considers it to be stored in database for future matching. Selecting optimal fingerprint feature’s vector strategy deal with considering 10 fingerprints for each criminal person (take the fingerprint in different time and different circumstance of criminal such as finger is dirty, wet, trembling, etc.). Proposal begun with apply a proposed enrollment on all 10 fingerprint for each criminal, the enrollment include the following consequence steps; begin with preprocessing step for each of 10 images including enhancement, then two level of feature extraction (first level to extract arches, whorls, and loops, where second level extract minutiae), after that applying proposed Genetic Algorithm to select optimal fingerprint, master fingerprint, which in our point of view present the most universal image which include more detailed features to recognition. Master fingerprint will be feature’s vector which stored in database. Then apply the proposed matching by testing fingerprints with these stored in database.While, measuring of criminal fingerprint investigation performance by calculating False Reject Rate (FRR)and False Accept Rate (FAR) for the traditional system and the proposed in criminal detection field. The

  19. Network-based Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Mobile Device

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qihu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— Fingerprint-based user authentication is highly effective in networked services such as electronic payment, but conventional authentication solutions have problems in cost, usability and security. To resolve these problems, we propose a touch-less fingerprint authentication solution, in which a mobile device's built-in camera is used to capture fingerprint image, and then it is sent to the server to determine the identity of the user. We designed and implemented a prototype as an a...

  20. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  1. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Fingerprints as a Proxy for Readership of Sales Flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus J.; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2007-01-01

      Can readership of sales flyers and free newspapers be estimated by revealing fingerprints? In this paper we report the results of an empirical analysis based on 4604 flyer-pages conducted to assess the feasibility of the method. Results are encouraging, and indicate that the method presently may...... serve as a conservative estimate of readership. Advertising management may thus use the fingerprints-approach as an alternative audience measure and thereby assess the convergent validity of the traditional interview method and the fingerprint approach. While the fingerprint method appears valid...

  3. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  4. Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection Issue and Hardware based Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Memon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Securing an automated and unsupervised fingerprint recognition system is one of the most critical and challenging tasks in government and commercial applications. In these systems, the detection of liveness of a finger placed on a fingerprint sensor is a major issue that needs to be addressed in order to ensure the credibility of the system. The main focus of this paper is to review the existing fingerprint sensing technologies in terms of liveness detection and discusses hardware based ‘liveness detection’ techniques reported in the literature for automatic fingerprint biometrics.

  5. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  6. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%). © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  8. Impedance spectral fingerprint of E. coli cells on interdigitated electrodes: A new approach for label free and selective detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mallén-Alberdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Impedance-based biosensors for bacterial detection offer a rapid and cost-effective alternative to conventional techniques that are time-consuming and require specialized equipment and trained users. In this work, a new bacteria detection scheme is presented based on impedance measurements with antibody-modified polysilicon interdigitated electrodes (3 μm pitch, IDEs. The detection approach was carried out taking advantage of the E. coli structure which, in electrical terms, is constituted by two insulating cell membranes that separate a conductive cytoplasmatic medium and a more conductive periplasm. Impedance detection of bacteria is usually analyzed using electrical equivalent circuit models that show limitations for the interpretation of such complex cell structure. Here, a differential impedance spectrum representation is used to study the unique fingerprint that arises when bacteria attach to the surface of IDEs. That fingerprint shows the dual electrical behavior, insulating and conductive, at different frequency ranges. In parallel, finite-element simulations of this system using a three-shell bacteria model are performed to explain such phenomena. Overall, a new approach to detect bacteria is proposed that also enables to differentiate viable bacteria from other components non-specifically attached to the IDE surface by just detecting their spectral fingerprints. Keywords: Impedance spectroscopy, Bacterial detection, Interdigitated electrodes, Label-free detection, Immuno-detection, E. coli O157:H7

  9. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  10. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  11. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  12. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  13. A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazieres, Bertrand

    1997-12-01

    The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts which appear even at low compression rates. Therefore the FBI has chosen in 1993 a scheme of compression based on a wavelet transform, followed by a scalar quantization and an entropy coding : the so-called WSQ. This scheme allows to achieve compression ratios of 20:1 without any perceptible loss of quality. The publication of the FBI specifies a decoder, which means that many parameters can be changed in the encoding process: the type of analysis/reconstruction filters, the way the bit allocation is made, the number of Huffman tables used for the entropy coding. The first encoder used 9/7 filters for the wavelet transform and did the bit allocation using a high-rate bit assumption. Since the transform is made into 64 subbands, quite a lot of bands receive only a few bits even at an archival quality compression rate of 0.75 bit/pixel. Thus, after a brief overview of the standard, we will discuss a new approach for the bit-allocation that seems to make more sense where theory is concerned. Then we will talk about some implementation aspects, particularly for the new entropy coder and the features that allow other applications than fingerprint image compression. Finally, we will compare the performances of the new encoder to those of the first encoder.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  15. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  16. Nanotag luminescent fingerprint anti-counterfeiting technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Johansen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method to fabricate, transfer and validate via image processing nanofibre- based, unique security marks (“nanotags”) for anti-counterfeiting purposes. Epitaxial surface growth of oligophenylenes on a heated muscovite mica crystal results in a thin film of mutually aligned nanofibres....... This fingerprint can be transferred on an adhesive tape as a label of a product, imaged using low magnification microscopy, digitalised and stored in a database. Infrared surface heating, enforced cooling and load lock transfer makes the fabrication process fast and scalable to mass production....

  17. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  18. Security and matching of partial fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jea, Tsai-Yang; Chavan, Viraj S.; Govindaraju, Venu; Schneider, John K.

    2004-08-01

    Despite advances in fingerprint identification techniques, matching incomplete or partial fingerprints still poses a difficult challenge. While the introduction of compact silicon chip-based sensors that capture only a part of the fingerprint area have made this problem important from a commercial perspective, there is also considerable interest on the topic for processing partial and latent fingerprints obtained at crime scenes. Attempts to match partial fingerprints using singular ridge structures-based alignment techniques fail when the partial print does not include such structures (e.g., core or delta). We present a multi-path fingerprint matching approach that utilizes localized secondary features derived using only the relative information of minutiae. Since the minutia-based fingerprint representation, is an ANSI-NIST standard, our approach has the advantage of being directly applicable to already existing databases. We also analyze the vulnerability of partial fingerprint identification systems to brute force attacks. The described matching approach has been tested on one of FVC2002"s DB1 database11. The experimental results show that our approach achieves an equal error rate of 1.25% and a total error rate of 1.8% (with FAR at 0.2% and FRR at 1.6%).

  19. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprints and photographs. 236.5 Section... to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... photographs shall be made available to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies upon request to the...

  20. Teaching DNA Fingerprinting using a Hands-on Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thatcher

    1998-01-01

    Presents an inexpensive hands-on lesson in DNA fingerprinting that can be completed in a single class period. Involves students in solving a murder in which a drop of blood is fingerprinted and matched with the blood of the murderer. (DDR)

  1. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  2. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangita Bharkad

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... [6] Bazen A and Gerez S 2003 Fingerprint matching by thin- plate spline modeling of elastic deformations. Pattern. Recogn. 36(8): 1859–1867. [7] Jain A, Hong L and Bolle R 1997 On-line fingerprint veri- fication. IEEE Trans.

  3. DNA Fingerprinting Using PCR: A Practical Forensic Science Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Jung Hoon; Ko, Minsu

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a forensic science simulation programme applicable for use in colleges. Students were asked to find a putative suspect by DNA fingerprinting using a simple protocol developed in this study. DNA samples were obtained from a hair root and a drop of blood, common sources of DNA in forensic science. The DNA fingerprinting protocol…

  4. Fingerprint Recognition using Fuzzy Logic with Triangular Pattern Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A fingerprint is a pattern of ridges and valleys that exist on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint is typically determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge structures e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending, which are called minutiae...

  5. dna and seed proteins fingerprinting of egyptian crop plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Haddad

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... combinations were used for fingerprinting six cultivars which belongs to barley, rice and wheat cultivars leading to the production of numerous AFLP bands, 300 of them were polymorphic. Thirty SSR markers were obtained from fingerprinting eight cultivars belonging to the five studied species using 11.

  6. Friction ridge skin - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes the development and the forensic use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). AFISs were initially developed in order to overcome the limitations of the paper-based fingerprint collections, by digitizing the ten-print cards in computerized databases and to

  7. Utilizing AFIS searching tools to reduce errors in fingerprint casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenburg, Glenn; Hall, Carey; Rosemarie, Quincy

    2015-12-01

    Fifty-six (56) adjudicated, property crime cases involving fingerprint evidence were reviewed using a case-specific AFIS database tool. This tool allowed fingerprint experts to search latent prints in the cases against a database of friction ridge exemplars limited to only the individuals specific to that particular case. We utilized three different methods to encode and search the latent prints: automatic feature extraction, manual encoding performed by a student intern, and manual encoding performed by a fingerprint expert. Performance in the study was strongest when the encoding was conducted by the fingerprint expert. The results of the study showed that while the AFIS tools failed to locate all of the identifications originally reported by the initial fingerprint expert that worked the case, the AFIS tools helped to identify 7 additional latent prints that were not reported by the initial fingerprint expert. We conclude that this technology, when combined with fingerprint expertise, will reduce the number of instances where an erroneous exclusion could occur, increase the efficiency of a fingerprint unit, and be a useful tool for reviewing active or cold cases for missed opportunities to report identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong

    2011-06-01

    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  9. Rapid identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Martin; Rohde, Holger; Wolters, Manuel; Sobottka, Ingo; Wegscheider, Karl; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Early and adequate antimicrobial therapy has been shown to improve the clinical outcome in bloodstream infections (BSI). To provide rapid pathogen identification for targeted treatment, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry fingerprinting to bacteria directly recovered from blood culture bottles. A total of 304 aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, reported positive by a Bactec 9240 system, were subjected in parallel to differential centrifugation with subsequent mass spectrometry fingerprinting and reference identification using established microbiological methods. A representative spectrum of bloodstream pathogens was recovered from 277 samples that grew a single bacterial isolate. Species identification by direct mass spectrometry fingerprinting matched reference identification in 95% of these samples and worked equally well for aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Application of commonly used score cutoffs to classify the fingerprinting results led to an identification rate of 87%. Mismatching mostly resulted from insufficient bacterial numbers and preferentially occurred with Gram-positive samples. The respective spectra showed low concordance to database references and were effectively rejected by score thresholds. Spiking experiments and examination of the respective study samples even suggested applicability of the method to mixed cultures. With turnaround times around 100 min, the approach allowed for reliable pathogen identification at the day of blood culture positivity, providing treatment-relevant information within the critical phase of septic illness.

  10. [HPLC characteristic fingerprints of sedi linearis herba and sedi herba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan-Qing; Mei, Qing; Wan, Ding-Rong; Yang, Xin-Zhou; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Yu-Dan

    2014-04-01

    To study HPLC characteristic fingerprint of Sedum lineare from different harvest periods, and to compare with its related species Sedum sarmentosum. The HPLC fingerprints of Sedum lineare from different collecting periods were established and compared with Sedum sarmentosum by the same detection method. Hyperin, isoquercitrin and astragaloside were identified from the HPLC fingerprint of Sedum lineare. The fingerprint of Sedum lineare growing in the same area but different environment were basically identical; while there were remarkable differences of Sedum lineare growing in the same place but from different harvest periods, with the area of most common peaks changing from little to great, and slightly different peak number. The HPLC fingerprint of the two Sedum species had four common peaks, but could be distinguished from each other. The optimal harvest period of these two species should be full-bloom stage. The established method can provide reference for identification and quality analysis of Sedum lineare.

  11. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the “Big Five” personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs.

  12. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Wein; Lin, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yao-Lang; Kuo, Chia-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the “Big Five” personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs. PMID:29065556

  13. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  14. [Studies on fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by RP-HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Cui, Ya-jun; Guo, Hong-zhu; Guo, De-an

    2004-10-01

    To establish fingerprinting of Flos Buddleja by using RP-HPLC for the quality control. The HPLC condition was as follows: Inertsil ODS-3 C18 analytical column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm), gredient eluation with MeCN (0.1% TFA)-H2O (0.1%TFA), flow rate 1.0 mL x min(-1), detection wavelength 254 nm. 10 commercial samples were analyzed to establish a fingerprinting. Among the obtained fingerprinting, most of the detected peaks were separated effectively. The accuracy, repeatability and stability of this method were satisfied. The RSDs of relative retention time and area of aimed peaks which existed in all samples wereless than 5%. Theresults were in accordance with the request of fingerprinting. The established fingerprinting can be used for the quality control of Flos Buddleja.

  15. Fingerprint recognition system by use of graph matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Shen, Jun; Zheng, Huicheng

    2001-09-01

    Fingerprint recognition is an important subject in biometrics to identify or verify persons by physiological characteristics, and has found wide applications in different domains. In the present paper, we present a finger recognition system that combines singular points and structures. The principal steps of processing in our system are: preprocessing and ridge segmentation, singular point extraction and selection, graph representation, and finger recognition by graphs matching. Our fingerprint recognition system is implemented and tested for many fingerprint images and the experimental result are satisfactory. Different techniques are used in our system, such as fast calculation of orientation field, local fuzzy dynamical thresholding, algebraic analysis of connections and fingerprints representation and matching by graphs. Wed find that for fingerprint database that is not very large, the recognition rate is very high even without using a prior coarse category classification. This system works well for both one-to-few and one-to-many problems.

  16. Optical Methods in Fingerprint Imaging for Medical and Personality Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Wang, Jing-Wein; Lin, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yao-Lang; Kuo, Chia-Ming

    2017-10-23

    Over the years, analysis and induction of personality traits has been a topic for individual subjective conjecture or speculation, rather than a focus of inductive scientific analysis. This study proposes a novel framework for analysis and induction of personality traits. First, 14 personality constructs based on the "Big Five" personality factors were developed. Next, a new fingerprint image algorithm was used for classification, and the fingerprints were classified into eight types. The relationship between personality traits and fingerprint type was derived from the results of the questionnaire survey. After comparison of pre-test and post-test results, this study determined the induction ability of personality traits from fingerprint type. Experimental results showed that the left/right thumbprint type of a majority of subjects was left loop/right loop and that the personalities of individuals with this fingerprint type were moderate with no significant differences in the 14 personality constructs.

  17. MR fingerprinting reconstruction with Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodi; Zhou, Zechen; Chen, Shiyang; Chen, Shuo; Li, Rui; Hu, Xiaoping

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MR fingerprinting or MRF) is a newly introduced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique, which enables simultaneous multi-parameter mapping in a single acquisition with improved time efficiency. The current MRF reconstruction method is based on dictionary matching, which may be limited by the discrete and finite nature of the dictionary and the computational cost associated with dictionary construction, storage and matching. In this paper, we describe a reconstruction method based on Kalman filter for MRF, which avoids the use of dictionary to obtain continuous MR parameter measurements. With this Kalman filter framework, the Bloch equation of inversion-recovery balanced steady state free-precession (IR-bSSFP) MRF sequence was derived to predict signal evolution, and acquired signal was entered to update the prediction. The algorithm can gradually estimate the accurate MR parameters during the recursive calculation. Single pixel and numeric brain phantom simulation were implemented with Kalman filter and the results were compared with those from dictionary matching reconstruction algorithm to demonstrate the feasibility and assess the performance of Kalman filter algorithm. The results demonstrated that Kalman filter algorithm is applicable for MRF reconstruction, eliminating the need for a pre-define dictionary and obtaining continuous MR parameter in contrast to the dictionary matching algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology.

  19. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  20. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  1. Fingerprinting analysis of oil samples for inter-laboratory Round Robin, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.; Shang, D.; Losier, R.; Cook, A.

    2008-01-01

    The oil from an oil spill must undergo a complete chemical characterization in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to evaluate the extent of impact. A study was conducted to determine the ability of international analytical laboratories to independently conduct forensic oil analysis and identification. A Round Robin study was conducted in which advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to differentiate the types and sources of spilled oils. The participants of the Round Robin exercise were the Institute of Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA) in the Netherlands and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in Germany. In May 2007, 6 oil samples were distributed to the participants. In the artificial oil spill scenario, 2 oil samples were considered as candidate sources and the other 4 samples were labeled as spilled oils. No other information about these oils was provided before submission of final results. Chemical fingerprinting was carried out using gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry along with statistical data to determine the source of the spill. N-alkanes, alkylated polyaromatic hydrocarbons, biomarker terpanes and steranes and triaromatic steranes were normalized to C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane and then semi-quantitated. Thirty diagnostic ratios of target compounds were calculated from their peak heights and areas at selected ions. Results of the 2 source samples were compared with 4 spill samples. Tiered fingerprinting analysis revealed that source oil 1 was a non-match with spill samples 3 and 4, but a probable match with spill samples 5 and 6. Source sample 2 did not match any of the 4 spilled oils. A lack of background information essential to oil spill identification made it impossible to draw an unambiguous conclusion. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Fingerprinting analysis of oil samples for inter-laboratory Round Robin, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Shang, D. [Environment Canada, North Vancouver, BC (Canada). Pacific Environmental Science Centre; Losier, R.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The oil from an oil spill must undergo a complete chemical characterization in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to evaluate the extent of impact. A study was conducted to determine the ability of international analytical laboratories to independently conduct forensic oil analysis and identification. A Round Robin study was conducted in which advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to differentiate the types and sources of spilled oils. The participants of the Round Robin exercise were the Institute of Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA) in the Netherlands and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in Germany. In May 2007, 6 oil samples were distributed to the participants. In the artificial oil spill scenario, 2 oil samples were considered as candidate sources and the other 4 samples were labeled as spilled oils. No other information about these oils was provided before submission of final results. Chemical fingerprinting was carried out using gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry along with statistical data to determine the source of the spill. N-alkanes, alkylated polyaromatic hydrocarbons, biomarker terpanes and steranes and triaromatic steranes were normalized to C{sub 30} 17{alpha}(H)21{beta}(H)-hopane and then semi-quantitated. Thirty diagnostic ratios of target compounds were calculated from their peak heights and areas at selected ions. Results of the 2 source samples were compared with 4 spill samples. Tiered fingerprinting analysis revealed that source oil 1 was a non-match with spill samples 3 and 4, but a probable match with spill samples 5 and 6. Source sample 2 did not match any of the 4 spilled oils. A lack of background information essential to oil spill identification made it impossible to draw an unambiguous conclusion. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Development of Multichannel Artificial Lipid-Polymer Membrane Sensor for Phytomedicine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeon Md Shakaff

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of herbal medicines remain a challenging issue towardsintegrating phytomedicine into the primary health care system. As medicinal plants is acomplicated system of mixtures, a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method tocharacterize the chemical fingerprint of the plant without performing laborious samplepreparation procedure is reported. A novel research methodology based on an in-housefabricated multichannel sensor incorporating an array of artificial lipid-polymer membraneas a fingerprinting device for quality evaluation of a highly sought after herbal medicine inthe Asean Region namely Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali. The sensor array is based onthe principle of the bioelectronic tongue that mimics the human gustatory system throughthe incorporation of artificial lipid material as sensing element. The eight non-specificsensors have partially overlapping selectivity and cross-sensitivity towards the targetedanalyte. Hence, electrical potential response represented by radar plot is used to characterizeextracts from different parts of plant, age, batch-to-batch variation and mode of extraction ofE. longifolia through the obtained potentiometric fingerprint profile. Classification modelwas also developed classifying various E. longifolia extracts with the aid of chemometricpattern recognition tools namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principalcomponent analysis (PCA. The sensor seems to be a promising analytical device for qualitycontrol based on potentiometric fingerprint analysis of phytomedicine.

  4. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus crispatus Strain CTV-05 by Repetitive Element Sequence-Based PCR Analysis in a Pilot Study of Vaginal Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, May A. D.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the predominant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing species found in the vagina and is under development as a probiotic for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In this study, we assessed whether DNA fingerprinting by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) can be used to distinguish the capsule strain of L. crispatus (CTV-05) from other endogenous strains as well as other species of vaginal lactobacilli. Vaginal and rectal lactobacilli were identifie...

  5. Metabolic fingerprint of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Danuta; Zorawski, Marcin; Skotnicki, Mariusz; Zarzycki, Wieslaw; Kozlowska, Gabryela; Bibik-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Vallejo, María; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Ramos, M Pilar

    2014-05-30

    Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is causing severe short- and long-term complications for mother, fetus or neonate. As yet, the metabolic alterations that are specific for the development of GDM have not been fully determined, which also precludes the early diagnosis and prognosis of this pathology. In this pilot study, we determine the metabolic fingerprint, using a multiplatform LC-QTOF/MS, GC-Q/MS and CE-TOF/MS system, of plasma and urine samples of 20 women with GDM and 20 with normal glucose tolerance in the second trimester of pregnancy. Plasma fingerprints allowed for the discrimination of GDM pregnant women from controls. In particular, lysoglycerophospholipids showed a close association with the glycemic state of the women. In addition, we identified some metabolites with a strong discriminative power, such as LPE(20:1), (20:2), (22:4); LPC(18:2), (20:4), (20:5); LPI(18:2), (20:4); LPS(20:0) and LPA(18:2), as well as taurine-bile acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives. Finally, we provide evidence for the implication of these compounds in metabolic routes, indicative of low-grade inflammation and altered redox-balance, that may be related with the specific pathophysiological context of the genesis of GDM. This highlights their potential use as prognostic markers for the identification of women at risk to develop severe glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and, although diabetes usually remits after pregnancy, women with GDM have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2-diabetes, particularly when accompanied by obesity. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of GDM, as well as the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early diagnostic markers for GDM are relevant issues. In the present study, we devised a multiplatform metabolic fingerprinting approach to obtain a comprehensive picture of the early metabolic alternations that occur in GDM, and may

  6. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  7. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  9. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Berrar, Daniel; Sato, Naoyuki; Schuster, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  10. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  11. An Investigation on the Problem of Thinning in Fingerprint Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Omeiza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reliability and thus require additional minutiae-pruning stage to discard the erroneous minutiae in the obtained skeletons. The work involves a careful blending of some already existing algorithms to achieve optimal performance in thinning binarised fingerprint images. The algorithms considered are as follows. The "Zhang and Suen" parallel algorithm for thinning digital patterns, the improved parallel thinning algorithm by Holt and company and template-based thinning algorithm by Stentiford and Mortimer. The idea of combining these stand-alone algorithms to improve the quality of obtained objects skeleton in general image processing was first suggested in a text by Parker in 1998. However, his work does not specifically address the fingerprint problem. This work has examined and proves the plausibility of this thinning approach in the particular case of fingerprint application domain. The thinning procedure obtained satisfactory skeletons for fingerprint applications.

  12. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  13. Implementation of Minutiae Based Fingerprint Identification System Using Crossing Number Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. CHAUDHARI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which recognizes a person by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological (e.g., fingerprints, face, retina, iris or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature characteristic possessed by that person. Among all the presently employed biometric techniques, fingerprint identification systems have received the most attention due to the long history of fingerprints and its extensive use in forensics. Fingerprint is reliable biometric characteristic as it is unique and persistence. Fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the surface of fingertip. However, recognizing fingerprints in poor quality images is still a very complex job, so the fingerprint image must be preprocessed before matching. It is very difficult to extract fingerprint features directly from gray scale fingerprint image. In this paper we have proposed the system which uses minutiae based matching algorithm for fingerprint identification. There are three main phases in proposed algorithm. First phase enhance the input fingerprint image by preprocessing it. The enhanced fingerprint image is converted into thinned binary image and then minutiae are extracted by using Crossing Number Concept in second phase. Third stage compares input fingerprint image (after preprocessing and minutiae extraction with fingerprint images enrolled in database and makes decision whether the input fingerprint is matched with the fingerprint stored in database or not.

  14. Studies on Chromatographic Fingerprint and Fingerprinting Profile-Efficacy Relationship of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Perfoliati Herba is widely used in China with antibacterium, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antitumor, and antivirus activities. To reveal the mechanisms of the activities of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba, the relationship between the fingerprinting profile and its bioactivities was investigated. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC fingerprinting method was developed. The established method was applied to analyze 51 batches of Polygoni Perfoliati Herba samples collected from different locations or in different harvesting times in China. Chemometrics, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis, were used to express their similarities. It was found that similarity values of the samples were in the range of 0.432–0.998. The results of analgesic tests indicated that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba could significantly inhibit pain induced by hot plate and acetic acid in mice. The results of anti-inflammatory tests showed that Polygoni Perfoliati Herba had good anti-inflammatory effects (P < 0.01 in two models including dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced peritoneal permeability in mice. Combining the results from chromatographic fingerprints with those from bioactivities, we found that seven peaks from Polygoni Perfoliati Herba were mainly responsible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  15. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  16. The Ins and Outs of DNA Fingerprinting the Infectious Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David R.

    2000-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting methods have evolved as major tools in fungal epidemiology. However, no single method has emerged as the method of choice, and some methods perform better than others at different levels of resolution. In this review, requirements for an effective DNA fingerprinting method are proposed and procedures are described for testing the efficacy of a method. In light of the proposed requirements, the most common methods now being used to DNA fingerprint the infectious fungi are described and assessed. These methods include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), RFLP with hybridization probes, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and other PCR-based methods, electrophoretic karyotyping, and sequencing-based methods. Procedures for computing similarity coefficients, generating phylogenetic trees, and testing the stability of clusters are then described. To facilitate the analysis of DNA fingerprinting data, computer-assisted methods are described. Finally, the problems inherent in the collection of test and control isolates are considered, and DNA fingerprinting studies of strain maintenance during persistent or recurrent infections, microevolution in infecting strains, and the origin of nosocomial infections are assessed in light of the preceding discussion of the ins and outs of DNA fingerprinting. The intent of this review is to generate an awareness of the need to verify the efficacy of each DNA fingerprinting method for the level of genetic relatedness necessary to answer the epidemiological question posed, to use quantitative methods to analyze DNA fingerprint data, to use computer-assisted DNA fingerprint analysis systems to analyze data, and to file data in a form that can be used in the future for retrospective and comparative studies. PMID:10756003

  17. Genomic diversity among drug sensitive and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with identical DNA fingerprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Niemann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, is characterized by low sequence diversity making this bacterium one of the classical examples of a genetically monomorphic pathogen. Because of this limited DNA sequence variation, routine genotyping of clinical MTBC isolates for epidemiological purposes relies on highly discriminatory DNA fingerprinting methods based on mobile and repetitive genetic elements. According to the standard view, isolates exhibiting the same fingerprinting pattern are considered direct progeny of the same bacterial clone, and most likely reflect ongoing transmission or disease relapse within individual patients.Here we further investigated this assumption and used massively parallel whole-genome sequencing to compare one drug-susceptible (K-1 and one multidrug resistant (MDR isolate (K-2 of a rapidly spreading M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype clone from a high incidence region (Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. Both isolates shared the same IS6110 RFLP pattern and the same allele at 23 out of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci. We generated 23.9 million (K-1 and 33.0 million (K-2 paired 50 bp purity filtered reads corresponding to a mean coverage of 483.5 fold and 656.1 fold respectively. Compared with the laboratory strain H37Rv both Beijing isolates shared 1,209 SNPs. The two Beijing isolates differed by 130 SNPs and one large deletion. The susceptible isolate had 55 specific SNPs, while the MDR variant had 75 specific SNPs, including the five known resistance-conferring mutations.Our results suggest that M. tuberculosis isolates exhibiting identical DNA fingerprinting patterns can harbour substantial genomic diversity. Because this heterogeneity is not captured by traditional genotyping of MTBC, some aspects of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis could be missed or misinterpreted. Furthermore, a valid differentiation between disease relapse and exogenous reinfection might be impossible using

  18. Genomic diversity among drug sensitive and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with identical DNA fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Stefan; Köser, Claudio U; Gagneux, Sebastien; Plinke, Claudia; Homolka, Susanne; Bignell, Helen; Carter, Richard J; Cheetham, R Keira; Cox, Anthony; Gormley, Niall A; Kokko-Gonzales, Paula; Murray, Lisa J; Rigatti, Roberto; Smith, Vincent P; Arends, Felix P M; Cox, Helen S; Smith, Geoff; Archer, John A C

    2009-10-12

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is characterized by low sequence diversity making this bacterium one of the classical examples of a genetically monomorphic pathogen. Because of this limited DNA sequence variation, routine genotyping of clinical MTBC isolates for epidemiological purposes relies on highly discriminatory DNA fingerprinting methods based on mobile and repetitive genetic elements. According to the standard view, isolates exhibiting the same fingerprinting pattern are considered direct progeny of the same bacterial clone, and most likely reflect ongoing transmission or disease relapse within individual patients. Here we further investigated this assumption and used massively parallel whole-genome sequencing to compare one drug-susceptible (K-1) and one multidrug resistant (MDR) isolate (K-2) of a rapidly spreading M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype clone from a high incidence region (Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan). Both isolates shared the same IS6110 RFLP pattern and the same allele at 23 out of 24 MIRU-VNTR loci. We generated 23.9 million (K-1) and 33.0 million (K-2) paired 50 bp purity filtered reads corresponding to a mean coverage of 483.5 fold and 656.1 fold respectively. Compared with the laboratory strain H37Rv both Beijing isolates shared 1,209 SNPs. The two Beijing isolates differed by 130 SNPs and one large deletion. The susceptible isolate had 55 specific SNPs, while the MDR variant had 75 specific SNPs, including the five known resistance-conferring mutations. Our results suggest that M. tuberculosis isolates exhibiting identical DNA fingerprinting patterns can harbour substantial genomic diversity. Because this heterogeneity is not captured by traditional genotyping of MTBC, some aspects of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis could be missed or misinterpreted. Furthermore, a valid differentiation between disease relapse and exogenous reinfection might be impossible using standard

  19. Disease state fingerprint for fall risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla

    2014-01-01

    Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.

  20. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  1. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  2. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  3. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two- and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k-space. Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error Reson Med 76:1127-1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. A fingerprint classification algorithm based on combination of local and global information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongjin; Fu, Xiang; Bian, Junjie; Feng, Jufu

    2011-12-01

    Fingerprint recognition is one of the most important technologies in biometric identification and has been wildly applied in commercial and forensic areas. Fingerprint classification, as the fundamental procedure in fingerprint recognition, can sharply decrease the quantity for fingerprint matching and improve the efficiency of fingerprint recognition. Most fingerprint classification algorithms are based on the number and position of singular points. Because the singular points detecting method only considers the local information commonly, the classification algorithms are sensitive to noise. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprint classification algorithm combining the local and global information of fingerprint. Firstly we use local information to detect singular points and measure their quality considering orientation structure and image texture in adjacent areas. Furthermore the global orientation model is adopted to measure the reliability of singular points group. Finally the local quality and global reliability is weighted to classify fingerprint. Experiments demonstrate the accuracy and effectivity of our algorithm especially for the poor quality fingerprint images.

  5. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  6. Diversities in virulence, antifungal activity, pigmentation and DNA fingerprint among strains of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari S; Shrestha, Bishnu K; Han, Jae Woo; Groth, Donald E; Barphagha, Inderjit K; Rush, Milton C; Melanson, Rebecca A; Kim, Beom Seok; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the primary causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice. In this study, 11 naturally avirulent and nine virulent strains of B. glumae native to the southern United States were characterized in terms of virulence in rice and onion, toxofalvin production, antifungal activity, pigmentation and genomic structure. Virulence of B. glumae strains on rice panicles was highly correlated to virulence on onion bulb scales, suggesting that onion bulb can be a convenient alternative host system to efficiently determine the virulence of B. glumae strains. Production of toxoflavin, the phytotoxin that functions as a major virulence factor, was closely associated with the virulence phenotypes of B. glumae strains in rice. Some strains of B. glumae showed various levels of antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of sheath blight, and pigmentation phenotypes on casamino acid-peptone-glucose (CPG) agar plates regardless of their virulence traits. Purple and yellow-green pigments were partially purified from a pigmenting strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, and the purple pigment fraction showed a strong antifungal activity against Collectotrichum orbiculare. Genetic variations were detected among the B. glumae strains from DNA fingerprinting analyses by repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) for BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic (BOX) or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences of bacteria; and close genetic relatedness among virulent but pigment-deficient strains were revealed by clustering analyses of DNA fingerprints from BOX-and ERIC-PCR.

  7. FPRandom: Randomizing core browser objects to break advanced device fingerprinting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Laperdrix , Pierre; Baudry , Benoit; Mishra , Vikas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The rich programming interfaces (APIs) provided by web browsers can be diverted to collect a browser fingerprint. A small number of queries on these interfaces are sufficient to build a fingerprint that is statistically unique and very stable over time. Consequently, the fingerprint can be used to track users. Our work aims at mitigating the risk of browser fingerprinting for users privacy by 'breaking' the stability of a fingerprint over time. We add randomness in the...

  8. Targeting sediment management strategies using sediment quantification and fingerprinting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Phil; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective sediment management is required to reduce excessive delivery of fine sediment due to intensive land uses such as agriculture, resulting in the degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Prioritising measures to mitigate dominant sediment sources is, however, challenging, as sediment loss risk is spatially and temporally variable between and within catchments. Fluctuations in sediment supply from potential sources result from variations in land uses resulting in increased erodibility where ground cover is low (e.g., cultivated, poached and compacted soils), and physical catchment characteristics controlling hydrological connectivity and transport pathways (surface and/or sub-surface). Sediment fingerprinting is an evidence-based management tool to identify sources of in-stream sediments at the catchment scale. Potential sediment sources are related to a river sediment sample, comprising a mixture of source sediments, using natural physico-chemical characteristics (or 'tracers'), and contributions are statistically un-mixed. Suspended sediment data were collected over two years at the outlet of three intensive agricultural catchments (approximately 10 km2) in Ireland. Dominant catchment characteristics were grassland on poorly-drained soils, arable on well-drained soils and arable on moderately-drained soils. High-resolution (10-min) calibrated turbidity-based suspended sediment and discharge data were combined to quantify yield. In-stream sediment samples (for fingerprinting analysis) were collected at six to twelve week intervals, using time-integrated sediment samplers. Potential sources, including stream channel banks, ditches, arable and grassland field topsoils, damaged road verges and tracks were sampled, oven-dried (account for particle size and organic matter selectivity processes. Contributions from potential sources type groups (channel - ditches and stream banks, roads - road verges and tracks, fields - grassland and arable topsoils) were

  9. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, H; Segal, M R; Ponce de Leon, A; Small, P M

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is positively correlated for fragments within a lane, an align-and-count method that compensates for relative scaling of lanes reliably counts matching fragments between lanes. Results of a two-step method we developed to cluster identical fingerprints agree closely with 5 years of computer-assisted visual matching among 1,335 M. tuberculosis fingerprints. Fully documented and validated methods of automated comparison and clustering will greatly expand the scope of molecular epidemiology.

  10. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  11. An improved Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved Hough Transform based fingerprint alignment approach is presented, which improves computing time and memory usage with accurate alignment parameter (rotation and translation) results. This is achieved by studying the strengths...

  12. Chemical characterization of fingerprints from adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohanon, A. [Knoxville Police Dept., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Observation that children`s fingerprints disappear from surfaces more quickly than adults`, initiated a study to characterize the chemical components in fingerprints. Samples were obtained from about 50 individuals ranging in age from 3 to 64 by extracting chemicals from the fingertips using rubbing alcohol. Using combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, a wide range of compounds were identified. Samples from children contained higher levels of relatively volatile free fatty acids, while those from adults had higher levels of less volatile long chain esters of fatty acids. These esters are thought to originate from sebaceous glands located on the face and levels of these compounds increase substantially after puberty. Also, other compounds were observed that could be used to develop improved methods for fingerprint detection at a crime scene. Further, observation of specific compounds raises the possibility of being able to identify personal traits (gender, habits, diseases, etc. ) via analysis of components in fingerprints and/or skin.

  13. Development of quality control system for fingerprint comparison processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint evidence played an important role in investigation, prosecution, and trial process due to the belief of its uniqueness and unchanged characteristics. However, in recent years, the science behind the process of fingerprint comparisons has been questioned. Main research questions have been focusing on the opaqueness within the comparison processes, subjective judgments, lack of universal standards, no error rate expression on final conclusions, and poor scientific fundamental research data. Facing the above-mentioned questions, this paper aims to suggest a quality control system (QCS for fingerprint comparison processes. This QCS is based on the use of software (PiAnoS and its technological features, being able to provide a data management model to increase the transparency and quality of fingerprint comparison processes.

  14. Performance characterization of structured light-based fingerprint scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Wang, Minghao; Daley, Raymond C.

    2013-05-01

    Our group believes that the evolution of fingerprint capture technology is in transition to include 3-D non-contact fingerprint capture. More specifically we believe that systems based on structured light illumination provide the highest level of depth measurement accuracy. However, for these new technologies to be fully accepted by the biometric community, they must be compliant with federal standards of performance. At present these standards do not exist for this new biometric technology. We propose and define a set of test procedures to be used to verify compliance with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's image quality specification for Personal Identity Verification single fingerprint capture devices. The proposed test procedures include: geometric accuracy, lateral resolution based on intensity or depth, gray level uniformity and flattened fingerprint image quality. Several 2-D contact analogies, performance tradeoffs and optimization dilemmas are evaluated and proposed solutions are presented.

  15. SwyftTapp: An NFC based attendance system using fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we discuss the use of NFC technology coupled with fingerprint ... The Department of Computer Engineering, KNUST was used as the scope .... The software design of the project, as shown in Figure 3, involved three main ...

  16. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, C.; Rerkasem, B.; Teaumroong, N.; Sungthong, R.; Lumyong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice ...

  17. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they d...

  18. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Salamon, H.; Segal, M. R.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Small, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is ...

  19. Algorithm comparison for schedule optimization in MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ouri; Rosen, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    In MR Fingerprinting, the flip angles and repetition times are chosen according to a pseudorandom schedule. In previous work, we have shown that maximizing the discrimination between different tissue types by optimizing the acquisition schedule allows reductions in the number of measurements required. The ideal optimization algorithm for this application remains unknown, however. In this work we examine several different optimization algorithms to determine the one best suited for optimizing MR Fingerprinting acquisition schedules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human matching performance of genuine crime scene latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2014-02-01

    There has been very little research into the nature and development of fingerprint matching expertise. Here we present the results of an experiment testing the claimed matching expertise of fingerprint examiners. Expert (n = 37), intermediate trainee (n = 8), new trainee (n = 9), and novice (n = 37) participants performed a fingerprint discrimination task involving genuine crime scene latent fingerprints, their matches, and highly similar distractors, in a signal detection paradigm. Results show that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts were exceedingly accurate compared with novices. Experts showed a conservative response bias, tending to err on the side of caution by making more errors of the sort that could allow a guilty person to escape detection than errors of the sort that could falsely incriminate an innocent person. The superior performance of experts was not simply a function of their ability to match prints, per se, but a result of their ability to identify the highly similar, but nonmatching fingerprints as such. Comparing these results with previous experiments, experts were even more conservative in their decision making when dealing with these genuine crime scene prints than when dealing with simulated crime scene prints, and this conservatism made them relatively less accurate overall. Intermediate trainees-despite their lack of qualification and average 3.5 years experience-performed about as accurately as qualified experts who had an average 17.5 years experience. New trainees-despite their 5-week, full-time training course or their 6 months experience-were not any better than novices at discriminating matching and similar nonmatching prints, they were just more conservative. Further research is required to determine the precise nature of fingerprint matching expertise and the factors that influence performance. The findings of this representative, lab-based experiment may have implications for the way fingerprint examiners testify in

  1. Holistic processing of fingerprints by expert forensic examiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Macgregor D; Palmeri, Thomas J; Busey, Thomas A

    2017-01-01

    Holistic processing is often characterized as a process by which objects are perceived as a whole rather than a compilation of individual features. This mechanism may play an important role in the development of perceptual expertise because it allows for rapid integration across image regions. The present work explores whether holistic processing is present in latent fingerprint examiners, who compare fingerprints collected from crime scenes against a set of standards taken from a suspect. We adapted a composite task widely used in the face recognition and perceptual expertise literatures, in which participants were asked to match only a particular half of a fingerprint with a previous image while ignoring the other half. We tested both experts and novices, using both upright and inverted fingerprints. For upright fingerprints, we found weak evidence for holistic processing, but with no differences between experts and novices with respect to holistic processing. For inverted fingerprints, we found stronger evidence of holistic processing, with weak evidence for differences between experts and novices. These relatively weak holistic processing effects contrast with robust evidence for holistic processing with faces and with objects in other domains of perceptual expertise. The data constrain models of holistic processing by demonstrating that latent fingerprint experts and novices may not substantively differ in terms of the amount of holistic processing and that inverted stimuli actually produced more evidence for holistic processing than upright stimuli. Important differences between the present fingerprint stimuli and those in the literature include the lack of verbal labels for experts and the absence of strong vertical asymmetries, both of which might contribute to stronger holistic processing signatures in other stimulus domains.

  2. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  3. Incorporation of fungal cellulases in bacterial minicellulosomes yields viable, synergistically acting celluloytic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingardon, F.; Chanal, A.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Dray, C.; Bayer, E.A.; Fierobe, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial designer minicellulosomes comprise a chimeric scaffoldin that displays an optional cellulose-binding module (CBM) and bacterial cohesins from divergent species which bind strongly to enzymes engineered to bear complementary dockerins. Incorporation of cellulosomal cellulases from

  4. Evidence for Vertical Transmission of Bacterial Symbionts from Adult to Embryo in the Caribbean Sponge Svenzea zeai

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.; Chui, P. Y.; Wong, Y. H.; Pawlik, J. R.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    to progeny are largely unknown. In this study, both a 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprinting technique (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and clone library analysis were applied to compare the bacterial communities associated with adults and embryos

  5. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH 2 PO 4 -Na 2 HPO 4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-02-01

    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  7. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  8. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.

  9. Practical Fingerprinting Localization for Indoor Positioning System by Using Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the fields of smartphones and wireless communication technologies such as beacons, Wi-Fi, and ultra-wideband have made it possible to realize indoor positioning system (IPS with a few meters of accuracy. In this paper, an improvement over traditional fingerprinting localization is proposed by combining it with weighted centroid localization (WCL. The proposed localization method reduces the total number of fingerprint reference points over the localization space, thus minimizing both the time required for reading radio frequency signals and the number of reference points needed during the fingerprinting learning process, which eventually makes the process less time-consuming. The proposed positioning has two major steps of operation. In the first step, we have realized fingerprinting that utilizes lightly populated reference points (RPs and WCL individually. Using the location estimated at the first step, WCL is run again for the final location estimation. The proposed localization technique reduces the number of required fingerprint RPs by more than 40% compared to normal fingerprinting localization method with a similar localization estimation error.

  10. Fingerprint: A Unique and Reliable Method for Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Kumar Bose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster

  11. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tang, K.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Chang, L.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual`s DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et al. found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endonuclease sites can provide the basis for identification. The major steps for conventional DNA fingerprinting include (1) specimen processing (2) amplification of selected DNA segments by PCR, and (3) gel electrophoresis to do the final DNA analysis. In this work we propose to use laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA fingerprinting. The process and advantages are discussed.

  12. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  13. Bio-Inspired Assembly of Artificial Photosynthetic Antenna Complexes for Development of Nanobiodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    complexes involved in the primary reactions of bacterial photosynthesis . The structure of the reaction center (RC, the first membrane protein to have its...role in the primary process of purple bacterial photosynthesis that is, capturing light energy, transferring it to the RC where it is used in...immobilization LH2 LH1-RC AFM image of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane . Artificial domains of LH2 & LH1-RC with patterning substrate Modern

  14. Aging induced changes on NEXAFS fingerprints in individual combustion particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zelenay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soot particles can significantly influence the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation as well as by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, despite their environmental (as well as economic and political importance, the way these properties are affected by atmospheric processing of the combustion exhaust gases is still a subject of discussion. In this work, individual soot particles emitted from two different vehicles, a EURO 2 transporter, a EURO 3 passenger car, and a wood stove were investigated on a single-particle basis. The emitted exhaust, including the particulate and the gas phase, was processed in a smog chamber with artificial solar radiation. Single particle specimens of both unprocessed and aged soot were characterized using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS and scanning electron microscopy. Comparison of NEXAFS spectra from the unprocessed particles and those resulting from exhaust photooxidation in the chamber revealed changes in the carbon functional group content. For the wood stove emissions, these changes were minor, related to the relatively mild oxidation conditions. For the EURO 2 transporter emissions, the most apparent change was that of carboxylic carbon from oxidized organic compounds condensing on the primary soot particles. For the EURO 3 car emissions oxidation of primary soot particles upon photochemical aging has likely contributed as well. Overall, the changes in the NEXAFS fingerprints were in qualitative agreement with data from an aerosol mass spectrometer. Furthermore, by taking full advantage of our in situ microreactor concept, we show that the soot particles from all three combustion sources changed their ability to take up water under humid conditions upon photochemical aging of the exhaust. Due to the selectivity and sensitivity of the NEXAFS technique for the water mass, also small amounts of water taken up into the internal voids of agglomerated

  15. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  16. Website Fingerprinting Defenses at the Application Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubin Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Website Fingerprinting (WF allows a passive network adversary to learn the websites that a client visits by analyzing traffic patterns that are unique to each website. It has been recently shown that these attacks are particularly effective against .onion sites, anonymous web servers hosted within the Tor network. Given the sensitive nature of the content of these services, the implications of WF on the Tor network are alarming. Prior work has only considered defenses at the client-side arguing that web servers lack of incentives to adopt countermeasures. Furthermore, most of these defenses have been designed to operate on the stream of network packets, making practical deployment difficult. In this paper, we propose two application-level defenses including the first server-side defense against WF, as .onion services have incentives to support it. The other defense is a lightweight client-side defense implemented as a browser add-on, improving ease of deployment over previous approaches. In our evaluations, the server-side defense is able to reduce WF accuracy on Tor .onion sites from 69.6% to 10% and the client-side defense reduces accuracy from 64% to 31.5%.

  17. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey K; Curtis, Caitlin; Millar, Craig D; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-02-03

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic 'paradigm shifts' during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys' identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as 'DNA fingerprinting', also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys' invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys' pioneering work.

  18. Multiscale Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Eric Y.; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To reduce acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. Methods An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in-vivo data using the highly-undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. Results The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD) and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256×256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2s, representing a 3-fold reduction in acquisition time. Conclusions The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. PMID:26132462

  19. Fast group matching for MR fingerprinting reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Stephen F; Setsompop, Kawin; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ye, Huihui; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-08-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) is a technique for quantitative tissue mapping using pseudorandom measurements. To estimate tissue properties such as T1 , T2 , proton density, and B0 , the rapidly acquired data are compared against a large dictionary of Bloch simulations. This matching process can be a very computationally demanding portion of MRF reconstruction. We introduce a fast group matching algorithm (GRM) that exploits inherent correlation within MRF dictionaries to create highly clustered groupings of the elements. During matching, a group specific signature is first used to remove poor matching possibilities. Group principal component analysis (PCA) is used to evaluate all remaining tissue types. In vivo 3 Tesla brain data were used to validate the accuracy of our approach. For a trueFISP sequence with over 196,000 dictionary elements, 1000 MRF samples, and image matrix of 128 × 128, GRM was able to map MR parameters within 2s using standard vendor computational resources. This is an order of magnitude faster than global PCA and nearly two orders of magnitude faster than direct matching, with comparable accuracy (1-2% relative error). The proposed GRM method is a highly efficient model reduction technique for MRF matching and should enable clinically relevant reconstruction accuracy and time on standard vendor computational resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  1. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J A and J B and spin quantum numbers S A and S B , respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J C and spin quantum number S C . For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: → We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. → We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. → Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. → Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. → Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  2. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  3. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-09-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they differ. The average percent difference (APD) among pairwise combinations from the population of 33 unrelated cell lines was 76.9%, compared with the APD in band sharing among cell lines derived from the same individual (less than or equal to 1.2%). Included in this survey were nine additional cell lines previously implicated as HeLa cell derivatives, and these lines were clearly confirmed as such by DNA fingerprints (APD less than or equal to 0.6%). On the basis of fragment frequencies in the tested cell line population, a simple genetic model was developed to estimate the frequencies of each DNA fingerprint in the population. The median incidence was 2.9 X 10(-17), and the range was 2.4 X 10(-21) to 6.6 X 10(-15). This value approximates the probability that a second cell line selected at random from unrelated individuals will match a given DNA fingerprint. Related calculations address the chance that any two DNA fingerprints would be identical among a large group of cell lines. This estimate is still very slight; for example, the chance of two or more common DNA fingerprints among 1 million distinct individuals is less than .001. The procedure provides a straightforward, easily interpreted, and statistically robust method for identification and individualization of human cells.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of ...

  5. Minimally Naturalistic Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steven Stenberg

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement of machine learning techniques has re-energized research into general artificial intelligence. While the idea of domain-agnostic meta-learning is appealing, this emerging field must come to terms with its relationship to human cognition and the statistics and structure of the tasks humans perform. The position of this article is that only by aligning our agents' abilities and environments with those of humans do we stand a chance at developing general artificial intellig...

  6. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  7. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Summary Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiol...

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Bacterial Communities in Polluted Seabed Sediments: A Molecular Biology Assay in Leghorn Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Chiellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabed sediments of commercial ports are often characterized by high pollution levels. Differences in number and distribution of bacteria in such areas can be related to distribution of pollutants in the port and to sediment conditions. In this study, the bacterial communities of five sites from Leghorn Harbor seabed were characterized, and the main bacterial groups were identified. T-RFLP was used for all samples; two 16S rRNA libraries and in silico digestion of clones were used to identify fingerprint profiles. Library data, phylogenetic analysis, and T-RFLP coupled with in silico digestion of the obtained sequences evidenced the dominance of Proteobacteria and the high percentage of Bacteroidetes in all sites. The approach highlighted similar bacterial communities between samples coming from the five sites, suggesting a modest differentiation among bacterial communities of different harbor seabed sediments and hence the capacity of bacterial communities to adapt to different levels and types of pollution.

  11. Fingerprint segmentation: an investigation of various techniques and a parameter study of a variance-based method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint image segmentation plays an important role in any fingerprint image analysis implementation and it should, ideally, be executed during the initial stages of a fingerprint manipulation process. After careful consideration of various...

  12. Use of LH-PCR as a DNA fingerprint technique to trace sediment-associated microbial communities from various land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe-Strack, J. A.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    The search for new techniques to effectively and efficiently trace sediment from its source along catchment pathways continues, with a range of new methods being developed and tested annually. A relatively recent approach marries genetic techniques to sediment analysis in order to characterize and differentiate the bacterial populations associated with soil and/or sediment originating from specific locations. Here we present the preliminary results of DNA fingerprint profiles of soil and sediment-associated bacterial communities in and around two different industrial land uses in the central interior of British Columbia, a feedlot and a copper/gold mining site. We assessed the naturally varying 16S rDNA gene using amplicon length heterogeneity-polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR). Statistical differences between bacterial community profiles were investigated using a suite of methods of which non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis (ISA) were the most useful. Stronger statistical results were observed for the feedlot data set with spatial differences observed from the source location and within the adjacent creek. Results from the mine site were more difficult to assess although responses were detected in downstream waterways. While bacterial DNA fingerprinting of soil and sediment appears to be a promising tracing technique issues of scale and transferability may limit its use. Lessons learned from this preliminary study will be presented.

  13. Biomimicry of quorum sensing using bacterial lifecycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ben; Wang, Hong; Duan, Qiqi; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Recent microbiologic studies have shown that quorum sensing mechanisms, which serve as one of the fundamental requirements for bacterial survival, exist widely in bacterial intra- and inter-species cell-cell communication. Many simulation models, inspired by the social behavior of natural organisms, are presented to provide new approaches for solving realistic optimization problems. Most of these simulation models follow population-based modelling approaches, where all the individuals are updated according to the same rules. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain the diversity of the population. In this paper, we present a computational model termed LCM-QS, which simulates the bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) mechanism using an individual-based modelling approach under the framework of Agent-Environment-Rule (AER) scheme, i.e. bacterial lifecycle model (LCM). LCM-QS model can be classified into three main sub-models: chemotaxis with QS sub-model, reproduction and elimination sub-model and migration sub-model. The proposed model is used to not only imitate the bacterial evolution process at the single-cell level, but also concentrate on the study of bacterial macroscopic behaviour. Comparative experiments under four different scenarios have been conducted in an artificial 3-D environment with nutrients and noxious distribution. Detailed study on bacterial chemotatic processes with quorum sensing and without quorum sensing are compared. By using quorum sensing mechanisms, artificial bacteria working together can find the nutrient concentration (or global optimum) quickly in the artificial environment. Biomimicry of quorum sensing mechanisms using the lifecycle model allows the artificial bacteria endowed with the communication abilities, which are essential to obtain more valuable information to guide their search cooperatively towards the preferred nutrient concentrations. It can also provide an inspiration for designing new swarm intelligence optimization algorithms

  14. The mechanical fingerprint of murine excisional wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensalfini, Marco; Haertel, Eric; Hopf, Raoul; Wietecha, Mateusz; Werner, Sabine; Mazza, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    A multiscale mechanics approach to the characterization of murine excisional wounds subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is presented. Local strain analysis at a physiological level of tension uncovers the presence of two distinct regions within the wound: i) a very compliant peripheral cushion and ii) a core area undergoing modest deformation. Microstructural visualizations of stretched wound specimens show negligible engagement of the collagen located in the center of a 7-day old wound; fibers remain coiled despite the applied tension, confirming the existence of a mechanically isolated wound core. The compliant cushion located at the wound periphery appears to protect the newly-formed tissue from excessive deformation during the phase of new tissue formation. The early remodeling phase (day 14) is characterized by a restored mechanical connection between far field and wound center. The latter remains less deformable, a characteristic possibly required for cell activities during tissue remodeling. The distribution of fibrillary collagens at these two time points corresponds well to the identified heterogeneity of mechanical properties of the wound region. This novel approach provides new insight into the mechanical properties of wounded skin and will be applicable to the analysis of compound-treated wounds or wounds in genetically modified tissue. Biophysical characterization of healing wounds is crucial to assess the recovery of the skin barrier function and the associated mechanobiological processes. For the first time, we performed highly resolved local deformation analysis to identify mechanical characteristics of the wound and its periphery. Our results reveal the presence of a compliant cushion surrounding a stiffer wound core; we refer to this heterogeneous mechanical behavior as "mechanical fingerprint" of the wound. The mechanical response is shown to progress towards that of the intact skin as healing takes place. Histology and multiphoton microscopy

  15. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Chemical Fingerprinting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool in the chemical fingerprinting of materials. Any sample material that will interact with infrared light produces a spectrum and, although normally associated with organic materials, inorganic compounds may also be infrared active. The technique is rapid, reproducible and usually non-invasive to the sample. That it is non-invasive allows for additional characterization of the original material using other analytical techniques including thermal analysis and RAMAN spectroscopic techniques. With the appropriate accessories, the technique can be used to examine samples in liquid, solid or gas phase. Both aqueous and non-aqueous free-flowing solutions can be analyzed, as can viscous liquids such as heavy oils and greases. Solid samples of varying sizes and shapes may also be examined and with the addition of microscopic IR (microspectroscopy) capabilities, minute materials such as single fibers and threads may be analyzed. With the addition of appropriate software, microspectroscopy can be used for automated discrete point or compositional surface area mapping, with the latter providing a means to record changes in the chemical composition of a material surface over a defined area. Due to the ability to characterize gaseous samples, IR spectroscopy can also be coupled with thermal processes such as thermogravimetric (TG) analyses to provide both thermal and chemical data in a single run. In this configuration, solids (or liquids) heated in a TG analyzer undergo decomposition, with the evolving gases directed into the IR spectrometer. Thus, information is provided on the thermal properties of a material and the order in which its chemical constituents are broken down during incremental heating. Specific examples of these varied applications will be cited, with data interpretation and method limitations further discussed.

  17. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  18. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.; Schönlieb, C.-B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  19. Oriented diffusion filtering for enhancing low-quality fingerprint images

    KAUST Repository

    Gottschlich, C.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance low-quality fingerprint images, we present a novel method that first estimates the local orientation of the fingerprint ridge and valley flow and next performs oriented diffusion filtering, followed by a locally adaptive contrast enhancement step. By applying the authors\\' new approach to low-quality images of the FVC2004 fingerprint databases, the authors are able to show its competitiveness with other state-of-the-art enhancement methods for fingerprints like curved Gabor filtering. A major advantage of oriented diffusion filtering over those is its computational efficiency. Combining oriented diffusion filtering with curved Gabor filters led to additional improvements and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, the lowest equal error rates achieved so far using MINDTCT and BOZORTH3 on the FVC2004 databases. The recognition performance and the computational efficiency of the method suggest to include oriented diffusion filtering as a standard image enhancement add-on module for real-time fingerprint recognition systems. In order to facilitate the reproduction of these results, an implementation of the oriented diffusion filtering for Matlab and GNU Octave is made available for download. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  20. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  1. Semantically transparent fingerprinting for right protection of digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema, a new frontier and crown jewel of digital multimedia, has the potential of revolutionizing the science, engineering and business of movie production and distribution. The advantages of digital cinema technology over traditional analog technology are numerous and profound. But without effective and enforceable copyright protection measures, digital cinema can be more susceptible to widespread piracy, which can dampen or even prevent the commercial deployment of digital cinema. In this paper we propose a novel approach of fingerprinting each individual distribution copy of a digital movie for the purpose of tracing pirated copies back to their source. The proposed fingerprinting technique presents a fundamental departure from the traditional digital watermarking/fingerprinting techniques. Its novelty and uniqueness lie in a so-called semantic or subjective transparency property. The fingerprints are created by editing those visual and audio attributes that can be modified with semantic and subjective transparency to the audience. Semantically-transparent fingerprinting or watermarking is the most robust kind among all existing watermarking techniques, because it is content-based not sample-based, and semantically-recoverable not statistically-recoverable.

  2. Efficient and Secure Fingerprint Verification for Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiyama Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a secure and memory-efficient embedded fingerprint verification system. It shows how a fingerprint verification module originally developed to run on a workstation can be transformed and optimized in a systematic way to run real-time on an embedded device with limited memory and computation power. A complete fingerprint recognition module is a complex application that requires in the order of 1000 M unoptimized floating-point instruction cycles. The goal is to run both the minutiae extraction and the matching engines on a small embedded processor, in our case a 50 MHz LEON-2 softcore. It does require optimization and acceleration techniques at each design step. In order to speed up the fingerprint signal processing phase, we propose acceleration techniques at the algorithm level, at the software level to reduce the execution cycle number, and at the hardware level to distribute the system work load. Thirdly, a memory trace map-based memory reduction strategy is used for lowering the system memory requirement. Lastly, at the hardware level, it requires the development of specialized coprocessors. As results of these optimizations, we achieve a 65% reduction on the execution time and a 67% reduction on the memory storage requirement for the minutiae extraction process, compared against the reference implementation. The complete operation, that is, fingerprint capture, feature extraction, and matching, can be done in real-time of less than 4 seconds

  3. Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Storch, H. von; Hasselmann, K.; Santer, B.D.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a general fingerprint strategy to detect anthropogenic climate change and present application to near surface temperature trends. An expected time-space-variable pattern of anthropogenic climate change (the 'signal') is identified through application of an appropriate optimally matched space-time filter (the 'fingerprint') to the observations. The signal and the fingerprint are represented in a space with sufficient observed and simulated data. The signal pattern is derived from a model-generated prediction of anthropogenic climate change. Application of the fingerprint filter to the data yields a scalar detection variable. The statistically optimal fingerprint is obtained by weighting the model-predicted pattern towards low-noise directions. A combination of model output and observations is used to estimate the noise characteristics of the detection variable, arising from the natural variability of climate in the absence of external forcing. We test then the null hypothesis that the observed climate change is part of natural climate variability. We conclude that a statistically significant externally induced warming has been observed, with the caveat of a possibly inadequate estimate of the internal climate variability. In order to attribute this warming uniquely to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing, more information on the climate's response to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. changes in solar radiation, volcanic or anthropogenic aerosols) and their interaction is needed. (orig./KW)

  4. Ridge Width Correlations between Inked Prints and Powdered Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot-Feixat, Carme; Zapico, Sara C; Mancenido, Michelle; Broatch, Jennifer; Roberts, Katherine A; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Tasker, Jack

    2017-10-03

    A methodology to estimate the time of latent fingerprint deposition would be of great value to law enforcement and courts. It has been observed that ridge topography changes as latent prints age, including the widths of ridges that could be measured as a function of time. Crime suspects are commonly identified using fingerprint databases that contain reference inked tenprints (flat and rolled impressions). These can be of interest in aging studies as they provide baseline information relating to the original (nonaged) ridges' widths. In practice, the age of latent fingerprints could be estimated following a comparison process between the evidentiary aged print and the corresponding reference inked print. The present article explores possible correlations between inked and fresh latent fingerprints deposited on different substrates and visualized with TiO 2 . The results indicate that the ridge width of flat inked prints is most similar to fresh latent fingerprints , and these should be used as the comparison standard for future aging studies. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  6. Bacteriophages for detection of bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutateladze, M.

    2009-01-01

    The G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology (Tbilisi, Georgia) is one of the most famous institutions focused on bacteriophage research for the elaboration of appropriate phage methodologies for human and animal protection. The main direction of the institute is the study and production of bacteriophages against intestinal disorders (dysentery, typhoid, intesti) and purulent-septic infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pyophage, etc.). These preparations were successfully introduced during the Soviet era, and for decades were used throughout the former Soviet Union and in other Socialist countries for the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of various infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteriophages were widely used for identifying and detecting infections caused by the most dangerous pathogens and causative agents of epidemiological outbreaks. The specific topic of this presentation is the phage typing of bacterial species, which can be an important method for epidemiological diagnostics. Together with different genetic methodologies - such as PCR-based methods, PFGE, plasmid fingerprinting, and ribosomal typing - phage typing is one method for identifying bacterial pathogens. The method has a high percentage of determination of phage types, high specificity of reaction, and is easy for interpretation and use by health workers. Phage typing was applied for inter-species differentiation of different species of Salmonella, S. typhi, Brucella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, E. col,i Clostridium deficile, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, plant pathogens, and other bacterial pathogens. In addition to addressing the utility and efficacy of phage typing, the paper will discuss the isolation and selection of diagnostic typing phages for interspecies differentiation of pathogens that is necessary

  7. A High-Resolution LC-MS-Based Secondary Metabolite Fingerprint Database of Marine Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Liang

    2014-10-09

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Marine bacteria are the most widely distributed organisms in the ocean environment and produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. However, traditional screening for bioactive natural compounds is greatly hindered by the lack of a systematic way of cataloguing the chemical profiles of bacterial strains found in nature. Here we present a chemical fingerprint database of marine bacteria based on their secondary metabolite profiles, acquired by high-resolution LC-MS. Till now, 1,430 bacterial strains spanning 168 known species collected from different marine environments were cultured and profiled. Using this database, we demonstrated that secondary metabolite profile similarity is approximately, but not always, correlated with taxonomical similarity. We also validated the ability of this database to find species-specific metabolites, as well as to discover known bioactive compounds from previously unknown sources. An online interface to this database, as well as the accompanying software, is provided freely for the community to use.

  8. A High-Resolution LC-MS-Based Secondary Metabolite Fingerprint Database of Marine Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Jijie; Xu, Ying; Wang, Kailing; Hu, Yingwei; Tian, Renmao; Yang, Bo; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Weipeng; Shao, Zongze; Lam, Henry; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Marine bacteria are the most widely distributed organisms in the ocean environment and produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites. However, traditional screening for bioactive natural compounds is greatly hindered by the lack of a systematic way of cataloguing the chemical profiles of bacterial strains found in nature. Here we present a chemical fingerprint database of marine bacteria based on their secondary metabolite profiles, acquired by high-resolution LC-MS. Till now, 1,430 bacterial strains spanning 168 known species collected from different marine environments were cultured and profiled. Using this database, we demonstrated that secondary metabolite profile similarity is approximately, but not always, correlated with taxonomical similarity. We also validated the ability of this database to find species-specific metabolites, as well as to discover known bioactive compounds from previously unknown sources. An online interface to this database, as well as the accompanying software, is provided freely for the community to use.

  9. Fingerprint classification using a simplified rule-set based on directional patterns and singularity features

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of directional patterns has recently received more attention in fingerprint classification. It provides a global representation of a fingerprint, by dividing it into homogeneous orientation partitions. With this technique, the challenge...

  10. Secure fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zaki, Farzana; Wang, Yahui; Huang, Qiongdan; Mei, Xin; Wang, Jiangjun

    2017-03-10

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows noncontact acquisition of fingerprints and hence is a highly promising technology in the field of biometrics. OCT can be used to acquire both structural and microangiographic images of fingerprints. Microangiographic OCT derives its contrast from the blood flow in the vasculature of viable skin tissue, and microangiographic fingerprint imaging is inherently immune to fake fingerprint attack. Therefore, dual-modality (structural and microangiographic) OCT imaging of fingerprints will enable more secure acquisition of biometric data, which has not been investigated before. Our study on fingerprint identification based on structural and microangiographic OCT imaging is, we believe, highly innovative. In this study, we performed OCT imaging study for fingerprint acquisition, and demonstrated the capability of dual-modality OCT imaging for the identification of fake fingerprints.

  11. Damage invariant and high security acquisition of the internal fingerprint using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available representation they offer. Using an emerging fingerprint acquisition technology – optical coherence tomography – to access an internal fingerprint under the skin surface, this paper serves to address two limitations of conventional scanners: fingertip skin damage...

  12. Distortion analysis on binary representation of minutiae based fingerprint matching for match-on-card

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint matching on the smart card has long been developed and recognized faster method than fingerprint matching on a computer or large capacity systems. There has been much research and activities concerned with improving the accuracy...

  13. Evaluating the change of directional patterns for fingerprints with missing singular points under rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, Kribashnee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming small inter-class variation when fingerprints have missing singular points (SPs) is one of the current challenges faced in fingerprint classification, since class information is scarce. Grouping the orientation fields to form Directional...

  14. A clinical and bacteriologic investigation of invasive streptococcal infections in Japan on the basis of serotypes, toxin production, and genomic DNA fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, K; Ichiyama, S; Iinuma, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ooe, K; Shimizu, Y; Igarashi, H; Murai, T; Shimokata, K

    1997-08-01

    In a survey of invasive streptococcal infections in Japan, we analyzed isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes collected between 1992 and 1994. Genomic DNA fingerprints produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were compared by computer-assisted analysis. Conventional serologic M types were subdivided into PFGE types showing close genetic similarity. Among the 42 isolates from patients with invasive diseases, 16 PFGE types were identified and genetic diversity was clearly demonstrated. Identical fingerprints were observed in both invasive and noninvasive isolates. Only 43% of invasive isolates produced streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPE A), and 31% did not contain the speA gene. These findings suggest that the dissemination of a specific clone is not sufficient to explain all cases of these diseases in Japan and pose a question as to the role of SPE A as a major virulent factor. Bacterial factors other than SPE A and host factors should be considered in evaluation of the pathogenesis of the diseases.

  15. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  16. A novel hand-type detection technique with fingerprint sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Narishige; Shinzaki, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    In large-scale biometric authentication systems such as the US-Visit (USA), a 10-fingerprints scanner which simultaneously captures four fingerprints is used. In traditional systems, specific hand-types (left or right) are indicated, but it is difficult to detect hand-type due to the hand rotation and the opening and closing of fingers. In this paper, we evaluated features that were extracted from hand images (which were captured by a general optical scanner) that are considered to be effective for detecting hand-type. Furthermore, we extended the knowledge to real fingerprint images, and evaluated the accuracy with which it detects hand-type. We obtained an accuracy of about 80% with only three fingers (index, middle, ring finger).

  17. A STRONG SECURITY PROTOCOL AGAINST FINGERPRINT DATABASE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Latha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Biometric data is subject to on-going changes and create a crucial problem in fingerprint database. To deal with this, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information from the prohibited users. Here, a security protocol is proposed to protect the finger prints information. The proposed system comprised of three phases namely, fingerprint reconstruction, feature extraction and development of trigon based security protocol. In fingerprint reconstruction, the different crack variance level finger prints images are reconstructed by the M-band Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT. After that features are extracted by binarization. A set of finger print images are utilized to evaluate the performance of security protocol and the result from this process guarantees the healthiness of the proposed trigon based security protocol. The implementation results show the effectiveness of proposed trigon based security protocol in protecting the finger print information and the achieved improvement in image reconstruction and the security process.

  18. AIR-MRF: Accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher C; Chen, Xiao; Mailhe, Boris; Wang, Qiu; Pfeuffer, Josef; Nittka, Mathias; Griswold, Mark A; Speier, Peter; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2017-09-01

    Existing approaches for reconstruction of multiparametric maps with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) are currently limited by their estimation accuracy and reconstruction time. We aimed to address these issues with a novel combination of iterative reconstruction, fingerprint compression, additional regularization, and accelerated dictionary search methods. The pipeline described here, accelerated iterative reconstruction for magnetic resonance fingerprinting (AIR-MRF), was evaluated with simulations as well as phantom and in vivo scans. We found that the AIR-MRF pipeline provided reduced parameter estimation errors compared to non-iterative and other iterative methods, particularly at shorter sequence lengths. Accelerated dictionary search methods incorporated into the iterative pipeline reduced the reconstruction time at little cost of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beware of the possibility of fingerprinting techniques transferring DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Roland A H; Treadwell, Sally; Beaurepaire, James; Holding, Nicole L; Mitchell, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    Fingerprinting brushes have the potential to collect and transfer DNA during powdering. Squirrel-hair fingerprint brushes exposed to specific sets of saliva stains and brushes used in routine casework were tested for their ability to collect and transfer DNA containing material using standard DNA extraction procedures and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus amplification and typing procedures. The tests found that the risk of transferring DNA during powdering and having a detrimental impact on the analysis increases if the examiner powders over either biological stains (such as blood or saliva) or very fresh prints and uses more sensitive PCR amplification and typing procedures. We advocate caution when powdering prints from which DNA may also be collected and provide options for consideration to limit the risk of transferred DNA contamination while fingerprinting.

  20. Self-Organizing Maps for Fingerprint Image Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Tabassi, Elham; Makarov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification and iden......Fingerprint quality assessment is a crucial task which needs to be conducted accurately in various phases in the biometric enrolment and recognition processes. Neglecting quality measurement will adversely impact accuracy and efficiency of biometric recognition systems (e.g. verification...... machine learning techniques. We train a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster blocks of fingerprint images based on their spatial information content. The output of the SOM is a high-level representation of the finger image, which forms the input to a Random Forest trained to learn the relationship between...

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the remote detection of explosives at level of fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Palucci, A.; Lazic, V.; Menicucci, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Pistilli, M.; De Dominicis, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of some common military explosives and theirs precursors deposited on white varnished car's external and black car's internal or external plastic. The residues were deposited by an artificial silicon finger, to simulate material manipulation by terrorists when preparing a car bomb, leaving traces of explosives on the parts of a car. LIBS spectra were acquired by using a first prototype laboratory stand-off device, developed in the framework of the EU FP7 313077 project EDEN (End-user driven DEmo for CBRNe). The system operates at working distances 8-30 m and collects the LIBS in the spectral range 240-840 nm. In this configuration, the target was moved precisely in X-Y direction to simulate the scanning system, to be implemented successively. The system is equipped with two colour cameras, one for wide scene view and another for imaging with a very high magnification, capable to discern fingerprints on a target. The spectral features of each examined substance were identified and compared to those belonging to the substrate and the surrounding air, and those belonging to possible common interferents. These spectral differences are discussed and interpreted. The obtained results show that the detection and discrimination of nitro-based compounds like RDX, PETN, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea nitrate (UN) from organic interfering substances like diesel, greasy lubricants, greasy adhesives or oils in fingerprint concentration, at stand-off distance of some meters or tenths of meters is feasible.

  2. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of bacterial communities composition in Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.

    of Environmental Biology circleshadowdwnMay 2011circleshadowdwn Introduction The bacteria play a major role in carbon dynamics of marine ecosystems and, the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in marine ecosystem functioning is very well recognized (Azam et al..., 2008). Denaturing gradient gel-electrophoressis (DGGE) based fingerprinting helps estimate the numbers of dominant phylotype in a given sample (Muyzer et al., 1993). Very diverse bacterial assemblages such as those in the soils present many bands...

  3. Enhancement of plant metabolite fingerprinting by machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Vermeer, Cornelia P; Liakata, Maria; Corol, Delia I; Ward, Jane L; Lin, Wanchang; Johnson, Helen E; Whitehead, Lynne; Kular, Baldeep; Baker, John M; Walsh, Sean; Dave, Anuja; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A; Wang, Trevor L; King, Ross D; Draper, John; Beale, Michael H

    2010-08-01

    Metabolite fingerprinting of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with known or predicted metabolic lesions was performed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and flow injection electrospray-mass spectrometry. Fingerprinting enabled processing of five times more plants than conventional chromatographic profiling and was competitive for discriminating mutants, other than those affected in only low-abundance metabolites. Despite their rapidity and complexity, fingerprints yielded metabolomic insights (e.g. that effects of single lesions were usually not confined to individual pathways). Among fingerprint techniques, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance discriminated the most mutant phenotypes from the wild type and Fourier transform infrared discriminated the fewest. To maximize information from fingerprints, data analysis was crucial. One-third of distinctive phenotypes might have been overlooked had data models been confined to principal component analysis score plots. Among several methods tested, machine learning (ML) algorithms, namely support vector machine or random forest (RF) classifiers, were unsurpassed for phenotype discrimination. Support vector machines were often the best performing classifiers, but RFs yielded some particularly informative measures. First, RFs estimated margins between mutant phenotypes, whose relations could then be visualized by Sammon mapping or hierarchical clustering. Second, RFs provided importance scores for the features within fingerprints that discriminated mutants. These scores correlated with analysis of variance F values (as did Kruskal-Wallis tests, true- and false-positive measures, mutual information, and the Relief feature selection algorithm). ML classifiers, as models trained on one data set to predict another, were ideal for focused metabolomic queries, such as the distinctiveness and consistency of mutant phenotypes. Accessible software for use of ML in plant physiology is highlighted.

  4. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  5. Analysis of cellular and extracellular DNA in fingerprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    It has been previously shown that DNA can be recovered from latent fingerprints left on various surfaces [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. However, the source of the DNA, extracellular versus cellular origin, is difficult to determine. If the DNA is cellular, it is believed to belong to skin cells while extracellular DNA is believed to originate from body fluids such as sweat [D. J. Daly et. al, Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 6, 41-46 (2012); V. V. Vlassov et. al, BioEssays 29, 654-667 (2007)]. The origin of the DNA in fingerprints has implications for processing and interpretation of forensic evidence. The determination of the origin of DNA in fingerprints is further complicated by the fact that the DNA in fingerprints tends to be at a very low quantity [R. A. H. van Oorschot and M. K. Jones, Nature 387, 767 (1997)]. This study examined fingerprints from five volunteers left on sterilized glass slides and plastic pens. Three fingerprints were left on each glass slide (thumb, index, and middle fingers) while the pens were held as if one was writing with them. The DNA was collected from the objects using the wet swabbing technique (TE buffer). Following collection, the cellular and extracellular components of each sample were separated using centrifugation and an acoustofluidics system. Centrifugation is still the primary separation technique utilized in forensics laboratories, while acoustic focusing uses sound waves to focus large particles (cells) into low pressure nodes, separating them from the rest of the sample matrix. After separation, all samples were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The overall trend is that there is more DNA in the extracellular fractions than cellular fractions for both centrifugation and acoustofluidic processing. Additionally, more DNA was generally collected from the pen samples than the samples left on glass slides.

  6. Defense of fake fingerprint attacks using a swept source laser optical coherence tomography setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Breithaupt, Ralph; Koch, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    The most established technique for the identification at biometric access control systems is the human fingerprint. While every human fingerprint is unique, fingerprints can be faked very easily by using thin layer fakes. Because commercial fingerprint scanners use only a two-dimensional image acquisition of the finger surface, they can only hardly differentiate between real fingerprints and fingerprint fakes applied on thin layer materials. A Swept Source OCT system with an A-line rate of 20 kHz and a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 13 μm, a centre wavelength of 1320 nm and a band width of 120 nm (FWHM) was used to acquire fingerprints and finger tips with overlying fakes. Three-dimensional volume stacks with dimensions of 4.5 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm were acquired. The layering arrangement of the imaged finger tips and faked finger tips was analyzed and subsequently classified into real and faked fingerprints. Additionally, sweat gland ducts were detected and consulted for the classification. The manual classification between real fingerprints and faked fingerprints results in almost 100 % correctness. The outer as well as the internal fingerprint can be recognized in all real human fingers, whereby this was not possible in the image stacks of the faked fingerprints. Furthermore, in all image stacks of real human fingers the sweat gland ducts were detected. The number of sweat gland ducts differs between the test persons. The typical helix shape of the ducts was observed. In contrast, in images of faked fingerprints we observe abnormal layer arrangements and no sweat gland ducts connecting the papillae of the outer fingerprint and the internal fingerprint. We demonstrated that OCT is a very useful tool to enhance the performance of biometric control systems concerning attacks by thin layer fingerprint fakes.

  7. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  8. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  11. Charlas sobre inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, José Ramón; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Paz López, Félix de la

    2014-01-01

    Serie: Informática en Radio 3 La Inteligencia Artificial es una de las ciencias que causa mayor impacto en la sociedad, mucho más si tenemos en cuenta que cambiará el futuro de la humanidad. En España existen actualmente un nutrido grupo de equipos de investigación relacionados con las tecnologías de computación natural-artificial que aúnan sus esfuerzos a través de la RTNAC la Red Temática en Tecnologías de Computación Natural-Artificial . La UNED participa en todas sus actividades desde ...

  12. Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kipp W; Torres Soto, Jessica; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Shameer, Khader; Miotto, Riccardo; Ali, Mohsin; Ashley, Euan; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-06-12

    Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to influence nearly every aspect of the human condition, and cardiology is not an exception to this trend. This paper provides a guide for clinicians on relevant aspects of artificial intelligence and machine learning, reviews selected applications of these methods in cardiology to date, and identifies how cardiovascular medicine could incorporate artificial intelligence in the future. In particular, the paper first reviews predictive modeling concepts relevant to cardiology such as feature selection and frequent pitfalls such as improper dichotomization. Second, it discusses common algorithms used in supervised learning and reviews selected applications in cardiology and related disciplines. Third, it describes the advent of deep learning and related methods collectively called unsupervised learning, provides contextual examples both in general medicine and in cardiovascular medicine, and then explains how these methods could be applied to enable precision cardiology and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  14. Zone-based RSS Reporting for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Linnhoff–Popien, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In typical location fingerprinting systems a tracked terminal reports sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) values to a location server, which estimates its position based on a database of pre-recorded RSS fingerprints. So far, poll-based and periodic RSS reporting has been proposed. However......, for supporting proactive Location-based Services (LBSs), triggered by pre-defined spatial events, the periodic protocol is inefficient. Hence, this paper introduces zone-based RSS reporting: the location server translates geographical zones defined by the LBS into RSS-based representations, which are dynamically...

  15. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  16. Fingerprint-based structure retrieval using electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangye; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2011-03-01

    We present a computational approach that can quickly search a large protein structural database to identify structures that fit a given electron density, such as determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We use geometric invariants (fingerprints) constructed using 3D Zernike moments to describe the electron density, and reduce the problem of fitting of the structure to the electron density to simple fingerprint comparison. Using this approach, we are able to screen the entire Protein Data Bank and identify structures that fit two experimental electron densities determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Artificial intelligence executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamsley, S.J.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a high technology field that can be used to provide problem solving diagnosis, guidance and for support resolution of problems. It is not a stand alone discipline, but can also be applied to develop data bases for retention of the expertise that is required for its own knowledge base. This provides a way to retain knowledge that otherwise may be lost. Artificial Intelligence Methodology can provide an automated construction management decision support system, thereby restoring the manager's emphasis to project management

  18. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  19. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  20. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  1. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction......Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...

  2. Towards a complete rule-based classification approach for flat fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Webb, L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available fingerprints. This work implements an algorithm which includes new rules to account for more instances of flat fingerprints with missing singular points, specifically when the delta of a Right Loop or Left Loop fingerprint is not captured, when one of the loops...

  3. Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting: A Calibration-Free Solution for Handling Differences in Signal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Munk, Carsten Valdemar

    2008-01-01

    records fingerprints as signal-strength ratios between pairs of base stations instead of absolute signal-strength values. The proposed solution has been evaluated by extending two well-known location fingerprinting techniques to hyperbolic location fingerprinting. The extended techniques have been tested...

  4. Novel fingerprint re-alignment solution that uses the TFCP as a reference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , independent, and efficient for all types of fingerprints. It, in particular, is useful when dealing with the type of fingerprints that belong to the Plain Arch (PA) fingerprint class. The credibility of this proposed solution is interrogated through its...

  5. Performance analysis of a hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hybrid fingerprint is a local-quality-specific blend of the surface and internal fingerprints, extracted from optical coherence tomography scans. Owing to its origin, and the manner in which it is obtained, the Hybrid fingerprint is a high...

  6. Complexity and distortion analysis on methods for unrolling 3D to 2D fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and studies involve the application of three-dimensional (3D) fingerprint systems, where the details of the finger are captured using 3D technologies and the captured 3D fingerprints are converted into two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints. This paper presents a...

  7. Comparison of Powder Dusting and Cyanoacrylate Fuming Techniques in Retrieving Latent Fingerprint Exposed to Environment Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayalvanan, Y.; Sri Pawita Albakri Amir Hamzah; Chuan, L.L.; Muhamad Hilmi Baba; Amidon Anan

    2014-01-01

    Latent fingerprints are one of the best evidence to prove the presence of an individuals presence at the crime scene. There are many techniques available for a successful fingerprint lifting. Two of the most common ones are fingerprint powder dusting and cyanoacrylate fuming. This research aims to compare both techniques and determine which has a higher success rate in retrieving fingerprints exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. Fingerprint samples were collected from 18 subjects on glass, perspex and aluminium slides. These samples were then exposed to local environmental conditions for three days. The fingerprints were then developed using the aforementioned techniques. Based on the results, it can be safely said that, fuming results in clearer fingerprints and more minutiae can be found from the retrieved fingerprints even with exposure to less than optimum local conditions. This proves that fuming is a better fingerprint lifting method to resolve latent fingerprint compared to powder dusting. Surface on which the fingerprint is retrieved from influences the quality of clarity of a latent fingerprint. (author)

  8. Uniform Local Binary Pattern for Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Gaussian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition schemas are widely used in our daily life, such as Door Security, Identification, and Phone Verification. However, the existing problem is that fingerprint recognition systems are easily tricked by fake fingerprints for collaboration. Therefore, designing a fingerprint liveness detection module in fingerprint recognition systems is necessary. To solve the above problem and discriminate true fingerprint from fake ones, a novel software-based liveness detection approach using uniform local binary pattern (ULBP in spatial pyramid is applied to recognize fingerprint liveness in this paper. Firstly, preprocessing operation for each fingerprint is necessary. Then, to solve image rotation and scale invariance, three-layer spatial pyramids of fingerprints are introduced in this paper. Next, texture information for three layers spatial pyramids is described by using uniform local binary pattern to extract features of given fingerprints. The accuracy of our proposed method has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in fingerprint liveness detection. Experiments based on standard databases, taken from Liveness Detection Competition 2013 composed of four different fingerprint sensors, have been carried out. Finally, classifier model based on extracted features is trained using SVM classifier. Experimental results present that our proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy compared with other methods.

  9. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Simioni, Karen Christina Marques; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio Vaz

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments. PMID:24031244

  10. DNA-fingerprinting di stipiti di Chryseobacterium spp isolati da pazienti con Fibrosi Cistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Lambiase

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulmonary infections by Gram-negative bacteria, as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, are the major cause of morbidity in Cystic Fibrosis patients. In the past decade, several pathogens as Alcaligenes spp and no tuberculosis mycobacteria have been recovered in these patients. Bacteria of genus Chryseobacterium are widespread Gram-negative microrganisms and involved in human infections. Aims of this study were to value the isolation frequency of Chryseobacterium strains in a cohort of Cystic Fibrosis patients, to investigate their antimicrobial sensibility and to establish possible clonal likeness between strains. Methods:A retrospective study was undertaken between January 2003 and December 2005 on 300 patients receiving care at the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples University “Federico II”. Sputum samples were checked: for bacterial identification, selective media and commercial identification systems were used.The activity of antimicrobial agents was determined using diffusion and microdiluthion methods. For DNA-fingerprinting, a genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field electrophoresis was carried out. Results:A total of 26 strains from 17 patients were isolated (7 C. meningosepticum, 14 C. indologenes, 5 C. gleum. Strains were resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems; some were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Macrorestriction analysis showed substantial heterogeneity among strains. Conclusions: Actually, the prognostic role of Chryseobacterium in Cystic Fibrosis is unclear and although the small number of isolations, it is need to be on the look out regard such microorganisms. The considerable resistance implies difficulties on therapeutic approach. Results of DNA-fingerprinting indicate no evidence of clonal likeness and then of patient-to-patient spread.

  11. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  12. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  13. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  14. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  15. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  16. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  17. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  18. [HPTLC fingerprint analysis of andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jian-Gang; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Ding, Ping

    2014-02-01

    To establish the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint of andrographolides from Andrographis paniculata, and to valuate the fingerprint similarity of samples from different habitats, markets, used parts and so on. Chromatographic conditions were as follows: stationary phase: precoated HPTLC GF254 silica-gel plate (20 cm x 10 cm); developing solvent system: chloroform-toluene-methanol (80:10:15); Relative humidity: 42%; Color development reagent: 5% H2SO4 ethanolic solution, heating at 105 degrees C and observing the fluorescent chromatogram in a UV cabinet at 366 nm. The common patterns of HPTLC fingerprint were obtained through CHROMAP 1.5 solution software. The HPTLC fingerprint of andrographolides was consisted of 9 characteristic peaks (fluorescent bands) including andrographolide, neoandrographolide and dehydroandrographolide which were chemical reference substances. The investigation and analysis of 51 batches of Andrographis paniculata showed that there were remarkable differences among different samples, so was the content of andrographolide and total lactones. This method is simple and rapid, which can serve as an effective identification and quality assessment method for Andrographis paniculata.

  19. Pemanfaatan Biometric Fingerprint sebagai Media Pembayaran Transjakarta Berbasis Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Muhajir, Ahmad; Ristiyanti, Lia; Harsono, Shabrina Utami

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan lain dari sidik jari sebagaialternative media pembayaran berbasis uang elektronik pada Transjakarta. Penggunaan sidik jaridipilih karena sidik jari merupakan identitas manusia yang tidak dapat diganti atau dirubah. Padapenelitian ini menggunakan Deskriptif Studies karena bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaransecara sistematis dan akurat mengenai Pemanfaatan Biometric Fingerprint sebagai mediapemabayaran Transjakarta berbasis E-Money. Dalam me...

  20. Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Presence of Capable Intruders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana F.; Cardoso, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint liveness detection methods have been developed as an attempt to overcome the vulnerability of fingerprint biometric systems to spoofing attacks. Traditional approaches have been quite optimistic about the behavior of the intruder assuming the use of a previously known material. This assumption has led to the use of supervised techniques to estimate the performance of the methods, using both live and spoof samples to train the predictive models and evaluate each type of fake samples individually. Additionally, the background was often included in the sample representation, completely distorting the decision process. Therefore, we propose that an automatic segmentation step should be performed to isolate the fingerprint from the background and truly decide on the liveness of the fingerprint and not on the characteristics of the background. Also, we argue that one cannot aim to model the fake samples completely since the material used by the intruder is unknown beforehand. We approach the design by modeling the distribution of the live samples and predicting as fake the samples very unlikely according to that model. Our experiments compare the performance of the supervised approaches with the semi-supervised ones that rely solely on the live samples. The results obtained differ from the ones obtained by the more standard approaches which reinforces our conviction that the results in the literature are misleadingly estimating the true vulnerability of the biometric system. PMID:26102491

  1. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  2. Bayesian estimation of multicomponent relaxation parameters in magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Debra; Deshmane, Anagha; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-07-01

    To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown. Assuming that only a few entries from the dictionary contribute to a mixed signal, sparsity-promoting priors can be placed upon the solution. An iterative algorithm is applied to compute the maximum a posteriori estimator of the posterior probability density to determine the magnetic resonance fingerprinting dictionary entries that contribute most significantly to mixed or pure voxels. Simulation results show that the algorithm is robust in finding the component tissues of mixed voxels. Preliminary in vivo data confirm this result, and show good agreement in voxels containing pure tissue. The Bayesian framework and algorithm shown provide accurate solutions for the partial-volume problem in magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The flexibility of the method will allow further study into different priors and hyperpriors that can be applied in the model. Magn Reson Med 80:159-170, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. A preliminary study of DTI Fingerprinting on stroke analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heather T; Ye, Chenfei; Wu, Jun; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xuhui; Yang, Zhengyi; Ma, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging) is a well-known MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) technique which provides useful structural information about human brain. However, the quantitative measurement to physiological variation of subtypes of ischemic stroke is not available. An automatically quantitative method for DTI analysis will enhance the DTI application in clinics. In this study, we proposed a DTI Fingerprinting technology to quantitatively analyze white matter tissue, which was applied in stroke classification. The TBSS (Tract Based Spatial Statistics) method was employed to generate mask automatically. To evaluate the clustering performance of the automatic method, lesion ROI (Region of Interest) is manually drawn on the DWI images as a reference. The results from the DTI Fingerprinting were compared with those obtained from the reference ROIs. It indicates that the DTI Fingerprinting could identify different states of ischemic stroke and has promising potential to provide a more comprehensive measure of the DTI data. Further development should be carried out to improve DTI Fingerprinting technology in clinics.

  4. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursi, D; Ieven, M; van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No

  5. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since no information about the genome of C. pendulus is available, the current study deals with molecular investigation of C. pendulus expressed by DNA fingerprinting of the young leaves of this plant using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique with four primer combinations. The obtained results ...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  7. Combining smart lighting and radio fingerprinting for improved indoor localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaris, Loizos; Kokkinis, Akis; Liotta, Antonio; Stavrou, Stavros

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a hybrid indoor positioning system, which combines a minimal smart lighting deployment for Visible Light Positioning (VPL) purposes, with an IEEE 802.11 RSS Fingerprint-based Indoor Positioning System. Such a hybrid deployment improves the localization performance by utilizing the

  8. Similarity score computation for minutiae-based fingerprint recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, NP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses the factors that contribute to the similarity between two sets of minutiae points as well as the probability that two sets of minutiae points were extracted from fingerprints of the same finger. Minutiae...

  9. On the feasibility of device fingerprinting in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Kargl, Frank; Luiijf, Eric; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2013-01-01

    As Industrial Control Systems (ICS) and standard IT networks are becoming one heterogeneous entity, there has been an increasing effort in adjusting common security tools and methodologies to fit the industrial environment. Fingerprinting of industrial devices is still an unexplored research field.

  10. An investigation of face and fingerprint feature-fusion guidelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are a lack of multi-modal biometric fusion guidelines at the feature-level. This paper investigates face and fingerprint features in the form of their strengths and weaknesses. This serves as a set of guidelines to authors that are planning...

  11. Detection of cores in fingerprints with improved dimension reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    In this paper, we present a statistical approach to core detection in fingerprint images that is based on the likelihood ratio, using models of variation of core templates and randomly chosen templates. Additionally, we propose an alternative dimension reduction method. Unlike standard linear

  12. Cleaning and Processing RSS measurements for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Handling variations in sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) is neassary for achieving robust location fingerprinting (LF). Current research has only proposed limited system-specific models for how to handle the cleaning of RSS variations. However, this paper propose a novel model for both...

  13. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  14. Development and Validation of Improved Method for Fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an improved method by capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection for the fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). Methods: The optimum high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) conditions were 30 mM borax containing 5 ...

  15. Chemical fingerprint technique and its application in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gastrodia tuber and its active component, gastrodin, have many pharmacological effects. In this study, optimized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) parameters were employed to determine the chemical fingerprints and gastrodin content of nine Gastrodia tuber populations. Based on the degree of ...

  16. Atomistic fingerprint of hyaluronan-CD44 binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorio, Joni; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    that hyaluronan can bind CD44 with three topographically different binding modes that in unison define an interaction fingerprint, thus providing a plausible explanation for the disagreement between the earlier studies. Our results confirm that the known crystallographic mode is the strongest of the three binding...

  17. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer and to screen for protein molecules closely related to gastric cancer during the onset and progression of the disease using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Serum samples from 80 gastric ...

  18. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  19. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the

  20. DNA fingerprinting based on simple sequence repeat (SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New varieties of sugarcane are protected using morphological descriptors, which have limitations in identifying morphologically similar cultivars. Development of a reliable DNA fingerprint system for identification of new varieties would contribute greatly to the breeding of these species. Microsatellite markers are tools with ...

  1. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkuk Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC. To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger’s ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  2. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonkuk; Pi, Jae-Eun; Cho, Sung Haeung; Kang, Seung-Youl; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Jeon, Ho-Sik; Kim, Jong-Uk; Lee, Myunghee

    2018-01-19

    In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT) sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC) are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE) amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC). To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger's ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  3. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Tang, Kai; Taranenko, N. I.; Allman, S. L.; Ch'ang, L. Y.

    1994-10-01

    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual's DNA structure is identical within all tissues oftheir body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et aL2 found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. Take the Huntington gene as an example, there are CAG trinucleotide repeats. For normal people, the number of CAG repeats is usually between 10 and 40. Since people have chromosomes in pairs, the possibility oftwo individuals having the same VNTR in the Huntington gene is less than one percent, ifwe assume equal distribution for various repeats. When several allels containing VNTR are analyzed for the number of repeats, the possibility of two individuals being exactly identical becomes very unlikely. Thus, DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endornuclease sites can provide the basis for identification.

  4. CSI Frequency Domain Fingerprint-Based Passive Indoor Human Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive indoor personnel detection technology is now a hot topic. Existing methods have been greatly influenced by environmental changes, and there are problems with the accuracy and robustness of detection. Passive personnel detection based on Wi-Fi not only solves the above problems, but also has the advantages of being low cost and easy to implement, and can be better applied to elderly care and safety monitoring. In this paper, we propose a passive indoor personnel detection method based on Wi-Fi, which we call FDF-PIHD (Frequency Domain Fingerprint-based Passive Indoor Human Detection. Through this method, fine-grained physical layer Channel State Information (CSI can be extracted to generate feature fingerprints so as to help determine the state in the scene by matching online fingerprints with offline fingerprints. In order to improve accuracy, we combine the detection results of three receiving antennas to obtain the final test result. The experimental results show that the detection rates of our proposed scheme all reach above 90%, no matter whether the scene is human-free, stationary or a moving human presence. In addition, it can not only detect whether there is a target indoors, but also determine the current state of the target.

  5. PCR-DGGE fingerprints of microbial successional changes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR-DGGE fingerprints of microbial successional changes during fermentation of cereal-legume weaning foods. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Phenotypic identification and monitoring of the dynamics of naturally occurring microbial community responsible for the spontaneous fermentation of different cereal-legume ...

  6. 78 FR 33436 - 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 2013 Final Fee Rate and Fingerprint Fees AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... annual fee rates of 0.00% for tier 1 and 0.072% (.00072) for tier 2. These rates shall apply to all...

  7. Minutia-pair spectral representations for fingerprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanko, T.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new fixed-length representation of fingerprint minutiae, for use in template protection. It is similar to the `spectral minutiae' representation of Xu et al. but is based on coordinate differences between pairs of minutiae. Our technique has the advantage that it does not discard the

  8. Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Presence of Capable Intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Sequeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint liveness detection methods have been developed as an attempt to overcome the vulnerability of fingerprint biometric systems to spoofing attacks. Traditional approaches have been quite optimistic about the behavior of the intruder assuming the use of a previously known material. This assumption has led to the use of supervised techniques to estimate the performance of the methods, using both live and spoof samples to train the predictive models and evaluate each type of fake samples individually. Additionally, the background was often included in the sample representation, completely distorting the decision process. Therefore, we propose that an automatic segmentation step should be performed to isolate the fingerprint from the background and truly decide on the liveness of the fingerprint and not on the characteristics of the background. Also, we argue that one cannot aim to model the fake samples completely since the material used by the intruder is unknown beforehand. We approach the design by modeling the distribution of the live samples and predicting as fake the samples very unlikely according to that model. Our experiments compare the performance of the supervised approaches with the semi-supervised ones that rely solely on the live samples. The results obtained differ from the ones obtained by the more standard approaches which reinforces our conviction that the results in the literature are misleadingly estimating the true vulnerability of the biometric system.

  9. Fingerprint motifs of phytases | Fan | African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the total of potential 173 phytases gained in 11 plant genomes through MAST, PAPhys are the major phytases, and HAPhys are the minor, and other phytase groups are not found in planta. Keywords: Phytase, fingerprint motif, multiple EM for motif elicitation (MEME), MAST African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  10. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers using time warping and PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Hansen, Asger B.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers is described. The method consists of GC-MS analysis, preprocessing of GC-MS chromatograms, and principal component analysis (PCA) of selected regions. The preprocessing consists of baseline removal by derivatization, normalization...

  11. SSR marker based DNA fingerprinting and diversity study in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting of 15 elite rice genotypes using 30 SSR primers on chromosome numbers 7-12 was investigated. The results revealed that all the primers showed distinct polymorphism among the cultivars studied indicating the robust nature of microsatellites in revealing polymorphism. Cluster ...

  12. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  13. A Fingerprint Encryption Scheme Based on Irreversible Function and Secure Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fingerprint encryption scheme based on irreversible function has been designed in this paper. Since the fingerprint template includes almost the entire information of users’ fingerprints, the personal authentication can be determined only by the fingerprint features. This paper proposes an irreversible transforming function (using the improved SHA1 algorithm to transform the original minutiae which are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image. Then, Chinese remainder theorem is used to obtain the biokey from the integration of the transformed minutiae and the private key. The result shows that the scheme has better performance on security and efficiency comparing with other irreversible function schemes.

  14. Two-dimensional fingerprinting approach for comparison of complex substances analysed by HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Liu, Ying; Kokot, Serge

    2011-02-07

    This work is concerned with the research and development of methodology for analysis of complex mixtures such as pharmaceutical or food samples, which contain many analytes. Variously treated samples (swill washed, fried and scorched) of the Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (RAM) traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as well as the common substitute, Rhizoma atractylodis (RA) TCM were chosen as examples for analysis. A combined data matrix of chromatographic 2-D HPLC-DAD-FLD (two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detectors) fingerprint profiles was constructed with the use of the HPLC-DAD and HPLC-FLD individual data matrices; the purpose was to collect maximum information and to interpret this complex data with the use of various chemometrics methods e.g. the rank-ordering multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) PROMETHEE and GAIA, K-nearest neighbours (KNN), partial least squares (PLS), back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) methods. The chemometrics analysis demonstrated that the combined 2-D HPLC-DAD-FLD data matrix does indeed provide more information and facilitates better performing classification/prediction models for the analysis of such complex samples as the RAM and RA ones noted above. It is suggested that this fingerprint approach is suitable for analysis of other complex, multi-analyte substances.

  15. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-07-01

    To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. © 2014 The Authors. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Methods and Results Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Conclusions Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. Significance and Importance of the Study This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. PMID:24712449

  17. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  18. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H P; Ramseyer, J P; Grange, W; Braun, T; Schmid, D; Hunziker, P; Jung, C; Hegner, M; Gerber, C

    2007-01-01

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples

  19. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, H P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ramseyer, J P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Grange, W [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Braun, T [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, D [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hunziker, P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Jung, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hegner, M [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gerber, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples.

  20. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017