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Sample records for finger maze learning

  1. Maze Navigation by Honeybees: Learning Path Regularity

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    Zhang, Shaowu; Mizutani, Akiko; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the ability of honeybees to learn mazes of four types: constant-turn mazes, in which the appropriate turn is always in the same direction in each decision chamber; zig-zag mazes, in which the appropriate turn is alternately left and right in successive decision chambers; irregular mazes, in which there is no readily apparent pattern to the turns; and variable irregular mazes, in which the bees were trained to learn several irregular mazes simultaneously. The bees were able to learn to navigate all four types of maze. Performance was best in the constant-turn mazes, somewhat poorer in the zig-zag mazes, poorer still in the irregular mazes, and poorest in the variable irregular mazes. These results demonstrate that bees do not navigate such mazes simply by memorizing the entire sequence of appropriate turns. Rather, performance in the various configurations depends on the existence of regularity in the structure of the maze and on the ease with which this regularity is recognized and learned. PMID:11112795

  2. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

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    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  3. A Hierarchical Maze Navigation Algorithm with Reinforcement Learning and Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannucci, T.; van Kampen, E.; Jin, Y; Kollias, S.

    2016-01-01

    Goal-finding in an unknown maze is a challenging problem for a Reinforcement Learning agent, because the corresponding state space can be large if not intractable, and the agent does not usually have a model of the environment. Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning has been shown in the past to

  4. Behavior and spatial learning in radial mazes in birds.

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    Pleskacheva, M G

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses studies of spatial memory and learning in birds performed using the radial maze method. Descriptions of different versions of this test (standard and "giant" tunnel-type mazes, as well as unstructured "analogs") are described and the methodological problems of testing birds are discussed. Behavioral measures from birds and laboratory rats, as the "standard" system for radial maze studies, are compared. The characteristics of spatial learning in birds of different systematic groups (pigeons, tits, corvids, chickens, etc.) are compared. Particular attention is paid to studies addressing spatial memory in closely related bird species with different ecological features, in terms of the ability to hoard food and finding their hoards after prolonged time periods, as well as to the few reports of results from experiments with migrant birds and homing pigeons.

  5. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system

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    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  6. Second Language Learning with the Story Maze Task: Examining the Training Effect of Weaving through Stories

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    Enkin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The maze task is a psycholinguistic experimental procedure that measures real-time incremental sentence processing. The task has recently been tested as a language learning tool with promising results. Therefore, the present study examines the merits of a contextualized version of this task: the story maze. The findings are consistent with…

  7. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

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    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  8. Impaired water maze learning performance in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

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    Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Yan, Ji-Jing; Song, Dong-Keun; Loh, Horace H; Ho, Ing K

    2003-09-10

    Previous study has demonstrated that the lack of mu-opioid receptor decreased LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting the possibility that the lack of mu-opioid receptor may accompany a change in learning and memory. However, no behavioral study has been undertaken to correlate LTP deficits with spatial memory impairment in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Therefore, the present study investigated the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors contribute to learning and memory by using the Morris water maze, and comparing responses in wild type and mu-opioid receptor gene knockout mice. Our results indicated that mu-opioid receptor knockout mice showed a significant spatial memory impairment compared to wild type in the Morris water maze. This result suggests that the expression of mu-opioid receptor plays an important role in spatial learning and memory examined by Morris water maze.

  9. Maze Surgery

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    ... Center > Maze Surgery Menu Topics Topics FAQs Maze Surgery Article Info En español Electrical impulses in your ... called an arrhythmia. Why do I need Maze surgery? Maze surgery is also called the Maze procedure. ...

  10. Fractal dimensions: A new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning using Morris water maze.

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    Singh, Surjeet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-02-15

    Morris water maze has been widely used for analysis of cognitive functions and relies on the time taken by animal to find the platform i.e. escape latency as a parameter to quantify spatial memory and learning. However, escape latency is confounded by swimming speed which is not necessarily a cognitive factor. Rather, path length may be a more appropriate and reliable parameter to assess spatial learning. This paper presents fractal dimension as a new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning in animals. Male wistar rats were administrated with pentylenetetrazole and scopolamine to induce chronic epilepsy and dementia respectively. Fractal dimension of the random path followed by the animals on Morris water maze was analyzed and statistically compared among different experimental groups; the results suggest that fractal dimension is more reliable and accurate parameter to assess cognitive deficits compared to escape latency. Thus, the present study suggests that fractal dimensions could be used as an independent parameter to assess spatial memory and learning in animals using Morris water maze. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of rolipram and zaprinast on learning and memory in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze tests in naive mice.

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    Akar, F; Mutlu, O; Celikyurt, I K; Ulak, G; Erden, F; Bektas, E; Tanyeri, P

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE) improved recognition memory and counteracted spatial learning impairment induced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in recent studies. Aim of this study was to investigate effects of rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor and zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, on learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) and radial arm maze (RAM) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated subchronically with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for 6 days in the MWM test and acutely before the retention trial of radial arm maze test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency between 2(nd) and 5(th) sessions, while zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency only in 2(nd) session. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in escape platform's quadrant in probe trial of MWM test; only rolipram decreased mean distance to platform, while zaprinast had no effect on mean distance to platform. Zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased number of errors compared to control group, while rolipram (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) had no effect on number of errors in retention trial of RAM test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased time spent to complete retention trial (latency) compared to control group. Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in MWM, while zaprinast seems to have more memory enhancing effects compared to rolipram in radial arm maze test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effect of single and fractionated x-irradiation on maze learning ability of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Isao

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-six-day-old male ddk mice at the starting of the investigation were used as subjects through the experiment for 64 weeks. After 15 days' preliminary training, and 16 times of weekly trial training using complete maze, 15 mice received a single 224 rads of x-rays (S group), another 15 mice received two 112 rads spaced two weeks apart (F group) and another 15 mice were sham-irradiated (Control group). Then those mice were tested on the multiple T-maze with nine-choice points and change of performance was observed in terms of errorchoices by giving one test trial a week. We introduced the concept of ''confusional trials'' as an index for surmising to what extent mice failed to exhibit good maze learning habits. In the results, the F group showed significantly worse performance than the two other groups at early stages, opposite to it the S group exhibited the same, but at late stages after irradiation. The worse performance of F group should be considered to be due to the psychological after-effect to fractionated irradiation and that for S group could be assumed to be due to the acceleration of aging by the irradiation. (auth.)

  13. Learning about cognition risk with the radial-arm maze in the developmental neurotoxicology battery.

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    Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents' instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is, rodents do not need to be trained to run through the maze; they will normally do this from the initial session of testing. Training with differential reinforcement for arm choices provides a more rigorous test of learning and memory. The RAM is quite adaptable for assessing various aspects of cognition. Although the RAM has been mostly used to assess spatial learning and memory, it can be configured to assess non-spatial memory as well. Both working and reference memory can be easily distinguished. The RAM can be run with both appetitive (food reinforced) and aversive (water escape) motivators. The RAM has been found to be sensitive to a wide variety of developmental toxicants including heavy metals such as mercury and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. There is an extremely rich literature especially with rats showing the effects of many types of brain lesions and drug effects so that the participation of a wide variety of neural systems in RAM performance is known. These systems, notably the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems, are the same neural systems that have been shown in humans to be critical for learning and memory. This considerably aids the interpretation of neurobehavioral toxicity studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. 5-HTT Deficiency Affects Neuroplasticity and Increases Stress Sensitivity Resulting in Altered Spatial Learning Performance in the Morris Water Maze but Not in the Barnes Maze

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    Karabeg, Margherita M.; Grauthoff, Sandra; Kollert, Sina Y.; Weidner, Magdalena; Heiming, Rebecca S.; Jansen, Friederike; Popp, Sandy; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested in the WM indicating greater aversiveness of the WM and a greater stress sensitivity of 5-HTT deficient mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus revealed increased cell counts positive for the IEG products cFos and Arc as well as for proliferation marker Ki67 and immature neuron marker NeuroD in 5-HTT-/- mice compared to 5-HTT+/+ mice, irrespective of the test. Most differences were found in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus of the septal hippocampus. Ki67-immunohistochemistry revealed a genotype x environment interaction with 5-HTT genotype differences in naïve controls and WM experience exclusively yielding more Ki67-positive cells in 5-HTT+/+ mice. Moreover, in 5-HTT-/- mice we demonstrate that learning performance correlates with the extent of aN. Overall, higher baseline IEG expression and increased an in the hippocampus of 5-HTT-/- mice together with increased stress sensitivity may constitute the neurobiological correlate of raised

  15. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

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    John B Phillips

    Full Text Available Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1 absence of alternative directional cues (2, rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3 electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  17. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

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    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  18. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

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    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  19. [Sleep deprivation effect upon spatial memory consolidation in rats after one-day learning in a Morris water maze].

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    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsen'ev, G N; Kozhechkin, S N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Kulikov, M A; Manolov, A I; Koval'zon, V M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation by 'carousel' method on spatial memory consolidation in a Morris water maze was studied in Wistar male rats after one-day learning (in accordance to a protocol by Frick et al., 2000). It was found that after fast 3-hr learning the memory trace retains during 24-hr. Twenty four hour sleep deprivation followed learning impaired consolidation of spatial memory. So the rat model of a one-day learning is suitable for the studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep deprivation effects on spatial memory consolidation.

  20. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Gregory D. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  1. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

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    M.E.M. Angelucci

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  2. Brain Interleukin-1 Facilitates Learning of a Water Maze Spatial Memory Task in Young Mice

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    Takako Takemiya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1 is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory. In addition, brain IL-1β levels are thought to change in the hippocampus in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest that IL-1β may have a beneficial, temporary effect on learning and memory in young mice, but the matter remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal IL-1β has a beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory in young mice via IL-1r1, which is diminished in adults. We investigated the performance of young (3-month-old and adult (6-month-old wild-type mice, IL-1β knockout mice (IL-1βko and IL-1r1 knockout mice (IL-1r1ko in learning a spatial memory task with a fixed platform in a water maze (WM and measured the levels of IL-1β and IL-1α in the hippocampus and cortex of adult and young mice by using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF. Learning was significantly impaired in the training trials of the WM spatial memory task in young IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice but not in adult IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice. Moreover, young IL-1r1ko mice but not IL-1βko mice showed an impairment in long-term memory extinction, suggesting that IL-1α might facilitate memory extinction. In this study, the cytokine assay using HTRF did not indicate a higher expression of hippocampal IL-1 in young mice but cortical IL-1β and IL-1α were significantly increased in adult mice. We need to investigate the role of cortical IL-1

  3. Exposure to 56Fe Particles Produces Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in the Radial Arm Water Maze

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    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Previous research has shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. Therefore, in the present study, we used a combination of these two tests, the 8 arm radial water maze (RAWM), to measure spatial learning in rats which were irradiated at the NSRL with 0, 150cGy, or 200cGy of 56Fe radiation. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to the HNRCA and tested in the RAWM (2-3 months later) for 5 days, 3 trials/day. In this version of the RAWM, there were 4 hidden platforms that the rat needed to locate to successfully solve a trial. Once the rat located a platform, it was allowed to remain there for 15 sec before the platform sank, at which point the rat tried to locate the remaining ones. Reference (entering an arm that never contained the platform) and working (re-entering an arm in which the platform had already been found) memory errors were tabulated. Results showed that the irradiated rats had more reference and working memory errors while learning the maze, particularly on Day 3 of testing. Additionally, they utilized non-spatial strategies to solve the RAWM task whereas the control animals used spatial strategies. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by USDA Intramural and N.A.S.A. Grant NNX08AM66G

  4. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

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    Higaki, Akinori; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Kan-No, Harumi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2018-01-01

    The Morris water maze test (MWM) is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS) or sham-operation (WT-sham). At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  5. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

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    Akinori Higaki

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze test (MWM is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS or sham-operation (WT-sham. At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  6. The interplay between maze complexity, colony size, learning and memory in ants while solving a maze: A test at the colony level.

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    Saar, Maya; Gilad, Tomer; Kilon-Kallner, Tal; Rosenfeld, Adar; Subach, Aziz; Scharf, Inon

    2017-01-01

    Central-place foragers need to explore their immediate habitat in order to reach food. We let colonies of the individually foraging desert ant Cataglyphis niger search for a food reward in a maze. We did so for three tests per day over two successive days and an additional test after a time interval of 4-20 days (seven tests in total). We examined whether the colonies reached the food reward faster, consumed more food and changed the number of workers searching over time, within and between days. Colonies' food-discovery time shortened within and between days, indicating that some workers learnt and became more efficient in moving through the maze. Such workers, however, also forgot and deteriorated in their food-discovery time, leveling off back to initial performance after about two weeks. We used mazes of increasing complexity levels, differing in the potential number of wrong turns. The number of workers searching increased with colony size. Food-discovery time also increased with colony size in complex mazes but not in simple ones, perhaps due to the more frequent interactions among workers in large colonies having to move through narrow routes. Finally, the motivation to solve the maze was probably not only the food reward, because food consumption did not change over time.

  7. Vicarious trial-and-error behavior and hippocampal cytochrome oxidase activity during Y-maze discrimination learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The present study investigated whether more vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) behavior, defined by head movement from one stimulus to another at a choice point during simultaneous discriminations, led to better visual discrimination learning in a Y-maze, and whether VTE behavior was a function of the hippocampus by measuring regional brain cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) activity, an index of neuronal metabolic activity. The results showed that the more VTEs a rat made, the better the rat learned the visual discrimination. Furthermore, both learning and VTE behavior during learning were correlated to C.O. activity in the hippocampus, suggesting that the hippocampus plays a role in VTE behavior during discrimination learning.

  8. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  9. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-07-06

    Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17beta-estradiol (10 microg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  11. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Hernández-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS, which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS, in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn, all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus, septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results

  12. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  13. Effects of intrahippocampal aniracetam treatment on Y-maze avoidance learning performance and behavioral long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y; Xiao, P; Xu, S

    2001-02-09

    Effects of intrahippocampal treatment of aniracetam, a selective agonist for DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproionic acid (AMPA) receptors, on Y-maze avoidance learning task and behavioral long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-dentate gyrus were studied in freely moving rats by using in vivo electrophysiology combined with behavioral tests. The results were as follows: (1) intrahippocampal treatment of aniracetam reversibly enhanced basal synaptic transmission in perforant path to dentate gyrus in a dosage dependent manner; (2) aniracetam produced improvement in Y-maze learning performance when administration occurred 5 min prior to maze learning; (3) aniracetam administration significantly facilitated behavioral LTP in dentate gyrus, while the maximal amplitude of LTP has no significant difference when compared to saline group. The present results indicate that hippocampal AMPA receptors are involved in learning and memory.

  14. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze Action Mazes: a special case of the scenario for language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rézeau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement. Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes, courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d'enseignement à distance telle que Moodle. Nous analyserons également l'impact d'une activité de type labyrinthe sur une population d'étudiants dans le cadre d'un enseignement d'anglais de type Lansad (langues pour spécialistes d'autres disciplines.The development of ICT in language teaching concurs with an interest in task-based approaches and scenarios. Surprisingly, however, such activities as "adventure games" and "action mazes" which were quite popular in CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning in the 1980s seem to have fallen into oblivion. This article aims at demonstrating that it is relatively easy to design and implement "action mazes" on an LMS (Learning Management System such as Moodle. We shall then analyse the impact of an "action maze" learning activity on a population of students of ESP (English for Specific Purposes.

  15. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  16. Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.

  17. A new semisynthetic derivative of sauroine induces LTP in hippocampal slices and improves learning performance in the Morris Water Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mariana; Loyola, Sebastián; Contreras, Darwin; Ugarte, Gonzalo; Cifuente, Diego; Ortega, Gabriela; Cabrera, José L; Zeise, Marc; Tonn, Carlos; Carreño, Mario; Delgado, Ricardo; Morales, Bernardo; Agnese, Mariel

    2014-06-01

    Two semisynthetic acetyl derivatives of the alkaloid sauroine from Huperzia saururus, monoacetyl sauroine, and diacetyl sauroine (DAS) were obtained and their chemical structures were analyzed by NMR. While monoacetyl sauroine is the typical product of acetylation, DAS is an unexpected derivative related to the keto-enol formation of sauroine. Recordings of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices showed that only DAS acutely applied induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 1.15 ± 0.09 μM. This effect was blocked by 10 μM D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), suggesting dependence on the NMDA receptor. DAS significantly increased NMDA receptor-dependent excitatory post-synaptic currents without affecting α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor-dependent currents. Repetitive administration of DAS improved visuo-spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze. In slices from rats tested in the Morris Water Maze, LTP resulting from electrical synaptic stimulation was 2.5 times larger than in controls. Concentration of DAS measured in the brain after repetitive administration was 29.5 μM. We conclude that slices perfused with DAS display a robust NMDA receptor-dependent chemical LTP. During chronic treatment, DAS enhances learning abilities through a metaplastic mechanism as revealed by the augmentation of LTP in slices. DAS, therefore, may be a promising compound as a nootropic therapeutic drug. A semisynthetic derivative of sauroine, diacetyl sauroine (DAS), induces chemical long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices increasing the NMDA receptor-dependent current. 2 mg/kg prior to each session in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) improves behavior performance. In slices prepared from the tested rats the electrical stimulation-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) was greatly enhanced. Therefore, DAS may have potency as a nootropic drug against the

  18. Intracranial self-stimulation also facilitates learning in a visual discrimination task in the Morris water maze in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Brito, Soleil; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Biosca-Simon, Neus; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2017-01-15

    Intracranial self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle is a treatment capable of consistently facilitating acquisition of learning and memory in a wide array of experimental paradigms in rats. However, the evidence supporting this effect on implicit memory comes mainly from classical conditioning and avoidance tasks. The present work aims to determine whether ICSS would also improve the performance of rats in another type of implicit task such as cued simultaneous visual discrimination in the Morris Water Maze. The ICSS treatment was administered immediately after each of the five acquisition sessions and its effects on retention and reversal were evaluated 72h later. Results showed that ICSS subjects committed fewer errors than Sham subjects and adopted more accurate trajectories during the acquisition of the task. This improvement was maintained until the probe test at 72h. However, ICSS animals experienced more difficulties than the Sham group during the reversal of the same learning, reflecting an impairment in cognitive flexibility. We conclude that post-training ICSS could also be an effective treatment for improving implicit visual discrimination learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Erythropoietin improves place learning in an 8-arm radial maze in fimbria-fornix transected rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malá, Hana; Alsina, Carina Gili; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2005-01-01

    erythropoietin, EOP, fimbria-fornix, hippocampus, place learning, hjerneskade, funktionel genopretning, posttraumatisk rehabilitering, plasticitet, neuroprotektion, neurotrofiske effekter, 8-arms labyrint, rotte, indlæring, problemløsning......erythropoietin, EOP, fimbria-fornix, hippocampus, place learning, hjerneskade, funktionel genopretning, posttraumatisk rehabilitering, plasticitet, neuroprotektion, neurotrofiske effekter, 8-arms labyrint, rotte, indlæring, problemløsning...

  20. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  1. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  2. Endogenous anxiety and stress responses in water maze and Barnes maze spatial memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F.E.; Hosseini, A.H.; McDonald, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of abnormally high or low stress on learning are well established. The Barnes maze and Morris water maze are two commonly-used tests of spatial memory, of which the water maze is considered more stressful; however, until now this has not been demonstrated empirically. In the present study, mice matched for performance on commonly-used anxiety tasks were trained on either the Barnes maze or water maze or received no cognitive testing. Water-maze training induced greater increases in plasma corticosterone than did Barnes maze training, assessed 30 min. after the final session. Importantly, spatial learning was inversely correlated with corticosterone levels in the water maze but not the Barnes maze, suggesting that performance on the water maze may be more affected by test-induced stress even within wild-type subjects of the same age and gender. These findings are important when considering the appropriate cognitive tasks for any experiment in which stress responses may differ systematically across groups. PMID:18996418

  3. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  4. Decoding of finger trajectory from ECoG using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ziqian; Schwartz, Odelia; Prasad, Abhishek

    2017-11-28

    Conventional decoding pipeline for brain machine interfaces (BMIs) consists of chained different stages of feature extraction, time-frequency analysis and statistical learning models. Each of these stages uses a different algorithm trained in a sequential manner, which makes it difficult to make the whole system adaptive. The goal was to create an adaptive online system with a single objective function and a single learning algorithm so that the whole system can be trained in parallel to increase the decoding performance. Here, we used deep neural networks consisting of convolutional neural networks (CNN) and a special kind of recurrent neural network (RNN) called long short term memory (LSTM) to address these needs. Approach: We used electrocorticography (ECoG) data collected by Kubanek et al. The task consisted of individual finger flexions upon a visual cue. Our model combined a hierarchical feature extractor CNN and a RNN that was able to process sequential data and recognize temporal dynamics in the neural data. CNN was used as the feature extractor and LSTM was used as the regression algorithm to capture the temporal dynamics of the signal. Results: We predicted the finger trajectory using ECoG signals and compared results for the least angle regression (LARS), CNN-LSTM, Random Forest, LSTM model (LSTM_HC, for using hard-coded features) and a decoding pipeline consisting of band-pass filtering, energy extraction, feature selection and linear regression. The results showed that the deep learning models performed better than the commonly used linear model. The deep learning models not only gave smoother and more realistic trajectories but also learned the transition between movement and rest state. Significance: This study demonstrated a decoding network for BMI that involved a convolutional and recurrent neural network model. It integrated the feature extraction pipeline into the convolution and pooling layer and used LSTM layer to capture the

  5. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  6. Finger pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - finger ... Nearly everyone has had finger pain at some time. You may have: Tenderness Burning Stiffness Numbness Tingling Coldness Swelling Change in skin color Redness Many conditions, such ...

  7. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The imagination maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Scott; Rylander, Jeff

    2001-05-01

    Working off of a 10,000 Toyota TAPESTRY grant, 80 physics students at Maine East High School in Park Ridge, Illinois, spent the 1999-2000 school year building a gaint pool ball maze in the school's stairwell. The maze sits in a 10 × 11 × 1 ft recess in the wall. It features an 11-ft screwlift operated by a crank accessible to the passing student to raise the balls to the top where they then meander down four possible trails of copper tubing, performing a variety of physics tricks along the way. The project was a great lesson in organization, engineering, building, quality control, and of course, the laws of physics. The maze is now the "property" of all future AP physics classes whose job it will be to fine-tune, repair, replace, and generally take care of the maze.

  9. Use of an innovative T-tube maze assay and the proboscis extension response assay to assess sublethal effects of GM products and pesticides on learning capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac+CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is a promising cotton cultivar throughout China but side effects and especially sublethal effects of this transgenic cultivar on beneficial insects remain poorly studied. More specifically potential sublethal effects on behavioural traits of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have not been formally assessed despite the importance of honey bees for pollination. The goal of our study was to assess potential effects of CCRI41 cotton pollen on visual and olfactory learning by honey bees. After a 7-day oral chronic exposure to honey mixed with either CCRI41 pollen, imidacloprid-treated conventional pollen (used as positive sublethal control) or conventional pollen (control), learning performance was evaluated by the classical proboscis extension reflex (PER) procedure as well as a T-tube maze test. The latter assay was designed as a new device to assess potential side effects of pesticides on visual associative learning of honey bees. These two procedures were complementary because the former focused on olfactory learning while the latter was involved in visual learning based on visual orientation ability. Oral exposure to CCRI41 pollen did not affect learning capacities of honey bees in both the T-tube maze and PER tests. However, exposure to imidacloprid resulted in reduced visual learning capacities in T-tube maze evaluation and decreased olfactory learning performances measured with PER. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of risks of transgenic CCRI41 cotton crops for honey bees.

  10. The effects of overtraining in the Morris water maze on allocentric and egocentric learning strategies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, John; Diviney, Mairead; Kehoe, Elizabeth; McGonagle, Vanessa; O'Shea, Adrienne; Harvey, Deirdre; Commins, Sean

    2008-10-10

    Animals can use both allocentric and egocentric strategies to learn a spatial task. Our results suggest that allocentric cues are more dominant than idiothetic cues in guiding navigation. Animals do not necessarily learn an egocentric strategy automatically, instead they probably hold just one solution to any particular task at a time until forced to learn an alternative strategy. Further, with overtraining animals do not always switch from allocentric to an egocentric learning strategy perhaps challenging suggestions of a stored hierarchy of strategies.

  11. [Application of the method of one-day learning in a Morris water maze to analyse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory trace recall 24 hours later, after learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsenyev, G N; Bukhgolts, O I; Marchenko, V G; Puchkova, A N

    2014-01-01

    The proposed model of a one-day spatial learning is of interest in research of how sleep influences the hippocamp-dependent memory consolidation. We have studied the influence of a one-day total sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation in hooded rats after a one-day learning in the Morris water maze according to Feldman et al. [2010] protocol. According to it rats had to find a submerged platform that was alternatively marked by a flag or completely invisible to an animal. In a previous study [Dorokhov et al., 2011] we have used another one-day learning protocol [Frick et al., 2000] and Wistar rats and have demonstrated a large interindividual variance in learning parameters and sleep deprivation effects on memory consolidation. In this study we confirm previously acquired results on negative impact of sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation on the results of one-day learning we are using for the first time an evaluation of the time spent by an animal in the area of the platform placement and corresponding areas in the other quadrants of the water maze.

  12. Magic Finger Teaching Method in Learning Multiplication Facts among Deaf Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Liong; Yasin, Mohd. Hanafi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students face problems in mastering multiplication facts. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of Magic Finger Teaching Method (MFTM) and students' perception towards MFTM. The research employs a quasi experimental with non-equivalent pre-test and post-test control group design. Pre-test, post-test and questionnaires were used. As…

  13. Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome; Westlake, Kimberly; Szelest, Izabela

    2004-11-01

    Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. During the first phase of training, when allowed to select baited runways within these series, they predominantly alternated their choices. During the second phase, rats received forced-choice serial pattern training of series consisting of two rewarded (R) trials and one nonrewarded (N) trial in two fixed orders, RRN and RNR. In Experiment 1, the rats in the runway shift rule group always received the second R trial when forced down a runway opposite that on the preceding trial in the series and the N trial when forced down the same runway. The rats in the runway stay rule group always received the second R trial when forced down the same runway and the N trial when forced down the opposite runway. In Experiment 2, each rat was conditionally trained with both runway outcome rules as determined by the central alley lighting and the type of food in the side alleys. The rats took longer to reduce their running speed on the N trial within each sequence under the runway stay rule than under the runway shift rule. They also took longer to acquire serial pattern responding for the RNR than for the RRN series only under the runway stay rule condition. When subsequently reexposed to series of free-choice trials on the final phase, rats maintained spontaneous alternating choice patterns under the runway shift rule conditions but either seldom alternated their choices (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced choice alternations (Experiment 2) under the runway stay rule condition. We discussed these effects in terms of rats' natural foraging strategies and as a factor that interacts with other within- and between-series variables that affect serial pattern behavior.

  14. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze) Action Mazes: a special case of the scenario for language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Rézeau

    2008-01-01

    En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement). Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes), courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d...

  16. Learning Concepts, Language, and Literacy in Hybrid Linguistic Codes: The Multilingual Maze of Urban Grade 1 Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    From the field of developmental psycholinguistics and from conceptual development theory there is evidence that excessive linguistic "code-switching" in early school education may pose some hazards for the learning of young multilingual children. In this article the author addresses the issue, invoking post-Piagetian and neo-Vygotskian…

  17. Defining, Discussing and Evaluating Mobile Learning: The moving finger writes and having writ . . . .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the current millennium, experience and expertise in the development and delivery of mobile learning have blossomed and a community of practice has evolved that is distinct from the established communities of 'tethered' e-Learning. This community is currently visible mainly through dedicated international conference series, of which MLEARN is the most prestigious, rather than through any dedicated journals. So far, these forms of development and delivery have focussed on short-term small-scale pilots and trials in the developed countries of Europe, North America, and the Pacific Rim, and there is a taxonomy emerging from these pilots and trials that suggests tacit and pragmatic conceptualisations of mobile learning.What has, however, developed less confidently within this community is any theoretical conceptualisation of mobile learning and with it any evaluation methodologies specifically aligned to the unique attributes of mobile learning.Some advocates of mobile learning attempt to define and conceptualise it in terms of devices and technologies; other advocates define and conceptualise it in terms of the mobility of learners and the mobility of learning, and in terms of the learners’ experience of learning with mobile devices.The role of theory is, perhaps, a contested topic in a community that encompasses philosophical affiliations from empiricists to post-structuralists, each with different expectations about the scope and legitimacy of theory in their work. The mobile learning community may nevertheless need the authority and credibility of some conceptual base.Such a base would provide the starting point for evaluation methodologies grounded in the unique attributes of mobile learning. Attempts to develop the conceptualisations and evaluation of mobile learning, however, must recognise that mobile learning is essentially personal, contextual, and situated; this means it is 'noisy' and this is problematic both for

  18. The creativity maze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourgeois-Bougrine, Samira; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Botella, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to address a current gap in our understanding of creativity in screenplay writing by focusing on the cognitive, conative, affective, and environmental factors that come into play at different stages in the creative process. It reports a study employing in-depth interviews...... and or treatment), and, finally, intense periods of writing and rewriting the script. These 3 stages, and, in particular, the multiple and concrete decisions to be taken within each one of them, support a vision of the creative process in this domain metaphorically conceptualized as crossing a maze. Creators...

  19. Giving Learning a Helping Hand: Finger Tracing of Temperature Graphs on an iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Shirley; Tindall-Ford, Sharon; Ginns, Paul; Howard, Steven J.; Leahy, Wayne; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Gesturally controlled information and communication technologies, such as tablet devices, are becoming increasingly popular tools for teaching and learning. Based on the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and embodied cognition, this study investigated the impact of explicit instructions to trace out elements of tablet-based worked examples…

  20. "With the finger on the screen": using a videogames strategy in the mediation of learning curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña GROS SALVAT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary university team (Chilean-Spanish and teachers of a public school of the region of Valparaíso (Chile, they carried out an initiative dedicated to design and to apply a formative sequence that incorporating in their activities the use of the strategy video game "Age of Empire", it could mediate curricular learnings corresponding to the sub sectors of "Understanding of the Society" and “Mathematical Education”. The application of this design of classes implied to work with 78 students of K7, which carried out three types of use of the video game: levelling, inquiry and evaluation. Through the methodology of Study of Case of Descriptive type you carries out the summary and analysis of data that it allowed to characterize the practices and interactions arisen in the relationship among even, the teacher role, and the contributions of the video game. The main results show, on one hand, the important thing that it is for the professors (i to learn and to revalue playing, (ii to participate of an instance of collaboration to be able to design new learning atmospheres., and on the other hand, (iii the typology of collaboration and cooperation arisen among the students, and (iv the opportunities offered by the video game to approach to the reality of the phenomena.

  1. Unbiased classification of spatial strategies in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Clague, Charlotte; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Louzoun, Yoram; Okun, Eitan

    2016-11-01

    Spatial learning is one of the most widely studied cognitive domains in neuroscience. The Morris water maze and the Barnes maze are the most commonly used techniques to assess spatial learning and memory in rodents. Despite the fact that these tasks are well-validated paradigms for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to bias. We have previously described an unbiased machine-learning algorithm to classify spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. Here, we offer a support vector machine-based, automated, Barnes-maze unbiased strategy (BUNS) classification algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale that can be used for memory acquisition, reversal training and probe trials. The BUNS algorithm can greatly benefit Barnes maze users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification and cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical Barnes maze data analysis. Freely available on the web at http://okunlab.wix.com/okunlab as a MATLAB application. eitan.okun@biu.ac.ilSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  3. Implicit Learning of a Finger Motor Sequence by Patients with Cerebral Palsy After Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Blumenstein, Tobias; Hantuschke, Conny; Lampe, Renée

    2017-03-01

    Facilitation of implicit learning of a hand motor sequence after a single session of neurofeedback training of alpha power recorded from the motor cortex has been shown in healthy individuals (Ros et al., Biological Psychology 95:54-58, 2014). This facilitation effect could be potentially applied to improve the outcome of rehabilitation in patients with impaired hand motor function. In the current study a group of ten patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy trained reduction of alpha power derived from brain activity recorded from right and left motor areas. Training was distributed in three periods of 8 min each. In between, participants performed a serial reaction time task with their non-dominant hand, to a total of five runs. A similar procedure was repeated a week or more later but this time training was based on simulated brain activity. Reaction times pooled across participants decreased on each successive run faster after neurofeedback training than after the simulation training. Also recorded were two 3-min baseline conditions, once with the eyes open, another with the eyes closed, at the beginning and end of the experimental session. No significant changes in alpha power with neurofeedback or with simulation training were obtained and no correlation with the reductions in reaction time could be established. Contributions for this are discussed.

  4. There Is More to Digital Learning than Counting on Your Fingers: Transforming Learning and Teaching with Digital Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Lyudmila; Lazarevic , Bojan; Malloy, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores how pedagogy is being influenced by fast developing digital technologies. Results are presented from exploratory research conducted in 2016. The findings are addressed in terms of the transformation of learning and education, including the move from the measured to the engaged classroom. Emerging technology creates a natural…

  5. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  6. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanching of the fingers; Fingers - pale; Toes that change color; Toes - pale ... These conditions can cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease. Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small ...

  7. Preferred retinal locus--hand coordination in a maze-tracing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Omoscharka, Evanthia; Grose, Susan A; Bothwell, Rebecca

    2012-04-06

    Fine manual tasks require coordination of vision, eye movements, and motor control. Macular scotomas from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may adversely affect this coordination. The purpose of this research was to find whether the preferred retina locus for fixation (fPRL) also guided the hand in performing fine manual tasks and how the fingers, fPRL, and scotomas interacted in task performance. Subjects with bilateral macular scotomas from AMD and normally sighted controls traced an irregular "maze" line pattern with the index finger while viewing their hand and the maze in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). Video images from the SLO showing the fingers and maze on the retina during the task were analyzed to produce retinal maps showing the scotoma and bivariate ellipses of fPRL and fingertip retinal positions. Fingertip retinal ellipses surrounded and were approximately centered on the fPRL ellipses. Fingertip retinal bivariate area was positively correlated with fPRL bivariate area and the percent time the fPRL was on the maze was correlated with visual acuity. Maze-tracing accuracy was positively correlated with saccade rate for scotoma subjects. Concentric overlap of fPRL and fingertip retinal ellipses indicates that it is the fPRL that guides the hand in the maze-tracing visuomotor task, just as the fovea guides the fingertip for visually normal subjects. It is likely that factors other than fPRL and scotoma characteristics contribute to poorer maze-tracing performance by scotoma subjects in comparison with controls.

  8. Penentuan Nilai Motorik Halus Anak Dengan Game Magic Maze Menggunakan Metode Mamdani

    OpenAIRE

    Fadly, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Motor development is a very important factor in the development of the whole child. fine motor skills are very important because it affects the other terms of learning in early childhood. Therefore, it made the game Magic Maze to assess motor skills early childhood. Game Magic Maze in this study using Mamdani method in determining the values to a child's fine motor skills. Maze game will be made on the PC. 081402045

  9. In vitro and ex-vivo cellular antioxidant protection and cognitive enhancing effects of an extract of Polygonum minus Huds (Lineminus™) demonstrated in a Barnes Maze animal model for memory and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum minus Huds.is a culinary flavouring that is common in South East Asian cuisine and as a remedy for diverse maladies ranging from indigestion to poor eyesight. The leaves of this herb have been reported to be high in antioxidants. Flavonoids which have been associated with memory, cognition and protection against neurodegeneration were found in P. minus. Method This study examined a P. minus aqueous extract (Lineminus™) for its antioxidant activity using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, the ex vivo Cellular Antioxidant Protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assays and for potential anticholinesterase activity in vitro. Cognitive function and learning of Lineminus™ was evaluated using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in a Barnes maze, rodent model of cognition. Results The extract displayed in vitro antioxidant activity with a total ORAC value of 16,964 μmole TE/gram. Cellular antioxidant protection from free radical damage using the CAP-e assay, with an IC50 of 0.58 g/L for inhibition of cellular oxidative damage, was observed. The extract inhibited cholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml with a maximum inhibition of 68%. In a rodent model of cognition using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in the Barnes maze, the extract attenuated scopolamine induced disruptions in learning at the higher dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion These data shows that P. minus possesses antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and demonstrated enhanced cognition in vivo. The data suggest neuroprotective properties of the extract. PMID:24886679

  10. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    imaging (fMRI) in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted participants while they navigated through a tactile multiple T-maze. Both groups learned the maze task at a similar pace. In blind participants, tactile maze navigation was associated with increased BOLD responses in the right hippocampus...... and parahippocampus, occipital cortex and fusiform gyrus. Blindfolded sighted controls did not show increased BOLD responses in these areas; instead they activated the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Both groups activated the precuneus during tactile maze navigation. We conclude that cross-modal plastic processes allow...

  11. (alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in maze

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A study on current population status, sex ratio and age structures of Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) was carried out during 2009/2010 in Maze National Park. Total count method was used in an area of 220 km2 using well trained park scouts based on silent detection. There were 372 ...

  12. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria eBerteletti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense.

  13. Synergistic effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist sulpiride and beta-blocker propranolol on learning in the Carousel maze, a dry-land spatial navigation task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokopová, Iva; Bahník, Štěpán; Doulames, Vanessa; Valeš, Karel; Petrásek, Tomáš; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2012), s. 151-156 ISSN 0091-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : learning * behavioral pharmacology * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2012

  14. Early exposure to noise followed by predator stress in adulthood impairs the rat's re-learning flexibility in Radial Arm Water Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui-Huerta, Fernando; Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Yaveth; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Ramos-Zuñiga, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Luquin, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effect of chronic exposure to environmental noise on RAWM performance of juvenile rats, and the ability of adult rats exposed to a novel acute stress to perform in the RAWM as a function of whether or not they were exposed to environmental noise as juveniles. We examined the consequences of exposure to noise during the juvenile-early periadolescent period on adulthood stress response by assessing cognitive performance in the RAWM. Male rats were exposed to environmental noise during the childhood-prepubescent period (21-35 PND), and their RAWM performance was tested at the end of the exposure to noise, and then again two months later when they had to cope with a new stressful event. RAWM execution included a 3-day training phase and a reversal learning phase on day 4. Escape latency, reference memory errors and working memory errors were compared between experimental and control groups. In addition, body weight gain and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated. Stressed rats demonstrated spatial impairment, as evidenced by poor execution on day 4. This effect was significantly noticeable in the doubly stressed group. Noise annoyance was evidenced by reduced body weight gain and increased serum corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that environmental noise may produce potent stress-like effects in developing subjects that can persist into adulthood, affecting spatial learning abilities. This cognitive impairment may restrict the subject's ability to learn under a new spatial configuration.

  15. The optomotor maze: a population assay for visual perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swinderen, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Vision is a major sensory modality in Drosophila behavior, with more than one-half of the Drosophila brain devoted to visual processing. The mechanisms of vision in Drosophila can now be studied in individuals and in populations of flies by using various paradigms. The optomotor maze, described here, is a novel and efficient approach for querying visual perception in Drosophila populations. The optomotor maze setup is very simple: An eight-choice maze consisting of 3-mm paths grooved into a transparent Plexiglas or acrylic slab is placed over an upturned cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor on which visuals are displayed. The placement or movement of the visuals on the CRT, which the flies can see through the flat bottom of the maze, influences their turning behavior at each choice point. This paradigm can be adapted for visual learning by simply rerunning flies in the maze (habituation) or as a more sophisticated version of the aversive phototaxic suppression (APS) paradigm.

  16. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Stenosing tenosynovitis is a condition commonly known as “trigger finger.” It is sometimes also called “trigger thumb.” The tendons that bend the fingers glide easily with ...

  17. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration.

  18. [Glass maze in women's leadership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá Heredia, Ester; Ramos López, Amparo; Candela Agulló, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Psychological gender discrimination explanations have changed over the past thirty years, becoming more complex in order to obtain a better understanding of the social reality. At the present moment, one of the most interesting research areas is the one referring to the 'glass maze' phenomenon in women's management careers. The main purpose of this work is to reveal the theoretical evolution in an attempt to explain the leadership study from a gender perspective. The consecutive hypotheses, starting with the labour sexual division idea, are becoming more interactive in order to understand the current labour-social situation. Social psychology has underlined the role of beliefs, observed via gender stereotyped roles, prejudiced attitudes against women, sexist and neo-sexist ideology, or masculine, feminine and androgynous identity development. New psychological interpretations insist on the variability of the gender concept, where gender is sometimes observed through men and women's behaviours, and other times through those behaviour expectations. But gender is mainly observed though the power relations between men and women during social interactions in labour organizations.

  19. Bare fingers, but no obvious influence of "prickly" Velcro! In the absence of parents' encouragement, it is not clear that "sticky mittens" provide an advantage to the process of learning to reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Williams, Joshua L; Haynes, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In their critique of our mittens study, Needham et al. (2015. Infant Behavior and Development) describe our findings as "surprising." Further; they suggest that babies in our "sticky mittens" condition may have been discouraged from reaching because, in our study, infants may have touched "prickly" Velcro with their bare fingers. In this response, we present data analyses that do not support the interpretation that finger contact with our Velcroed toy surfaces was associated with poor reaching performance in our "sticky" mittens group. We also clarify that our toys were mainly covered with "non-prickly" Velcro. To explain discrepancies between studies, we restate the original intent of our study and reasons for our methodological modifications. We point to confounds and lack of critical control conditions in the Needham et al. studies, which prevent the making of firm inferences about the effectiveness of the "sticky mittens experience" on the learning to reach process. We also present additional analyses on our "sticky" mittens group showing that the increasing rate of finger touch on the toy leads to greater reaching performance while the rate of toy sticking to the mittens does not. We discuss the importance of sensory-motor experience on the development of learning to reach in infancy and conclude that our results are not surprising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  1. Navigating a Maze with Balance Board and Wiimote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Niek; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Input from the lower body in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and even entertaining when users are expected to perform tasks simultaneously. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or even an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue commands. We compared the Wii Balance Board to a hand-held Wiimote for navigating a maze and found that users completed this task slower with the Balance Board. However, the Balance Board was considered more intuitive, easy to learn and ‘much fun’.

  2. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  3. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  4. A Finger Exoskeleton Robot for Finger Movement Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Heng Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finger exoskeleton robot has been designed and presented. The prototype device was designed to be worn on the dorsal side of the hand to assist in the movement and rehabilitation of the fingers. The finger exoskeleton is 3D-printed to be low-cost and has a transmission mechanism consisting of rigid serial links which is actuated by a stepper motor. The actuation of the robotic finger is by a sliding motion and mimics the movement of the human finger. To make it possible for the patient to use the rehabilitation device anywhere and anytime, an Arduino™ control board and a speech recognition board were used to allow voice control. As the robotic finger follows the patients voice commands the actual motion is analyzed by Tracker image analysis software. The finger exoskeleton is designed to flex and extend the fingers, and has a rotation range of motion (ROM of 44.2°.

  5. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek wo...

  6. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes...

  7. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  8. Aniracetam improves radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Cumin, R; Aschwanden, W; Moreau, J L; Jenck, F; Haefely, W E

    1992-01-01

    The memory enhancing effect of the pyrrolidinone derivative aniracetam was investigated in rats trained in a delayed-response task in an 8-arm radial maze. Oral administration of aniracetam (100, 200, 400, or 800 mg kg-1) 16 h and again 1 h prior to a first trial of exposure to a given configuration of 4 baited arms resulted in a significant improvement in performance during a second trial in the maze given 3 h later in which there was access to all 8 arms but only the other 4 arms were baited. The pattern of baited arms was varied daily. The performance enhancement was greatest for the highest doses. These results extend the demonstration of the cognition enhancing effects of aniracetam to a spatial memory task in rats.

  9. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  10. Robotic Finger Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  11. Hidradenocarcinoma of the finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazerali, Rahim S; Tan, Cynthia; Fung, Maxwell A; Chen, Steven L; Wong, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal neoplasm representing the malignant counterpart of hidradenoma derived from eccrine sweat glands. Misdiagnosis of this disease is common due to the wide variety of histological patterns and rarity of this malignancy. We report an 87-year-old man presenting with a rare case of biopsy-proven hidradenocarcinoma of the finger. There is no standard care of treatment of hidradenocarcinoma, especially of those tumors in rare locations such as the fingers, given its rarity, variable tumor behavior and histology. Although limited treatment strategies exist, detailed data including TNM, location, histologic type and grade, and patient age should be gathered for optimal treatment strategy. The literature supports a 3-fold approach to these malignancies involving margin-free resection, sentinel lymph node biopsy to evaluate possible metastasis, and long-term follow-up given high risk of recurrence. Our treatment strategy involved a 4-fold, multidisciplinary approach involving reconstruction to optimize tumor-free remission and hand function.

  12. Orientation of lizards in a Morris water-maze: roles of the sun compass and the parietal eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, Augusto; Basaglia, Francesca; Beltrami, Giulia; Carnacina, Margherita; Moretto, Elisa; Bertolucci, Cristiano

    2009-09-15

    The present study examined for the first time whether a Morris water-maze can be used to explore compass and other orientation mechanisms in the ruin lizard Podarcis sicula. In the open field, during sunny days, lizards were individually trained to swim from the center of the water maze onto a hidden platform (the goal), positioned at the periphery of the maze in a single compass direction. The goal was invisible because it was placed just beneath the water surface and the water was rendered opaque. The results showed that lizards learn to swim directly towards the hidden goal under the sun in the absence of visual feature cues. We further examined whether the observed orientation response would be due to lizards learning the spatial position of the goal relative to the sun's azimuth, i.e. to the use of a time-compensated sun compass. Lizards reaching learning criteria were subjected to 6 h clock-shift (fast or slow), and tested for goal orientation in the Morris water-maze. Results demonstrated that the learned orientation response is mediated by a time-compensated sun compass. Further investigations provided direct evidence that in ruin lizards an intact parietal eye is required to perform goal orientation under the sun inside a Morris water-maze, and that other brain photoreceptors, like the pineal or deep brain photoreceptors, are not involved in orientation.

  13. Adjustment to finger amputation and silicone finger prosthesis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuret, Zala; Burger, Helena; Vidmar, Gaj; Maver, Tomaz

    2018-01-11

    Finger amputations are the most common amputations of upper limbs. They influence hand function, general functioning and quality of life. One of the possibilities for rehabilitation after finger amputation is fitting a silicone finger prosthesis. We wanted to evaluate the adjustment to amputation and prosthesis use in patients after finger amputation. We included 42 patients with partial or complete single or multiple finger amputation of one hand who visited the outpatient clinic for prosthetics and orthotics at our institute and received a silicone prosthesis. We assessed their adjustment to amputation and prosthesis with the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES). Most of the patients (28, 67%) had a single finger amputated. The average scores on all TAPES subscales (except adjustment to limitation) were above 50% of the maximum possible score. On average, the scores were the highest on the general adjustment and satisfaction with the prosthesis subscales. Silicone prostheses for finger amputation of upper limb play an important role in the process of adaptation to amputation. They offer aesthetically satisfying results and alleviate social interactions, which influences overall quality of life. Implications for Rehabilitation Silicone prostheses for finger amputation of upper limb offer an aesthetically satisfying result and alleviate problems with social interactions. Their influence on hand function is not optimal, but the prosthesis improves the amputee's quality of life.

  14. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  15. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  16. Emotional Communication in Finger Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe analyses of the features of emotions (neutral, joy, sadness, and anger expressed by Finger Braille interpreters and subsequently examine the effectiveness of emotional expression and emotional communication between people unskilled in Finger Braille. The goal is to develop a Finger Braille system to teach emotional expression and a system to recognize emotion. The results indicate the following features of emotional expression by interpreters. The durations of the code of joy were significantly shorter than the durations of the other emotions, the durations of the code of sadness were significantly longer, and the finger loads of anger were significantly larger. The features of emotional expression by unskilled subjects were very similar to those of the interpreters, and the coincidence ratio of emotional communication was 75.1%. Therefore, it was confirmed that people unskilled in Finger Braille can express and communicate emotions using this communication medium.

  17. Neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance in 3D-simulated mazes after intranasal insulin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Mutic, Smiljana; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    This fMRI study intended to establish 3D-simulated mazes with olfactory and visual cues and examine the effect of intranasally applied insulin on memory performance in healthy subjects. The effect of insulin on hippocampus-dependent brain activation was explored using a double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40IU) or placebo, 16 male subjects participated in two experimental MRI sessions with olfactory and visual mazes. Each maze included two separate runs. The first was an encoding maze during which subjects learned eight olfactory or eight visual cues at different target locations. The second was a recall maze during which subjects were asked to remember the target cues at spatial locations. For eleven included subjects in the fMRI analysis we were able to validate brain activation for odor perception and visuospatial tasks. However, we did not observe an enhancement of declarative memory performance in our behavioral data or hippocampal activity in response to insulin application in the fMRI analysis. It is therefore possible that intranasal insulin application is sensitive to the methodological variations e.g. timing of task execution and dose of application. Findings from this study suggest that our method of 3D-simulated mazes is feasible for studying neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Multiple finger geodes in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffel, J C; Oprisescu, B; Bresson, A; Ploier, R; Vidailhet, M

    1993-06-01

    Three pediatric patients with multiple geodes in the fingers are reported. This condition occurs mainly between one and three years and at seven years of age and is more common in winter. Affected fingers are swollen. Roentgenograms disclose several small lucent defects which are usually located in the middle phalanx. Several fingers are usually involved. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is increased in virtually every case. Resolution occurs spontaneously within a few weeks or months. There is no tendency towards recurrence. Although the condition is inflammatory, exposure to cold is probably a precipitating factor.

  19. High-frequency ultrasonographic examination of the finger pulley system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Nathalie; Titécat, Marie; Demondion, Xavier; Glaude, Eddy; Fontaine, Christian; Cotten, Anne

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of high-frequency ultrasonography to provide for direct evaluation of the annular and cruciform finger pulley system. In the first part of the work, a cadaveric study was performed to outline the normal anatomy of the annular and cruciform finger pulley system. Eighteen cadaveric hands were cut (n = 10) or dissected (n = 8). Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed in consensus the photographs of anatomic sections and dissections. This cadaveric study gave the 2 readers the opportunity to learn the normal anatomy of the finger pulley system. In the second part of the work, the annular and cruciform finger pulley system of 20 hands of volunteers was evaluated by ultrasonography with a 17-MHz linear transducer. Images were retrospectively analyzed by means of consensus of the 2 radiologists with respect to the visibility of each finger pulley. For annular (A) pulleys, high frequency ultrasonography showed A1, A2, A3, and A4 in 100%, 100%, 65%, and 100% of cases, respectively. For cruciform (C) pulleys, high-frequency ultrasonography showed only C1 in 45% of cases. Direct visualization of A5, C2, and C3 was not possible. High-frequency ultrasonography allows excellent depiction of finger pulleys except for annular pulley A5 and cruciform pulleys C2 and C3.

  20. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  1. Effects of Finger Counting on Numerical Development – The Opposing Views of Neurocognition and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Korbinian; Martignon, Laura; Wessolowski, Silvia; Engel, Joachim; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Children typically learn basic numerical and arithmetic principles using finger-based representations. However, whether or not reliance on finger-based representations is beneficial or detrimental is the subject of an ongoing debate between researchers in neurocognition and mathematics education. From the neurocognitive perspective, finger counting provides multisensory input, which conveys both cardinal and ordinal aspects of numbers. Recent data indicate that children with good finger-based numerical representations show better arithmetic skills and that training finger gnosis, or “finger sense,” enhances mathematical skills. Therefore neurocognitive researchers conclude that elaborate finger-based numerical representations are beneficial for later numerical development. However, research in mathematics education recommends fostering mentally based numerical representations so as to induce children to abandon finger counting. More precisely, mathematics education recommends first using finger counting, then concrete structured representations and, finally, mental representations of numbers to perform numerical operations. Taken together, these results reveal an important debate between neurocognitive and mathematics education research concerning the benefits and detriments of finger-based strategies for numerical development. In the present review, the rationale of both lines of evidence will be discussed. PMID:22144969

  2. Only Three Fingers Write, but the Whole Brain Works†: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L. H. van der Meer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented PictionaryTM words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. We found that when drawing, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed event related desynchronization activity in the theta/alpha range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When describing the words using the keyboard, upper alpha/beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal brain regions were observed, especially during the ideation phase. However, since this activity was highly synchronized, its relation to learning remains unclear. We concluded that because of the benefits for sensory-motor integration and learning, traditional handwritten notes are preferably combined with visualizations (e.g., small drawings, shapes, arrows, symbols to facilitate and optimize learning.

  3. Spatial memory deficits in a virtual reality eight-arm radial maze in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A; Astur, Robert S; West, Jeffrey T; Griego, Jacqueline A; Rowland, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Learning and memory impairments are present in schizophrenia (SZ) throughout the illness course and predict psychosocial function. Abnormalities in prefrontal and hippocampal function are thought to contribute to SZ deficits. The radial arm maze (RAM) is a test of spatial learning and memory in rodents that relies on intact prefrontal and hippocampal function. The goal of the present study was to investigate spatial learning in SZ using a virtual RAM. Thirty-three subjects with SZ and thirty-nine healthy controls (HC) performed ten trials of a virtual RAM task. Subjects attempted to learn to retrieve four rewards each located in separate arms. As expected, subjects with SZ used more time and traveled more distance to retrieve rewards, made more reference (RM) and working memory (WM) errors, and retrieved fewer rewards than HC. It is important to note that the SZ group did learn but did not reach the level of HC. Whereas RM errors decreased across trials in the SZ group, WM errors did not. There were no significant relationships between psychiatric symptom severity and maze performance. To our knowledge, use of a virtual 8-arm radial maze task in SZ to assess spatial learning is novel. Impaired virtual RAM performance in SZ is consistent with studies that examined RAM performance in animal models of SZ. Results provide further support for compromised prefrontal and hippocampal function underlying WM and RM deficits in SZ. The virtual RAM task could help bridge preclinical and clinical research for testing novel drug treatments of SZ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of an Eight-arm Radial Water Maze to Assess Working and Reference Memory Following Neonatal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C.; Gaudet, Cynthia M.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment. PMID:24335781

  5. Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C; Gaudet, Cynthia M; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-12-04

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment.

  6. Transfer of piano practice in fast performance of skilled finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Nakamura, Ayumi; Nagata, Noriko

    2013-11-01

    Transfer of learning facilitates the efficient mastery of various skills without practicing all possible sensory-motor repertoires. The present study assessed whether motor practice at a submaximal speed, which is typical in sports and music performance, results in an increase in a maximum speed of finger movements of trained and untrained skills. Piano practice of sequential finger movements at a submaximal speed over days progressively increased the maximum speed of trained movements. This increased maximum speed of finger movements was maintained two months after the practice. The learning transferred within the hand to some extent, but not across the hands. The present study confirmed facilitation of fast finger movements following a piano practice at a submaximal speed. In addition, the findings indicated the intra-manual transfer effects of piano practice on the maximum speed of skilled finger movements.

  7. Finger vein recognition based on convolutional neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric Authentication Technology has been widely used in this information age. As one of the most important technology of authentication, finger vein recognition attracts our attention because of its high security, reliable accuracy and excellent performance. However, the current finger vein recognition system is difficult to be applied widely because its complicated image pre-processing and not representative feature vectors. To solve this problem, a finger vein recognition method based on the convolution neural network (CNN is proposed in the paper. The image samples are directly input into the CNN model to extract its feature vector so that we can make authentication by comparing the Euclidean distance between these vectors. Finally, the Deep Learning Framework Caffe is adopted to verify this method. The result shows that there are great improvements in both speed and accuracy rate compared to the previous research. And the model has nice robustness in illumination and rotation.

  8. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  9. [Finger extension. II. Materials and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N; Boabighi, A; Laudet, C; Guerin-Surville, H; Baux, S

    1992-06-01

    The study of the extensor apparatus through different methods concerns 200 fingers, the most of fresh cadavers. The dissection through direct observation or with surgical microscope of the dorsal aponeurosis of 30 fingers has been completed by an histological study of 10 fingers. The mechanic properties of each dorsal aponeurotic structure has been tested by extensometry on 12 fingers. The functional study of the role and of the transmission of the different motor components concerns 128 fingers. It has been completed by experimental sections of each aponeurotic structure concerning 20 fingers.

  10. Effects of finger counting on numerical development – the opposing views of neurocognition and mathematics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian eMoeller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Usually children learn the basic principles of number and arithmetic by the help of finger-based representations. However, whether the reliance on finger-based representations is only beneficial or whether it may even become detrimental is the subject of an ongoing debate between neuro-cognitive and mathematics education researchers. From the neuro-cognitive perspective finger counting provides multi-sensory input conveying both cardinal and ordinal aspects of numbers. Recent data indicate that children with good finger-based numerical representations show better arithmetic skills and that training finger gnosis enhances mathematical skills. From this neuro-cognitive researchers conclude that elaborate finger-based numerical representations are beneficial for later numerical development.However, mathematics education research recommends fostering mental numerical representations so as to induce children to abandon finger-counting. More precisely mathematics education recommends moving from finger counting to concrete structured representations and then, finally, to mental representations of numbers.Taken together, there is obviously an important debate between the neuro-cognitve and mathematics education research concerning the benefits or detriments of finger-based strategies for numerical development. In the present review, the rationale of both lines of evidence will be presented and discussed.

  11. Problem-solving in English through business mazes

    CERN Document Server

    Farthing, Joni

    1981-01-01

    We choose our job carefully. What we cannot choose are our colleagues - so it's not surprising that conflict and friction can arise in our working relationships. Business Mazes presents such problems for you to solve. Follow a route through the maze ans see the outcome of each decision you make. You may find that the quickest rout isn't always the best, or the easiest, in the long run. Business Mazes is designed for intermediate and advanced level students of English, working alone or in groups. It includes full teaching plans and exercises. The mazes may also be used effectively as an interesting approach to discussion for young people preparing their first job.

  12. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  14. [When doors slam, fingers jam!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Toubal, K; Carnet, C; Rekhroukh, H; Zelmat, B; Debuisson, C; Cahuzac, J-P

    2007-08-01

    Epidemiological analysis in a universitary paediatric emergency unit of children admitted after accidental injuries resulting from fingers crushed in a door. Prospective, descriptive cohort study from September 6th, 2004 to July 1st, 2005 included all children admitted for finger injuries crushed in a non-automatic door. included accidents due to automatic doors, toy's or refrigerator doors, families who refused to participate to the study or families who had left the waiting area before medical examination. Collected data were patient and family characteristics, accident characteristics and its management. Three hundred and forty children affected by 427 digital lesions were included. The mean age was 5.5+/-3.8 years (range 4 months - 15.5 years). Male/female ratio was equal to 1.2: 1. Fifty-eight percent of patients belonged to families composed of 3 or more siblings. Ninety-three per cent of families came to hospital within the first 2 hours after the accident (mean delay 99+/-162 min, median range 54 minutes). Location of the accident was: domestic (62%, at home (64%)), at school (17%). Locations within the home were: the bedroom (33%), bathroom and toilets (21%). An adult was present in 75% of cases and responsible for the trauma in 25% of accidents, another child in 44%. The finger or fingers were trapped on the hinge side in 57% of patients. No specific safeguard devices were used by 94% of families. Among victims, 20% had several crushed digits; left and right hand were injured with an equal frequency. The commonest involved digits were: the middle finger (29%), the ring finger (23%). The nail plate was damaged in 60% of digital lesions, associated with a wound (50%), a distal phalanx fracture (P3) (12%). Six children had a partial or complete amputation of P3, 2 children a lesion of the extensor tendon, 1 child had a rupture of the external lateral ligament. Three percent of children required an admission to the paediatric orthopaedic surgery unit. Post

  15. Multi-finger haptic interaction

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    Galiana, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The H-1B visa is the gateway for the world's best and brightest to live and work in the United States as IT professionals, engineers, scientists, professors, doctors, nurses, and researchers. How to Secure Your H?1B Visa guides employees and employers alike through the maze of H-1B laws, policies, and procedures. This road map lays out the whole H-1B process from petition to visa to status maintenance to visa extension and, ultimately, to permanent residence in the US for you and your family. It shows you step by step exactly how the H-1B process divides up between the employer and employee. I

  16. [Symmetrical lividity of the fingers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsard, E; Kossard, S

    1988-07-01

    Symmetric lividity of the soles of the feet was first reported in two children in 1925 by Pernet. The characteristic manifestation of this dermatosis consisted in hyperkeratosis and hyperhidrosis with livid discoloration of the pressure areas of the soles. Later the same name was applied to a similar dermatosis in which the hyperkeratotic and hyperhidrotic patches of skin on the soles had a whitish grey discoloration and the livid color, if present at all, was seen only over the marginal areas not affected by the keratosis. Similar livid keratoses affecting the palmar sides of the fingers have been seen only occasionally. The 17-year-old girl presented in this paper had a 11-year history of emotional hyperhidrosis and is a rare illustration of symmetrical lividity in its original form, localized to the fingers only.

  17. Negotiating the Maze: Case based, Collaborative Distance Learning in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Sybille K; Kandlbinder, Peter; Gonsalkorale, Shalinie; Bradshaw, Michael; Harris Lechner, Katherine M; Winning, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    The module was developed as an elective to give motivated senior dental students an opportunity to expand their horizons in planning oral rehabilitation. It comprised one tutor and 12 students, from five universities world-wide, communicating on the World Wide Web (WWW), to develop oral rehabilitation plans for simulated patients. Trigger material came from one of two Case Profiles and consisted of diagnostic casts and details of the clinical and radiographic examination in WWW/CD-ROM form. No background material was supplied as to the "patient's" age, sex, history or main concern(s). Students worked in groups of three, each student from a different location. Individual students were given a role within the group: 'Patient', who developed a "personal background" belonging to the trigger examination material, "Academic" who identified state-of-the-art treatment options available for the dental treatment needs identified by the group and "General Practitioner" who tailored these options to the "patient's" needs and wants. Student feedback focused on their perception of their experience with the program in response to a questionnaire comprising 11 structured and four "open" questions. All students felt that the program increased their confidence in planning oral rehabilitation. Ten students felt that the "best thing about the program" was the interaction with students from other universities and the exposure to different philosophies from the different schools. Eight students mentioned their increased awareness of the importance of patient input into holistic planning. Under the heading "What was the worst thing', students cited some technical hitches and the snowball effect of two sluggish students who were not identified early enough and thus impacted negatively on the working of their groups. Student feedback showed that the module succeeded in its aims but needed modification to improve the logistics of working with an extended campus.

  18. Negotiating the MAze: Case based collaborative distance learning in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Lechner

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The module was developed as an elective to give motivated senior dental students an opportunity to expand their horizons in planning oral rehabilitation. It comprised one tutor and 12 students, from five universities world-wide, communicating on the World Wide Web (WWW, to develop oral rehabilitation plans for simulated patients. Trigger material came from one of two Case Profiles and consisted of diagnostic casts and details of the clinical and radiographic examination in WWW/CD-ROM form. No background material was supplied as to the "patient’s" age, sex, history or main concern(s. Students worked in groups of three, each student from a different location. Individual students were given a role within the group: "Patient", who developed a "personal background" belonging to the trigger examination material, "Academic" who identified state-of-the-art treatment options available for the dental treatment needs identified by the group and "General Practitioner" who tailored these options to the "patient’s" needs and wants. Student feedback focused on their perception of their experience with the program in response to a questionnaire comprising 11 structured and four "open" questions. All students felt that the program increased their confidence in planning oral rehabilitation. Ten students felt that the "best thing about the program" was the interaction with students from other universities and the exposure to different philosophies from the different schools. Eight students mentioned their increased awareness of the importance of patient input into holistic planning. Under the heading "What was the worst thing", students cited some technical hitches and the snowball effect of two sluggish students who were not identified early enough and thus impacted negatively on the working of their groups. Student feedback showed that the module succeeded in its aims but needed modification to improve the logistics of working with an extended campus.

  19. Corticokinematic coherence during active and passive finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piitulainen, H; Bourguignon, M; De Tiège, X; Hari, R; Jousmäki, V

    2013-05-15

    Corticokinematic coherence (CKC) refers to coupling between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain activity and hand kinematics. For voluntary hand movements, CKC originates mainly from the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex. To learn about the relative motor and sensory contributions to CKC, we recorded CKC from 15 healthy subjects during active and passive right index-finger movements. The fingertip was either touching or not touching table, resulting in active-touch, active-no-touch, passive-touch, and passive-no-touch conditions. The kinematics of the index-finger was measured with a 3-axis accelerometer. Beamformer analysis was used to locate brain activations for the movements; somatosensory-evoked fields (SEFs) elicited by pneumatic tactile stimulation of the index finger served as a functional landmark for cutaneous input. All active and passive movements resulted in statistically significant CKC at the movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1). The main CKC sources at F0 and F1 were in the contralateral SM1 cortex with no spatial differences between conditions, and distinct from the SEF sources. At F1, the coherence was by two thirds stronger for passive than active movements, with no difference between touch vs. no-touch conditions. Our results suggest that the CKC occurring during repetitive finger movements is mainly driven by somatosensory, primarily proprioceptive, afferent input to the SM1 cortex, with negligible effect of cutaneous input. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1 mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decreased with age. CB6F1 mice showed a moderate learning experience in the 4 and 12 month groups, which was not evident in the 20 and 28 month groups. In conclusion, CB6F1 mice showed more severe age-related cognitive impairment compared to B6 mice and might be a suitable model for intervention studies. In addition, the RWT maze has a number of operational advantages compared to currently accepted tasks and can be used to assess age-related cognition impairment in B6 and CB6F1 mice as early as 12 months of age.

  1. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seun Ah; Kim, Baek Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Na [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hee [Incheon Baek Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists.

  2. Prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of finger causes devastating physical, psychosocial, and economic damage to an individual. The concealment of an amputated part with the help of prosthesis can shield an amputee from social stigma. Prosthesis for such patient must be comfortable to wear lightweight, durable, cosmetically pleasing easy to put on and remove. The restoration of finger amputations depends on the amount of tissue involved, the involvement of bone, the angles and levels of amputation, and the involvement of other fingers. The microsurgical reimplantation helps to save many severely injured and traumatically amputed finger. The prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputated finger is considered when microvascular reconstruction is not possible, unavailable, unsuccessful, or unaffordable. Most accepted material is silicones because of their better esthetics, ease of manipulation, and availability. This paper presents prosthetic rehabilitation of index finger of the right hand with custom made silicon prosthesis.

  3. In the finger it lingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mohamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 80-year-old woman presented with a history of a thorn prick injury over the distal phalange of her left finger obtained while gardening two months ago. She claimed to have a non-healing cut with a nodular lesion, which progressively increased in size, extending upwards towards the region of her left arm. There was no fever or palpable lymph nodes in the axillary region. She had been prescribed antibiotics from the local hospital but her condition did not improve.

  4. Control of magnetotactic bacterium in a micro-fabricated maze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Pichel, M.P.; Reefman, B.A.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the closed-loop control of a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB), i.e., Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, within a micro-fabricated maze using a magneticbased manipulation system. The effect of the channel wall on the motion of the MTB is experimentally analyzed. This analysis is done by

  5. Validating the Electric Maze Task as a Measure of Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W.; Cheatham, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    The Electric Maze Task (EMT) is a novel planning task designed to allow flexible testing of planning abilities across a broad age range and to incorporate manipulations to test underlying planning abilities, such as working-memory and inhibitory control skills. The EMT was tested in a group of 63 typically developing 7- to 12-year-olds.…

  6. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Robert Chebat

    Full Text Available Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  7. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  8. What does the CBM-maze test measure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Kendeou, P.; de Jong, P.F.; van den Broek, P.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates–MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these

  9. The flexible use of multiple cue relationships in spatial navigation : A comparison of water maze performance following hippocampal, medial septal, prefrontal cortex, or posterior parietal cortex lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, DM; Griffith, HR; McDaniel, WF; Foster, RA; Davis, BK

    Rats prepared with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, or medial septal area were tested for acquisition of a number of variations of the open-field water maze using a version of place learning assessment described by Eichenbaum, Stewart, and Morris (1991).

  10. Postoperative metabolic acidosis following the minimally invasive radiofrequency maze procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Patrick Hom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia treated in the world. While medical treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs remains the primary treatment modality, symptomatic refractory AF often requires treatment with a catheter or surgical ablation. One minimally invasive therapy is the Mini-Maze procedure, which utilizes epicardial radiofrequency ablation via a subxiphoid approach to rid the heart of arrhythmogenic atrial foci without a median sternotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass. The goal of this retrospective cohort study was to identify clinical factors associated with metabolic acidosis following the Mini-Maze procedure. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, we studied patients undergoing the Mini-Maze procedure, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or patients conventional Cox-Maze on cardiopulmonary bypass. The first base deficit value obtained in the Intensive Care Unit was used as a measure of metabolic acidosis. Using logistic regression with Akaike information criteria, we analyzed preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data to determine the factors associated with changes in base deficit. Results: A multivariable model using stepwise selection demonstrated that diabetes mellitus and weight were associated with a decrease in the base deficit by 2.87 mEq/L (95% CI: −5.55-−0.19 and 0.04 mEq/L (95%CI: −0.08, 0.004, respectively. Furthermore, creatinine was associated with a 1.57 mEq/L (95% CI: 0.14, 2.99 increase in the base deficit. Conclusion: The Mini-Maze procedure was not associated with postoperative metabolic acidosis. Instead, nondiabetic patients and patients with higher creatinine were associated with greater base deficits after undergoing cardiac surgery.

  11. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  12. Utility of the Hebb–Williams Maze Paradigm for Translational Research in Fragile X Syndrome: A Direct Comparison of Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Collin, Charles A.; MacLeod, Lindsey S.; Messier, Claude; Holahan, Matthew R.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Reno M.; Kogan, Cary S.

    2018-01-01

    To generate meaningful information, translational research must employ paradigms that allow extrapolation from animal models to humans. However, few studies have evaluated translational paradigms on the basis of defined validation criteria. We outline three criteria for validating translational paradigms. We then evaluate the Hebb–Williams maze paradigm (Hebb and Williams, 1946; Rabinovitch and Rosvold, 1951) on the basis of these criteria using Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as model disease. We focused on this paradigm because it allows direct comparison of humans and animals on tasks that are behaviorally equivalent (criterion #1) and because it measures spatial information processing, a cognitive domain for which FXS individuals and mice show impairments as compared to controls (criterion #2). We directly compared the performance of affected humans and mice across different experimental conditions and measures of behavior to identify which conditions produce comparable patterns of results in both species. Species differences were negligible for Mazes 2, 4, and 5 irrespective of the presence of visual cues, suggesting that these mazes could be used to measure spatial learning in both species. With regards to performance on the first trial, which reflects visuo-spatial problem solving, Mazes 5 and 9 without visual cues produced the most consistent results. We conclude that the Hebb–Williams mazes paradigm has the potential to be utilized in translational research to measure comparable cognitive functions in FXS humans and animals (criterion #3). PMID:29643767

  13. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Furuzan; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and radial arm maze (RAM) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  14. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS and guanylate cyclase (GC inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1 H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, Morris water maze (MWM, and radial arm maze (RAM tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg, ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg, L-arginine (100 mg/kg + 7-NI (15 mg/kg, or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg and ODQ (10 mg/kg significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  15. Use of twin dorsal middle phalangeal finger flaps for thumb or index finger reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W; Chen, K J

    2013-05-01

    Amputation or degloving injuries of the thumb or index finger are highly disabling. We describe the use of twin dorsal middle finger flaps harvested from the dorsal aspects of the middle and ring fingers, and based on one palmar proper digital artery, its venae comitantes, and the dorsal branches of the palmar digital nerves of the middle and ring fingers, respectively. These flaps offer advantages when large soft tissue defects of the thumb or index finger are present. In this study, twin dorsal middle finger flaps were used in nine patients (six thumbs, three index fingers). All flaps completely survived. At the mean follow-up of 20 months, the appearance of the reconstructed thumbs or index fingers was acceptable, the length was maintained, and the mean static 2-point discrimination values were 10 mm in the palmar flap and 13 mm in the dorsal flap of the reconstructed digit. All patients were satisfied with the appearance and mobility of the donor fingers. All but one donor finger showed normal finger pulp sensibility, with a static 2-point discrimination between 3 and 6 mm.

  16. Efeito da direção da transferência interlateral no aprendizado de tarefa de sequência de toques de dedos Efecto de la dirección de la transferencia interlateral de aprendizaje en la tarea de secuencia de tocar los dedos Effect of interlateral transfer of learning direction in touching finger sequence task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Andrean

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou o efeito da direção da transferência interlateral no aprendizado de tarefa de toques de dedos. Vinte participantes destros (18-30 anos foram divididos em 2 grupos: prática com a mão direita (GD e com a mão esquerda (GE. Os grupos foram avaliados em fases de pré-teste, pós-teste e retenção. A tarefa consistiu na realização do maior número de toques alternados entre o polegar e os demais dedos, durante 10 segundos, em sequência pré-estabelecida. O GE apresentou maior número de toques de dedos com a mão esquerda no pós-teste (Z=2,2; P=0,028 comparado ao pré-teste. O GD aumentou o número de toques de dedos do pré-teste para a retenção para a mão direita (Z=2,4; P=0,017 e esquerda (Z=2,6; P=0,009, indicando o aprendizado e a transferência interlateral. A transferência interlateral no sentido da mão direita para esquerda foi explicada pelo princípio da treinabilidade.Este estudio examinó el efecto de la dirección de la transferencia interlateral en la tarea de secuencia de tocar los dedos. Veinte participantes diestros (18-30 años fueron divididos en dos grupos: la práctica con la mano derecha (GD y la mano izquierda (GE. Los grupos fueron evaluados en el pre-test, post-test y la retención. La tarea era hacer el mayor número de movimientos alternantes entre el pulgar y otros dedos, por 10 segundos, con una secuencia preestablecida. GE realizado mayor número de toques de dedos con la mano izquierda en el post-test (Z = 2.2, P = 0,028 en comparación con el pre-test. El GD aumentado el número de movimientos del dedo en la retención de la mano derecha (Z = 2.4, P = 0,017 e izquierda (Z = 2.6, P = 0,009, lo que indica el aprendizaje y la transferencia interlateral. La transferencia interlateral hacia la mano derecha a la izquierda se explica por el principio de la treinabilidad.The present study analyzed the effect of interlateral transfer direction while learning a touching finger sequence

  17. Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Ability Through Go Fish Game and Maze Game

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    Dwi Astuti Wahyu Nurhayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem highlighted in this research is the low pronunciation ability of Kindergarten students in Al-Irsyad  Madiun  that is caused by (1 the uninteresting activities in learning English; (2 the students' difficulties in pronunciating English words; (3 the students' low motivation in learning. The theoretical review includes the young learners characteristics, games in language, games for young learners. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. In this research, the researcher acts as the teacher who conducts the action research in the classroom and she is helped by the classsroom teacher. In collecting the data, the researcher uses observational technique supported with tests. In analyzing the data, the researcher uses the field notes, teacher's diaries, students ‘work supported with the cassette recording and photograph,then also compares the result of the students' pre-test and post-test to answer the research questions. There is significant improvement in the result of pre-test and post-test of cycle 1 and 2. In cycle 1, t0 (2.55734 is higher than tt (1.73 and in cycle 2, t0 (6.765738 is also higher than tt (1.73. From these two results, therefore, h0 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (ha is accepted. They practice their pronunciation through taking turn and asking each other for cards to match those they have in their hands, arranging a word and sticking on alphabet, pronunciating the word, giving the meaning, hen making a sentence such as Go Fish Game and Maze Game. By conducting these games, using interesting media, creating various interesting tasks and activities can increase the students' motivation in learning English and pronunciation ability.Keywords: Improving, pronunciation, ability,  go fish and Maze games

  18. Finger wear detection for production line battery tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiante, Eduardo V.

    1997-01-01

    A method for detecting wear in a battery tester probe. The method includes providing a battery tester unit having at least one tester finger, generating a tester signal using the tester fingers and battery tester unit with the signal characteristic of the electrochemical condition of the battery and the tester finger, applying wavelet transformation to the tester signal including computing a mother wavelet to produce finger wear indicator signals, analyzing the signals to create a finger wear index, comparing the wear index for the tester finger with the index for a new tester finger and generating a tester finger signal change signal to indicate achieving a threshold wear change.

  19. Golden hamsters on the eight-arm maze in light and darkness: the role of dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, A S; Sitbon, S; Dahn-Hurni, C; Maurer, R

    1994-11-01

    This paper examines whether golden hamsters can rely on dead reckoning (getting positional information from updated signals generated during locomotion) on an eight-arm maze. Two groups of hamsters were tested: Group L under ordinary room light, Group D in darkness. To enhance the role of dead reckoning, each subject could climb from its own home cage onto the central platform of the maze. In a first experimental phase (15 trials), the L subjects learned to master the maze through developing a locomotor rule (arm chaining) after three to four trials. The D subjects developed arm chaining less readily and fluctuated more in their performance than did the L subjects. In a second experimental phase (15 trials), four arms were blocked at the beginning of each trial. In both experimental groups the performance decreased, yet remained well above chance level. Success and arm chaining were positively correlated in Phase 1 and negatively correlated with success in Phase 2. We assume that in Phase 2 the L subjects switched to the predominant use of visual cues, and the D subjects to dead reckoning.

  20. Finger prosthesis: a boon to handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Kumar, Lakshya; Rao, Jitendra; Singh, Kamleshwar

    2013-08-29

    This is a clinical case report of a 52-year-old male patient with four partially missing fingers of the left hand. The article describes the clinical and laboratory procedure of making prosthesis with modern silicone material. A wax pattern was fabricated using the right hand of the patient. A special type of wax was formulated to make the pattern so that it can be easily moulded and carved. Intrinsic and extrinsic staining was also performed to match the adjacent skin colour. The patient was given the finger prosthesis and was asked to use a half glove (sports) to mask the junction between the prosthesis and the normal tissue. It also provides additional retention to the artificial fingers. The patient felt his social acceptance improved after wearing the finger prosthesis.

  1. Stainless steel quadralatch finger test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the quadralatch on the universal samplers was changed in response to flammable gas operating constraints. Additional redesign of the fingers was included to facilitate manufacturability. The new design was tested to assure satisfactory performance. It was shown that the fingers can hold a sampler in place with an upward force of at least 2200 N (500 pounds) and that the mechanical remote latch unit can release the quadralatch under this condition of maximum upward force

  2. Finger replantation: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, S; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the surgical technique of finger replantation in detail, distinguishing particularities of technique in cases of thumb amputation, children fingertip replantation, ring finger avulsion, and very distal replantations. We emphasize the principles of bone shortening, the spare part concept, the special importance of nerve sutures and the use of vein graft in case of avulsion or crushing. However, even if finger replantation is now a routine procedure, a clear distinction should be made between revascularization and functional success. The indications for finger replantation are then detailed in the second part of this paper. The absolute indications for replantation are thumb, multiple fingers, transmetacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity amputation in a child whatever the level. Fingertip amputations distal to the insertion of the Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) are also a good indication. Other cases are more controversial because of the poor functional outcome, especially for the index finger, which is often functionally excluded. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Individual finger sensibility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfar, John C; Yaseen, Zaneb; Stern, Peter J; Kiefhaber, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Sensibility testing plays a role in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). No single physical examination test has proven to be of critical value in the diagnosis, especially when compared with electrodiagnostic testing (EDX). The purpose of this study was to define which digits are most affected by CTS, both subjectively and with objective sensibility testing. A prospective series of 35 patients (40 hands) with EDX-positive, isolated CTS were evaluated preoperatively using 2 objective sensibility tests: static 2-point discrimination (2PD) and abbreviated Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWMF) testing. Detailed surveys of subjective symptoms were also collected. Patients identified the middle finger as the most symptomatic over all others (51%). Objective 2PD results of each digit mirrored the subjective data, with higher values for the middle finger (mean 6.07 mm, (p thumb > index > small). Correlations failed between EDX, symptoms, and SWMF results or 2PD in the index finger. Positive but weak correlation (p = .002, r = .42) was found between EDX and 2PD only in the middle fingers. The middle finger is the most likely to show changes in 2PD in patients with positive EDX findings for CTS. Middle finger 2PD is best able to correlate with EDX when compared with 2PD of other digits. The SWMF testing also shows the middle digit testing as more sensitive, but this finding may be difficult to use clinically. Diagnostic I. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Finger multibiometric cryptosystems: fusion strategy and template security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jialiang; Li, Qiong; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2014-03-01

    We address two critical issues in the design of a finger multibiometric system, i.e., fusion strategy and template security. First, three fusion strategies (feature-level, score-level, and decision-level fusions) with the corresponding template protection technique are proposed as the finger multibiometric cryptosystems to protect multiple finger biometric templates of fingerprint, finger vein, finger knuckle print, and finger shape modalities. Second, we theoretically analyze different fusion strategies for finger multibiometric cryptosystems with respect to their impact on security and recognition accuracy. Finally, the performance of finger multibiometric cryptosystems at different fusion levels is investigated on a merged finger multimodal biometric database. The comparative results suggest that the proposed finger multibiometric cryptosystem at feature-level fusion outperforms other approaches in terms of verification performance and template security.

  5. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  6. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger-arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3-DOF fingers are attached to the end-effector of a 6-DOF arm to configure a multi-finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi-finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini-max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi-finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. Robotic finger perturbation training improves finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Shinohara, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of robotic finger perturbation training on steadiness in finger posture and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. A mobile robotic finger training system was designed to have the functions of high-speed mechanical response, two degrees of freedom, and adjustable loading amplitude and direction. Healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three groups: random perturbation training (RPT), constant force training (CFT), and control. Subjects in RPT and CFT performed steady posture training with their index finger using the robot in different modes: random force in RPT and constant force in CFT. After the 2-week intervention period, fluctuations of the index finger posture decreased only in RPT during steady position-matching tasks with an inertial load. Purdue pegboard test score improved also in RPT only. The relative change in finger postural fluctuations was negatively correlated with the relative change in the number of completed pegs in the pegboard test in RPT. The results indicate that finger posture training with random mechanical perturbations of varying amplitudes and directions of force is effective in improving finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tendon displacements during voluntary and involuntary finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Nathalie; Gijsbertse, Kaj; Selles, Ruud W; de Korte, Chris L; Veeger, DirkJan H E J; Stegeman, Dick F; Maas, Huub

    2018-01-23

    In the human hand, independent movement control of individual fingers is limited. One potential cause for this is mechanical connections between the tendons and muscle bellies corresponding to the different fingers. The aim of this study was to determine the tendon displacement of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) of both the instructed and the neighboring, non-instructed fingers during single finger flexion movements. In nine healthy subjects (age 22-29 years), instructed and non-instructed FDS finger tendon displacement of the index, middle and ring finger was measured using 2D ultrasound analyzed with speckle tracking software in two conditions: active flexion of all finger joints with all fingers free to move and active flexion while the non-instructed fingers were restricted. Our results of the free movement protocol showed an average tendon displacement of 27 mm for index finger flexion, 21 mm for middle finger flexion and 17 mm for ring finger flexion. Displacements of the non-instructed finger tendons (≈12 mm) were higher than expected based of the amount of non-instructed finger movement. In the restricted protocol, we found that, despite minimal joint movements, substantial non-instructed finger tendon displacement (≈9 mm) was still observed, which was interpreted as a result of tendon strain. When this strain component was subtracted from the tendon displacement of the non-instructed fingers during the free movement condition, the relationship between finger movement and tendon displacement of the instructed and non-instructed finger became comparable. Thus, when studying non-instructed finger tendon displacement it is important to take tendon strain into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gravity Induced Ordering of Frictional Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jon; Sandnes, Bjørnar; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Flekkøy, Eirik

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on confined two-phase flow systems, involving air and a dense suspension, have revealed highly non-trivial flow morphologies. As the air displaces the suspension, the grains that make up the suspension tend to accumulate along the interface, and can build up force chains that jam the accumulated region. This dynamics will generate "frictional fingers" of air coated by a region of densely packed grains. The fingers have a characteristic width that balances surface tension and frictional forces of the densely packed grains. When these fingers grow under the influence of gravity, they can align either horizontally or vertically, or grow in a random isotropic fashion. The transition between the different modes of finger growth depends on the density of grains, and the gravitational force component. We present an analytic model to account for the transitions between the modes. We further present a numerical scheme that enables us to simulate the dynamics of the process. The numerical and analytic results are in good agreements with the experimental findings. Finally we show how this process could explain patterns that emerge naturally in early stages of dyke formation. These patterns are formed when hot fluid displaces partly molten rocks and packs the hard mineral grains composing it together, thereby forming finger structures that remain frozen in the dyke walls.

  10. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    KAUST Repository

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.

    2015-02-23

    © 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  11. Viscoelastic fingering with a pulsed pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvera Poire, E; Rio, J A del

    2004-01-01

    We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes (1987 Europhys. Lett. 2 195) to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this and a conservation law, we obtain the lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. When the driving force consists of a constant pressure gradient plus an oscillatory signal, our results indicate that the finger width varies in time following the frequency of the incident signal. Also, the amplitude of the finger width in time depends on the value of the dynamic permeability at the imposed frequency. When the finger is driven with a frequency that maximizes the permeability, variations in the amplitude are also maximized. This gives results that are very different for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. For the former ones the amplitude of the oscillation decays with frequency. For the latter ones on the other hand, the amplitude has maxima at the same frequencies that maximize the dynamic permeability

  12. Spoof Detection for Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger-vein recognition, a new and advanced biometrics recognition method, is attracting the attention of researchers because of its advantages such as high recognition performance and lesser likelihood of theft and inaccuracies occurring on account of skin condition defects. However, as reported by previous researchers, it is possible to attack a finger-vein recognition system by using presentation attack (fake finger-vein images. As a result, spoof detection, named as presentation attack detection (PAD, is necessary in such recognition systems. Previous attempts to establish PAD methods primarily focused on designing feature extractors by hand (handcrafted feature extractor based on the observations of the researchers about the difference between real (live and presentation attack finger-vein images. Therefore, the detection performance was limited. Recently, the deep learning framework has been successfully applied in computer vision and delivered superior results compared to traditional handcrafted methods on various computer vision applications such as image-based face recognition, gender recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a PAD method for near-infrared (NIR camera-based finger-vein recognition system using convolutional neural network (CNN to enhance the detection ability of previous handcrafted methods. Using the CNN method, we can derive a more suitable feature extractor for PAD than the other handcrafted methods using a training procedure. We further process the extracted image features to enhance the presentation attack finger-vein image detection ability of the CNN method using principal component analysis method (PCA for dimensionality reduction of feature space and support vector machine (SVM for classification. Through extensive experimental results, we confirm that our proposed method is adequate for presentation attack finger-vein image detection and it can deliver superior detection results compared

  13. Spoof Detection for Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition, a new and advanced biometrics recognition method, is attracting the attention of researchers because of its advantages such as high recognition performance and lesser likelihood of theft and inaccuracies occurring on account of skin condition defects. However, as reported by previous researchers, it is possible to attack a finger-vein recognition system by using presentation attack (fake) finger-vein images. As a result, spoof detection, named as presentation attack detection (PAD), is necessary in such recognition systems. Previous attempts to establish PAD methods primarily focused on designing feature extractors by hand (handcrafted feature extractor) based on the observations of the researchers about the difference between real (live) and presentation attack finger-vein images. Therefore, the detection performance was limited. Recently, the deep learning framework has been successfully applied in computer vision and delivered superior results compared to traditional handcrafted methods on various computer vision applications such as image-based face recognition, gender recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a PAD method for near-infrared (NIR) camera-based finger-vein recognition system using convolutional neural network (CNN) to enhance the detection ability of previous handcrafted methods. Using the CNN method, we can derive a more suitable feature extractor for PAD than the other handcrafted methods using a training procedure. We further process the extracted image features to enhance the presentation attack finger-vein image detection ability of the CNN method using principal component analysis method (PCA) for dimensionality reduction of feature space and support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Through extensive experimental results, we confirm that our proposed method is adequate for presentation attack finger-vein image detection and it can deliver superior detection results compared to CNN

  14. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc-finger nucleases: a panoramic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana

    2011-02-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are emerging as very powerful tools for directed genome modifications. Their key features are: a DNA-binding domain comprised of zinc fingers that can be designed to favor very specific targets; a nonspecific cleavage domain that must dimerize to cut DNA--this requirement enhances specificity and minimizes random cleavage. ZFNs have been shown to be effective in a wide range of organisms and cell types. This article reviews discoveries that led to the development of ZFNs, cites examples of successes in genome engineering, and projects how ZFNs may be used in the future, particularly in applications to humans.

  16. Contamination by human fingers. The Midas touch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Grass, F.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is one of the causes of contamination in the human environment: contamination of air, water, top soils, plants and food products has complex effects on human health problems. Wear and abrasion of various surfaces are constant processes in daily life, and commonly include interaction between human fingers and surfaces of every conceivable material. New methods for investigation of trace transfer processes by human fingers are described. Results of transfer for commonly used metals such as gold, silver, zinc, cadmium, tin, cobalt, nickel, chromium and iron are presented. Relationship between transfer of metals by touch and the general problem of purity in analytical activities is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Optical Myography: Detecting Finger Movements by Looking at the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eNissler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial problems found in the scientific community of assistive / rehabilitation robotics nowadays is that of automatically detecting what a disabled subject (for instance, a hand amputee wants to do, exactly when she wants to do it and strictly for the time she wants to do it. This problem, commonly called intent detection, has traditionally been tackled using surface electromyography, a technique which suffers from a number of drawbacks, including the changes in the signal induced by sweat and muscle fatigue. With the advent of realistic, physically plausible augmented- and virtual-reality environments for rehabilitation, this approach does not suffice anymore. In this paper we explore a novel method to solve the problem, that we call Optical Myography (OMG. The idea is to visually inspect the human forearm (or stump to reconstruct what fingers are moving and to what extent. In a psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects, we used visual fiducial markers (AprilTags and a standard web-camera to visualize the deformations of the surface of the forearm, which then were mapped to the intended finger motions. As ground truth, a visual stimulus was used, avoiding the need for finger sensors (force/position sensors, datagloves, etc.. Two machine-learning approaches, a linear and a non-linear one, were comparatively tested in settings of increasing realism. The results indicate an average error in the range of 0.05 to 0.22 (root mean square error normalized over the signal range, in line with similar results obtained with more mature techniques such as electromyography. If further successfully tested in the large, this approach could lead to vision-based intent detection of amputees, with the main application of letting such disabled persons dexterously and reliably interact in an augmented- / virtual-reality setup.

  18. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger‐arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3‐DOF fingers are attached to the end‐effector of a 6‐DOF arm to configure a multi‐finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi‐finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini‐max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi‐finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Effects of an early experience involving training in a T-maze under either denial or receipt of expected reward through maternal contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios eStamatakis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mother is the most salient stimulus for the developing pups and a number of early experience models employ manipulation of the mother-infant interaction. We have developed a new model which in addition to changes in maternal behavior includes a learning component on the part of the pups. More specifically, pups were trained in a T-maze and either received (RER rats or were denied (DER the reward of maternal contact, during postnatal days 10—13.Pups of both experimental groups learn the T-maze, but the RER do so more efficiently utilizing a procedural-type of learning and memory with activation of the dorsal basal ganglia. On the other hand, the DER experience leads to activation of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the pups.In adulthood, male DER animals exhibit better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze and higher activation of the hippocampus, while they have decreased brain serotonergic activity, exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and proactive aggressive behavior in the resident-intruder test. On the other hand, male RER animals assume a reactive coping style in this test, showed increased emotionality as well as freezing in the memory test following both contextual and cued fear conditioning.

  20. ANALYSIS WITH MSC ADAMS OF A 5-FINGER AND 3-PHALANX /FINGER UNDER-ACTUATEDMECHANICAL HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analysis with MSC ADAMS of a 5-fingered and 3-phalanx/finger underactuatedmechanical hand, designed by the author to work on industrial robots. Moreover, in order to increasegrasping safety in the automated handling process, the author has fitted each finger with a locking sequence inthe final phase of grasping. Thus, the mechanism of mechanical hand is considered to be a mechanical systemand is treated like a set of rigid bodies connected by mechanical linkages and elastic elements. To model andsimulate this mechanism with MSC ADAMS programme, the author covered the following stages: constructionof the model, testing-simulation, validation, finishing, parameterization, and optimization

  1. Applications of the Morris water maze in translational traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Velosky, Alexander G; McCabe, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on dependent measures that are available and important controls that must be considered in the context of TBI. Finally, caution is given regarding interpretation of deficits as being indicative of dysfunction of a single brain region (hippocampus), as experimental models of TBI most often result in more diffuse damage that disrupts multiple neural pathways and larger functional networks that participate in complex behaviors required in MWM performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  3. Effects of Amphetamine and β-Endorphin Fragments on Maze Performance in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fragments of β-endorphin and amphetamine cause similar effects in some tests of maze behavior in rats. The present study served to compare the influence of amphetamine and two β-endorphin fragments [β-endorphin (βE)-(2-9) and βE-(2-16)] on maze behavior in more detail. In Experiment I no significant

  4. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  5. A computer vision-based automated Figure-8 maze for working memory test in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Samuel F; Song, Eun Young; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Jeansok J

    2006-09-30

    The benchmark test for prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated working memory in rodents is a delayed alternation task utilizing variations of T-maze or Figure-8 maze, which requires the animals to make specific arm entry responses for reward. In this task, however, manual procedures involved in shaping target behavior, imposing delays between trials and delivering rewards can potentially influence the animal's performance on the maze. Here, we report an automated Figure-8 maze which does not necessitate experimenter-subject interaction during shaping, training or testing. This system incorporates a computer vision system for tracking, motorized gates to impose delays, and automated reward delivery. The maze is controlled by custom software that records the animal's location and activates the gates according to the animal's behavior and a control algorithm. The program performs calculations of task accuracy, tracks movement sequence through the maze, and provides other dependent variables (such as running speed, time spent in different maze locations, activity level during delay). Testing in rats indicates that the performance accuracy is inversely proportional to the delay interval, decreases with PFC lesions, and that animals anticipate timing during long delays. Thus, our automated Figure-8 maze is effective at assessing working memory and provides novel behavioral measures in rodents.

  6. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  7. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; Krul, A.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O’Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet

  8. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O'Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet

  9. Finger cold-induced vasodilation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H. A M

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes

  10. Treatment Options for Mallet Finger : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Beets, Michiel R.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Rood, Akkie; Welters, Carlo F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mallet finger is a common injury. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the different treatment options of mallet injuries and their indications, outcomes, and potential complications. Methods: A literature-based study was conducted using the PubMed database comprising world

  11. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward

  12. Finger Search in Grammar-Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    random access, that is, given a position in the original uncompressed string report the character at that position. In this paper we study the random access problem with the finger search property, that is, the time for a random access query should depend on the distance between a specified index f...

  13. Designing Fingers in Simulation based on Imprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuf Schwartz, Lukas Christoffer Malte; Wolniakowski, Adam; Werner, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Gripper design is nowadays an area of ongoing research activity. The problem of creating a generic and automated gripper design approach tailored for a specific task is still far from solved. In this paper, we propose a new method of generating finger cut-outs aimed at simplifying the design...

  14. Finger cold-induced vasodilation : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes

  15. Cutaneous Microembolism of Fingers and Toes

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Wollina; André Koch; Birgit Heinig; Georgi Tchernev; Torello Lotti

    2018-01-01

    A macro vascular embolism is a well-known emergency. In contrast, cutaneous microembolism is a lesser known symptom. However, cutaneous microembolism of fingers and toes is a red flag symptom for vascular emergencies. The underlying cause may involve infectious, immunological, metabolic and physical disorders, coagulation disorders and malignancies. Early recognition can help to live safe.

  16. Novel Dexterous Robotic Finger Concept with Controlled Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, M.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel robotic finger concept for variable impedance grasping in unstructured tasks. The novel robotic finger combines three key features: minimal actuation, variable mechanical compliance and full manipulability. This combination of features allows for a minimal component

  17. Nogo-A downregulation impairs place avoidance in the Carousel maze but not spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Bahník, Štěpán; Schönig, K.; Berger, S.; Valeš, Karel; Tews, B.; Schwab, M. E.; Bartsch, D.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, Jan 2014 (2014), s. 42-49 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 365911 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Nogo-A * spatial navigation * cognitive coordination * spatial mazes * transgenic rat model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.652, year: 2014

  18. Activity patterns of extrinsic finger flexors and extensors during movements of instructed and non-instructed fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Nathalie; Stegeman, Dick F; van den Noort, Josien C; H E J Veeger, DirkJan; Maas, Huub

    2018-02-01

    The fingers of the human hand cannot be controlled fully independently. This phenomenon may have a neurological as well as a mechanical basis. Despite previous studies, the neuromechanics of finger movements are not fully understood. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the activation and coactivation patterns of finger specific flexor and extensor muscle regions during instructed single finger flexion and (2) to determine the relationship between enslaved finger movements and respective finger muscle activation. In 9 healthy subjects (age 22-29), muscle activation was assessed during single finger flexion using a 90 surface electromyography electrode grid placed over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED). We found (1) no significant differences in muscle activation timing between fingers, (2) considerable muscle activity in flexor and extensor regions associated with the non-instructed fingers and (3) no correlation between the muscle activations and corresponding movement of non-instructed fingers. A clear disparity was found between the movement pattern of the non-instructed fingers and the activity pattern of the corresponding muscle regions. This suggests that mechanical factors, such as intertendinous and myofascial connections, may also affect finger movement independency and need to be taken into consideration when studying finger movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Finger Interaction and Synergies in Finger Flexion and Extension Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebum Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discover finger interaction indices during single-finger ramp tasks and multi-finger coordination during a steady state force production in two directions, flexion, and extension. Furthermore, the indices of anticipatory adjustment of elemental variables (i.e., finger forces prior to a quick pulse force production were quantified. It is currently unknown whether the organization and anticipatory modulation of stability properties are affected by force directions and strengths of in multi-finger actions. We expected to observe a smaller finger independency and larger indices of multi-finger coordination during extension than during flexion due to both neural and peripheral differences between the finger flexion and extension actions. We also examined the indices of the anticipatory adjustment between different force direction conditions. The anticipatory adjustment could be a neural process, which may be affected by the properties of the muscles and by the direction of the motions. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force was larger for flexion than for extension, which confirmed the fact that the strength of finger flexor muscles (e.g., flexor digitorum profundus was larger than that of finger extensor (e.g., extensor digitorum. The analysis within the uncontrolled manifold (UCM hypothesis was used to quantify the motor synergy of elemental variables by decomposing two sources of variances across repetitive trials, which identifies the variances in the uncontrolled manifold (VUCM and that are orthogonal to the UCM (VORT. The presence of motor synergy and its strength were quantified by the relative amount of VUCM and VORT. The strength of motor synergies at the steady state was larger in the extension condition, which suggests that the stability property (i.e., multi-finger synergies may be a direction specific quantity. However, the results for the existence of anticipatory adjustment; however, no difference

  20. Finger Based Techniques for Nonvisual Touchscreen Text Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Fakrudeen, Mohammed; Yousef, Sufian; Miraz, Mahdi H.; Hussein, AbdelRahman Hamza

    2017-01-01

    This research proposes Finger Based Technique (FBT) for non-visual touch screen device interaction designed for blind users. Based on the proposed technique, the blind user can access virtual keys based on finger holding positions. Three different models have been proposed. They are Single Digit Finger-Digit Input (FDI), Double Digit FDI for digital text entry, and Finger-Text Input (FTI) for normal text entry. All the proposed models were implemented with voice feedback while enabling touch ...

  1. Transition to finger convection in double-diffusive convection

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, M.; Tilgner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Finger convection is observed experimentally in an electrodeposition cell in which a destabilizing gradient of copper ions is maintained against a stabilizing temperature gradient. This double-diffusive system shows finger convection even if the total density stratification is unstable. Finger convection is replaced by an ordinary convection roll if convection is fast enough to prevent sufficient heat diffusion between neighboring fingers, or if the thermal buoyancy force is less than 1/30 of...

  2. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  3. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities of aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreddula, Sathish Kumar; Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy; Gaddam, Durga Prasad; Desu, Brahma Srinivasa Rao; Ramarao, Nadendla; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2014-01-01

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly (P nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  4. Left hand finger force in violin playing: tempo, loudness, and finger differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional force transducer was installed in the neck of a violin under the A string at the D5 position in order to study the force with which the violinist clamps the string against the fingerboard under normal playing conditions. Violinists performed repetitive sequences of open A- and fingered D-tones using the ring finger at tempi of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 notes/s at mezzo-forte. At selected tempi, the effects of dynamic level and the use of different fingers were investigated as well. The force profiles were clearly dependent on tempo and dynamic level. At slow tempi, the force profiles were characterized by an initial pulse followed by a level force to the end of the finger contact period. At tempi higher than 2 Hz, only pulsed profiles were observed. The peak force exceeded 4.5 N at 1 and 2 Hz and decreased to 1.7 N at 16 Hz. All force and impulse values were lower at softer dynamic levels, and when using the ring or little finger compared to the index finger.

  5. Production of fish finger from sand smelt ( Atherina boyeri , RISSO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, changes of chemical, microbiological load and sensory properties of fish fingers prepared from sand smelt (Atherina boyeri, RISSO 1810) were investigated during storage (for 6 months at -18°C). The fish finger nutritional composition changed with the fish finger process. The changes in moisture, crude protein, ...

  6. The Incidence of Finger Ridge Counts among the Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was attempted to obtain the occurrence total and absolute finger ridge counts from 102 unrelated Christian populations (60 males and 42 females) of Mysore city, Karnataka state of India. Data were collected by biometric scanner (USB finger print reader). The mean values of Total finger ridge count and ...

  7. Association Between Finger Clubbing and Chronic Lung Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finger clubbed patients had higher risk of hypoxemia (46.7%), pulmonary hypertension (46.7%) and advanced disease in WHO stage III/ IV (91.7%) compared to non-finger clubbed patients. Finger clubbed patients had lower CD4 cells count and percentage (median 369cells, 13%) compared to non-clubbed patients ...

  8. Spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze after electroconvulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria; Hallin, Thord; Broms, Jonas; Ekstrand, Joakim; Tingström, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS. We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment. A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM. The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.

  9. A Diabetic Elderly Man with Finger Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Noraini; Badrin, Salziyan; Wan Abdullah, Wan Noor Hasbee

    2018-03-01

    Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis is a differential diagnosis that can be considered in diabetic patients who present with a poorly healing ulcer. Although its prevalence is low, it can occur in patients with immunocompromised status. Here we report a case of a 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus who presented with a 1-month history of an unhealed ulcer over the tip of his left middle finger. He experienced a cat bite over his left middle finger 1 month prior to the appearance of the lesion. A skin biopsy revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii . Oral itraconazole 200 mg twice daily was started empirically and the patient showed marked improvement in the skin lesion after 2 months of therapy.

  10. Botulinum toxin injection of spastic finger flexors in hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; McGinn, M; Chappell, R

    2000-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of botulinum toxin injection of spastic finger flexors followed by intensive training of finger extensors. Fourteen subjects with chronic hemiplegia spasticity of the upper limb had electromyographic-guided botulinum toxin injection into the long finger flexors. All patients presented with minimal active finger extension with the wrist flexed, sustained clonus of the finger flexors, functional proximal arm function, and absence of fixed contracture. Cadaver dissections directed selection of two injection sites: the flexor digitorum sublimis and the flexor digitorum profundus. Fifty mouse units of botulinum toxin were injected into each muscle. After injection, the subjects were instructed in a home program of stretching the long finger flexors, upper limb weight bearing with a weight-bearing splint, and exercise to improve finger extension control. Compared with preinjection measures, assessment the first week after the initial injection showed significantly reduced tone, reduced clonus, and greater active finger extension with the wrist in the neutral position. Four months later, the Ashworth scale increased to preinjection levels in the six subjects with repeated injections but was again decreased postinjection. Active finger extension with the wrist in the neutral position and clonus showed a statistically nonsignificant trend toward cumulative improvement after the second injection. The greatest change in finger extension and spasticity reduction occurred after the first injection. Continued significant improvement in finger extension was not observed.

  11. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guoding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on performance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineering fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization; in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic performance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  12. A Parametric Modelling Method for Dexterous Finger Reachable Workspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The well-known algorithms, such as the graphic method, analytical method or numerical method, have some defects when modelling the dexterous finger workspace, which is a significant kinematical feature of dexterous hands and valuable for grasp planning, motion control and mechanical design. A novel modelling method with convenient and parametric performances is introduced to generate the dexterous-finger reachable workspace. This method constructs the geometric topology of the dexterous-finger reachable workspace, and uses a joint feature recognition algorithm to extract the kinematical parameters of the dexterous finger. Compared with graphic, analytical and numerical methods, this parametric modelling method can automatically and conveniently construct a more vivid workspace's forms and contours of the dexterous finger. The main contribution of this paper is that a workspace-modelling tool with high interactive efficiency is developed for designers to precisely visualize the dexterous-finger reachable workspace, which is valuable for analysing the flexibility of the dexterous finger.

  13. Illustrated techniques for performing the Cox-Maze IV procedure through a right mini-thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jason O; Saint, Lindsey L; Leidenfrost, Jeremy E; Damiano, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-Maze IV procedure has replaced the "cut-and-sew" technique of the original Cox-Maze operation with lines of ablation created using bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and cryothermal energy devices. In select patients, this procedure can be performed through a right mini-thoracotomy. This illustrated review is the first to detail the complete steps of the Cox-Maze IV procedure performed through a right mini-thoracotomy with careful attention paid to operative anatomy and advice. Pre- and post-operative management and outcomes are also discussed. This should be a practical guide for the practicing cardiac surgeon.

  14. Radial maze performance in three strains of mice - Role of the fimbria/fornix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, D. K.; Deboissiere, T.; Robinson, N.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of mice were tested on an 8-arm radial maze, an index of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Levels of performance differed betweens strains with C57Br/cdj greater than Balb/cj greater than C57B1/6j. Lesions of the fimbria/fornix disrupted performance in the C57Br and Balb strains: the C57Bl mice never performed better than chance before or after surgery. Choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus was not correlated with radial maze performance. These findings suggest a possible genetic contribution towards radial maze behavior.

  15. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  16. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group.

  17. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  18. Effects of zolpidem on sedation, anxiety, and memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Karina A; Patti, Camilla L; Sanday, Leandro; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Oliveira, Larissa C; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Zolpidem (Zolp), a hypnotic drug prescribed to treat insomnia, may have negative effects on memory, but reports are inconsistent. We examined the effects of acute doses of Zolp (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory formation (learning, consolidation, and retrieval) using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. Mice were acutely treated with Zolp 30 min before training or testing. In addition, the effects of Zolp and midazolam (Mid; a classic benzodiazepine) on consolidation at different time points were examined. The possible role of state dependency was investigated using combined pre-training and pre-test treatments. Zolp produced a dose-dependent sedative effect, without modifying anxiety-like behavior. The pre-training administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg resulted in retention deficits. When administered immediately after training or before testing, memory was preserved. Zolp post-training administration (2 or 3 h) impaired subsequent memory. There was no participation of state dependency phenomenon in the amnestic effects of Zolp. Similar to Zolp, Mid impaired memory consolidation when administered 1 h after training. Amnestic effects occurred when Zolp was administered either before or 2-3 h after training. These memory deficits are not related to state dependency. Moreover, Zolp did not impair memory retrieval. Notably, the memory-impairing effects of Zolp are similar to those of Mid, with the exception of the time point at which the drug can modify consolidation. Finally, the memory effects were unrelated to sedation or anxiolysis.

  19. Finger Search in the Implicit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl; Truelsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    , and delete in times $\\mathcal{O}(q(t))$, $\\mathcal{O}(q^{-1}(\\log n)\\log n)$, $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, respectively, for any q(t) = Ω(logt). Finally we show that the search operation must take Ω(logn) time for the special case where the finger is always changed to the element...

  20. Angiolipoma of index finger: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiolipomas are usually found in the upper extremities, shoulder and back. They are seldom found in the hands, face and lower extremities. They usually occur as painful soft tissue masses or they may compress the neighboring structures (e.g. nerves depending on the size and location. In this report we present an angiolipoma case located in the finger and discuss related recent cases described in the literature. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 22-25

  1. Pacifier Use, Finger Sucking, and Infant Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rachel; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between pacifier use or finger sucking and infant sleep. One hundred and four mothers of infants (ages 0-11 months) completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). Infants who engaged in finger sucking had fewer night wakings and longer stretches of nighttime sleep, although less daytime sleep. There were no significant differences in sleep patterns between pacifier users and infants who did not engage in nonnutritive sucking. Furthermore, no significant differences were found across groups for sleep ecology, including parental involvement at bedtime and following night wakings. Finally, infants were consistently able to retrieve their pacifiers independently by 7 months of age, although this did not appear to be associated with sleep outcomes. Results suggest that when parents are deciding whether to give their infant a pacifier, sleep may not be a critical factor. In contrast, parents of finger and thumb suckers should be reassured that this nonnutritive sucking is beneficial to sleep, at least in the first year of life.

  2. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar I. Jóhannesson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  3. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  4. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  5. Individuality of movements in music--finger and body movements during playing of the flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Stefan; Janssen, Daniel; Quarz, Esther; Newell, Karl M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2014-06-01

    The achievement of mastery in playing a composition by means of a musical instrument typically requires numerous repetitions and corrections according to the keys and notations of the music piece. Nevertheless, differences in the interpretation of the same music piece by highly skilled musicians seem to be recognizable. The present study investigated differences within and between skilled flute players in their finger and body movements playing the same piece several times on the same and on different days. Six semiprofessional and four professional musicians played an excerpt of Mozart's Flute Concerto No. 2 several times on three different days. Finger and body movements were recorded by 3D motion capture and analyzed by linear and nonlinear classification approaches. The findings showed that the discrete and continuous movement timing data correctly identified individuals up to 100% by means of their finger movements and up to 94% by means of their body movements. These robust examples of identifying individual movement patterns contradict the prevailing models of small, economic finger movements that are favored in the didactic literature for woodwind players and question traditional recommendations for teaching the learning of motor skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of fingers in number processing in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eLafay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between finger counting and numerical processing in 4- to 7-year-old children. Children were assessed on a variety of numerical tasks and we examined the correlations between their rates of success and their frequency of finger use in a counting task. We showed that children’s performance on finger pattern comparison and identification tasks did not correlate with the frequency of finger use. However, this last variable correlated with the percentages of correct responses in an enumeration task (i.e., Give-N task, even when the age of children was entered as a covariate in the analysis. Despite this correlation, we showed that some children who never used their fingers in the counting task were able to perform optimally in the enumeration task. Overall, our results support the conclusion that finger counting is useful but not necessary to develop accurate symbolic numerical skills. Moreover, our results suggest that the use of fingers in a counting task is related to the ability of children in a dynamic enumeration task but not to static tasks involving recognition or comparison of finger patterns. Therefore, it could be that the link between fingers and numbers remain circumscribed to counting tasks and do not extent to static finger montring situations.

  7. The role of fingers in number processing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; Thevenot, Catherine; Castel, Caroline; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between finger counting and numerical processing in 4-7-year-old children. Children were assessed on a variety of numerical tasks and we examined the correlations between their rates of success and their frequency of finger use in a counting task. We showed that children's performance on finger pattern comparison and identification tasks did not correlate with the frequency of finger use. However, this last variable correlated with the percentages of correct responses in an enumeration task (i.e., Give-N task), even when the age of children was entered as a covariate in the analysis. Despite this correlation, we showed that some children who never used their fingers in the counting task were able to perform optimally in the enumeration task. Overall, our results support the conclusion that finger counting is useful but not necessary to develop accurate symbolic numerical skills. Moreover, our results suggest that the use of fingers in a counting task is related to the ability of children in a dynamic enumeration task but not to static tasks involving recognition or comparison of finger patterns. Therefore, it could be that the link between fingers and numbers remain circumscribed to counting tasks and do not extent to static finger montring situations.

  8. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soechting, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists. PMID:22815403

  9. The Role of Vision in the Development of Finger-Number Interactions: Finger-Counting and Finger-Montring in Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crollen, Virginie; Mahe, Rachel; Collignon, Olivier; Seron, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of the fingers may play a functional role in the development of a mature counting system. However, the role of developmental vision in the elaboration of a finger numeral representation remains unexplored. In the current study, 14 congenitally blind children and 14 matched sighted controls undertook…

  10. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder.

  11. [Cox-maze III procedure for atrial fibrillation. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villarreal, Ovidio A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efectiveness of the cut-and-sew Cox-maze III procedure against the Cox-maze IV peocedure by means of intraoperative bipolar radiofrequency delivery clamp. From January 2011 to October 2014, 50 patients were operated on with surgery for atrial fibrillation. All cases underwent mitral valve surgery as the first procedure, and secondarily a surgical procedure for atrial fibrillation was also performed. There were 2 groups. Group I (Cox-maze III «cut-and-sew»), and Group II (Cox-maze IV, intraoperative bipolar radiofrequency ablation). Group I was formed by 36 patients, and Group II by 14. All cases had atrial fibrillation longer than 1 year. The end-point was freedom of atrial fibrillation. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding the basal and operative characteristics. Operative mortality was of 2 cases in the Group I, and no cases for Group II (P=0.9). A high tendency to eliminate atrial fibrillation in favour of Group I was observed (92% vs 53%, P<.001) in a 6 months follow-up. Classic standard Cox-maze III procedure showed superiority to eliminate atrial fibrillation over the Cox-maze IV procedure made with bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamp in patients with concomitant mitral valve disease. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Blind rats are not profoundly impaired in the reference memory Morris water maze and cannot be clearly discriminated from rats with cognitive deficits in the cued platform task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Schallert, T; Emerich, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Morris water maze is commonly used to test cognitive function in rodent models of neurological disorders including age-related cognitive deficits. It is often assumed that the most profoundly impaired aged rats may be blind due to retinal degeneration, and it has been reported that animals with visual sensory deficits can be identified based on their performance in a cued platform task. The results of the present study demonstrate that blind rats can perform surprisingly well in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, and that blind rats cannot be selectively excluded based on performance in the cued platform task since atropine-treated rats also perform poorly in the cued platform task. Future studies may be able to develop screening procedures that help to eliminate subjects with non-cognitive deficits, but the present results do not support the use of the cued platform or straight swim task as screening procedures. Experimenters must be careful to consider the role that visual sensory function and other non-cognitive factors may have in performance of the spatial learning Morris water maze, and also the role that severe cognitive deficits may have in performance of the cued platform task.

  13. EFFECTS OF 5, 7-DIHYDROXYTRYPTAMINE-INDUCED DEPLETION OF BRAIN SEROTONIN ON RADIAL ARM-MAZE TASK IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Hefco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult rats pretreated with desipramine (25 mg/kg i.p.30 min before anesthesia in order to protect noradrenergic system, were subjected to intracerebroventriculare injection of 5, 7 –dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT, 150 μg, 4.5 μl/ventricle, a chronic neurotoxin of the central serotonergic function. After 1.5 months later, we assessed the working memory and reference memory in radial 8 arm-mazes. Serotonergic depletion impaired more significantly shortterm memory tested by means of the average working memory errors, entries to repeat and average time taken to consume all five baits during 12 days training. Long-term memory, explored by means of reference memory errors, was less impaired. It is concluded that serotonin, among other neurotransmitters, play one important role in cognitive functions, including learning and memory.

  14. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  15. Aspergillus Sydowi Infection of Human Finger Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Barde

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Aspergillus sydowi infection of left middle finger nail is described ′ The presence of fungal hypae with phialids and spores on direct microscopy as well as in culture, the colour of the sub-ungual mass of the nail resembling the colour of the fungus in, culture′ repeated isolations of A sydowi from the diseased tissue along with the absence of any established pathogenic species in the specimen are taken as evidences that this fungus was invading the nail tissue.

  16. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Finger Clubbing Caused by Herbal Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifudin Rashiq

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Clubbing of the fingers is often taken to be a sign of serious illness. Its discovery, particularly if there are associated symptoms in the cardiovascular, respiratory or gastrointestinal systems, usually leads to exhaustive investigation. A case is presented in which the etiology of clubbing was found only when a new history of heavy ingestion of herbal tea was obtained, extensive work-up having previously been unhelpful. Other cases appearing in the English-language literature are cited, some universal etiological associations are described, and an attempt is made to explain the phenomenon, based on a recent theory of the cause of clubbing.

  18. Genome editing with engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnov, Fyodor D; Rebar, Edward J; Holmes, Michael C; Zhang, H Steve; Gregory, Philip D

    2010-09-01

    Reverse genetics in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, zebrafish and rats, efficient genome engineering in human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells, targeted integration in crop plants, and HIV resistance in immune cells - this broad range of outcomes has resulted from the application of the same core technology: targeted genome cleavage by engineered, sequence-specific zinc finger nucleases followed by gene modification during subsequent repair. Such 'genome editing' is now established in human cells and a number of model organisms, thus opening the door to a range of new experimental and therapeutic possibilities.

  19. Discrimination of Finger Area of Somatosensory Cortex by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingdi; Hayami, Takehito; Iramina, Keiji

    We carried out a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to observe the hemodynamic responses associated with cortical activation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) by finger electrical stimulation. We examined whether NIRS can assist in investigating the somatotopic arrangement of fingers on the SI hand area. We found that although relatively low in spatial resolution, NIRS can to some extent help to discriminate the representations of thumb and ring finger on the SI hand area.

  20. Sensing DNA damage by PARP-like fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrucco, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    PARP-like zinc fingers are protein modules, initially described as nick-sensors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)-polymerases (PARPs), which are found at the N-terminus of different DNA repair enzymes. I chose to study the role of PARP-like fingers in AtZDP, a 3′ DNA phosphoesterase, which is the only known enzyme provided with three such finger domains. Here I show that PARP-like fingers can maintain AtZDP onto damaged DNA sites without interfering with its DNA end repair functions. Damage recognition by...

  1. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Murakami, Chikako; Fujioka, Masaki

    2012-10-08

    Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  2. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashida Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. Case presentation A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  3. Cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in human fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffman, J.D.; Cohen, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of a cholinergic agonist and antagonist on finger blood flow (FBF) was studied in 10 normal subjects. Total finger blood flow was measured by venous occlusion, air plethysmography, and capillary blood flow (FCF) by the disappearance rate of a radio-isotope from a fingertip injection. Methacholine in doses of 10-80 ..mu..g/min was given by constant infusion via a brachial artery catheter. Average FBF and vascular resistance were not significantly affected. However, the half time (t/sub 1/2/) of the disappearance rate decreased from 50.8 +/- 13.4 to 11.1 +/- 1.5 min; a decrease occurred in all subjects. In seven subjects, atropine (0.2 mg) had no affect alone but inhibited the effect of methacholine on FCF and prevented the redness and sweating of the forearm and hand that occurs with this agent. This study demonstrates a muscarinic cholinergic vasodilator mechanism in the fingertip that uniquely increase capillary blood flow.

  4. Dermatoglyphic patterns on fingers and gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Sakineh; Rasouli, Mina

    2018-03-01

    Fingerprints have so far been used for determining the basis of certain malignant diseases, with positive outcomes. Considering the high rates of cancer-related mortality in Iran, this study was conducted for the purpose of examining the dermatoglyphic pattern of fingers in patients with gynecological cancers as compared to healthy people. The present study was conducted on 151 women with gynecological cancers as the case group and 152 healthy women with no history of such cancers as control group. The dematographic details of participants from both control and case groups were collected using a checklist, and the pattern of their fingerprints was prepared and examined. The data were analyzed for their significance using chi-square test and t- test. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Dermatoglyphic analysis showed that arch and loop patterns significantly changed in cases group as compared to control. However, the odds ratio suggested that loop pattern in 6 or more fingers might be a risk factor for developing gynecological cancers. Our results showed that there is an association between fingerprint patterns and gynecological cancers and so, dermatoglyphic analysis may aid in the early diagnosis of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  6. A shortened Barnes maze protocol reveals memory deficits at 4-months of age in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Attar

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3 × Tg mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease--amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3 × Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3 × Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3 × Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3 × Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies.

  7. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico

    2013-04-01

    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that

  8. Finger-like voids induced by viscous fingering during phase inversion of alumina/PES/NMP suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Bo

    2012-07-01

    The formation mechanism of phase-inversion ceramic hollow fibre membranes has not been well understood. In this paper, we report on the formation of finger-like macrovoids during non-solvent-induced phase inversion of alumina/PES/NMP suspensions. A membrane structure without such finger-like macrovoids was observed when the suspension was slowly immersed into pure ethanol or a mixture of 70. wt% NMP and 30. wt% water, whereas finger-like macrovoids occurred when the suspension was slid into the non-solvents at higher speeds. We found that the formation process of finger-like macrovoids could be fully or partially reversed when nascent membranes were taken out from water shortly after immersion, depending on the duration of the immersion. Splitting of the fingers during the formation of the macrovoids was also observed during the phase inversion of two alumina/PES/NMP suspensions. These experimental observations were not predicted by current theories of finger-like macrovoid formation in polymer membranes, but appear to mimic the well-known viscous fingering phenomenon. We therefore propose that in the phase inversion of ceramic suspensions, the viscous fingering phenomenon is an important mechanism in the formation of finger-like voids. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Modelling salt finger formation using the Imperial College Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTavish, F. P.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    We present numerical simulations of salt finger formation produced using the Imperial College Ocean Model (ICOM) which is a finite element model using adaptive meshing. Our aim is to validate the model against published data and to develop the capability to simulate salt finger formation using adaptive meshes. Salt fingering is a form of double-diffusion which occurs because heat diffuses more quickly than salt. When an area of warm, salty water overlies an area of colder, fresher water, an initial perturbation can lead to some of the water from the lower layer moving into the top layer. Its temperature then increases more quickly than its salinity, so that the water is less dense than its surroundings and it will rise up more. This process repeats to form salt fingers, with salt fingers also forming in the downward direction. Salt fingers play a role in oceanic mixing, in particular they are responsible for maintaining thermohaline staircases such as the C-SALT staircase which have been observed extensively, particularly in the tropics. The study of salt fingers could therefore improve our understanding of processes in the ocean, and inform the design of subgrid parameterisations in general circulation models. We used the salt finger formation test case of Oezgoekmen et al (1998) in order to validate ICOM. The formation of salt fingers is modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for a two-dimensional rectangular area of Boussinesq fluid, beginning with two layers of water, the top warm and salty and the bottom cold and fresh, with parameters chosen to match the test case of Oezgoekmen et al (1998). The positions of the interfaces between the fingering layer and the mixed layers as well as the finger growth rate and the kinetic energy are plotted against time. The results are compared with those of Oezgoekmen et al (1998). We present results from structured meshes and preliminary results using adaptive meshing.

  11. Handling of Adolescent Rats Improves Learning and Memory and Decreases Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafaela; Tamascia, Mariana L; Nogueira, Marie D; Casarini, Dulce E; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2012-01-01

    Some environmental interventions can result in physiologic and behavioral changes in laboratory animals. In this context, the handling of adolescent or adult rodents has been reported to influence exploratory behavior and emotionality. Here we examined the effects of handling on memory and anxiety levels of adolescent rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (age, 60 d) were divided into a control group and a handled group, which were handled for 5 min daily, 5 d per week, for 6 wk. During handling bouts, the rat was removed from its cage, placed in the experimenter's lap or on the top of a table, and had its neck and back gently stroked by the experimenter's fingers. During week 6, each rat's anxiety level was evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Learning and memory were evaluated 48 h later, by measuring escape latency in the elevated plus-maze test. Plasma corticosterone and catecholamine levels were measured also. Norepinephrine levels were lower in the handled rats compared with control animals, with no differences in epinephrine and corticosterone. As compared with the control rats, the handled rats showed increases in the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the test apparatus, percentage of entries into open arms, and number of visits to the end of the open arms and decreases in the latency of the first open arm entry. Escape latency was lower in the handled rats compared with control rats in both the first and second trials. The data obtained suggest that handling decreases anxiety levels and improves learning skills and memory in rats. PMID:23312082

  12. [Automatic measurement of special leaning characteristics in mice during the water Morris maze test with inverted light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotskin, N V; Fursenko, D V; Bazovkina, D V; Kulikov, V A; Kulikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The description of the installation with inverted light is given as well as its software EthoStudio, which allows tracking the movements of any color animal in the water Morris maze (WMM) in high definition. The installation is based on the transmitted light technology (inverted light). The software gives possibility to estimate a wide range of learning indices. We have studied the statistic properties of three most widespread indices: latent time of platform finding, covered distance and the sum of distances to the center of the platform. The covered distance has shown the best statistic characteristics if compared to two other indices. The influence of polymorphism C1473G in the gene of the key serotonin synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, on the learning abilities of mice in WMM has been studied. Mice of the unique congenic lines B6-1473C and B6-12473G that differ by the polymorphic alleles C1473G have not demonstrated the association between the ability to learn and the genetically determined activity of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the brain.

  13. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Fatema

    2010-03-01

    Functional consequences of hypothyroidism include impaired learning and memory and inability to produce long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus. Olibanum has been used for variety of therapeutic purposes. In traditional medicine, oilbanum is used to enhance learning and memory. In the present study the effect of olibanum on memory deficit in hypothyroid rats was investigated. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated for 180 days. Group 1 received tap drinking water while in group 2, 0.03% methimazol was added to drinking water. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 0.03% methimazole as well as 100 and 500 mg/kg olibanum respectively. The animals were tested in Morris water maze. The swimming speed was significantly lower and the distance and time latency were higher in group 2 compared with group 1. In groups 3 and 4 the swimming speed was significantly higher while, the length of the swim path and time latency were significantly lower in comparison with group 2. It is concluded that methimazole-induced hypothyroidism impairs learning and memory in adult rats which could be prevented by using olibanum.

  14. First Insight into Exploration and Cognition in Wild Caught and Domesticated Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in a Maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Benhaïm

    Full Text Available European sea bass aquaculture is so recent that very little is known on the effects of the early steps of its domestication. Behavioural parameters are sensitive indicators of the domestication process since they are generally impacted as soon as the first generation. The present work compared wild-caught and domesticated sea bass juvenile swimming activity, exploration and ability to learn to discriminate between two 2-D objects associated to a simple spatial task that enabled the tested individual to visually interact with an unfamiliar congener (the reward located behind a transparent wall at the end of one of the two arms of a maze. Ten fish from each origin were individually tested 3 times in a row during 3 days (9 trials in total. Fish were placed in a start box closed by a transparent wall located in front of two 2-D objects. Fish were filmed during 10 min after the removal of the start box wall. Different swimming variables including angular velocity, total distance travelled and velocity mean, were analyzed from videos as well as the time spent in each of 6 virtual zones including the reward zone near the congener (Cong and the zone opposite to the reward zone (OpCong. Two learning criteria were chosen: the number of successful turns and time to reach Cong. Behavioural differences were found between domesticated and wild fish. Angular velocity was higher in wild fish while the distance travelled and the velocity mean were higher in domesticated ones. Wild and domesticated fish spent most of the time in Cong and in OpCong. No differences were seen in learning ability between wild and domesticated fish. However, our findings for learning require confirmation by further studies with larger numbers of learning sessions and experiments designed to minimise stress. This study therefore demonstrated an impact of domestication on swimming behaviour but not on spatial learning.

  15. substitute for Zn(II) in zinc fingers?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc finger domains consist of sequences of amino acids containing cysteine and histidine residues tetrahedrally coordinated to a zinc ion. The role of zinc in a DNA binding finger was considered purely structural due to the absence of redox chemistry in zinc. However, whether other metals e.g. Co(II) or Cd(II) can substitute ...

  16. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trigger finger is a common disorder of upper extremity. Majority of the patients can be treated conservatively but some resistant cases eventually need surgery. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of percutaneous trigger finger release under local anesthesia. Subjects and Methods: This is a ...

  17. Pattern of Trigger Finger among Patients Attending a Musculo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trigger finger is a common finger problem thought to be due to thickening of tendon sheath with or without localized tendon thickening, resulting in a narrowed tunnel for tendon excursion with ultimate restriction of tendon movement. It can be seen in anyone, it is however seen frequently in diabetic patients and ...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended... generic type of device includes prostheses that consist of a single flexible across-the-joint component...

  19. Biomimetic finger extension mechanism for soft wearable hand rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Heo, Si-Hwan; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2017-07-01

    For the rehabilitation and assistance of the hand functions, wearable devices have been developed, and the interest in tendon driven mechanisms have especially increased since it allows light weight and compact design. The tendon driven hand rehabilitation devices provides grasping force via exo-tendons routed on the dorsal and palmar sides of the hand pulled by remotely located actuators. However, most of the devices were not able to provide natural joint extension sequence of the finger and showed hyperextension of finger joints because the tendons for extension were fixed at the fingertip, concentrating the torque at the distal interphalangeal joint. In this study, a ring-type biomimetic finger extension mechanism was developed, which mimics the origin, structure, and orientation of the extensor tendon. The biomimetic mechanism was evaluated by comparing the motion with voluntary finger extension and the motion made by other conventional tendon driven finger extension mechanisms. The biomimetic extension mechanism provided the same joint extension sequence with voluntary finger extension, and the fully extended posture was most close to the voluntary finger extension among the tendon-driven mechanisms used in the experiments. The joint angle differences between the proposed tendon mechanism and the voluntary finger extension was -1.2 °±3.4 °, -2.9°±2.0°, and -3.1°±8.0° for distal phalangeal, proximal phalangeal, and metacarpo-phalangeal joint, respectively.

  20. A biomechanical study of the finger pulley system during repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, F; Gonzalez, M; Koldoff, J; Tioco, J; Ham, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanics of the finger/pulley system when subjected to various excisions and repairs. Several cadaver hands were used to study the finger/pulley's function, finger joint dynamics, and the relationship between tendon excursion and finger joint angles of rotation. By using a method of continuous and simultaneous data acquisition of the entire finger joint's motion, a more detailed analysis was achieved. Our experimental investigation is based on the use of four micro-potentiometers inserted at the finger's joints and a pulley system to simulate tendon excursion. Using this procedure, a detailed kinematic analysis of the entire finger was performed. This included analysis of the intact hand, various pulley excisions, and reconstruction. In addition to introducing a new method of acquisition, a mathematical model was developed for the inverse dynamic analysis of the finger pulley system. From this model, the torques required at the joints for the motion were computed. The results provided new insight into possible ways of characterizing kinematic changes resulting from pulley damage and repair.

  1. Can We Call It "Stinky-finger Syndrome?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Masood; War, Firdous Ahmed; Kumar, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Many accounts refer to insertion of finger into anus mostly for gratification from stimulation of prostate gland, but index case Mr. M. continued doing this to get rid of constipation that eventually led to feelings of guilt, stinky fingers, not able to defecate normally, and dysphoric emotions. Further research is needed to find out the phenomenology of this condition.

  2. In-depth study of DNA binding of Cys2His2 finger domains in testis zinc-finger protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Chou

    Full Text Available Previously, we identified that both fingers 1 and 2 in the three Cys2His2 zinc-finger domains (TZD of testis zinc-finger protein specifically bind to its cognate DNA; however, finger 3 is non-sequence-specific. To gain insights into the interaction mechanism, here we further investigated the DNA-binding characteristics of TZD bound to non-specific DNAs and its finger segments bound to cognate DNA. TZD in non-specific DNA binding showed smaller chemical shift perturbations, as expected. However, the direction of shift perturbation, change of DNA imino-proton NMR signal, and dynamics on the 15N backbone atom significantly differed between specific and non-specific binding. Using these unique characteristics, we confirmed that the three single-finger segments (TZD1, TZD2 and TZD3 and the two-finger segment (TZD23 non-specifically bind to the cognate DNA. In comparison, the other two-finger segment (TZD12 binding to the cognate DNA features simultaneous non-specific and semi-specific binding, both slowly exchanged in terms of NMR timescale. The process of TZD binding to the cognate DNA is likely stepwise: initially TZD non-specifically binds to DNA, then fingers 1 and 2 insert cooperatively into the major groove of DNA by semi-specific binding, and finally finger 3 non-specifically binds to DNA, which promotes the specific binding on fingers 1 and 2 and stabilizes the formation of a specific TZD-DNA complex.

  3. Influence of age on cognition and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats measured in the radial maze paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Dorothea; Fleck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The influence of age on (1) cognition and (2) scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced memory impairment in female rats was measured in the radial maze paradigm (RAM). (1) First training trials were done with 3 and 12 months old rats. Rats were trained to find all eight food baits in the RAM without errors and within 1 min. Both 3- and 12-month old rats need about 15 trials for the first-time learning of the RAM task. After intervals of 3 6 months, respectively, initially young rats were re-trained with an age of 6 and 12 months. Surprisingly, re-trained rats successfully completed the maze runs already after one re-training trial. Thus the phenomenon of preserved spatial memory was approved for female rats. (2) Memory impairment by scopolamine in the RAM was tested for the time in rats with an age of 3 months. first rats with thesame After a control run,the rats received an i.p. injection of either scopolamine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/100 g b. wt.) or saline vehicle. The effect of scopolamine on working memory was measured 20 min after administration. Training procedure and scopolamine administration were repeated at an age of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the same manner. The cognition impairment after scopolamine (number of errors: control: <1; scopolamine: 5-6) remains constant between 3 and 24 months of age. The only significant difference was the increase in run time in rats older than 18 months caused by degenerative changes developing with age.

  4. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Ali, Saher F; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L; Spencer, Sarah J; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a "Western" (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive decline

  5. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Hand and Finger Conditions Disability Benefits...

  6. Effects of AdR-siPTEN on learning capability, memory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... shown in Figure 1, plenty of red fluorescent proteins were observed in the hippocampus demonstrating that the recombinant adenoviruses were accurately infected into the hippocampus. Morris water maze test. Morris water maze test was used to detect the learning and memory ability of rats. As shown in ...

  7. Tangential finger forces use mechanical advantage during static grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Gregory P; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2012-02-01

    When grasping and manipulating objects, the central controller utilizes the mechanical advantage of the normal forces of the fingers for torque production. Whether the same is valid for tangential forces is unknown. The main purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of finger tangential forces and the use of mechanical advantage as a control mechanism when dealing with objects of nonuniform finger positioning. A complementary goal was to explore the interaction of mechanical advantage (moment arm) and the role a finger has as a torque agonist/antagonist with respect to external torques (±0.4 N m). Five 6-df force/torque transducers measured finger forces while subjects held a prism handle (6 cm width × 9 cm height) with and without a single finger displaced 2 cm (handle width). The effect of increasing the tangential moment arm was significant (p forces (in >70% of trials) and hence creating greater moments. Thus, the data provides evidence that the grasping system as a rule utilizes mechanical advantage for generating tangential forces. The increase in tangential force was independent of whether the finger was acting as a torque agonist or antagonist, revealing their effects to be additive.

  8. Torque control of underactuated tendon-driven fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Abdallah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Given an underactuated tendon-driven finger, the finger posture is underdetermined and can move freely ("flop" in a region of slack tendons. This work shows that such an underactuated finger can be operated in tendon force control (rather than position control with effective performance. The force control eliminates the indeterminate slack while commanding a parameterized space of desired torques. The torque will either push the finger to the joint limits or wrap around an external object with variable torque – behavior that is sufficient for primarily gripping fingers. In addition, introducing asymmetric joint radii to the design allows the finger to command an expanded range of joint torques and to scan an expanded set of external surfaces. This study is motivated by the design and control of the secondary fingers of the NASA-GM R2 humanoid hand.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  9. Computer-aided classification of rheumatoid arthritis in finger joints using frequency domain optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Netz, U.; Blaschke, S.; Zwaka, P. A.; Mueller, G. A.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.

    2009-02-01

    Novel methods that can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease are essential for efficient use of novel arthritis therapies that are currently emerging. Building on previous studies that involved continuous wave imaging systems we present here first clinical data obtained with a new frequency-domain imaging system. Three-dimensional tomographic data sets of absorption and scattering coefficients were generated for 107 fingers. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, MANOVA, Discriminant Analysis DA, and a machine-learning algorithm that is based on self-organizing mapping (SOM) for clustering data in 2-dimensional parameter spaces. Overall we found that the SOM algorithm outperforms the more traditional analysis methods in terms of correctly classifying finger joints. Using SOM, healthy and affected joints can now be separated with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.91. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that if a combination of multiple image properties is used, statistical significant differences can be found between RA-affected finger joints that show different clinical features (e.g. effusion, synovitis or erosion).

  10. Effects of short-term piano training on measures of finger tapping, somatosensory perception and motor-related brain activity in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Ehrlich, Stefan; Cheng, Gordon; Turova, Varvara; Blumenstein, Tobias; Lampe, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities. In this study, adolescents and adult patients with CP, as well as a group of typically developing children learned to play piano for 4 consecutive weeks, having completed a total of 8 hours of training. For ten of the participants, learning was supported by a special technical system aimed at helping people with sensorimotor deficits to better discriminate fingers and orient themselves along the piano keyboard. Potential effects of piano training were assessed with tests of finger tapping at the piano and tests of perception of vibratory stimulation of fingers, and by measuring neuronal correlates of motor learning in the absence of and after piano training. Results were highly variable especially among participants with CP. Nevertheless, a significant effect of training on the ability to perceive the localization of vibrations over fingers was found. No effects of training on the performance of simple finger tapping sequences at the piano or on motor-associated brain responses were registered. Longer periods of training are likely required to produce detectable changes.

  11. Species-relevant inescapable stress differently influences memory consolidation and retrieval of mice in a spatial radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzky, K; Schwegler, H; Kröber, A; Roskoden, T; Yanagawa, Y; Linke, R

    2011-05-16

    Stress affects learning and there are both facilitating and impairing actions of stressors on memory processes. Here we investigated the influence of acute exposure to 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an ethological relevant stressor for rodents, on spatial memory formation and performance in a radial arm maze (RAM) task and studied TMT effects on corticosterone levels in GAD67-GFP knock-in mice and their wildtype littermates. Our results suggest that predator odor-exposure differently affects consolidation and retrieval of memory in a hippocampus-dependent spatial learning task in adult male mice, independently from their genotypes. Acute TMT-stress before retrieval facilitates performance, whereas repeated TMT-stress during consolidation exerts no influence. Additionally, we found genotype specific effects of TMT on corticosterone release. While TMT-stress tend to result in increased corticosterone release in wildtypes there was a significant decrease in transgenic mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that biologically significant predator odor-induced stress can have different actions on the strength of spatial memory formation depending on the timing with regard to memory phases. Furthermore, we suppose an impact of GABAergic mechanisms on HPA-stress axis activation to TMT resulting in absent peripheral corticosterone release of GAD67-GFP mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…

  13. The relation between the anthropometric characteristics of fingers and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mardanshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is a science of human body measurement that could be used for manufacturing artificial limbs or prosthesis, investigating body differences between populations, utilizing in forensics and criminology, or even in the diagnosis of some diseases. Two of the most important anthropometric characteristics are dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length. Many studies have evaluated the relation between these two characteristics in different diseases such as cancers. It assumed that dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length could be used as predictors of some cancers such as gastric, ovarian, prostate, testicular, and breast cancers. In this review, we evaluated the relation between dermatoglyphic variability and finger length in different cancers more precisely.

  14. Little and often? Maintaining continued performance in an automated T-maze for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Pajor, Edmond A; Garner, Joseph P

    2011-02-01

    Operant and maze tasks in mice are limited by the small number of trials possible in a session before mice lose motivation. We hypothesized that by manipulating reward size and session length, motivation, and hence performance, would be maintained in an automated T-maze. We predicted that larger rewards and shorter sessions would improve acquisition; and smaller rewards and shorter sessions would maintain higher and less variable performance. Eighteen C57BL/6J mice (9 per sex) acquired (criterion 8/10 correct) and performed a spatial discrimination, with one of 3 reward sizes (.02, .04, or .08 g) and one of 3 session schedules (15, 30, or 45 min sessions). Each mouse had a total of 360 min of access to the maze per night, for two nights, and averaged 190 trials. Analysis used split-plot GLM with contrasts testing for linear effects. Acquisition of the discrimination was unaffected by reward size or session length/interval. After-criterion average performance improved as reward size decreased. After-criterion variability in performance was also affected. Variability increased as reward size increased. Session length/interval did not affect any outcome. We conclude that an automated maze, with suitable reward sizes, can sustain performance with low variability, at 5-10 times faster than traditional methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  16. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-05

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  18. Postoperative environmental enrichment attenuates Fimbria-Fornix lesion-induced impairments in Morris Maze performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Rijzingen, I.M.S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were given a bilateral or a unilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix; subsequently they were kept in standard laboratory housing conditions or in enriched environments for 6 weeks, after which they were tested in the Morris maze. In the acquisition phase of the experiment rats

  19. Control of viscous fingering by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Nasser; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Abedi, Jalal

    2017-12-01

    A substantial viscosity increase by the addition of a low dose of nanoparticles to the base fluids can well influence the dynamics of viscous fingering. There is a lack of detailed theoretical studies that address the effect of the presence of nanoparticles on unstable miscible displacements. In this study, the impact of nonreactive nanoparticle presence on the stability and subsequent mixing of an originally unstable binary system is examined using linear stability analysis (LSA) and pseudospectral-based direct numerical simulations (DNS). We have parametrized the role of both nondepositing and depositing nanoparticles on the stability of miscible displacements using the developed static and dynamic parametric analyses. Our results show that nanoparticles have the potential to weaken the instabilities of an originally unstable system. Our LSA and DNS results also reveal that nondepositing nanoparticles can be used to fully stabilize an originally unstable front while depositing particles may act as temporary stabilizers whose influence diminishes in the course of time. In addition, we explain the existing inconsistencies concerning the effect of the nanoparticle diffusion coefficient on the dynamics of the system. This study provides a basis for further research on the application of nanoparticles for control of viscosity-driven instabilities.

  20. Dermal pocketing following distal finger replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T

    2010-08-01

    Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-06-01

    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NORMAL QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER THE COX MAZE PROCEDURE FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Spencer J; Zierer, Andreas; Lubahn, Jordon G; Bailey, Marci S; Cox, James L; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J

    2008-05-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation(AF) has been shown in numerous studies to significantly decrease patient quality of life. The Cox-Maze procedure has excellent long-term efficacy in curing AF. However, it is unknown whether this procedure improves long-term quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study was to examine late quality of life in patients that underwent a lone Cox-Maze procedure. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2003, 163 patients underwent a Cox-Maze procedure for lone AF at our institution. Of these, 68 patients agreed and completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey. Scores from the age-matched general US population were normalized to a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 to facilitate comparison. Collected data were compared to the norm-based score for each domain using a one-sample t-test. Four patients were removed from analysis because of AF recurrence. RESULTS: There were 52 males(81%). Mean age was 52.6±9.5 years. Preoperatively, 37 patients(58%) had paroxysmal and 25 patients(39%) had persistent or permanent AF. The mean duration of AF before surgery was 9.8±8.2 years. There was no statistical difference in norm-based scores between the Cox-Maze procedure group and the age-matched general US population in any of the eight health domains at a mean follow-up of 8.7±3.7 years. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the Cox-Maze procedure cures atrial fibrillation in the majority of patients, and that those patients that are cured obtain a normal quality of life as compared to the general population at late follow-up.

  3. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  4. Fuzzy based finger vein recognition with rotation invariant feature matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilmaran, D.; Joseph, Rose Bindu

    2017-11-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric with commercial applications which is explored widely in the recent years. In this paper, a finger vein recognition system is proposed using rotation invariant feature descriptors for matching after enhancing the finger vein images with an interval type-2 fuzzy method. SIFT features are extracted and matched using a matching score based on Euclidian distance. Rotation invariance of the proposed method is verified in the experiment and the results are compared with SURF matching and minutiae matching. It is seen that rotation invariance is verified and the poor quality issues are solved efficiently with the designed system of finger vein recognition during the analysis. The experiments underlines the robustness and reliability of the interval type-2 fuzzy enhancement and SIFT feature matching.

  5. Tension Distribution in a Tendon-Driven Robotic Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method is provided for distributing tension among tendons of a tendon-driven finger in a robotic system, wherein the finger characterized by n degrees of freedom and n+1 tendons. The method includes determining a maximum functional tension and a minimum functional tension of each tendon of the finger, and then using a controller to distribute tension among the tendons, such that each tendon is assigned a tension value less than the maximum functional tension and greater than or equal to the minimum functional tension. The method satisfies the minimum functional tension while minimizing the internal tension in the robotic system, and satisfies the maximum functional tension without introducing a coupled disturbance to the joint torques. A robotic system includes a robot having at least one tendon-driven finger characterized by n degrees of freedom and n+1 tendons, and a controller having an algorithm for controlling the tendons as set forth above.

  6. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  7. Robotic Hand with Flexible Fingers for Grasping Cylindrical Objects

    OpenAIRE

    柴田, 瑞穂

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, a robotic hand for grasping a cylindrical object is proposed. This robotic hand has flexible fingers that can hold a cylindrical object during moving. We introduce a grasping strategy for a cylindrical object in terms of state transition graph. In this strategy the robotic hand picks up the cylindrical object utilizing a suction device before the hand grasp the object. We also design the flexible fingers; then, we investigate the validity of this robotic hand via several e...

  8. Finger avulsion injuries: A report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury that occurs to a finger wearing a ring though rare can have grave consequences. It is a preventable injury which has a peculiar mode of trauma that is usually occupational. Injury ranges from simple contusion to degloving of soft tissues to traumatic amputation. We hereby report our experience of four cases of finger avulsion injuries due to a ring and discuss their variable clinical presentation and individualized management.

  9. Finger blood content, light transmission, and pulse oximetry errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, T M; Lawson, R A; Young, J D

    1992-01-01

    The changes in light emitting diode current necessary to maintain a constant level of light incident upon a photodetector were measured in 20 volunteers at the two wavelengths employed by pulse oximeters. Three states of finger blood content were assessed; exsanguinated, hyperaemic, and normal. The changes in light emitting diode current with changes in finger blood content were small and are not thought to represent a significant source of error in saturation as measured by pulse oximetry.

  10. Downward finger displacement distinguishes Parkinson disease dementia from Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Deep, Aman; Shi, Jiong; Dhall, Rohit; Shafer, Saulena; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Dhillon, Ravneet; Frames, Christopher W; McCauley, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: To study finger displacement in patients with Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined 56 patients with PDD and 35 with AD. Patients were examined during their regular outpatient clinic visit. Finger displacement was measured by observers not actively involved in the study using a creative grid ruler for all PDD and AD patients. Finger displacement was examined by asking patients to point their index fingers toward the grid ruler with the nails facing upward. Patients were asked to maintain the pointing position for 15 s. After 15 s, patients were asked to close their eyes for another 15 s while maintaining the same position. A positive result was downward index finger displacement of ≥5 cm within the 15-second time window with eyes closed. Of the 56 PDD patients, 53 had bilateral finger displacement of >5 cm. In comparison, of the 35 AD patients, only 1 patient had minimal displacement. Results of the non-invasive finger displacement test may provide insight, on an outpatient basis, of the integrity of subcortical-cortical circuits. Downward finger displacement, especially bilateral downward displacement, may signal the extensive disruption of subcortical-cortical circuits that occurs in PDD patients. AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer disease; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; ET: essential tremor; MDS-UPDRS: Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; PD: Parkinson disease; PDD: Parkinson disease dementia.

  11. Elastic fingering in rotating Hele-Shaw flows

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.

    2014-05-21

    The centrifugally driven viscous fingering problem arises when two immiscible fluids of different densities flow in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell. In this conventional setting an interplay between capillary and centrifugal forces makes the fluid-fluid interface unstable, leading to the formation of fingered structures that compete dynamically and reach different lengths. In this context, it is known that finger competition is very sensitive to changes in the viscosity contrast between the fluids. We study a variant of such a rotating flow problem where the fluids react and produce a gellike phase at their separating boundary. This interface is assumed to be elastic, presenting a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. A perturbative weakly nonlinear approach is used to investigate how the elastic nature of the interface affects finger competition events. Our results unveil a very different dynamic scenario, in which finger length variability is not regulated by the viscosity contrast, but rather determined by two controlling quantities: a characteristic radius and a rigidity fraction parameter. By properly tuning these quantities one can describe a whole range of finger competition behaviors even if the viscosity contrast is kept unchanged. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  12. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  13. Fluidic Channels Produced by Electro Hydrodynamic Viscous Fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Kristopher; Wetzel, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Viscous fingering is a term describing fingerlike extensions of liquid from a column of low viscosity liquid that has been injected into a more viscous liquid. The modification of viscous fingering, known as electro hydrodynamic viscous fingering (EHVF), utilizes large electrical potentials of 10-60 kV. The fingers see a reduction in size and increase in branching behavior due to the potential applied to the system. The resulting finely structured patterns are analogous to biological systems such as blood vessels and the lymphatic system. In this study silicone oils and water were studied in thin channel Hele-Shaw cells. The interfacial tension was optimized by altering the surfactant concentration in the silicone oils. EHVF of liquid filled packed beds consisting of beads and silicone oils showed retardation of the relaxation of the fingers after the voltage was turned off. Decreased relaxation provides a means to solidify patterns into a curable material, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). After the water is evacuated from the fingers, the cured materials then possess hollow channels that can be refilled and emptied, thus creating an artificial circulatory system.

  14. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMacRitchie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterisation of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction.

  15. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Nikolić, D; Kuzmanović, A; Kuzmanović, Z; Ganezer, K

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door. The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen. The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze. This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  16. Pressure head distribution during unstable flow in relation to the formation and dissipation of fingers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiroyuki Cho,; Rooij, de G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Wetting front instability creates a shallow induction zone from which fingers emerge that rapidly transport water and solutes downwards. How the induction zone affects finger location and spacing is unknown. In the moist subsoil, fingers may well dissipate because the finger tips no longer have to

  17. Digital finger: beyond phenomenological figures of touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Elo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mika Elo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in visual culture at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Aalto-ARTS, Helsinki. His research interests include theory of photographic media, philosophical media theory, and artistic research. He is participating in discussions in these areas in the capacity of curator, visual artist and researcher. He has published articles in Finnish, German, and English among others on Benjamin, Nancy, artistic research and photography theory. His doctoral thesis Valokuvan medium [The Medium of Photography] was published in Finnish in 2005 (Tutkijaliitto, Helsinki. In 2009–2011 he worked in the Figures of Touch research project (figuresoftouch.com, and since 2011 he is the director of Media Aesthetics research group at Aalto-ARTS, Department of Media.Author Biography The article reflects on digitality and interface design in terms of the multiple senses of touch. Touching is presented as a “pathic” sense of being exposed, which implies that touching exceeds the tactile and even the phenomenal world. A particular focus is set on Aristotle's and Husserl's ways of thematizing the sense of touch. In this way, two extremes of the phenomenological thinking of touching are articulated: touching as an indistinct and heterogeneous constituent of sensitivity and touching as the guarantor of immediacy of the sense experience. Referring to Derrida's critical notes concerning haptocentrism, the article attempts to problematize the hand and the finger as phenomenological figures of touch and as holds of haptic realism. The article concludes that insofar as digital interface design aims at haptic realism it conceives of the sense of touch in terms of narcissistic feedback and thus tends to conceal the pathic moment of touching.

  18. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  19. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.

  20. Enhancement of radial maze performances in CD1 mice after prenatal exposure to oxiracetam: possible role of sustained investigative responses developed during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammassari-Teule, M; D'Amato, F R; Sansone, M; Oliverio, A

    1988-01-01

    A longitudinal study aimed at analyzing the behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to the nootropic compound oxiracetam was carried out in CD1 mice. Two groups of females were injected either with oxiracetam or saline from the beginning of pregnancy until parturition. Examination of pups from birth until the first month of age revealed no-influence of the treatment on litter size, body weights, sensory motor reflexes and motility. When placed in the open field at one month of age, mice born by mothers exposed to oxiracetam displayed more self grooming and spent less time in freezing than control mice. Prenatally treated mice were then found more interactive with their environment since the introduction of a novel object in the open field was followed by increased ambulation and higher sniffing object and rearing object scores. At three months of age, mice from both groups were tested in a radial six-arm maze task. Choice accuracy was significantly higher in prenatally treated mice which also tended to optimize their exploratory sequences by frequently running the maze in a clock-wise fashion. These results suggest that the better learning performances observed in the experimental group could be viewed as a consequence of an enhanced cognitive development based upon the higher rate of interactions with the environment shown by prenatally treated mice during ontogeny.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tropp Sneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.

  2. Shielding of radiation fields generated by 252Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A.

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare 252 Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation

  3. Shielding of radiation fields generated by {sup 252}Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; McCall, R.C. [McCall Associates, Woodside, CA (US)

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare {sup 252}Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation.

  4. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  5. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  6. Modafinil and Memory: Effects of Modafinil on Morris Water Maze Learning and Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Shuman, Tristan; Wood, Suzanne C.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2009-01-01

    Modafinil has been shown to promote wakefulness and some studies suggest the drug can improve cognitive function. Because of many similarities, the mechanism of action may be comparable to classical psychostimulants, although the exact mechanisms of modafinil’s actions in wakefulness and cognitive enhancement are unknown. The current study aims to further examine the effects of modafinil as a cognitive enhancer on hippocampus-dependent memory in mice. A high dose of modafinil (75 mg/kg, i.p.)...

  7. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available with sociality in subterranean mammals, we have a less clear understanding of the role of habitat complexity on navigational ability. We tested spatial navigational ability and memory in 12–18-month captive Natal mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis...

  8. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  9. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  10. T-maze performance after developmental exposure to 19F tagged 5-HTP in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Sherry; Nash, Laurie; Hogan, Jeremy; Branch, Craig

    2004-12-01

    Chicks were used as a model to investigate behavioral effects of administering a new compound intended for use with magnetic resonance. The compound has multiple 19F atom tags covalently bonded to the indole ring of 5-hydroxytryptophan (PF-5HTP), the immediate precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. On incubation Day 17, 5 microg of PF-5-HTP, an equivalent amount of 5-HTP, or just 200 microL of the weak phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle was injected into the airsac of each egg. Three days after hatching, chicks were isolated at the top of a simple T-Maze which, when traversed correctly, enabled them to return to their brood mates. A second trial in the T-Maze was conducted about three hours later. The brief period of isolation at the start of a trial causes social distress in chicks who are reinforced by returning to the brood. The task was selected as being sensitive to functioning of the serotonin pathways whose development might be altered by administering the compound during brain development. Repeated-measures analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant main effect for trial within groups, but no significant difference between injection groups. Administering a low dose of the fluorine tagged compound during development did not impair performance on this T-maze task.

  11. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid-Actuated Finger Prosthesis with Tactile Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yee Low

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger prostheses are devices developed to emulate the functionality of natural human fingers. On top of their aesthetic appearance in terms of shape, size and colour, such biomimetic devices require a high level of dexterity. They must be capable of gripping an object, and even manipulating it in the hand. This paper presents a biomimetic robotic finger actuated by a hybrid mechanism and integrated with a tactile sensor. The hybrid actuation mechanism comprises a DC micromotor and a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA wire. A customized test rig has been developed to measure the force and stroke produced by the SMA wire. In parallel with the actuator development, experimental investigations have been conducted on Quantum Tunnelling Composite (QTC and Pressure Conductive Rubber (PCR towards the development of a tactile sensor for the finger. The viability of using these materials for tactile sensing has been determined. Such a hybrid actuation approach aided with tactile sensing capability enables a finger design as an integral part of a prosthetic hand for applications up to the transradial amputation level.

  13. Effect of individual finger skin temperature on vibrotactile perception threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Harazin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In healthy people, the vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT at fingertips depends on a given measurement method and on individual characteristics such as age, gender and finger skin temperature. The aim of the study was to compare the VPT values in 2 groups of healthy subjects with different finger skin temperature. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 56 males and 76 females, who formed pairs matched with respect to age, gender and body mass index (BMI but differing in terms of finger skin temperature at pre-launch testing. The finger skin temperature of less than 29°C indicated the subjects with "cold hands" and that of more than 29°C, the subjects with "warm hands". The measuring system made use of P8 pallesthesiometer (EMSON-MAT, Poland and the measurement procedure was in compliance with the ISO 13091-1:2001 standard. VPT measurements were performed for the index, middle and ring fingers of both hands at the frequencies of 4 Hz, 25 Hz, 31.5 Hz, 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 250 Hz. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean VPTs among the subjects with "cold hands" were significantly higher than the corresponding values among the subjects with "warm hands". Conclusions: The type of individual peripheral thermoregulation should be considered when assessing the VPT and determining its reference values.

  14. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, K.; Fujino, M.; Supriyadi; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, T.

    1991-01-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10 8 /g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10kGy and 20kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers

  15. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, Kyoden; Fujino, Masayuki; Supriyadi (Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Research Inst. for Food Science); Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Toru

    1991-08-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10{sup 8}/g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10 kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10 kGy and 20 kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers. (author).

  16. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation for disinfection of turmeric fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Kyoden; Fujino, Masayuki; Supriyadi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Toru.

    1991-01-01

    Turmeric finger as one of the most popular spices has been widely used for food manufacturing. However, it has also been a major cause of bacterial infestation of food materials especially in curry, ham and sausage manufacturing. In this study decontamination of bacteria in turmeric finger by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by comparing with several other decontamination methods: i.e., boiling, microwave irradiation, treatment by twin screw extruder and gamma-ray irradiation. By estimation of colony counting on nutrient agar plate, turmeric finger without any treatment gave total viable cell at 10 8 /g. Turmeric finger which was irradiated by electron beam at 10 kGy dose dramatically reduced thermotolerant cell population below self restriction level (<1000/g), which has been required by food hygiene law. The same level of sterilization effect was obtained only by gamma-ray irradiation at 10 kGy and 20 kGy. On the other hand, although treatment through twin screw extruder slightly reduced bacterial numbers, neither boiling nor microwave irradiation gave sufficient decontamination effect on turmeric fingers. (author)

  17. A Method for Recognizing State of Finger Flexure and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terado, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Osamu

    In our country, the handicapped and the elderly people in bed increase rapidly. In the bedridden person’s daily life, there may be limitations in the physical movement and the means of mutual communication. For the support of their comfortable daily lives, therefore, the development of human interface equipment becomes an important task. The equipment of this kind is being already developed by means of laser beam, eye-tracking, breathing motion and myo-electric signals, while the attachment and handling are normally not so easy. In this study, paying attention to finger motion, we have developed human interface equipment easily attached to the body, which enables one to measure the finger flexure and extension for mutual communication. The state of finger flexure and extension is identified by a threshold level analysis from the 3D-locus data for the finger movement, which can be measured through the infrared rays from the LED markers attached to a glove with the previously developed prototype system. We then have confirmed from an experiment that nearly 100% recognition for the finger movement can be achieved.

  18. Prediction of contact forces of underactuated finger by adaptive neuro fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Abbasi, Almas; Kiani, Kourosh; Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah

    2015-12-01

    To obtain adaptive finger passive underactuation can be used. Underactuation principle can be used to adapt shapes of the fingers for grasping objects. The fingers with underactuation do not require control algorithm. In this study a kinetostatic model of the underactuated finger mechanism was analyzed. The underactuation is achieved by adding the compliance in every finger joint. Since the contact forces of the finger depend on contact position of the finger and object, it is suitable to make a prediction model for the contact forces in function of contact positions of the finger and grasping objects. In this study prediction of the contact forces was established by a soft computing approach. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied as the soft computing method to perform the prediction of the finger contact forces.

  19. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Doreddula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swimming test (FST in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days significantly (P< 0.01 attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable.

  20. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...... images for modality fusion. First, the region of interest (ROI) is extracted, after which SURF features are extracted, and finally two different approaches for creating fixed length feature vectors are applied. SURF performance on the ROI is comparable to the PolyU database reported in the literature...... the complexity of the SURF matching scheme, a reduction in run-time of 75%–80% has been achieved, with only minimal precision loss; EER increases from 0.74% to 1%. The complexity of the matching can be reduced from O(n2) to constant time, but at a higher precision cost and resulting in an EER of 16.51%....

  1. Compensating Pose Uncertainties Through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Gams, Andrej; Kiforenko, Lilita

    2017-01-01

    capabilities in a sample industrial object grasping scenario for a finger that was designed using an automated simulation-based geometry optimization method [1, 2]. We test the developed gripper with a set of grasps subjected to structured perturbation in a simulation environment and in the real-world setting......The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process....... We provide a comparison of the data obtained by using both of these approaches. We argue that the strong correspondence observed in results validates the use of dynamic simulation for the gripper finger design and optimization....

  2. Compensating Pose Uncertainties through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Gams, Andrej; Kiforenko, Lilita

    2018-01-01

    The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process. One...... in a sample industrial object grasping scenario for a finger that was designed using an automated simulation-based geometry optimization method (Wolniakowski et al., 2013, 2015). We test the developed gripper with a set of grasps subjected to structured perturbation in a simulation environment and in the real......-world setting. We provide a comparison of the data obtained by using both of these approaches. We argue that the strong correspondence observed in results validates the use of dynamic simulation for the gripper finger design and optimization....

  3. Finger dermatoglyphic variations in Rengma Nagas of Nagaland India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Sudip Datta; Pal, Paramita; Mukherjee, Deba P

    2009-03-01

    The Rengma Nagas are one of the major Mongoloid tribal populations in the North-Eastern state of Nagaland in India. Population variation and sexual dimorphism in respect of finger dermatoglyphic characteristics in 207 adult individuals (104 males and 103 females) are reported in this present context. Frequency distribution of finger pattern types in different digits (both left and right sides combined) showed that whorls were the most prevalent patterns among both males (52.19%) and females (55.69%), followed by loops (47.70% in males and 42.81% in females). Significant sex differences in Dankmeijer Index (t = 1.47; p dermatoglyphic pattern types, Pattern Intensity Index in fingers, TFRC and AFRC no significant sex differences were observed.

  4. Design of rehabilitation robot hand for fingers CPM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfu; Chan, T. W.; Tong, K. Y.; Kwong, K. K.; Yao, Xifan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a low-cost prototype for rehabilitation robot aide patient do hands CPM (continuous passive motion) training. The design of the prototype is based on the principle of Rutgers Master II glove, but it is better in performance for more improvement made. In the design, it uses linear motors to replace pneumatic actuators to make the product more portable and mobile. It increases finger training range to 180 degree for the full range training of hand finger holding and extension. Also the prototype can not only be wearing on palm and fore arm do training for face to face with finger move together, but also be put in the opposite hand glove wear direction for hand rehabilitation training. During the research, Solidworks is used as the tool for mechanical design and movement simulation. It proved through experiment that the prototype made in the research is appropriate for hand do CPM training.

  5. Trigger finger presenting secondary to leiomyoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Ziad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a previously undescribed entity: trigger finger secondary to a leiomyoma. This is the first time such a case has been reported and highlights the fact that common conditions can sometimes present secondary to rare diseases. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with a fairly typical presentation of trigger finger. During surgical treatment, the lesion was excised and sent for histology, which showed tissue consistent with a leiomyoma. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Trigger finger is a common condition that is usually easily diagnosed and managed. However, it is important to appreciate that uncommon conditions, such as leiomyoma, can present with what is sometimes considered trivial disease, and one should always consider the differential diagnoses even when faced with relatively benign conditions.

  6. Interrater reliability in finger joint goniometer measurement in Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Kvist, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated interrater reliability of motion (ROM) measurement in the finger joints of people with Dupuytren's disease. Eight raters measured flexion and extension of the three finger joints in one affected finger of each of 13 people with different levels of severity of Dupuytren's disease, giving 104 measures of joints and motions. Reliability measures, represented by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM), and differences between raters with the highest and lowest mean scores, were calculated. ICCs ranged from .832 to .973 depending on joint and motion. The SEM was ≤3° for all joints and motions. Differences in mean between highest and lowest raters were larger for flexion than for extension; the largest difference was in the distal interphalangeal joint. The results indicate that following these standardized guidelines, the interrater reliability of goniometer measurements is high for digital ROM in people with Dupuytren's disease.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic findings of seal finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjelund, S.; Tikkakoski, T.; Isokangas, M.; Raeisaenen, S. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic findings of five patients with seal finger. Material and Methods: The MR images and radiographs of five patients with seal finger were retrospectively evaluated. MRI was performed on four patients in the subacute phase, and follow-up imaging was done on one of them at 5 months. One patient had MRI only at a later stage 5 years after onset. Radiographs were taken three times in the subacute phase and once at a later stage. One patient had had seal finger in another finger previously. Results: Short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence showed extensive subcutaneous soft tissue edema in all four patients in the subacute phase and tenosynovitis of the flexion tendons in two cases. Three patients had edema in 2-3 phalanges, and effusion in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was seen in one case. At the later stage, no signal pathology in soft tissues or bones was seen in STIR images. In the subacute phase, radiographs showed digital soft-tissue swelling in three patients, and one patient had a narrowed DIP joint, periarticular osteoporosis, and a periosteal reaction. At the later stage, flexion contracture of the finger was seen. Conclusion: In addition to soft-tissue infection, seal finger causes bone marrow edema, tenosynovitis, and effusion in the interphalangeal joints visible as increased signal intensity in STIR images. Radiographs reveal periarticular osteoporosis with loss of cartilage in the subacute phase and flexion contracture at the later stage. MRI (STIR) allows more precise delineation of the inflammatory process compared to radiography.

  9. Finger doses for staff handling radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Gauri S; Sharma, Sanjay K; Rath, Gaura K

    2006-09-01

    Radiation doses to the fingers of occupational workers handling 99mTc-labeled compounds and 131I for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine were measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The doses were measured at the base of the ring finger and the index finger of both hands in 2 groups of workers. Group 1 (7 workers) handled 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, and group 2 (6 workers) handled 131I for diagnosis and therapy. Radiation doses to the fingertips of 3 workers also were measured. Two were from group 1, and 1 was from group 2. The doses to the base of the fingers for the radiopharmacy staff and physicians from group 1 were observed to be 17+/-7.5 (mean+/-SD) and 13.4+/-6.5 microSv/GBq, respectively. Similarly, the dose to the base of the fingers for the 3 physicians in group 2 was estimated to be 82.0+/-13.8 microSv/GBq. Finger doses for the technologists in both groups could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts that accumulated in 1 wk. The doses to the fingertips of the radiopharmacy worker and the physician in group 1 were 74.3+/-19.8 and 53.5+/-21.9 microSv/GBq, respectively. The dose to the fingertips of the physician in group 2 was 469.9+/-267 microSv/GBq. The radiation doses to the fingers of nuclear medicine staff at our center were measured. The maximum expected annual dose to the extremities appeared to be less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y), except for a physician who handled large quantities of 131I for treatment. Because all of these workers are on rotation and do not constantly handle radioactivity throughout the year, the doses to the base of the fingers or the fingertips should not exceed the prescribed annual limit of 500 mSv.

  10. Finger injuries from infant mittens; a continuing but preventable hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, M D; Seymour, P

    1996-04-01

    During the last 4 years, three infants have presented with finger-tip injuries secondary to entrapment in woollen/synthetic mittens. The accident happened at home in one case but the other two occurred in different neonatal units. Spontaneous amputation of the terminal phalanx of the index finger occurred in two patients but in the other there was complete healing. This problem may be avoided by restricting the use of mittens, by changing their design, and by a greater awareness of this hazard.

  11. Trace element finger printing of emeralds by PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; Palmer, G.R.; MacArthur, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of 18 major- and minor-elements in 12 Emeralds from different mines and two synthetic ones are measured with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and γ-ray emission (PIGE). The concentration and distribution of 18 elements are used to establish the characteristic finger print pattern of each Emerald. With the help of cluster analysis of SYSTAT statistical package for IBMPC, these finger prints are analysed, from which a quantitative description of the dissimilarities between Emeralds can be given

  12. Study of the paraffin deposit formation using the cold finger methodology for Brazilian crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, Josue da S.T.; Fernandes, Antonio C. [Ocean Engineering Program PEnO, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), P.O. Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil); Giulietti, Marco [Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-901 (Brazil)

    2004-11-30

    Transportation of paraffinic crude in a cold environment can result in wax depositions, which are solid deposits, on the pipe wall. The formation of paraffin in the bulk of the petroleum is a crystallization process in solution. Such phenomenon occurs along the pipe connected to offshore wells and even onshore. Its main implication is a paraffin blockage with serious economical consequences. This work aims to learn about paraffin deposit formation using a cold finger methodology, in two types of Brazilian crude oils (32 API and 20 API). The polythermal method is used in various experiments using different temperatures in both cold finger and bulk of the fluid. The experiments measure: the thickness of the deposits, as well as the deposition rates, degree of subcooling and, finally, the induction for the onset of wax. The methodology allows the evaluation of the critical time of deposition and the critical temperature difference between the hot petroleum source and the cold seawater temperature. It is shown that the deposit rate depends on this temperature difference, as well as the cooling surface, the nucleation kinetics and the growth of the crystals on the cold finger surface. The work discusses carefully the experiments design under the light of dimensional analysis. The values of critical temperature differences are relatively small and show that the encrustation is easily attained in the offshore petroleum flow. The methodology implemented is simple and allows the prediction of very important information about the mechanism of paraffin encrustation that could pave the way to avoid paraffin deposition in offshore petroleum production due to high temperature differences between the heat petroleum sink source and the cold seawater.

  13. Cross-Cultural and Intra-Cultural Differences in Finger-Counting Habits and Number Magnitude Processing: Embodied Numerosity in Canadian and Chinese University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard Morrissey

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in numerical cognition has shown-that number magnitude is not entirely abstract, and at least partly rooted in embodied and situated experiences, including finger-counting. The current study extends previous cross-cultural research to address within-culture individual differences in finger counting habits. Results indicated that Canadian participants demonstrated an additional cognitive load when comparing numbers that require more than one hand to represent, and this pattern of performance is further modulated by whether they typically start counting on their left hand or their right hand. Chinese students typically count on only one hand and so show no such effect, except for an increase in errors, similar to that seen in Canadians, for those whom self-identify as predominantly two-hand counters. Results suggest that the impact of finger counting habits extend beyond cultural experience and concord in predictable ways with differences in number magnitude processing for specific number-digits. We conclude that symbolic number magnitude processing is partially rooted in learned finger-counting habits, consistent with a motor simulation account of embodied numeracy and that argument is supported by both cross-cultural and within-culture differences in finger-counting habits.

  14. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  15. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Baxter, Leslie C; Grunfeld, Itamar S; Brewer, Gene A; Aiken, Leona S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Camp, Bryan W; Acosta, Jazmin I; Braden, B Blair; Schaefer, Keley R; Gerson, Julia E; Lavery, Courtney N; Tsang, Candy W S; Hewitt, Lauren T; Kingston, Melissa L; Koebele, Stephanie V; Patten, K Jakob; Ball, B Hunter; McBeath, Michael K; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM) as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM) and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller's classic description of a processing-inclusive human working memory capacity of 7 ± 2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  16. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: Traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Mennenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  17. Finger movement function after ultrasound-guided percutaneous pulley release for trigger finger: effects of postoperative rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Szu-Ching; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Jou, I-Ming; Sun, Yung-Nien; Su, Fong-Chin

    2015-01-01

    To develop and test a postoperative rehabilitation protocol for use by individuals with trigger finger undergoing ultrasound-guided percutaneous pulley release. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Hospital and local community. Individuals suffering from trigger finger with joint contracture (N=21) were recruited and grouped into an intervention group (n=9) or a control group (n=12). All the participants underwent the same surgical procedure performed by the same surgeon. A 4-week postoperative rehabilitation program was designed based on the wound healing process. The intervention group received postoperative rehabilitation after the surgery, whereas the control group received no treatment after the surgery. The finger movement functions were quantitatively evaluated before and 1 month after the surgery using a 3-dimensional motion capture system. The fingertip workspace and joint range of motion (ROM) were evaluated while the participant was performing a sequential 5-posture movement, including finger extension, intrinsic plus, straight fist, full fist, and hook fist. The intervention group demonstrated significantly more improvements than the control group in the fingertip workspace (49% vs 17%), ROM of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint (16% vs 4%), ROM of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint (21% vs 5%), and total active ROM (17% vs 5%). This pilot study evaluated a postoperative rehabilitation protocol for trigger finger and demonstrated its effects on various finger functions. Participants who underwent the rehabilitation program had significantly more improvements in the fingertip workspace, ROM of the DIP and PIP joints, and total active ROM. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel hybrid biometric electronic voting system: integrating finger print face recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najam, S.S.; Shaikh, A.Z.; Naqvi, S.

    2018-01-01

    A novel hybrid design based electronic voting system is proposed, implemented and analyzed. The proposed system uses two voter verification techniques to give better results in comparison to single identification based systems. Finger print and facial recognition based methods are used for voter identification. Cross verification of a voter during an election process provides better accuracy than single parameter identification method. The facial recognition system uses Viola-Jones algorithm along with rectangular Haar feature selection method for detection and extraction of features to develop a biometric template and for feature extraction during the voting process. Cascaded machine learning based classifiers are used for comparing the features for identity verification using GPCA (Generalized Principle Component Analysis) and K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor). It is accomplished through comparing the Eigen-vectors of the extracted features with the biometric template pre-stored in the election regulatory body database. The results of the proposed system show that the proposed cascaded design based system performs better than the systems using other classifiers or separate schemes i.e. facial or finger print based schemes. The proposed system will be highly useful for real time applications due to the reason that it has 91% accuracy under nominal light in terms of facial recognition. (author)

  19. A Novel Hybrid Biometric Electronic Voting System: Integrating Finger Print and Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Najam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid design based electronic voting system is proposed, implemented and analyzed. The proposed system uses two voter verification techniques to give better results in comparison to single identification based systems. Finger print and facial recognition based methods are used for voter identification. Cross verification of a voter during an election process provides better accuracy than single parameter identification method. The facial recognition system uses Viola-Jones algorithm along with rectangular Haar feature selection method for detection and extraction of features to develop a biometric template and for feature extraction during the voting process. Cascaded machine learning based classifiers are used for comparing the features for identity verification using GPCA (Generalized Principle Component Analysis and K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor. It is accomplished through comparing the Eigen-vectors of the extracted features with the biometric template pre-stored in the election regulatory body database. The results of the proposed system show that the proposed cascaded design based system performs better than the systems using other classifiers or separate schemes i.e. facial or finger print based schemes. The proposed system will be highly useful for real time applications due to the reason that it has 91% accuracy under nominal light in terms of facial recognition.

  20. Morpho-agronomic Classification of Some Native and Exotic Finger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is one of the important indigenous crops of Africa. The productivity of the crop, however, is very low owing to several factors including the inherent low-yielding potential of the cultivars. Information on genetic diversity among the available germplasm collections is very useful for breeding ...

  1. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C.; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents. PMID:28955215

  2. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  3. Systematic classification of the His-Me finger superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jagoda; Matelska, Dorota; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2017-11-16

    The His-Me finger endonucleases, also known as HNH or ββα-metal endonucleases, form a large and diverse protein superfamily. The His-Me finger domain can be found in proteins that play an essential role in cells, including genome maintenance, intron homing, host defense and target offense. Its overall structural compactness and non-specificity make it a perfectly-tailored pathogenic module that participates on both sides of inter- and intra-organismal competition. An extremely low sequence similarity across the superfamily makes it difficult to identify and classify new His-Me fingers. Using state-of-the-art distant homology detection methods, we provide an updated and systematic classification of His-Me finger proteins. In this work, we identified over 100 000 proteins and clustered them into 38 groups, of which three groups are new and cannot be found in any existing public domain database of protein families. Based on an analysis of sequences, structures, domain architectures, and genomic contexts, we provide a careful functional annotation of the poorly characterized members of this superfamily. Our results may inspire further experimental investigations that should address the predicted activity and clarify the potential substrates, to provide more detailed insights into the fundamental biological roles of these proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg...

  5. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... respective DNA can help to generate engineered zinc fingers for therapeutic purposes involving genome targeting. Exploring the structure–function relationships of the existing zinc finger–DNA complexes can aid in predicting the probable zinc .... tered to a defined family based on binding data. How-.

  6. Finger-stylus for non touch-enable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since computer was invented, people are using many devices to interact with computer. Initially there were keyboard, mouse etc. but with advancement of technology, new ways are being discovered that are quite common and natural to the humans like stylus for touch-enabled systems. In the current age of technology, the user is expected to touch the machine interface to give input. Hand gesture is used in such a way to interact with machines where natural bare hand is used to communicate without touching machine interface. It gives a feeling to the user that he is interacting in a natural way with some human, not with traditional machines. This paper presents a technique where the user need not touch the machine interface to draw on the screen. Here hand finger draws shapes on monitor like stylus, without touching the monitor. This method can be used in many applications including games. The finger is used as an input device that acts like a paint-brush or finger-stylus and is used to make shapes in front of the camera. Fingertip extraction and motion tracking were done in Matlab with real time constraints. This work is an early attempt to replace stylus with the natural finger without touching the screen.

  7. Amniogenesis in Schreiber's long-fingered bat Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis is seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in the right uterine horn. Implantation is superficial, the amnion being a pleuramnion. Lateral folds, originating from the ends of the caudal and cephalic folds, are the main contributors in the formation of the ...

  8. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... tropical regions of Africa and Asia (O'Kennedy et al. 2006). Finger millet ... University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, was used for the introduction of rice chitinase gene. A tissue culture protocol (Ceasar and Ignacimuthu 2008) was used for the ... The culture was maintained at 26°C on an orbital shaker.

  9. Cortical activation during finger tapping in thyroid dysfunction: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    Cortical activation during finger tapping in thyroid dysfunction: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. S KHUSHU. 1,*, S SENTHIL KUMARAN. 1, T SEKHRI. 2, R P TRIPATHI. 1, P C JAIN. 3 and V JAIN. 1. 1NMR Research Centre, 2Thyroid Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied sciences,. Brig.

  10. Moving Fingers under a Stick: A Laboratory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Taha; Lanir, Yuval; Gluck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We consider a demonstration in which pupils alternately slide and stop their fingers under a long horizontal rod which they support. The changeover is described in terms of the relevant kinetic and static friction. We present a model calculation, performed on a spreadsheet, which clarifies the process and describes graphically the stepwise…

  11. Optimal Finger Search Trees in the Pointer Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Makris, Christos

    2003-01-01

    We develop a new finger search tree with worst-case constant update time in the Pointer Machine (PM) model of computation. This was a major problem in the field of Data Structures and was tantalizingly open for over twenty years while many attempts by researchers were made to solve it. The result...

  12. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... quickly in size, leading to death of seedlings within 25–30 days after the spraying of the fungal spores. High level of resistance was conferred by transgenic finger ... viral diseases through alien gene transfer. Fungal disease is a major constraint in the crop production due to high yield loss. Significant yield ...

  13. Experience of Percutaneous Trigger Finger Release under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    95. 5. Carrozzella J, Stern PJ, Von Kuster LC. Transection of radial digital nerve of the thumb during trigger release. J Hand Surg. Am 1989;14:198‑200. 6. Lorthioir J Jr. Surgical treatment of trigger‑finger by a subcutaneous method. J Bone Joint ...

  14. Compensating Pose Uncertainties Through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Gams, Andrej; Kiforenko, Lilita

    2018-01-01

    The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process. ...

  15. Gold Finger: Metal Jewellery as a Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Therapy!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hlaing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyarticular psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, progressive and disabling auto-immune disease often affecting the small joints of the hands in a symmetrical fashion. The disease can progress rapidly causing joint swelling and damaging cartilage and bone around the joints resulting in severe deformities. We report a very unusual case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with polyarticular psoriatic arthritis affecting all proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints of both hands except the left ring finger PIP joint. On clinical examination there was no evidence of arthritis in the left ring finger PIP joint. We confirmed the paucity of joint damage in the PIP joint of the left ring finger using more modern imaging modalities such as musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI scan of the small joints of the hands. All other PIP joints in both hands demonstrated advanced degrees of joint damage secondary to chronic psoriatic inflammatory arthritis. We postulated that wearing a gold wedding ring has helped protecting the PIP joint of the left ring finger from the damaging effect of inflammatory arthritis. The possible mechanisms by which metal jewellery (gold ring confer protection to adjacent joints was discussed.

  16. Tensile Strength of Finger Joints at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter C.; Olesen, Frits Bolonius

    A series of test s aimed a t establishing the effect of temperature upon the tensile strength parallel-to-grain of finger jointed laminae for glulam has been conducted in the Fire Research Laboratory at Aalborg University Centre. The objective of this report is to present the background...

  17. Digital thermography of the fingers and toes in Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mie Jin; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Joo, Kowoon; Park, Shin-Goo; Park, Won

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether skin temperature measurement by digital thermography on hands and feet is useful for diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). Fifty-seven patients with RP (primary RP, n = 33; secondary RP, n = 24) and 146 healthy volunteers were recruited. After acclimation to room temperature for 30 min, thermal imaging of palmar aspect of hands and dorsal aspect of feet were taken. Temperature differences between palm (center) and the coolest finger and temperature differences between foot dorsum (center) and first toe significantly differed between patients and controls. The area under curve analysis showed that temperature difference of the coolest finger (cutoff value: 2.2℃) differentiated RP patients from controls (sensitivity/specificity: 67/60%, respectively). Temperature differences of first toe (cutoff value: 3.11℃) also discriminated RP patients (sensitivity/specificity: about 73/66%, respectively). A combination of thermographic assessment of the coolest finger and first toe was highly effective in men (sensitivity/specificity : about 88/60%, respectively) while thermographic assessment of first toe was solely sufficient for women (sensitivity/specificity: about 74/68%, respectively). Thermographic assessment of the coolest finger and first toe is useful for diagnosing RP. In women, thermography of first toe is highly recommended.

  18. Variability and trait relationships among finger millet accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    of finger millet to determine the genetic potential for future use in breeding programmes. A total of 100 accessions were evaluated for morpho-agronomic characters in a 10 x 10 lattice design at. NaSARRI and Ikulwe in Uganda for two seasons. Analysis of variance revealed mean squares of the genotypes were significant ...

  19. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art classifica- tion technique. Using canonical binding model, the C2H2 zinc finger protein–DNA interaction interface is modelled by the pairwise amino acid–base interactions. Using a classification framework, known examples of non-binding ZF–DNA pairs.

  20. The potential of young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying will occur naturally while the lumber is fixed within the roof truss structure. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the strength and stiffness variation of the finger-jointed E. grandis product in both the green and dry state for different age and dimension lumber, (2) to investigate the variation in density, warp ...

  1. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  2. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  3. Osseointegrated silicone finger prosthesis using dental implants: a renovated technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Sankar, V Vijay; Chirumamilla, Naveen; Reddy, V Vamsikrishna

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, we come across patients with traumatically amputated or congenitally missing partial or complete fingers that can be restored using microsurgical replantation or transplantation procedures. However, in some cases this might not be possible due to systemic or local factors and the lost or missing part has to be replaced prosthetically to offer psychological and functional wellbeing. These prostheses can be constructed with various materials like acrylics or silicone retained with the help of auxiliary aids. However, these prostheses cause some hindrance in performing functions like writing, typing, etc. The aim of the present trial was to ameliorate the existing design of implant supported finger prosthesis. Distal phalange of middle finger replaced with implant supported silicone finger prosthesis is modified by utilizing a metal framework to support silicone material to improve rigidity while working. We could achieve a good function, esthetics and tactile sensibility with this modified design. Whenever, feasible this design can improve the performance and patients feel a deep sense of satisfaction and improved self-esteem with this modified prosthesis.

  4. [Efficacy of acupuncture on pain after replantation of severed finger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuezhen; Feng, Zhengen; Fu, Juan; Zhou, Fangyan

    2015-07-01

    To observe the efficacy of acupuncture on pain after replantation of severed finger. A total of 80 patients who underwent replantation of severed finger were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. The patients in the control group were treated with postoperative routine care of hand surgery, while patients in the observation group, based on the regular treatment, were treated with acupuncture within first 72 h of surgery. The health side of Yanglingquan (GB 34), Xuehai (SP 10), Hegu (LI 4), Houxi (SI 3) were selected and the needles were retained for 30 min. The acupuncture was given for 6 times. The evaluation was performed by using visual analogue scale (VAS) 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after surgery. The use of analgesics after surgery was recorded in the two groups, and the blood supply and survival rate of severed finger were evaluated. Compared between the two groups, the VAS 4 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after surgery in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (all Pobservation group was lower than that in the control group (Pobservation group was lower than that in the control group (Ppostoperative pain of replantation of severed finger, and reduce the occurrence rate of abnormal blood supply, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

  5. Bioethanol production from finger millet ( Eleusine coracana ) straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of producing bioethanol from the biomass of finger millet straw was studied. The effects of temperature, acid concentration, hydrolysis time, and substrate concentration were investigated. The result showed that a maximum sugar content of 79.04 and 82.01 %w/w was achieved using phenol-sulfuric acid and ...

  6. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata prefer males that can learn fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, A J; Watt, P J

    2009-10-01

    The role of learning ability as a potentially desirable male trait in sexual selection was investigated in the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Mate preference tests and the rate at which a male learnt two mazes were used to determine whether female preference was related to male learning ability. In addition, male body size and saturation of the orange patches were measured. Female preference was found to be related to rate of learning, such that males that learnt the mazes faster were found to be more attractive to females, but was not found to be related to body size or saturation.

  7. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  8. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila, E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: camila.salata@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  9. Behavioral profiles displayed by rats in an elevated asymmetric plus-maze: effects of diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruarte M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available When rats are exposed to unknown environments where novelty and fear-inducing characteristics are present (conflictive environments, some specific behaviors are induced and exploration is apparently modulated by fear. In our laboratory, a new type of plus-maze was designed as a model of conflictive exploration. The maze is composed of four arms with different geometrical characteristics, differing from each other by the presence or absence of walls. The degree of asymmetry was as follows: NW, no wall arm; SW, a single high wall present; HL, a low and a high wall present, and HH, two high walls present. The four arms were arranged at 90o angles and the apparatus was called the elevated asymmetric plus-maze (APM. The purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral profile of rats exposed for a single time to the APM with or without treatment with benzodiazepine. Increasing doses of diazepam were injected intraperitoneally in several groups of male, 90-day-old Holtzman rats. Distilled water was injected in control animals. Thirty minutes after treatment all rats were exposed singly to a 5-min test in the APM. Diazepam induced a biphasic modification of exploration in the NW and SW arms. The increase in the exploration score was evident at low doses of diazepam (0.25-1.0 mg/kg body weight and the decrease in exploration was found with the higher doses of diazepam (2.0-3.0 mg/kg body weight. Non-exploratory behaviors (permanency were not affected by benzodiazepine treatment. In the HL arm, exploration was not modified but permanency was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the HH arm, exploration and permanency were not affected. Results are compatible with the idea that exploration-processing mechanisms in conflictive environments are modulated by fear-processing mechanisms of the brain.

  10. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  11. Finger and foot tapping sensor system for objective motor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jovičić Milica

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Finger tapping test is commonly used in neurological examinations as a test of motor performance. The new system comprising inertial and force sensors and custom proprietary software was developed for quantitative estimation and assessment of finger and foot tapping tests. The aim of this system was to provide diagnosis support and objective assessment of motor function. Methods. Miniature inertial sensors were placed on fingertips and used for measuring finger movements. A force sensor was placed on the fingertip of one finger, in order to measure the force during tapping. For foot tapping assessment, an inertial sensor was mounted on the subject’s foot, which was placed above a force platform. By using this system, various parameters such as a number of taps, tapping duration, rhythm, open and close speed, the applied force and tapping angle, can be extracted for detailed analysis of a patient’s motor performance. The system was tested on 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 14 healthy controls. Results. The system allowed easy measurement of listed parameters, and additional graphical representation showed quantitative differences in these parameters between neurological patient and healthy subjects. Conclusion. The novel system for finger and foot tapping test is compact, simple to use and efficiently collects patient data. Parameters measured in patients can be compared to those measured in healthy subjects, or among groups of patients, or used to monitor progress of the disease, or therapy effects. Created data and scores could be used together with the scores from clinical tests, providing the possibility for better insight into the diagnosis. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175090 and Grant no. 175016

  12. The results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of mallet finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The injury of the hand tendon classified as mallet finger presents the loss of continuity of the united lateral band of the extensor apparatus above distal interphalangeal joint, which consequently leads to specific deformity of distal interphalangeal joint which is called mallet (hammer finger. Objective Our paper had several research Objectives: presentation of the existing Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of mallet finger deformities and comparison of our findings and other authors’ Results. Method: The study was retro-prospective, and analyzed 62 patients treated in the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade (at the Institute of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, and the Emergency Center in the period 1998 to 2003. The follow up of these patients lasted at least 8 months (from 8.3 months to 71.7 months. An average follow up was 28.7 months. The Objective parameters used in the study were as follows: sex, age, dominating hand, hand injury, finger injury, mode of treatment, complications, distal interphalangeal joint flexion and total movement of the distal interphalangeal joint. Collected data were analyzed by χ2-test and Student’s t-test. The confidence interval was p=0.05. Results: A total range of motion was 51.9±6.6 for nonsurgically treated patients, and 48.2±4.2 degrees for operated patients. Mean extension deficit of the distal interphalangeal joint was 6.5±3.3 for nonsurgical and 10.0±3.2 for operated patients. Conclusion: The Results confirmed that nonsurgical mode of treatment of mallet finger deformity was much more successful than surgical Method of treating the same deformity.

  13. A model of memory for incidental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browse, Roger A.; Drewell, Lisa Y.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a radial basis memory system that is used to model the performance of human participants in a task of learning to traverse mazes in a virtual environment. The memory model is a multiple-trace system, in which each event is stored as a separate memory trace. In the modeling of the maze traversal task, the events that are stored as memories are the perceptions and decisions taken at the intersections of the maze. As the virtual agent traverses the maze, it makes decisions based upon all of its memories, but those that match best to the current perceptual situation, and which were successful in the past, have the greatest influence. As the agent carries out repeated attempts to traverse the same maze, memories of successful decisions accumulate, and performance gradually improves. The system uses only three free parameters, which most importantly includes adjustments to the standard deviation of the underlying Gaussian used as the radial basis function. It is demonstrated that adjustments of these parameters can easily result in exact modeling of the average human performance in the same task, and that variation of the parameters matches the variation in human performance. We conclude that human memory interaction that does not involve conscious memorization, as in learning navigation routes, may be much more primitive and simply explained than has been previously thought.

  14. Pressure head distribution during unstable flow in relation to the formation and dissipation of fingers

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cho; G. H. de Rooij; G. H. de Rooij

    2002-01-01

    Wetting front instability creates a shallow induction zone from which fingers emerge that rapidly transport water and solutes downwards. How the induction zone affects finger location and spacing is unknown. In the moist subsoil, fingers may well dissipate because the finger tips no longer have to overcome the water entry value. Both flow regions were investigated in a two-dimensional chamber with a fine-over-coarse glass bead porous medium. A capillary fringe was created by upward wetting th...

  15. Pressure head distribution during unstable flow in relation to the formation and dissipation of fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Cho; Rooij, de, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Wetting front instability creates a shallow induction zone from which fingers emerge that rapidly transport water and solutes downwards. How the induction zone affects finger location and spacing is unknown. In the moist subsoil, fingers may well dissipate because the finger tips no longer have to overcome the water entry value. Both flow regions were investigated in a two-dimensional chamber with a fine-over-coarse glass bead porous medium. A capillary fringe was crea...

  16. The response strategy and the place strategy in a plus-maze have different sensitivities to devaluation of expected outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Pearce, John M; McGregor, Anthony

    2018-04-10

    Previous studies have suggested that spatial navigation can be achieved with at least two distinct learning processes, involving either cognitive map-like representations of the local environment, referred to as the "place strategy", or simple stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the "response strategy". A similar distinction between cognitive/behavioral processes has been made in the context of non-spatial, instrumental conditioning, with the definition of two processes concerning the sensitivity of a given behavior to the expected value of its outcome as well as to the response-outcome contingency ("goal-directed action" and "S-R habit"). Here we investigated whether these two versions of dichotomist definitions of learned behavior, one spatial and the other non-spatial, correspond to each other in a formal way. Specifically, we assessed the goal-directed nature of two navigational strategies, using a combination of an outcome devaluation procedure and a spatial probe trial frequently used to dissociate the two navigational strategies. In Experiment 1, rats trained in a dual-solution T-maze task were subjected to an extinction probe trial from the opposite start arm, with or without prefeeding-induced devaluation of the expected outcome. We found that a non-significant preference for the place strategy in the non-devalued condition was completely reversed after devaluation, such that significantly more animals displayed the use of the response strategy. The result suggests that the place strategy is sensitive to the expected value of the outcome, while the response strategy is not. In Experiment 2, rats with hippocampal lesions showed significant reliance on the response strategy, regardless of whether the expected outcome was devalued or not. The result thus offers further evidence that the response strategy conforms to the definition of an outcome-insensitive, habitual form of instrumental behavior. These results together attest a formal correspondence between

  17. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eSebastian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within in a single task. Thus we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM with a sequence of 4 baited and 4 unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test two weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects’ ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing two weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  18. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Veronica; Diallo, Aissatou; Ling, Douglas S F; Serrano, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within a single task. Thus, we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) with a sequence of four baited and four unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test 2 weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects' ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing 2 weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  19. Spatial navigational strategies correlate with grey matter in the hippocampus of healthy older adults tested in a virtual maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eKonishi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy young adults use different strategies when navigating in a virtual maze. Spatial strategies involve using environmental landmarks while response strategies involve executing a series of movements from specific stimuli. Neuroimaging studies previously confirmed that people who use spatial strategies show increased activity and grey matter in the hippocampus, while those who use response strategies show increased activity and grey matter in caudate nucleus (Bohbot, Lerch, Thorndycraft, Iaria, & Zijdenbos, 2007; Iaria, Petrides, Dagher, Pike, & Bohbot, 2003. A growing number of studies report that cognitive decline that occurs with normal aging is correlated with a decrease in volume of the hippocampus. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine whether spatial strategies in aging are correlated with greater grey matter in the hippocampus, as found in our previous study with healthy young participants. Forty-five healthy older adults were tested on a virtual navigation task that allows spatial and response strategies. All participants learn the task to criterion after which a special probe trial that assesses spatial and response strategies is given. Results show that spontaneous spatial memory strategies, and not performance on the navigation task, positively correlate with grey matter in the hippocampus. Since numerous studies have shown that a decrease in the volume of the hippocampus correlates with cognitive deficits during normal aging and increases the risks of ensuing dementia, the current results suggest that older people who use their spatial memory strategies in their everyday lives may have increased grey matter in the hippocampus and enhance their probability of healthy and successful aging.

  20. Multispectral diffuse optical tomography of finger joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighter, Daniel; Filer, Andrew; Dehghani, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation. The current treatment paradigm for earlier, more aggressive therapy places importance on development of functional imaging modalities, capable of quantifying joint changes at the earliest stages. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has shown great promise in this regard, due to its cheap, non-invasive, non-ionizing and high contrast nature. Underlying pathological activity in afflicted joints leads to altered optical properties of the synovial region, with absorption and scattering increasing. Previous studies have used these optical changes as features for classifying diseased joints from healthy. Non-tomographic, single wavelength, continuous wave (CW) measurements of trans-illuminated joints have previously reported achieving this with specificity and sensitivity in the range 80 - 90% [1]. A single wavelength, frequency domain DOT system, combined with machine learning techniques, has been shown to achieve sensitivity and specificity in the range of 93.8 - 100% [2]. A CW system is presented here which collects data at 5 wavelengths, enabling reconstruction of pathophysiological parameters such as oxygenation and total hemoglobin, with the aim of identifying localized hypoxia and angiogenesis associated with inflammation in RA joints. These initial studies focus on establishing levels of variation in recovered parameters from images of healthy controls.

  1. Effects of short-term piano training on measures of finger tapping, somatosensory perception and motor-related brain activity in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Pinto A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1 Stefan Ehrlich,2 Gordon Cheng,2 Varvara Turova,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Renée Lampe1 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Department of Orthopaedics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Chair for Cognitive Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities. In this study, adolescents and adult patients with CP, as well as a group of typically developing children learned to play piano for 4 consecutive weeks, having completed a total of 8 hours of training. For ten of the participants, learning was supported by a special technical system aimed at helping people with sensorimotor deficits to better discriminate fingers and orient themselves along the piano keyboard. Potential effects of piano training were assessed with tests of finger tapping at the piano and tests of perception of vibratory stimulation of fingers, and by measuring neuronal correlates of motor learning in the absence of and after piano training. Results were highly variable especially among participants with CP. Nevertheless, a significant effect of training on the ability to perceive the localization of vibrations over fingers was found. No effects of training on the performance of simple finger tapping sequences at the piano or on motor

  2. Modelling solute leaching during fingered flow by integrating and expanding various theoretical and empirical concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.; Hiroyuki Cho,

    1999-01-01

    Wetting front instability (fingered flow) accelerates solute transport through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. Whether fingers widen or dissipate close to the groundwater is unclear. Water flow in a two-dimensional artificial capillary fringe below a dry layer exhibiting fingered flow

  3. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or square grooves are etched on to the lower plate. Results are compared with experiments. Keywords. Viscous fingering; Hele-Shaw cell; simulation. PACS Nos 47.15.gp; 47.20.Gv; 07.05.Tp. 1. Introduction. Viscous fingering in the lifting Hele-Shaw ...

  4. Computer simulation of viscous fingering in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We simulate viscous fingering generated by separating two plates with a constant force, in a lifting Hele-Shaw cell. Variation in the patterns for different fluid viscosity and lifting force is studied. Viscous fingering is strongly affected by anisotropy. We report a computer simulation study of fingering patterns, where circular or ...

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the finger masquerading as an abscess. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    A 43-year-old man presented with an abscess on his left ring finger, which recurred despite multiple drainage procedures. Histological examination of the lesion was unhelpful; it was only on histopathological examination of the finger after ray amputation that the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was established. This case illustrates the need to consider malignancy when dealing with chronic finger infections.

  6. Finger nail plate shape and size for personal identification – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of 4 sets of identical twins showed no difference in the shapes and sizes of the fingernails on each finger. It would appear that the finger nail plate shapes /sizes of the hands show diversities similar to finger prints and therefore can be considered and developed further for personal identification in developing ...

  7. Fishing Technique of Long-Fingered Bats Was Developed from a Primary Reaction to Disappearing Target Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostaizka Aizpurua

    Full Text Available Behavioral plasticity is a key feature allowing animals to broaden their dietary niche when novel food resources become available, and long-fingered bats provide an appropriate model system to study the underpinnings of behavioral plasticity, since although generally being an insectivorous species, some individuals have been reported to catch fish. Aiming to get insight into the origin of fishing behavior in long-fingered bats, we studied in the field the differences in sensorial and mechanical reactions to insect-like (stationary and fish-like (temporary prey stimuli between well-known piscivorous and strictly insectivorous individuals. Both piscivorous and insectivorous individuals exhibited a qualitatively similar reaction to temporary target stimuli (longer and deeper dips and terminal echolocation phase skewed towards buzz I compared to stationary stimuli. Nevertheless, the quantitative differences observed in the sensorial and mechanical features (the intensity of the shift was significantly greater in piscivorous than in insectivorous individuals show that piscivorous individuals have honed their capture technique likely enhancing the fishing success. Thus, our results suggest that the fishing technique was developed from a primary reaction shared by all long-fingered bats. All individuals seem to be mechanically and sensorially adapted to detect and capture fish, although under appropriate environmental conditions, they would further improve their technique by experience and/or social learning.

  8. Modeling dynamic high-DOF finger postures from surface EMG using nonlinear synergies in latent space representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeo, Jimson; Tamei, Tomoya; Ikeda, Kazushi; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Accurate proportional myoelectric control of the hand is important in replicating dexterous manipulation in robot prostheses and orthoses. However, this is still difficult to achieve due to the complex and high degree-of-freedom (DOF) nature present in the governing musculoskeletal system. To address this problem, we suggest using a low dimensional encoding based on nonlinear synergies to represent both the high-DOF finger joint kinematics and the coordination of muscle activities taken from surface electromyographic (EMG) signals. Generating smooth multi-finger movements using EMG inputs is then done by using a shared Gaussian Process latent variable model that learns a dynamical model between both the kinematic and EMG data represented in a shared latent space. The experimental results show that the method is able to synthesize continuous movements of a full five-finger hand model, with total dimensions as large as 69 (although highly redundant and correlated). Finally, by comparing the estimation performances when the number of EMG latent dimensions are varied, we show that these synergistic features can capture the variance, shared and specific to the observed kinematics.

  9. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  10. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated (+)-maze and hole-board exploration in lurcher mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, C; Lalonde, R

    1995-12-08

    The behavior of lurcher mice, a mutant with degeneration of cerebellar cells, was compared to that of normal mice for three days in two tests of exploration; an elevated (+)-maze and a 4 x 4 hole-board. In the elevated (+)-maze, lurcher mutants visited fewer closed arms than normal mice only on the first test day. Lurcher mutants were slower to emerge from the first closed arm but did not differ from normal mice for entry latencies into the first open arm. The time spent by the mutants in the open arms was higher than that of normal mice, an indication of decreased inhibition to open spaces. In the hole-board, lurcher mutants visited fewer holes than normal mice only on the first day of testing. In proportion to the total number of holes explored, lurcher mutants visited fewer center holes and fewer holes situated next to each other. These results may be due to a lesion-induced tendency to explore a more restricted region of a novel spatial environment and to explore it in a more haphazard fashion.

  12. "Suture fixation of the fingers": an effective method for positioning burned and contracted fingers using a pulley system as a guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Bakhshaeekia, Alireza

    2011-03-01

    Preserving function of the hand is the aim of treatment in burned hands; appropriate splinting is one of the important measures during acute and chronic treatment. We introduce an effective safe method for positioning of fingers without violating the joints; In this method before performing skin graft for palmar finger burn or contracture release we suture tip of finger with silk 2-0 and fix it to dorsum of hand while extending the finger and for preventing slipping we insert some pulley like circles tied with silk 2-0 fixing over dorsum of mid phalanx. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcranial slow oscillation stimulation during NREM sleep enhances acquisition of the radial maze task and modulates cortical network activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eBinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slow wave sleep, hallmarked by the occurrence of slow oscillations (SO, plays an important role for the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. Transcranial stimulation by weak electric currents oscillating at the endogenous SO frequency (SO-tDCS during post-learning sleep was previously shown by us to boost SO activity and improve the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory in human subjects. Here, we aimed at replicating and extending these results to a rodent model. Rats were trained for 12 days at the beginning of their inactive phase in the reference memory version of the radial arm maze. In a between subjects design, animals received SO-tDCS over prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation within a time frame of 1 hour during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Applied over multiple daily sessions SO-tDCS impacted cortical network activity as measured by EEG and behavior: At the EEG level, SO-tDCS enhanced post-stimulation upper delta (2-4 Hz activity whereby the first stimulations of each day were preferentially affected. Furthermore, commencing on day 8, SO-tDCS acutely decreased theta activity indicating long-term effects on cortical networks. Behaviorally, working memory for baited maze arms was enhanced up to day 4, indicating enhanced consolidation of task-inherent rules, while reference memory errors did not differ between groups. Taken together, we could show here for the first time an effect of SO-tDCS during NREM sleep on cognitive functions and on cortical activity in a rodent model.

  14. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. fMRI assessment of somatotopy in human Brodmann area 3b by electrical finger stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, R; Villringer, K; Mackert, B M; Schwiemann, J; Braun, J; Curio, G; Villringer, A; Wolf, K J

    1998-01-26

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is capable of detecting focal brain activation induced by electrical stimulation of single fingers in human subjects. In eight subjects somatotopic arrangement of the second and fifth finger was found in Brodmann area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. In four subjects the representation area of the second finger was located lateral and inferior to the fifth finger; in one subject the somatotopy was reversed. In three subjects representation areas of the two fingers in Brodmann area 3b were found overlapping. Additional activated areas were found on the crown of ipsilateral and contralateral postcentral gyrus (Brodmann areas 1 and 2) and posterior parietal cortex.

  16. Charge pumping with finger capacitance for body sensor energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alyssa Y; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2017-07-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous and increasingly integrated with and on the human body; powering such "body network" devices remains an outstanding problem. In this paper, we demonstrate a touch interrogation powered energy harvesting system. This system transforms the kinetic energy of a human finger to electric energy, with each tap producing approximately 1 nJ of energy at a storage capacitor. As is well known for touch display devices, the proximity of a finger can alter the effective value of small capacitances; we demonstrate that these capacitance changes can drive a current which is rectified to charge a capacitor. As a demonstration, an untethered circuit charged this way can deliver enough instantaneous power to light a red LED every ~ 10 seconds. This technology illustrates the ability to communicate with and operate low-power sensors with motions already used for interfacing to devices.

  17. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg....../kg). The 95% confidence interval of the population mean was 0.51-1.26 mg/kg and the 95% confidence interval of the population median was 0.39-0.74 mg/kg. The random sample consisted of 59 women and 36 men. No significant difference between the nickel levels in finger nails from men and women could...

  18. Pressure head distribution during unstable flow in relation to the formation and dissipation of fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting front instability creates a shallow induction zone from which fingers emerge that rapidly transport water and solutes downwards. How the induction zone affects finger location and spacing is unknown. In the moist subsoil, fingers may well dissipate because the finger tips no longer have to overcome the water entry value. Both flow regions were investigated in a two-dimensional chamber with a fine-over-coarse glass bead porous medium. A capillary fringe was created by upward wetting through capillary rise. Upon ponding with dye-coloured water, fingers emerged, propagated downward and diverged when reaching the capillary fringe. Microtensiometers were installed in the induction zone, the fingers, and in the capillary fringe. In the induction zone, a lateral sinusoidal pressure head developed within minutes. Only in one of two experiments could the observed pressure head pattern be satisfactorily reproduced by a steady-state model assuming uniform induction zone properties and uniform infiltration. Later, fingers emerged below the pressure head minima. The induction zone did not affect finger properties. The pressure head in the induction zone was determined by the depth of the finger tips. The water requirement of the fingers dictated the lateral pressure head gradients. The pressure heads in the capillary fringe supported the hypothesis that the flow stabilised and dissipated there. Keywords: fingered flow, wetting front instability, unsaturated flow, microtensiometers, induction zone, capillary fringe

  19. Use of a robotic device to measure age-related decline in finger proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemanson, Morgan L; Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in proprioception are known to affect postural stability, yet the extent to which such changes affect the finger joints is poorly understood despite the importance of finger proprioception in the control of skilled hand movement. We quantified age-related changes in finger proprioception in 37 healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults using two robot-based tasks wherein participants' index and middle fingers were moved by an exoskeletal robot. The first task assessed finger position sense by asking participants to indicate when their index and middle fingers were directly overlapped during a passive crisscross movement; the second task assessed finger movement detection by asking participants to indicate the onset of passive finger movement. When these tasks were completed without vision, finger position sense errors were 48 % larger in older adults compared to young participants (p proprioceptive reaction time was 78 % longer in older adults compared to young adults (p proprioception, these age-related differences were no longer apparent. No difference between dominant and non-dominant hand performance was found for either proprioception task. These findings demonstrate that finger proprioception is impaired in older adults, and visual feedback can be used to compensate for this deficit. The findings also support the feasibility and utility of the FINGER robot as a sensitive tool for detecting age-related decline in proprioception.

  20. Increased densities and calcifications in the finger bones of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, A; Bruk, I; Laron, Z

    1976-06-01

    A feature of irregular calcifications and increased densities in the metaphyseal region of the fingers of the hand in adolescent children, occurring mostly in males, is described. These changes become evident at puberty and disappear with the closure of the epiphyses. The etiology of this feature does not appear to be related to a specific hormone. It may be the result of an imbalance between those hormones which cause the pubertal spurt, possibly combined with an irregularity of testosterone secretion.

  1. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-06

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  2. Closed traumatic rupture of the ring finger flexor tendon pulley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropet, Y; Menez, D; Balmat, P; Pem, R; Vichard, P

    1990-09-01

    We report an unusual case of closed traumatic rupture of the ring finger flexor tendon pulley not previously reported in the literature. This injury occurred in a 21-year-old athlete during rockclimbing. Lack of flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint was accompanied by a palpable subcutaneous cord on the palmar side of the proximal phalanx. A simple repair of the pulley was done. The postoperative functional result was satisfactory.

  3. Hypermobility and proprioception in the finger joints of flautists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigues-Cano, Isabel; Bird, Howard A

    2014-06-01

    Ergonomically, the flute is especially complex among wind instruments, and flautists may therefore be at particular risk of performance-related musculoskeletal disorders. Yet little is known about injury prevalence among flute players, and even less in those flautists who are also hypermobile. Recent research has found hand and wrist pain to be common complaints among flautists. Understanding of the predictors of injury and pain is therefore crucial as the presence of pain decreases performance quality and causes unnecessary time loss. There is a strong relationship between hypermobility and impaired proprioception, although many musicians may acquire greater proprioception than the average population. We have compared flexibility and proprioception of the hand in a study of flautists. Twenty flautists took part in the study. General hypermobility, the passive range of motion of the 3 specific joints most involved in flute playing, and proprioception acuity were all measured accurately for the first time in this awkward instrument that needs high levels of dexterity. Flautists' finger joints have a greater range of movement than in the general population. This group of flute players had especially large ranges of movement in the finger joints, which take the weight of the instrument. Although flautists have hypermobile finger joints, they are not generally hypermobile elsewhere as measured by the Beighton Scale. Flautists, even with very mobile finger joints, have very accurate proprioception, which may be acquired through training. The study of instrumentalists may provide an ideal model for study of the interaction between localized joint flexibility and joint proprioception, both inherited and acquired.

  4. The "Haptic Finger"- a new device for monitoring skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mami; Lévêque, Jean Luc; Tagami, Hachiro; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Chonan, Seifi

    2003-05-01

    Touching the skin is of great importance for the Clinician for assessing roughness, softness, firmness, etc. This type of clinical assessment is very subjective and therefore non-reproducible from one Clinician to another one or even from time to time for the same Clinician. In order to objectively monitor skin texture, we developed a new sensor, placed directly on the Clinician's finger, which generate some electric signal when slid over the skin surface. The base of this Haptic Finger sensor is a thin stainless steel plate on which sponge rubber, PVDF foil, acetate film and gauze are layered. The signal generated by the sensor was filtered and digitally stored before processing. In a first in vitro experiment, the sensor was moved over different skin models (sponge rubber covered by silicon rubber) of varying hardness and roughness. These experiments allowed the definition of two parameters characterizing textures. The first parameter is variance of the signal processed using wavelet analysis, representing an index of roughness. The second parameter is dispersion of the power spectrum density in the frequency domain, corresponding to hardness. To validate these parameters, the Haptic Finger was used to scan skin surfaces of 30 people, 14 of whom displayed a skin disorder: xerosis (n = 5), atopic dermatitis (n = 7), and psoriasis (n = 2). The results obtained by means of the sensor were compared with subjective, clinical evaluations by a Clinician who scored both roughness and hardness of the skin. Good agreement was observed between clinical assessment of the skin and the two parameters generated using the Haptic Finger. Use of this sensor could prove extremely valuable in cosmetic research where skin surface texture (in terms of tactile properties) is difficult to measure.

  5. Numerical simulation of double-diffusive finger convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Vacher, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid finite element, integrated finite difference numerical model is developed for the simulation of double-diffusive and multicomponent flow in two and three dimensions. The model is based on a multidimensional, density-dependent, saturated-unsaturated transport model (SUTRA), which uses one governing equation for fluid flow and another for solute transport. The solute-transport equation is applied sequentially to each simulated species. Density coupling of the flow and solute-transport equations is accounted for and handled using a sequential implicit Picard iterative scheme. High-resolution data from a double-diffusive Hele-Shaw experiment, initially in a density-stable configuration, is used to verify the numerical model. The temporal and spatial evolution of simulated double-diffusive convection is in good agreement with experimental results. Numerical results are very sensitive to discretization and correspond closest to experimental results when element sizes adequately define the spatial resolution of observed fingering. Numerical results also indicate that differences in the molecular diffusivity of sodium chloride and the dye used to visualize experimental sodium chloride concentrations are significant and cause inaccurate mapping of sodium chloride concentrations by the dye, especially at late times. As a result of reduced diffusion, simulated dye fingers are better defined than simulated sodium chloride fingers and exhibit more vertical mass transfer. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Online Signature Verification on MOBISIG Finger-Drawn Signature Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Antal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present MOBISIG, a pseudosignature dataset containing finger-drawn signatures from 83 users captured with a capacitive touchscreen-based mobile device. The database was captured in three sessions resulting in 45 genuine signatures and 20 skilled forgeries for each user. The database was evaluated by two state-of-the-art methods: a function-based system using local features and a feature-based system using global features. Two types of equal error rate computations are performed: one using a global threshold and the other using user-specific thresholds. The lowest equal error rate was 0.01% against random forgeries and 5.81% against skilled forgeries using user-specific thresholds that were computed a posteriori. However, these equal error rates were significantly raised to 1.68% (random forgeries case and 14.31% (skilled forgeries case using global thresholds. The same evaluation protocol was performed on the DooDB publicly available dataset. Besides verification performance evaluations conducted on the two finger-drawn datasets, we evaluated the quality of the samples and the users of the two datasets using basic quality measures. The results show that finger-drawn signatures can be used by biometric systems with reasonable accuracy.

  7. ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punetha Ankita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the occurrence of zinc finger protein motifs in genomes is crucial to the developing field of molecular genome engineering. The knowledge of their target DNA-binding sequences is vital to develop chimeric proteins for targeted genome engineering and site-specific gene correction. There is a need to develop a computational resource of zinc finger proteins (ZFP to identify the potential binding sites and its location, which reduce the time of in vivo task, and overcome the difficulties in selecting the specific type of zinc finger protein and the target site in the DNA sequence. Description ZifBASE provides an extensive collection of various natural and engineered ZFP. It uses standard names and a genetic and structural classification scheme to present data retrieved from UniProtKB, GenBank, Protein Data Bank, ModBase, Protein Model Portal and the literature. It also incorporates specialized features of ZFP including finger sequences and positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties, classes, framework, PubMed citations with links to experimental structures (PDB, if available and modeled structures of natural zinc finger proteins. ZifBASE provides information on zinc finger proteins (both natural and engineered ones, the number of finger units in each of the zinc finger proteins (with multiple fingers, the synergy between the adjacent fingers and their positions. Additionally, it gives the individual finger sequence and their target DNA site to which it binds for better and clear understanding on the interactions of adjacent fingers. The current version of ZifBASE contains 139 entries of which 89 are engineered ZFPs, containing 3-7F totaling to 296 fingers. There are 50 natural zinc finger protein entries ranging from 2-13F, totaling to 307 fingers. It has sequences and structures from literature, Protein Data Bank, ModBase and Protein Model Portal. The interface is cross linked to other public

  8. Transfer of noroviruses between fingers and fomites and food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H; Duizer, Erwin; Beumer, Rijkelt R

    2013-11-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) contaminated hands are important routes for transmission. Quantitative data on transfer during contact with surfaces and food are scarce but necessary for a quantitative risk assessment. Therefore, transfer of MNV1 and human NoVs GI.4 and GII.4 was studied by artificially contaminating human finger pads, followed by pressing on stainless steel and Trespa® surfaces and also on whole tomatoes and cucumber slices. In addition, clean finger pads were pressed on artificially contaminated stainless steel and Trespa® surfaces. The transfers were performed at a pressure of 0.8-1.9 kg/cm(2) for approximately 2s up to 7 sequential transfers either to carriers or to food products. MNV1 infectivity transfer from finger pads to stainless steel ranged from 13 ± 16% on the first to 0.003 ± 0.009% on the sixth transfer on immediate transfer. After 10 min of drying, transfer was reduced to 0.1 ± 0.2% on the first transfer to 0.013 ± 0.023% on the fifth transfer. MNV1 infectivity transfer from stainless steel and Trespa® to finger pads after 40 min of drying was 2.0 ± 2.0% and 4.0 ± 5.0% respectively. MNV1 infectivity was transferred 7 ± 8% to cucumber slices and 0.3 ± 0.5% to tomatoes after 10 min of drying, where the higher transfer to cucumber was probably due to the higher moisture content of the cucumber slices. Similar results were found for NoVs GI.4 and GII.4 transfers measured in PCR units. The results indicate that transfer of the virus is possible even after the virus is dried on the surface of hands or carriers. Furthermore, the role of fingers in transmission of NoVs was quantified and these data can be useful in risk assessment models and to establish target levels for efficacy of transmission intervention methods. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.L.; Inouye, M.; Kiyono, S.; Shibagaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 100 rads of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were sham-irradiated on the same gestation day. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched, standard colony, and impoverished conditions for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. All the prenatally X-irradiated rats were microcephalic: their mean cerebral wet weight was 15.5% less than controls. The effect of X-irradiation was not significant in error scores and running times, whereas the effect of environment was significant in these items; initial and total error scores and running times were decreased in enriched groups compared to impoverished groups in controls as well as in X-irradiated animals

  10. Anxiogenic Effect of Low-dose Methamphetamine in the Test of Elevated Plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pometlová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamines (MA are psychostimulant drugs that are known to change individuals’ behavior. Psychostimulants could either evoke positive emotions (e.g. joy and happiness or attenuate negative emotional states (e.g. anxiety and depression in humans. In animal experiments, the test of elevated plus-maze (EPM is widely used. This test is appropriate for evaluation of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects, or for examination of specific subtypes of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute single dose of MA (1 mg/kg on the behavior of laboratory rat in the EPM. The detailed ethologic analysis of behavior was performed using a modified protocol based on the study of Fernández Espejo (1997. Our results demonstrated that MA affects rat’s behavior in the EPM in the majority of analyzed categories. The present protocol allowed us to determine positive anxiogenic effect of MA.

  11. Clearing out a maze: A model of chemotactic motion in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tanja; Voigtmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We study the anomalous dynamics of a biased "hungry" (or "greedy") random walk on a percolating cluster. The model mimics chemotaxis in a porous medium: In close resemblance to the 1980s arcade game PAC-MA N ®, the hungry random walker consumes food, which is initially distributed in the maze, and biases its movement towards food-filled sites. We observe that the mean-squared displacement of the process follows a power law with an exponent that is different from previously known exponents describing passive or active microswimmer dynamics. The change in dynamics is well described by a dynamical exponent that depends continuously on the propensity to move towards food. It results in slower differential growth when compared to the unbiased random walk.

  12. Effects of prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment in rats on water maze performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Andreas; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana L; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Feldon, Joram

    2005-06-20

    Prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment has been shown to induce morphological abnormalities in cortical areas of the offspring. Based on the neuroanatomical and behavioural abnormalities, this treatment has been suggested as a useful animal model for schizophrenia. In a previous study (Jongen-Relo AL, Leng A, Luber M, Pothuizen HHJ, Weber L, Feldon J. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate treatment: a neurodevelopmental animal model for schizophrenia? Behav Brain Res 2004;149:159-81) we have studied MAM-treated animals in a series of behavioural tests related to schizophrenia, such as latent inhibition and pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response to establish the validity of prenatal MAM treatment (20mg/kg i.p. on gestational days 9-15; MAM 9-MAM 15). We found that, apart from a marginal effect of increased activity in the open field, the MAM treatment on gestational day 15 was behaviourally ineffective. Here, we extended our previous study to a water maze experiment conducted in the same batch of animals as presented previously (MAM 12-MAM 15). MAM-treated animals showed similar water maze performance compared with control animals during the acquisition phase and the probe tests. However, during the reversal phase, MAM 15 animals showed impaired acquisition of the new platform location. This might indicate some cognitive deficits in MAM 15 animals in terms of working memory or behavioural flexibility. However, in combination with the lack of behavioural abnormalities of MAM 12-MAM 15 animals in several other tests related to schizophrenia in the previously reported study, the use of MAM treatment (MAM 12-MAM 15) as a valid model for schizophrenia still remains debatable.

  13. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Separating defence and civilian radioactive waste programs in Nevada: can the public navigate the maze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nevada is at the centre of public policy debate with regards to high and low level radioactive waste disposal. Nevada's Yucca Mountain is the only site under consideration for a US geologic repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and defence high level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has long been a low level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the Department of Energy (DOE) defence waste and is now expected to take even more LLW as the preferred site for a regional or centralised disposal facility. Furthermore, the primary mission at NTS, defence, continues to add more contamination to the site. Combined, these facts present a public policy enigma, confused further by the intentional separation of the programs by DOE, even though all are essentially conducted at the same site. Involving the public in policy decisions for these programs is a dilemma because the public does not make the same artificial distinctions between them as DOE, DOE credibility suffers from past public involvement efforts conducted during an era of Cold War secrecy and because DOE public involvement programs are operated independently, with little or no co-operation between programs. The public does not know where it fits into the DOE decision-making process or if it impacts the policy decisions being made that affect it. This paper examines the complex maze of radioactive policy and bureaucracy in order to unveil the enigma Nevada residents face. Are they able to navigate this maze to effectively participate in government policy and decision-making? Or, will they remain confused by the government bureaucracy which deliberately makes a mess of the situation and seeks to exploit a politically weak state with large tracts of federally controlled land? lt further evaluates the effect this enigma has in producing acceptable public policy for radioactive waste disposal in the US, the role of public participation in that policy, and the reason the public is disillusioned and disengaged in the

  15. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  16. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  17. The relationships between trait anxiety, place recognition memory, and learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2011-01-20

    Rodents learn to navigate mazes using various strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. The type of strategy used when learning to navigate a spatial environment is moderated by a number of factors including emotional states. Heightened anxiety states, induced by exposure to stressors or administration of anxiogenic agents, have been found to bias male rats toward the use of a striatum-based stimulus-response strategy rather than a hippocampus-based place strategy. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between natural anxiety levels, or trait anxiety, and the type of learning strategy used by rats on a dual-solution task. In the current experiment, levels of inherent anxiety were measured in an open field and compared to performance on two separate cognitive tasks, a Y-maze task that assessed place recognition memory, and a visible platform water maze task that assessed learning strategy. Results indicated that place recognition memory on the Y-maze correlated with the use of place learning strategy on the water maze. Furthermore, lower levels of trait anxiety correlated positively with better place recognition memory and with the preferred use of place learning strategy. Therefore, competency in place memory and bias in place strategy are linked to the levels of inherent anxiety in male rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood pressure measurement of all five fingers by strain gauge plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirai, M; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the methodological problems involved in measuring systolic blood pressure in all five fingers by the strain gauge technique. In 24 normal subjects, blood pressure at the proximal phalanx of finger I and both at the proximal and the intermediate phalanx...... of the other fingers was measured using a 24-mm-wide cuff. Blood pressure at the proximal phalanx was higher than that at the intermediate phalanx in all fingers except finger V. The difference of blood pressure values corresponded well with circumference of the finger. In 15 normal subjects, blood pressure...... of the mean values was larter with the 27-mm-wide cuff than with the 24-mm-wide cuff, the 24-mm-wide cuff was considered to be most suitable for clinical use in fingers I, II, III, and IV. By using the 20-mm-wide cuff in finger V and the 24-mm-wide cuff in the other fingers, normal value of finger blood...

  19. Predicting success of oligomerized pool engineering (OPEN for zinc finger target site sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Mathew J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise and efficient methods for gene targeting are critical for detailed functional analysis of genomes and regulatory networks and for potentially improving the efficacy and safety of gene therapies. Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN is a recently developed method for engineering C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs designed to bind specific DNA sequences with high affinity and specificity in vivo. Because generation of ZFPs using OPEN requires considerable effort, a computational method for identifying the sites in any given gene that are most likely to be successfully targeted by this method is desirable. Results Analysis of the base composition of experimentally validated ZFP target sites identified important constraints on the DNA sequence space that can be effectively targeted using OPEN. Using alternate encodings to represent ZFP target sites, we implemented Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine classifiers capable of distinguishing "active" targets, i.e., ZFP binding sites that can be targeted with a high rate of success, from those that are "inactive" or poor targets for ZFPs generated using current OPEN technologies. When evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation on a dataset of 135 experimentally validated ZFP target sites, the best Naïve Bayes classifier, designated ZiFOpT, achieved overall accuracy of 87% and specificity+ of 90%, with an ROC AUC of 0.89. When challenged with a completely independent test set of 140 newly validated ZFP target sites, ZiFOpT performance was comparable in terms of overall accuracy (88% and specificity+ (92%, but with reduced ROC AUC (0.77. Users can rank potentially active ZFP target sites using a confidence score derived from the posterior probability returned by ZiFOpT. Conclusion ZiFOpT, a machine learning classifier trained to identify DNA sequences amenable for targeting by OPEN-generated zinc finger arrays, can guide users to target sites that are most likely to function

  20. Sertindole, in contrast to clozapine and olanzapine, does not disrupt water maze performance after acute or chronic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Michael; Kreilgaard, Mads; Arnt, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    .e. percentage of trials where the rat was unable to find the platform within the total trial time of 60 s. Clozapine (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and olanzapine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) impaired water maze performance when given acutely. However, tolerance developed to the deficit induced by clozapine, whereas the olanzapine...

  1. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  2. Classification Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency and Maze in Predicting Performance on Large-Scale Reading Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…

  3. Fear-potentiation in the elevated plus-maze test depends on stressor controllability and fear conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S M; Bohus, B; de Boer, Sietse

    The purpose of the study was to determine which stressor qualities (escapable vs. inescapable stress and unconditioned vs. conditioned stress) can potentiate fear in the elevated plus-maze. While inescapable stress potentiated fear, escapable stress did not, but escapable stress increased the

  4. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Affan, I A M; Hugtenburg, R P; Bari, D S; Al-Saleh, W M; Piliero, M; Evans, S; Al-Hasan, M; Al-Zughul, B; Al-Kharouf, S; Ghaith, A

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinematic design of a finger abduction mechanism for an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-A. A. Demers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic design of an abduction mechanism for the fingers of an underactuated anthropomorphic robotic hand. This mechanism will enhance the range of feasible grasps of the underactuated hand without significantly increasing its complexity. The analysis of the link between the index finger and the third finger is first assessed, where the parameters are studied in order to follow the amplitude constraint and to minimize the coordination error. Then, the study of the mechanism joining the third finger and the little finger is summarized. Finally, a prototype of the finger's abduction system is presented.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  7. Ret Finger Protein: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Juxtaposed to the XY Body in Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Gillot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During prophase I of male meiosis, the sex chromosomes form a compact structure called XY body that associates with the nuclear membrane of pachytene spermatocytes. Ret Finger Protein is a transcriptional repressor, able to interact with both nuclear matrix-associated proteins and double-stranded DNA. We report the precise and unique localization of Ret Finger Protein in pachytene spermatocytes, in which Ret Finger Protein takes place of lamin B1, between the XY body and the inner nuclear membrane. This localization of Ret Finger Protein does not seem to be associated with O-glycosylation or sumoylation. In addition, we demonstrate that Ret Finger Protein contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. These observations lead to an attractive hypothesis in which Ret Finger Protein would be involved in the positioning and the attachment of XY body to the nuclear lamina of pachytene spermatocytes.

  8. Management of complications relating to finger amputation and replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Woo; Cheon, Ho-Jun; Nam, Hyun-Je; Kang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hee-Chan

    2015-05-01

    There are many options in the management of fingertip or finger amputations. Injudicious revision amputation may cause complications. These complications can be prevented by tension-free closure of the amputation stump or primary coverage with appropriate flap. Replantation is the best way to keep the original length and maintain digital function. Patent vein repair or venous drainage with bleeding until neovascularization to the replanted part is the key to successful replantation. Prevention and management of complications in replantation and revision amputation increase patients' satisfaction and decrease costs. Research is needed to define new indications of replantation for digital amputation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymptomatic Papulo-nodules Localized to One Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kinjal D; Khopkar, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous or deep granuloma annulare is a benign asymptomatic condition characterized by firm asymptomatic nodules in deep subcutaneous tissues that may be associated with intradermal lesions. A 53-year-old female presented with asymptomatic skin-colored, firm nodules over the right ring finger. Histopathology revealed a palisading granuloma with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposition in the dermis suggestive of granuloma annulare. Isolated and unilateral involvement of a single digit with clusters of nodules of subcutaneous granuloma annulare (GA) in an adult is rare and differentiation from its simulator rheumatoid nodule is essential. PMID:26538728

  10. Person recognition using fingerprints and top-view finger images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panyayot Chaikan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our multimodal biometric system combines fingerprinting with a top-view finger image captured by a CCD camera without user intervention. The greyscale image is preprocessed to enhance its edges, skin furrows, and the nail shape before being manipulated by a bank of oriented filters. A square tessellation is applied to the filtered image to create a feature map, called a NailCode, which is employed in Euclidean distance computations. The NailCode reduces system errors by 17.68% in the verification mode, and by 6.82% in the identification mode.

  11. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  12. HE upgrade beyond phase 1. Finger scintillator option.

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, Sergey; Boyarintsev, A.Yu; Emeliantchik, Igor; Golutvin, Igor; Grinyov, B.V; Ershov, Yuri; Levchuk, Leonid; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Popov, V.F; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sorokin, Pavlo; Zhmurin, Petro

    2014-01-01

    CMS hadron calorimeters (HB, HE, HO) have been in operation for several years and contributed substantially to the success of the CMS Physics Program. The endcap calorimeter HE suffered more radiation damage than anticipated causing rapid degradation of scintillator segments (tiles) which have a higher radiation flux from secondary particles than HB and HO. A proposal to upgrade of HE calorimeter will provide a solution for survivability at future LHC higher luminosity. A finger-strip plastic scintillator option has many advantages and is a lower cost alternative to keep the excellent HE performance at high luminosity. Measurements and simulations have been performed and this method is a good upgrade strategy.

  13. Static model for a 3-DOF underactuated finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a static model of a three-degree-of-freedom underactuated finger. The model includes all static forces, namely actuation forces, return forces and gravity. All geometric and static parameters can be freely changed (pulley radius, member's mass, etc.. Hence, the model allows complete static simulations to be performed and it can also be used for numerical optimization.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  14. Finger image quality based on singular point localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinghua; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Singular points are important global features of fingerprints and singular point localization is a crucial step in biometric recognition. Moreover the presence and position of the core point in a captured fingerprint sample can reflect whether the finger is placed properly on the sensor. Therefore...... and analyze the importance of singular points on biometric accuracy. The experiment is based on large scale databases and conducted by relating the measured quality of a fingerprint sample, given by the positions of core points, to the biometric performance. The experimental results show the positions of core...

  15. Kinematic analysis of the finger exoskeleton using MATLAB/Simulink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiłowski, Krzysztof; Awrejcewicz, Jan; Lewandowski, Donat

    2014-01-01

    A paralyzed and not fully functional part of human body can be supported by the properly designed exoskeleton system with motoric abilities. It can help in rehabilitation, or movement of a disabled/paralyzed limb. Both suitably selected geometry and specialized software are studied applying the MATLAB environment. A finger exoskeleton was the base for MATLAB/Simulink model. Specialized software, such as MATLAB/Simulink give us an opportunity to optimize calculation reaching precise results, which help in next steps of design process. The calculations carried out yield information regarding movement relation between three functionally connected actuators and showed distance and velocity changes during the whole simulation time.

  16. Mallet fingers with bone avulsion and DIP joint subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T; Oda, T

    2015-01-01

    One-third of all mallet fingers are associated with a fracture. Mallet fractures associated with large fracture fragments may result in volar subluxation of the distal phalanx. The management of mallet fractures varies based on injury pattern and surgeon preference. These treatment options include splinting regimens, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning and open reduction and internal fixation. Although numerous surgical techniques have been described, there is little clear consensus on operative treatment. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence to support operative over nonoperative treatment for mallet fractures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Dynamics of fingering convection II: The formation of thermohaline staircases

    OpenAIRE

    Stellmach, S.; Traxler, A.; Garaud, P.; Brummell, N.; Radko, T.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.99 Regions of the ocean's thermocline unstable to salt fingering are often observed to host thermohaline staircases, stacks of deep well-mixed convective layers separated by thin stably-stratified interfaces. Decades after their discovery, however, their origin remains controversial. In this paper we use 3D direct numerical simulations to shed light on the problem. We study the evolution of an analogous d...

  18. Normal tendon sheath of the second to fifth fingers as seen on oblique views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Oblique views of the fingers, using a low kilovolt technique, show a portion of the tendon sheaths which can be regarded as representative of the entire sheath. Because of the varying obliquity of each finger, this proportion differs in the fingers. With increasing age the projected portion of the sheath becomes smaller because it is covered by increasing bone formation in the insertion of the tendon sheat. Normal values have been obtained for adults according to their decades; from these, quite minor degrees of tendon sheat thickening can be determined. In camptodactyly of the fifth finger, which is not uncommon, the tendon sheat may be widened in the absence of a tenosynovitis.

  19. Sensory Feedback Training for Improvement of Finger Perception in Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Blumenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop and to test a feedback training system for improvement of tactile perception and coordination of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Methods. The fingers of 7 probands with cerebral palsy of different types and severity were stimulated using small vibration motors integrated in the fingers of a hand glove. The vibration motors were connected through a microcontroller to a computer and to a response 5-button keyboard. By pressing an appropriate keyboard button, the proband must indicate in which finger the vibration was felt. The number of incorrect responses and the reaction time were measured for every finger. The perception and coordination of fingers were estimated before and after two-week training using both clinical tests and the measurements. Results. Proper functioning of the developed system in persons with cerebral palsy was confirmed. The tactile sensation of fingers was improved in five of seven subjects after two weeks of training. There was no clear tendency towards improvement of selective use of fingers. Conclusion. The designed feedback system could be used to train tactile perception of fingers in children and youth with cerebral palsy. An extensive study is required to confirm these findings.

  20. A gene encoding 22 highly related zinc fingers is expressed in lymphoid cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovering, R; Trowsdale, J

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA was isolated from a T cell library using an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a sequence conserved in proteins with multiple zinc fingers of the C2H2 type. The predicted protein structure of this cDNA (ZNF43) showed that it contained 22 of the Krüppel type of zinc finger motifs in tandem. The amino acid sequence was strongly conserved between each of the finger domains of this cDNA, except for variable residue positions within the putative DNA binding site. Within the zinc finger ...

  1. Common substrate for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Michael; Michaux, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    The history of mathematics provides several examples of the use of fingers to count or calculate. These observations converge with developmental data showing that fingers play a critical role in the acquisition of arithmetic knowledge. Further studies evidenced specific interference of finger movements with arithmetic problem solving in adults, raising the question of whether or not finger and number manipulations rely on common brain areas. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the possible overlap between the brain areas involved in mental arithmetic and those involved in finger discrimination. Solving subtraction and multiplication problems was found to increase cerebral activation bilaterally in the horizontal part of the intraparietal sulcus (hIPS) and in the posterior part of the superior parietal lobule (PSPL). Finger discrimination was associated with increased activity in a bilateral occipito-parieto-precentral network extending from the extrastriate body area to the primary somatosensory and motor cortices. A conjunction analysis showed common areas for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the hIPS and PSPL bilaterally. Voxelwise correlations further showed that finger discrimination and mental arithmetic induced a similar pattern of activity within the parietal areas only. Pattern similarity was more important for the left than for the right hIPS and for subtraction than for multiplication. These findings provide the first evidence that the brain circuits involved in finger representation also underlie arithmetic operations in adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A microelectrostatic repulsive-torque rotation actuator with two-width fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chao; He, Siyuan

    2015-01-01

    A microelectrostatic repulsive-torque rotation actuator with two-width fingers is presented. The actuator consists of finger-shaped electrodes and is made of two thin film layers, i.e. one movable layer and one fixed layer. There are two types of finger electrodes, namely constant-width and two-width fingers. The two-width finger has a narrow lower segment and a wide top segment. The constant-width finger has only the narrow lower segment. Each rotation finger has its corresponding aligned and unaligned fixed fingers. The electrostatic repulsive torque is generated and acts on the rotation fingers to rotate them up and away from the substrate. As a result, rotation is not limited by the gap between the movable and fixed layers and the ‘pull-in’ instability is avoided. Thus a large out-of-plane rotation and high operational stability can be achieved. The actuator is suitable for two-layer surface micromachining. The model of the actuator is developed. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The experimental tests show that the actuator achieved a mechanical rotation of 7.65° at a driving voltage of 150 V. The settling time for a mechanical rotation of 5° is 5.7 ms. (paper)

  3. A novel elevated plus-maze procedure to avoid the one-trial tolerance problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy eSchneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The elevated plus-maze (EPM test is one of the most commonly used behavioural assays to evaluate anxiety-related behaviour in rodents. It is a rather economic test which usually uses a short (5 min protocol and does not require conditioning of the animals. The critical measure for anxiety is the time spent in the open arms of the maze. A confounding problem of the EPM is the so called one-trial tolerance (OTT, characterised by a marked decrease of open arm exploration in spite of treatment with anxiolytic acting benzodiazepines upon re-exposure to the EPM. This consistent finding is often raised as an evidence for the inappropriateness to re-test rodents in the EPM. However, a reliable re-test paradigm would broaden the usability and effectiveness of this test.Therefore, we tested how a prolongation of the inter-trial interval to 28 days (instead of the usual 24 hours, and an additional change of the testing room would affect the open arm time and other behaviours on the EPM. In two experiments, drug naive Wistar rats were exposed to the EPM on trial 1, and treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle or midazolam (0.25 mg/kg 30 min before trial 2. Then, trial 2 (28 days after trial 1 was carried out in either the same testing room (Exp. 1 or a second unfamiliar room (Exp. 2.Twenty-eight days after trial 1 the open arm time of the rats in the vehicle treated control rats of both experimental groups was comparable to that of the first trial, independent of the testing room. Most importantly, we found that the treatment with the benzodiazepine midazolam had a significantly anxiolytic-like (i.e. increase of open arm time effect in trial 2 only when conducted in the previously unfamiliar testing room (Exp. 2. We suggest that in order to reliably re-test the EPM and to prevent confounding effects due to the OTT, an inter-trial interval of 28 days and a change in testing rooms reinstates anxiolytic-like actions of benzodiazepines

  4. EFEKTIFITAS PELAKSANAAN FINGER PRINT DI IAIN RADEN FATAH PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahir Badruddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, discipline becomes an important thing that becomes the focus of attention in almost all organizations. Some studies even linking discipline with performance that if the level of discipline members of the organization better then the performance will increase. IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang as one of the organizations also see discipline as an important factor that must be considered by all employees and lecturers mainly based on Government Regulation No. 30 1980 which was amended by Government Regulation No. 53 in 2010. Meanwhile, for the Ministry of Religion itself translated back through the Minister of Religion No. 28 in 2013 and again by Decree especially Rector IAIN Raden Fatah regulating the working hours of employees and lecturers. To obtain a report of presence accountable, it is used in the finger print machine IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang. To see the effectiveness of the implementation of these activities, we conducted observations, interviews and documentation as a means of collecting data. And, the resulting data will be analyzed qualitatively and elaborated descriptively. After the stages of research, showed that the application of the rules the government has been running well and supported by adequate facilities. However, not maximal processing, synchronization data and application of punishment and reward led to a lack of effective use of finger prints on the existing units in IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang.

  5. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications. PMID:21837235

  6. Unveiling the biometric potential of finger-based ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications.

  7. Crustal fingering: solidification on a viscously unstable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Porter, Mark; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the formation of gas hydrates in seafloor sediments, here we study the volumetric expansion of a less viscous gas pocket into a more viscous liquid when the gas-liquid interfaces readily solidify due to hydrate formation. We first present a high-pressure microfluidic experiment to study the depressurization-controlled expansion of a Xenon gas pocket in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. The evolution of the pocket is controlled by three processes: (1) volumetric expansion of the gas; (2) rupturing of existing hydrate films on the gas-liquid interface; and (3) formation of new hydrate films. These result in gas fingering leading to a complex labyrinth pattern. To reproduce these observations, we propose a phase-field model that describes the formation of hydrate shell on viscously unstable interfaces. We design the free energy of the three-phase system to rigorously account for interfacial effects, gas compressibility and phase transitions. We model the hydrate shell as a highly viscous fluid with shear-thinning rheology to reproduce shell-rupturing behavior. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model, which illustrate the emergence of complex crustal fingering patterns as a result of gas expansion dynamics modulated by hydrate growth at the interface.

  8. Habitual biting of a finger in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Sarveswari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old male child was brought by his parents with a nonhealing ulcer on the right middle finger having no significant history except for an injury sustained to the right elbow in December 2013. On further probing, the mother revealed that the child used to indulge in habitual biting of his right middle finger while watching TV. Initially he was investigated extensively by a vascular surgeon and no abnormality was detected. He was later referred to the dermatology department and on examination, the patient was attentive with normal behaviour. The right upper limb was slightly larger than left. There was no deformity of the right elbow. The right third fingertip was enlarged and mutilated. There was no nerve thickening or hypopigmented patch. There was loss of sensation on the right hand and arm. Differential diagnosis of Lesch–Nyhan syndrome and congenital sensory neuropathy were considered. The patient was referred to a neurologist who investigated further with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and the final diagnosis of syringomyelia was made based on MRI findings.

  9. Timing and extent of finger force enslaving during a dynamic force task cannot be explained by EMG activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mirakhorlo

    Full Text Available Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension. EMG activities of the mm. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and extensor digitorum (ED in the regions corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers were measured. Forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers increased substantially (by 0.2 to 1.4 N with flexion of the index finger, increasing the enslaving effect with respect to the static, pre-movement phase. Such changes in force were found 260-370 ms after the initiation of index flexion. The estimated MCP joint angle of the index finger at which forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers started to increase varied between 4° and 6°. In contrast to the finger forces, no significant changes in EMG activity of the FDS regions corresponding to the non-instructed fingers upon index finger flexion were found. This mismatch between forces and EMG of the non-instructed fingers, as well as the delay in force development are in agreement with connective tissue linkages being slack when the positions of the fingers are similar, but pulled taut when one finger moves relative to the others. Although neural factors cannot be excluded, our results suggest that mechanical connections between muscle-tendon structures were (at least partly responsible for the observed increase in force enslaving during index finger flexion.

  10. Relative luminosity in the plus maze upon the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Yae Sakae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the provision of two configuration of the Elevated Pluz-Maze (EPM by analizing the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats in different phases of the estrous cycle in EPMs with different gradients of luminosity between the open and enclosed arms (O/E∆Lux.Methods Female Wistar rats were treated with Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 mg.kg-1 and were tested for their exploratory behaviour in either the EPM 10 O/E∆Lux or EPM 96 O/E∆Lux.Results A multiple regression analysis indicated that the O/E∆Lux is negatively associated with the %Open arm entries and %Open arm time, suggesting that as O/E∆Lux increases, the open arm exploration decreases. The estrous cycle phase did not influence the open-arm exploration in either EPM. MDZ- induced anxiolysis was detected in 96 O/E∆Lux EPM in all phases of the EC.Discussion Results of this study suggest the importance of the O/E∆Lux to establish the arm preference in the EPM, and to preserve the predictive validity of the EPM.

  11. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas Gomez, Zulma Janeth

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  12. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 g/mL but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid.

  13. Serotonin in anxiety and panic: contributions of the elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2014-10-01

    The elevated T-maze (ETM) was developed to test the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) plays an opposing role in the regulation of defensive behaviors associated with anxiety and panic. This test allows the measurement in the same rat of inhibitory avoidance acquisition, related to generalized anxiety disorder, and of one-way escape, associated with panic disorder. The evidence so far reported with the ETM supports the above hypothesis and indicates that: (1) whereas 5-HT neurons located at the dorsal raphe nucleus are involved in the regulation of both inhibitory avoidance and escape, those of the median raphe nucleus are primarily implicated in the former task; (2) facilitation of 5-HT1A- and 5-HT2A-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is likely to mediate the panicolytic drug action; (3) stimulation of 5-HT2C receptors in the basolateral amygdala increases anxiety and is implicated in the anxiogenesis caused by short-term administration of antidepressant drugs, and (4) 5-HT1A and the μ-opioid receptors work together in the dPAG to modulate escape or panic attacks. These last results point to the possible benefits of adjunctive opioid therapy for panic patients resistant to antidepressants that act on 5-HT neurotransmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cox-Maze III procedure with valvular surgery in an autopneumonectomized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Destructive pulmonary inflammation can leave patients with only a single functional lung, resulting in anatomical and physiological changes that may interfere with subsequent cardiac surgeries. Such patients are vulnerable to perioperative cardiopulmonary complications. Herein, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of an autopneumonectomized patient who successfully underwent a modified Cox-Maze III procedure combined with valvular repairs. The three major findings in this case can be summarized as follows: (1 a median sternotomy with peripheral cannulations, such as femoral cannulations, can provide an optimal exposure and prevent the obstruction of vision that may occur as a result of multiple cannulations through a median sternotomy; (2 a modified septal incision combined with biatrial incisions facilitate adequate exposure of the mitral valve; and (3 the aggressive use of intraoperative ultrafiltration may be helpful for the perioperative managements as decreasing pulmonary water contents, thereby avoiding the pulmonary edema associated with secretion of inflammatory cytokines during a cardiopulmonary bypass. We also provide several suggestions for achieving similar satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with a comparable condition.

  15. Grey matter volume correlates with virtual water maze task performance in boys with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S C; Merke, D P; Leschek, E W; Fromm, S; Grillon, C; Cornwell, B R; Vanryzin, C; Ernst, M

    2011-12-01

    Major questions remain about the specific role of testosterone in human spatial navigation. We tested 10 boys (mean age 11.65 years) with an extremely rare disorder of androgen excess (Familial Male Precocious Puberty, FMPP) and 40 healthy boys (mean age 12.81 years) on a virtual version of the Morris Water Maze task. In addition, anatomical magnetic resonance images were collected for all patients and a subsample of the controls (n=21) after task completion. Behaviourally, no significant differences were found between both groups. However, in the MRI analyses, grey matter volume (GMV) was correlated with performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Group differences in correlations of performance with GMV were apparent in medial regions of the prefrontal cortex as well as the middle occipital gyrus and the cuneus. By comparison, similar correlations for both groups were found in the inferior parietal lobule. These data provide novel insight into the relation between testosterone and brain development and suggest that morphological differences in a spatial navigation network covary with performance in spatial ability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Midazolam-Ketamine Dual Therapy Stops Cholinergic Status Epilepticus And Reduces Morris Water Maze Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquet, Jerome; Baldwin, Roger; Norman, Keith; Suchomelova, Lucie; Lumley, Lucille; Wasterlain, Claude G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors and externalization of NMDA receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences. Methods A severe model of SE was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a high dose of lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and/or the AED valproate were injected 40 min after SE onset in combination or as monotherapy. Measures of SE severity were the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were acute neuronal injury, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), and Morris water maze (MWM) deficits. Results Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy was more efficient than double-dose midazolam or ketamine monotherapy or than valproate-midazolam or valproate-ketamine dual therapy in reducing several parameters of SE severity, suggesting a synergistic mechanism. In addition, midazolam-ketamine dual therapy reduced SE-induced acute neuronal injury, epileptogenesis and MWM deficits. Significance This study showed that a treatment aimed at correcting maladaptive GABAA receptor and NMDA receptor trafficking can stop SE and reduce its long-term consequences. Early Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory SE. PMID:27500978

  17. The psychostimulant modafinil facilitates water maze performance and augments synaptic potentiation in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Marian; Lyons, Declan G; Barlow, Sally; González Reyes, Rodrigo E; O'Mara, Shane M

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug used widely for the treatment of narcolepsy, which also has additional positive effects on cognition. Here, we investigate the effects of modafinil on behavioural performance and synaptic plasticity in rats. Improved acquisition in the water maze task was observed in animals that underwent chronic treatment with modafinil. We found that the distance traveled and escape latency were reduced after the first day in chronically-treated rats, compared to controls. Importantly, swim velocity was similar for both groups, excluding pharmacological effects on motor skills. We also found that modafinil increases synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anaesthetized rats; modafinil induced a robust augmentation of the population spike, evident after application of 2 bursts of 200 Hz high-frequency stimulation. Furthermore, the modafinil-dependent enhancement of postsynaptic potentials correlated selectively with theta rhythm augmentation. We propose that modafinil may facilitate hippocampal-associated spatial representation via increased theta-related hippocampal plasticity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insular muscarinic signaling regulates anxiety-like behaviors in rats on the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Lei; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhai, Haifeng

    2014-08-15

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and little is known about its pathogenesis. In order to investigate the neural mechanisms of this mental disorder, we used rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze as an animal model of anxiety and the insular cortex (insula) as a brain target. The microinjection of non-selective and selective M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists or antagonists was used to explore whether the insular muscarinic receptor and its subtypes regulate levels of anxiety. The results showed that both non-selective and selective M1 and M4 mAChR agonists increased the time spent on exploring in the open arms, whereas antagonists decreased exploration. Our results indicate that activation of insular mAChRs could produce anxiolytic effects, whereas inhibition of insular mAChRs could increase anxiety. We concluded that the insular muscarinic system plays a role in the modulation of anxiety, and dysfunction of mAChR signaling may be involved in the mechanism of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Cox-maze IV procedure in its second decade: still the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schill, Matthew R; Khiabani, Ali J; Schuessler, Richard B; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2018-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and the treatment options include medical treatment and catheter-based or surgical interventions. AF is a major cause of stroke, and its prevalence is increasing. The surgical treatment of AF has been revolutionized over the past 2 decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology and surgical instrumentation. The Cox-maze (CM) procedure, which was developed by James Cox and introduced clinically in 1987, is a procedure in which multiple incisions are created in both the left and the right atria to eliminate AF while allowing the sinus impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. This procedure became the gold standard for the surgical treatment of AF. Its latest iteration is termed the CM IV and was introduced in 2002. The CM IV replaced the previous cut-and-sew method (CM III) by replacing most of the incisions with a combination of bipolar radiofrequency and cryoablation. The use of ablation technologies, made the CM IV technically easier, faster and more amenable to minimally invasive approaches. The aims of this article are to review the indications and preoperative planning for the CM IV, to describe the operative technique and to review the literature including comparisons of the CM IV with the previous cut-and-sew method. Finally, this review explores future directions for the surgical treatment of patients with AF.

  20. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  1. Three-dimensional viscous fingering of miscible fluids in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suekane, Tetsuya; Ono, Jei; Hyodo, Akimitsu; Nagatsu, Yuichiro

    2017-10-01

    Viscous fingering is a flow instability that is induced at the displacement front when a less-viscous fluid (LVF) displaces a more-viscous fluid (MVF). Because of the opaque nature of porous media, most experimental investigations of the structure of viscous fingering and its development in time have been limited to two-dimensional porous media or Hele-Shaw cells. In this study, we investigate the three-dimensional characteristics of viscous fingering in porous media using a microfocused x-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. Similar to two-dimensional experiments, characteristic events such as tip-splitting, shielding, and coalescence were observed in three-dimensional viscous fingering as well. With an increase in the Péclet number at a fixed viscosity ratio, M , the fingers appearing on the interface tend to be fine; however, the locations of the tips of the fingers remain the same for the same injected volume of the LVF. The finger extensions increase in proportion to ln M , and the number of fingers emerging at the initial interface increases with M . This fact agrees qualitatively with linear stability analyses. Within the fingers, the local concentration of NaI, which is needed for the x-ray CT scanner, linearly decreases, whereas it sharply decreases at the tips of the fingers. A locally high Péclet number as well as unsteady motions in lateral directions may enhance the dispersion at the tips of the fingers. As the viscosity ratio increases, the efficiency of each sweep monotonically decreases and reaches an asymptotic state; in addition, the degree of mixing increases with the viscosity ratio. For high flow rates, the asymptotic value of the sweep efficiency is low for high viscosity ratios, while there is no clear dependence of the asymptotic value on the Péclet number.

  2. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Ladda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO and length of fingers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurements of VDO, length of index finger, length of little finger, and distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger of right hand were recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Correlation between VDO and length of fingers was studied using Spearman′s coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software Version 11.5 was used. Results: VDO was significantly and positively correlated with all the parameters studied. In males, correlation of VDO was strongest for length of index finger (r-0.406 whereas in females, it was strongest for length of little finger (r-0.385. VDO estimation using regression equation had a standard error of ± 3.76 in males and ± 2.86 in females for length of index finger, ±3.81 and ± 2.74 in males and females respectively for length of little finger, ±3.99 and ± 2.89 in males and females respectively for distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger. Conclusions: Since the variations between VDO and finger lengths are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable, and reproducible. Also the method is simple, economic, and non-invasive; hence, it could be recommended for everyday practice.

  3. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladda, Ruchi; Bhandari, Aruna J; Kasat, Vikrant O; Angadi, Gangadhar S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) and length of fingers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 dentate subjects comprising of 200 males and 200 females. Anthropometric measurements of VDO, length of index finger, length of little finger, and distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger of right hand were recorded clinically using modified digital vernier caliper. Correlation between VDO and length of fingers was studied using Spearman's coefficient. For the execution of regression command and preparation of prediction equations to estimate VDO, Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software Version 11.5 was used. VDO was significantly and positively correlated with all the parameters studied. In males, correlation of VDO was strongest for length of index finger (r-0.406) whereas in females, it was strongest for length of little finger (r-0.385). VDO estimation using regression equation had a standard error of ± 3.76 in males and ± 2.86 in females for length of index finger, ±3.81 and ± 2.74 in males and females respectively for length of little finger, ±3.99 and ± 2.89 in males and females respectively for distance from tip of thumb to tip of index finger. Since the variations between VDO and finger lengths are within the range of 2-4 mm, VDO prediction through this method is reliable, and reproducible. Also the method is simple, economic, and non-invasive; hence, it could be recommended for everyday practice.

  4. Maze III modificado con pinza de crioablación reutilizable vs. Maze III clásico con corte y sutura, en pacientes con fibrilación auricular permanente y cirugía concomitante de la válvula mitral Maze III modified with cryoablation reusable clamp vs. classic cut and suture Maze III in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and concommitant mitral valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Mendoza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el propósito del estudio fue evaluar el eficacia de la cirugía de Maze III modificada mediante una pinza de crioablación reutilizable en comparación con el Maze III clásico de corte y sutura, sólo en pacientes con fibrilación auricular permanente, y a la vez realizar cirugía mitral. Métodos: desde mayo de 1993 a abril de 2005, se realizó cirugía de Maze a 134 pacientes, de los cuales 92 presentaban fibrilación auricular permanente y además tenían cirugía de la válvula mitral. En el grupo clásico de Maze se incluyeron 71 pacientes (grupo I y en el nuevo grupo 21 (grupo II. Se realizó un análisis multivariable para analizar estos resultados. Resultados: la edad promedio fue 48,1 años (24 a 67 años, en un total de 24 hombres y 68 mujeres. La duración de la fibrilación fue de 3,8 años ± 4,3 años (DE 0,5-20 y el promedio del diámetro de la aurícula izquierda fue de 57 (26-82. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en ambos grupos. El tiempo de isquemia del grupo I fue de 83 min y del grupo II de 77 min (p = 0,4. El sangrado post-quirúrgico fue de 762 mL en el grupo I y 680 para el grupo II (p= 0,6. La mortalidad en el grupo I fue de 5,6% y en el grupo II de 0%. El ritmo sinusal se recobró en el 87% de los pacientes del grupo I y en el 85,7% del grupo II. Conclusiones: la cirugía de Maze III modificada con pinza de crioablación reutilizable, es tan efectiva como el Maze clásico, que se considera el patrón de oro. Se encontró una disminución en el tiempo de isquemia y en el riesgo de sangrado post-quirúrgico, la cual fue no significativa estadísticamente. Hay diferencia en la mortalidad de los dos grupos. Esta modificación es segura y puede aplicarse por un mayor número de cirujanos en cualquier institución. En países que se encuentran en vía de desarrollo este aparato puede utilizarse como un método alterno de energía.Introduction: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of

  5. An fMRI study during finger movement tasks and recalling finger movement tasks in normal subjects and schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the region of the brain, which was activated by the finger movement tasks (F1) and the recalling finger movement tasks (F2). Six right-handed age-matched healthy controls and six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Schizophrenia patients were included in the study. In healthy controls, contralateral motor area, supplementary motor area and somatosensory area were all activated during F1 and F2. However the contralateral parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus etc) and ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during F2. In schizophrenia patients, the contralateral motor area was activated during F1, but the activated region was smaller than that observed in healthy subjects. During F2, the bilateral parietal lobes (sensorimotor cortices, association cortex) were activated, while the activated regions were smaller than those seen in healthy controls and no laterality was observed. In addition, no laterality of the activated regions was clearly observed. These results suggest that the function of recalling motor tasks can be mapped onto the contralateral motor area, somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, parietal association cortices, and ipsilateral cerebellum. In schizophrenia patients, the activated regions are smaller than those observed in healthy controls, and parietal regions are also activated bilaterally during recalling motor tasks. Schizophrenia patients may therefore process to recall motor task differently from healthy subjects while also demonstrate less laterality of the brain. (author)

  6. The GABAergic Anterior Paired Lateral Neurons Facilitate Olfactory Reversal Learning in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanying; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Hao; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Reversal learning has been widely used to probe the implementation of cognitive flexibility in the brain. Previous studies in monkeys identified an essential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in reversal learning. However, the underlying circuits and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use the T-maze to investigate the neural…

  7. A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Yogesh D; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann J; Lubec, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MATs) have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104). The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT [dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter] was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10 mg/kg) on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM). Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC) tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88 μM) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40 μM), but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE Western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3, and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug's ability to block DAT and its influence on DAT and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM.

  8. Transient overexpression of the 5-HT1A receptor impairs water-maze but not hole-board performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Dere, E; Wilhelmi, N; Kusserow, H; Theuring, F; Huston, J P; Fink, H

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we showed that mice that overexpress the 5-HT(1A) receptor transiently from embryonic to perinatal stages show reduced anxiety and changes in brain serotonin turnover as adults. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of the temporary overexpression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor during early embryonic and perinatal development on the performance in two memory tasks. In the hole-board test mice that were homozygous for the transgene showed similar behavioral habituation but increased locomotion compared to heterozygous mice. In contrast water-maze performance of homozygous mice was impaired compared to heterozygous mice. These results suggest that a transient overexpression of 5-HT(1A) receptor during embryonic and perinatal development has detrimental effects on water-maze performance at adult stages.

  9. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náměstková, Kateřina; Šimonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-32 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Antidepressant * Water maze * Neurogenesis Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2005

  10. Late Results of Cox Maze III Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Structural Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gir Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cox-Maze III procedure is one of the surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF. Objectives: To determine late results of Cox-Maze III in terms of maintenance of sinus rhythm, and mortality and stroke rates. Methods: Between January 2006 and January 2013, 93 patients were submitted to the cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure in combination with structural heart disease repair. Heart rhythm was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Procedural success rates were determined by longitudinal methods and recurrence predictors by multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Thirteen patients that obtained hospital discharge alive were excluded due to lost follow-up. The remaining 80 patients were aged 49.9 ± 12 years and 47 (58.7% of them were female. Involvement of mitral valve and rheumatic heart disease were found in 67 (83.7% and 63 (78.7% patients, respectively. Seventy patients (87.5% had persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Mean follow-up with Holter monitoring was 27.5 months. There were no hospital deaths. Sinus rhythm maintenance rates were 88%, 85.1% and 80.6% at 6 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. Predictors of late recurrence of AF were female gender (HR 3.52; 95% CI 1.21-10.25; p = 0.02, coronary artery disease (HR 4.73 95% CI 1.37-16.36; p = 0.01 and greater left atrium diameter (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02. Actuarial survival was 98.5% at 12, 24 and 48 months and actuarial freedom from stroke was 100%, 100% and 97.5% in the same time frames. Conclusions: The Cox-Maze III procedure, in our experience, is efficacious for sinus rhythm maintenance, with very low late mortality and stroke rates.

  11. Behavioral effects of "vehicle" microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey of rats tested in the elevated plus maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the behavioral effects of different vehicles microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG of male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, tested in the elevated plus maze, animals were implanted with cannulas aimed at this structure. One week after surgery the animals received microinjections into the DPAG of 0.9% (w/v saline, 10% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 2% (v/v Tween-80, 10% (v/v propylene glycol, or synthetic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ten min after the injection (0.5 µl the animals (N = 8-13/group were submitted to the elevated plus maze test. DMSO significantly increased the number of entries into both the open and enclosed arms when compared to 0.9% saline (2.7 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 1.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.9, respectively, Duncan test, P<0.05, and tended to increase enclosed arm entries as compared to 2% Tween-80 (8.7 ± 1.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.9, Duncan test, P<0.10. In a second experiment no difference in plus maze exploration was found between 0.9% saline- or sham-injected animals (N = 11-13/group. These results indicate that intra-DPAG injection of some commonly used vehicles such as DMSO, saline or Tween-80 affects the exploratory activity of rats exposed to the elevated plus maze in statistically different manners

  12. Increased enslaving in elderly is associated with changes in neural control of the extrinsic finger muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirakhorlo, M.; Maas, H.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2018-01-01

    Aging has consequences for hand motor control, among others affecting finger force enslaving during static pressing tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of finger force enslaving changes with aging during a task that involves both static and dynamic phases. Ten

  13. Blood pressure measurement of all five fingers by strain gauge plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirai, M; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the methodological problems involved in measuring systolic blood pressure in all five fingers by the strain gauge technique. In 24 normal subjects, blood pressure at the proximal phalanx of finger I and both at the proximal and the intermediate phalanx of...

  14. Fifteen years experience with finger arterial pressure monitoring : Assessment of the technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B.P.M.; Wieling, W.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Wesseling, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    We review the Finapres technology, embodied in several TNO-prototypes and in the Ohmeda 2300 and 2300e Finapres NIBP. Finapres is an acronym for FINger Arterial PRESsure, the device delivers a continuous finger arterial pressure waveform. Many papers report on the accuracy of the device in

  15. Fifteen years experience with finger arterial pressure monitoring: assessment of the technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1998-01-01

    We review the Finapres technology, embodied in several TNO-prototypes and in the Ohmeda 2300 and 2300e Finapres NIBP. Finapres is an acronym for FINger Arterial PRESsure, the device delivers a continuous finger arterial pressure waveform. Many papers report on the accuracy of the device in

  16. Impaired Finger Dexterity in Parkinson's Disease Is Associated with Praxis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbellingen, T.; Kersten, B.; Bellion, M.; Temperli, P.; Baronti, F.; Muri, R.; Bohlhalter, S.

    2011-01-01

    A controversial concept suggests that impaired finger dexterity in Parkinson's disease may be related to limb kinetic apraxia that is not explained by elemental motor deficits such as bradykinesia. To explore the nature of dexterous difficulties, the aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of finger dexterity with ideomotor praxis…

  17. Gold finger formation studied by high-resolution mass spectrometry and in silico methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskay, Ü.A.; Garino, C.; Tsybin, Y.O.; Salassa, L.; Casini, A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics studies were employed for characterizing the formation of two gold finger (GF) domains from the reaction of zinc fingers (ZF) with gold complexes. The influence of both the gold oxidation state and the ZF coordination sphere

  18. Design and evaluation of two different finger concepts for body-powered prosthetic hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.; Van der Helm, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find an efficient method of energy transmission for application in an anthropomorphic underactuated body-powered (BP) prosthetic hand. A pulley-cable finger and a hydraulic cylinder finger were designed and tested to compare the pulley-cable transmission principle with

  19. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prosthesis. 888.3210 Section 888.3210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace a metacarpophalangeal (finger) joint...

  20. Esthetic, functional, and prosthetic outcomes with implant-retained finger prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cemal; Nemli, Secil Karakoca; Yilmaz, Handan

    2013-04-01

    Traumatic amputation of fingers results in a serious impairment of hand function and affects the psychological status of the patients. The implant-retained finger prostheses are an alternative treatment. The aim of this case report is to represent the use of osseointegrated implants for retention of finger prostheses in a patient with amputated thumb and index finger. Dental implants were placed in the residual bone of the fingers using two-stage surgery. Custom-made attachments were used to provide retention between implants and silicone prostheses. Prosthetic fingernails were made of composite resin material. After 6 months, implants were clinically successful, and the patient was satisfied with the appearance and the function of the prostheses. The complications of broken prosthetic nail and mild discoloration were observed. Reconstruction of amputated fingers with implant-retained prosthesis is a worthwhile treatment providing esthetic, functional, and psychological benefits, although some complications might be experienced. Clinical relevance Implant-retained finger prostheses are an acceptable treatment modality for patients with amputated fingers. Evaluating implant prognosis, functional results and prosthetic results of the patients are necessary to address the benefits and complications of the treatment.

  1. Can We Call It “Stinky-finger Syndrome?”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Masood; War, Firdous Ahmed; Kumar, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Many accounts refer to insertion of finger into anus mostly for gratification from stimulation of prostate gland, but index case Mr. M. continued doing this to get rid of constipation that eventually led to feelings of guilt, stinky fingers, not able to defecate normally, and dysphoric emotions. Further research is needed to find out the phenomenology of this condition. PMID:29200565

  2. Birth Outcomes across Three Rural-Urban Typologies in the Finger Lakes Region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Dozier, Ann M.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Glantz, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study is a descriptive, population-based analysis of birth outcomes in the New York State Finger Lakes region designed to determine whether perinatal outcomes differed across 3 rural typologies. Methods: Hospital birth data for the Finger Lakes region from 2006 to 2007 were used to identify births classified as low birthweight (LBW),…

  3. Finger Counting Habits in Middle Eastern and Western Individuals: An Online Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, O.; Alipour, A.; Fischer, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study documents the presence of cultural differences in the development of finger counting strategies. About 900 Middle Eastern (i.e., Iranian) and Western (i.e., European and American) individuals reported in an online survey how they map numbers onto their fingers when counting from 1

  4. Design and control of three fingers motion for dexterous assembly of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate how a three fingered gripper can be designed and simulated to provide both gross motion and fine motion to the fingers. ... This mimicry is required to design the correct motions and tactile forces necessary to handle delicate and non delicate engineering components.

  5. The Power of a Soccer Ball: A Traumatic Open Finger Dislocation—A Rare Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Cihan Dülgeroğlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are injuries observed frequently and caused by axial loading on the finger in the extension. In this paper we present a traumatic open finger dislocation due to a ball hitting a wrestler. It was successfully treated with reduction and the volar plate and collateral bond fixation were applied with absorbable sutures.

  6. Can Co (II) or Cd (II) substitute for Zn (II) in zinc fingers?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc finger domains consist of sequences of amino acids containing cysteine and histidine residues tetrahedrally coordinated to a zinc ion. The role of zinc in a DNA binding finger was considered purely structural due to the absence of redox chemistry in zinc. However, whether other metals e.g. Co(II) or Cd(II) can substitute ...

  7. Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive finger blood pressure has become a surrogate for central blood pressure under widely varying circumstances. We tested the validity of finger-aorta transfer functions (TF) to reconstruct aortic pressure in seven cardiac patients before, during, and after incremental bicycle exercise. The

  8. Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, S.; Fischer, A.H.; Hess, U.

    2008-01-01

    In a sample of 97 healthy Dutch female university students, women with greater finger tactile sensitivity (von Frey-type filaments) engaged more in partnered (but not solitary masturbation) sexual behavior. Orgasmic responses in the past 30 days were not correlated with finger sensitivity. Results

  9. What history tells us XLIV: The construction of the zinc finger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 4. What history tells us XLIV: The construction of the zinc finger nucleases. MICHEL MORANGE. Series Volume 42 Issue 4 ... Keywords. CRISPR-Cas9; homologous recombination; meganucleases; protein domains; restriction enzymes; synthetic biology; zinc finger ...

  10. [Necrosis in fingers and toes following local anaesthesia with adrenaline--an urban legend?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2013-09-17

    It is often maintained that a local anaesthetic (usually lidocaine) with adrenaline must not be used in fingers and toes because it may cause necrosis due to vascular spasm in end arteries. This review article is an attempt to find evidence to support this warning. Relevant literature was found by means of searches in PubMed limited downwards to 1946 and in EMBASE from 1980 to 2012, and in reference lists. Five review articles on finger necrosis following local anaesthesia concluded that lidocaine with adrenaline does not entail a risk of ischaemic injury. One article found 48 reported cases of finger necrosis in the period 1880 to 2000. Most were from the first half of the 1900s, and none involved lidocaine. Gangrene of part of the finger tip has subsequently been described in one patient with Raynaud's syndrome. No cases of necrosis have been described in a large number of reported accidents in which EpiPen injections contained the same quantity of adrenaline as is found in 60 ml lidocaine with adrenaline. Over a quarter of a million reports have been made of operations on feet, hands, fingers and toes anaesthetised with lidocaine with adrenaline without resulting necrosis. There are no grounds for the warning against using lidocaine with adrenaline in fingers and toes. This anaesthetic offers considerable practical advantages. Care should be taken with infected fingers or fingers with poor circulation.

  11. Performance of beef steers on Smuts finger grass and Nile grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature where animal performance is quantified for. Smuts finger grass and Nile grass pastures in South Africa is limited. In some trials, animal performance on Smuts finger grass and/or Nile grass was reported (Rhind & Goodenough,. 1979, Dannhauser, 1982 Grunow, et al., 1984). The ADG achieved by .steers on Smuts ...

  12. pathogen isolates of Pyricularia grisea in GULU-E finger millet last

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Finger millet is basis for food security which directly supports the livelihoods of rural majority living in marginal areas in East Africa. Gene action and heritability of blast resistance in GULU-. E finger millet was determined from crosses between GULU-E as female parent mated to four susceptible genotypes, using the North ...

  13. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  14. Fingering patterns during droplet impact on heated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, Mohammad; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Tran, Tuan

    2015-05-07

    A droplet impinging on a sufficiently heated surface may be cushioned by its own vapor and never touch the surface. In previous work, the transition to this so-called Leidenfrost regime was only qualitatively described as an abrupt change between the "contact-boiling" regime, which is characterized by violent boiling behaviors, and the Leidenfrost state. We reveal that the wetted area can be used as a quantity that quantitatively characterizes this transition and it is a continuous function of surface temperature up to the Leidenfrost regime. The wetted area exhibits fingering patterns caused by vapor flow under the liquid. This underlines the crucial role of vapor transport in the Leidenfrost transition and unveils the physical mechanism of the transition to the Leidenfrost regime.

  15. Modular Synthetic Inverters from Zinc Finger Proteins and Small RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Hsia

    Full Text Available Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three "off the shelf" ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. Our chosen parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.

  16. Giant Cell Tumour of Tendon Sheath Masquerading As Trigger Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rahimawati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented in the general orthopaedic clinic with triggering of her right middle finger. She did not respond to conventional treatment methods; subsequently she underwent surgical open release under local anaesthesia. Five months postoperatively, the patient presented with signs and symptoms of acute flexor tenosynovitis, and was thought to have a postoperative infection. Re-examination by a hand surgeon raised the possibility of a different aetiology. Based on clinical findings and response to initial treatment, giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon sheath was suspected and later confirmed following surgical biopsy. A high index of suspicion and knowledge of the variegated presentations of giant cell tumour in the hand are beneficial in these types of cases.

  17. Sonographical parameters of the finger pulley system in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassemir, Dominik; Unglaub, Frank; Hahn, Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Bruckner, Thomas; Spies, Christian K

    2015-11-01

    To establish normative values of tendon to bone distances (TBDs) to evaluate the A2 and A4 annular pulley integrity, we hypothesized that these values correlate with gender, athletic exercise, occupation, individual's age and body height. Ultrasonography of 200 healthy individuals was performed prospectively. TBDs for the A2 and A4 pulley sections were measured for all fingers. Evaluation was performed in resting position and active forced flexion. Examination parameters included gender, age, body height, occupation, athletic exercise level, and hand dominance. Assessment of resting position and active forced flexion was done. No clinically relevant differences of TBDs with respect to the aforementioned parameters were observed. But TBDs were significantly greater in active forced flexion than in resting position for all measured pulley sections. Intraobserver reliability was very satisfactory. Establishing normative values will help to detect injured pulleys more precisely and examination should be performed both in resting position and active forced flexion.

  18. Influence of Music Style and Rate on Repetitive Finger Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Tatz, Joshua R; Warnecke, Alison; Hibbing, Paul; Bates, Brandon; Zaman, Andrew

    2018-03-09

    Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music. Electromyography, movement kinematics, and variability were collected. Results revealed that the provision of music, regardless of style, reduced amplitude variability at both pacing rates. Intermovement interval was longer, and acceleration variability was reduced during both music conditions at the lower pacing rate only. These results may prove beneficial for designing therapeutic interventions for persons with Parkinson's disease.

  19. Enhanced protein production by engineered zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reik, Andreas; Zhou, Yuanyue; Collingwood, Trevor N; Warfe, Lyndon; Bartsevich, Victor; Kong, Yanhong; Henning, Karla A; Fallentine, Barrett K; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Xiaohong; Jouvenot, Yann; Jamieson, Andrew C; Rebar, Edward J; Case, Casey C; Korman, Alan; Li, Xiao-Yong; Black, Amelia; King, David J; Gregory, Philip D

    2007-08-01

    Increasing the yield of therapeutic proteins from mammalian production cell lines reduces costs and decreases the time to market. To this end, we engineered a zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP TF) that binds a DNA sequence within the promoter driving transgene expression. This ZFP TF enabled >100% increase in protein yield from CHO cells in transient, stable, and fermentor production run settings. Expression vectors engineered to carry up to 10 ZFP binding sites further enhanced ZFP-mediated increases in protein production up to approximately 500%. The multimerized ZFP binding sites function independently of the promoter, and therefore across vector platforms. CHO cell lines stably expressing ZFP TFs demonstrated growth characteristics similar to parental cell lines. ZFP TF expression and gains in protein production were stable over >30 generations in the absence of antibiotic selection. Our results demonstrate that ZFP TFs can rapidly and stably increase protein production in mammalian cells. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. "Finger" structure of tiles in CMS Endcap Hadron Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, Sergey; Danilov, Mikhail; Emeliantchik, Igor; Ershov, Yuri; Golutvin, Igor; Grinyov, B.V; Ibragimova, Elvira; Levchuk, Leonid; Litomin, Aliaksandr; Makankin, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Nuritdinov, I; Popov, V.F; Rusinov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sorokin, Pavlo; Tarkovskiy, Evgueni; Tashmetov, A; Vasiliev, S.E; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Zamyatin, Nikolay; Zhmurin, Petro

    2015-01-01

    Two CMS Endcap hadron calorimeters (HE) have been in operation for several years and contributed substantially to the success of the CMS Physics Program. The HE calorimeter suffered more from the radiation than it had been anticipated because of rapid degradation of scintillator segments (tiles) which have a high radiation flux of secondary particles. Some investigations of scintillators have shown that the degradation of plastic scintillator increases significantly at low dose rates. A proposal to upgrade up-grade the HE calorimeter has been prepared to provide a solution for survivability of the future LHC at higher luminosity and higher energy. A finger-strip plastic scintillator option has many advantages and is a lower cost alternative to keep the excellent HE performance at high luminosity. Measurements have been performed and this method has proved to be a good upgrade strategy.

  1. Genome editing in plant cells by zinc finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinthal, Dan; Tovkach, Andriy; Zeevi, Vardit; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2010-06-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful tool for functional gene studies. However, only a handful of reports have been published describing the successful targeting of genome sequences in model and crop plants. Gene targeting can be stimulated by induction of double-strand breaks at specific genomic sites. The expression of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can induce genomic double-strand breaks. Indeed, ZFNs have been used to drive the replacement of native DNA sequences with foreign DNA molecules, to mediate the integration of the targeted transgene into native genome sequences, to stimulate the repair of defective transgenes, and as site-specific mutagens in model and crop plant species. This review introduces the principles underlying the use of ZFNs for genome editing, with an emphasis on their recent use for plant research and biotechnology.

  2. Critical parameters for genome editing using zinc finger nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Todd D; Brilliant, Murray H; Segal, David J

    2008-06-01

    The possibility to make precise modifications to the genome at high frequency holds tremendous potential for biotechnology, conventional drug development and gene therapy. Homologous recombination is a powerful method for introducing such modifications in organisms such as mice. However, in mammals and plants, the frequency of gene modification by homologous recombination is quite low, precluding the therapeutic use of this methodology. In the past few years, tremendous progress has been made in overcoming one of primary barriers to efficient recombination, namely the introduction of a targeted double-strand break near the intended recombination site. This review will discuss the advances in engineering custom zinc-finger nucleases and their application in stimulating homologous recombination in higher eukaryotic cells at efficiencies approaching 1 in 2 cells.

  3. Hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of amputated index and little fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Gong-lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】In cases of severe segmental injury across the hand and wrist, but one or other fingers are still in peak condition, the fingers can be selected for replantation at the forearm bones to restore pinch function. Here we reported an unusual case with a severe crush-avulsion amputated injury to the right hand caused by a machine accident. We conducted hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of the amputated index and little fingers. During 19 months follow-up, the bone union healed well with satisfactory outcome. The interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers after the heterotopic replantation had a good holding activity. This is a worthwhile procedure and the patient is satisfied with the result. The major disadvantage of this method is the poor appearance of the reconstructed fingers. Key words: Amputation traumatic; Hand injuries; Replantation; Transplantation heterotopic

  4. Decontamination in the Electron Probe Microanalysis with a Peltier-Cooled Cold Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Ben; Kearns, Stuart; Clapham, Charles; Hawley, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    A prototype Peltier thermoelectric cooling unit has been constructed to cool a cold finger on an electron microprobe. The Peltier unit was tested at 15 and 96 W, achieving cold finger temperatures of -10 and -27°C, respectively. The Peltier unit did not adversely affect the analytical stability of the instrument. Heat conduction between the Peltier unit mounted outside the vacuum and the cold finger was found to be very efficient. Under Peltier cooling, the vacuum improvement associated with water vapor deposition was not achieved; this has the advantage of avoiding severe degradation of the vacuum observed when warming up a cold finger from liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Carbon contamination rates were reduced as cooling commenced; by -27°C contamination rates were found to be comparable with LN2-cooled devices. Peltier cooling, therefore, provides a viable alternative to LN2-cooled cold fingers, with few of their associated disadvantages.

  5. Human motor cortical activity recorded with Micro-ECoG electrodes, during individual finger movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Degenhart, A D; Collinger, J L; Vinjamuri, R; Sudre, G P; Adelson, P D; Holder, D L; Leuthardt, E C; Moran, D W; Boninger, M L; Schwartz, A B; Crammond, D J; Tyler-Kabara, E C; Weber, D J

    2009-01-01

    In this study human motor cortical activity was recorded with a customized micro-ECoG grid during individual finger movements. The quality of the recorded neural signals was characterized in the frequency domain from three different perspectives: (1) coherence between neural signals recorded from different electrodes, (2) modulation of neural signals by finger movement, and (3) accuracy of finger movement decoding. It was found that, for the high frequency band (60-120 Hz), coherence between neighboring micro-ECoG electrodes was 0.3. In addition, the high frequency band showed significant modulation by finger movement both temporally and spatially, and a classification accuracy of 73% (chance level: 20%) was achieved for individual finger movement using neural signals recorded from the micro-ECoG grid. These results suggest that the micro-ECoG grid presented here offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for the development of minimally-invasive brain-computer interface applications.

  6. Concomitant presentation of carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollstein Ronit A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and trigger finger (TF are common conditions that may occur in the same patient. The etiology of most cases is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of concomitant occurrence of these two conditions at presentation and to compare the concomitant occurrence in normal and diabetic patients. Methods One-hundred and eight consecutive subjects presenting to our hand clinic with CTS and/or TF were evaluated. The existence of both of these conditions was documented through a standard history and physical examination. The definition of trigger finger was determined by tenderness over the A1 pulley, catching, clicking or locking. CTS was defined in the presence of at least two of the following: numbness and tingling in a median nerve distribution, motor and sensory nerve loss (median nerve, a positive Tinel's or Phalen's test and positive electrophysiologic studies. Results The average age of the participants was 62.2 ± 13.6 years. Sixty-seven patients presented with symptoms and signs of CTS (62%, 41 (38% subjects with signs and symptoms of TF. Following further evaluation, 66 patients (61% had evidence of concomitant CTS and TF. Fifty-seven patients (53% of all study patients had diabetes. The rate of subjects with diabetes was similar among the groups (p = 0.8, Chi-square test. Conclusion CTS and TF commonly occur together at presentation though the symptoms of one condition will be more prominent. Our results support a common local mechanism that may be unrelated to the presence of diabetes. We recommend evaluation for both conditions at the time of presentation.

  7. Molecular mechanisms for the destabilization and restabilization of reactivated spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ryang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory retrieval is not a passive process. Recent studies have shown that reactivated memory is destabilized and then restabilized through gene expression-dependent reconsolidation. Molecular studies on the regulation of memory stability after retrieval have focused almost exclusively on fear memory, especially on the restabilization process of the reactivated fear memory. We previously showed that, similarly with fear memories, reactivated spatial memory undergoes reconsolidation in the Morris water maze. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which reactivated spatial memory is destabilized and restabilized remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates the stability of the reactivated spatial memory. Results We first showed that pharmacological inactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR in the hippocampus or genetic inhibition of cAMP-responsible element binding protein (CREB-mediated transcription disrupted reactivated spatial memory. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and L-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs in the hippocampus blocked the disruption of the reactivated spatial memory by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the reactivated spatial memory is destabilized through the activation of CB1 and LVGCCs and then restabilized through the activation of NMDAR- and CREB-mediated transcription. We also suggest that the reactivated spatial memory undergoes destabilization and restabilization in the hippocampus, through similar molecular processes as those for reactivated contextual fear memories, which require CB1 and LVGCCs for destabilization and NMDAR and CREB for restabilization.

  8. Comparison of the predictive validity of the mirror chamber and elevated plus maze tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil E; Iwunze, Michelle; Davis, Scott F; Malekiani, Sam A; Hanania, Taleen

    2010-04-30

    The mirror chamber (MC) is a putative test of anxiety-like behavior in mice, and is increasingly popular. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether the observed behaviors rely on the presence of mirrored panels. If so, it is unclear whether the behaviors are sensitive to clinically effective anxiolytics, and how the test compares to the elevated plus maze (EPM) in terms of predictive validity. The present studies assessed anxiety-like behaviors in different mouse strains in the MC using mirrored and non-mirrored panels, under variable lighting conditions. We also assessed the pharmacological validity of the MC and EPM tests, and the locomotor properties of active test compounds. Seven mouse strains exhibited different levels of anxiety-like behaviors in the MC, and differential sensitivity to panel and light conditions. DBA/2J mice appeared most sensitive to the mirrored, versus black or white, panels and were therefore used in pharmacological MC studies. The mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviors, similar to an intermediate dose of the benzodiazepine diazepam. The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and alprazolam and the 5HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone had no effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the MC. None of the MC effects of active test compounds were attributable to non-specific/locomotor effects. The antidepressants fluoxetine and venlafaxine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the MC. By contrast, the anxiolytic-like effects of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and MPEP were revealed in the EPM in C57Bl6/J mice. In conclusion, the EPM test exhibits superior predictive validity compared to the MC test, despite the sensitivity of the MC to mouse strain differences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A single center's experience with pacemaker implantation after the Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Ali, Rabia; Pritchard, Graciela; Lamont, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    The Cox maze procedure (CM) is safe and effective for all atrial fibrillation (AF) types. A recent randomized trial found alarming rates of pacemaker implantation (PMI) during hospitalization after CM. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of PMI and its impact on outcomes after CM. Incidence of PMI was captured for all CM patients (2005-2015; N = 739). Data were collected prospectively. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine risk factors for PMI. Propensity score matching was conducted between concomitant CM patients and patients without surgical ablation since 2011. Fifty-two patients (7.0%) had in-hospital PMI after CM. Most common primary indication for PMI was sick sinus syndrome (67%), followed by complete heart block (23%) and sinus bradycardia (10%). The only risk factor for in-hospital PMI was type of procedure (P = .020). Patients with multiple valve procedures were at greatest risk (P = .004-.035). STS-defined perioperative outcomes were similar for patients with and without in-hospital PMI. Sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic drugs were similar by PMI. After propensity score matching (n = 180 per group), in-hospital PMI was similar in CM patients and those without surgical ablation (5% vs 4%, P = .609). This study demonstrated lower incidence of PMI after CM procedures than recently reported. When indicated, PMI was not associated with increased short- or long-term morbidity or inferior freedom from atrial arrhythmia. Efforts to increase surgeon training with the CM procedure and postoperative management awareness are warranted to improve rhythm outcome and minimize adverse events and PMI. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of lactation on motor activity and elevated plus maze behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating rats show less noise-induced freezing and fewer inhibitory responses on the 6th day post-delivery when submitted to water and food deprivation in a classical conflict paradigm. Lactating mice go more often to the illuminated chamber in a light-dark cage and stay longer in it than virgin females. The present study was designed to assess the influence of this physiological state, i.e. lactation, on the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field behavior in adult female rats. Total (TL and central (CL locomotion and rearing (RF frequencies were measured in an open-field. Number of entries into the open and closed arms as well as the time spent in each of these arms were measured in the EPM. Percent time spent and number of entries into the open arms were calculated and compared. In the open-field, TL was significantly decreased (115 ± 10.6 vs 150 ± 11.6 while CL and RF did not differ from those presented by virgin rats. In the EPM, lactating rats displayed a significant reduction in percent time spent (10.9 ± 1.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.3 in the open arms as well as a tendency to a reduction in percent entries into the open arms (35.7 ± 4.7 vs 45.7 ± 4.3. These results show that the physiological state of lactation modulates the open-field and EPM behaviors in rats

  11. Preoperative study of the surface ECG for the prognosis of atrial fibrillation maze surgery outcome at discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Antonio; Rieta, José Joaquín; Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-maze surgery is an effective procedure for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients requiring open-heart surgery associated with another heart disease. After the intervention, regardless of the patient's rhythm, all are treated with oral anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic drugs prior to discharge. Furthermore, patients maintaining AF before discharge could also be treated with electrical cardioversion (ECV). In view of this, a preoperative prognosis of the patient's rhythm at discharge would be helpful for optimizing drug therapy planning as well as for advancing ECV therapy. This work analyzes 30 preoperative electrocardiograms (ECGs) from patients suffering from AF in order to predict the Cox-maze surgery outcome at discharge. Two different characteristics of the AF pattern have been studied. On the one hand, the atrial activity (AA) organization, which provides information about the number of propagating wavelets in the atria, was investigated. AA organization has been successfully used in previous studies related to spontaneous reversion of paroxysmal AF and to the outcome of ECV. To assess organization, the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and sample entropy (SampEn) have been computed. On the other hand, the second characteristic studied was the fibrillatory wave (f-wave) amplitude, which has been demonstrated to be a valuable indicator of the Cox-maze surgery outcome in previous studies. Moreover, this parameter has been obtained through a new methodology, based on computing the f-wave average power (fWP). Finally, all the computed indices were combined in a decision tree in order to improve prediction capability. Results for the DAF yielded a sensitivity (Se), a specificity (Sp) and an accuracy (Acc) of 61.54%, 82.35% and 73.33%, respectively. For SampEn the values were 69.23%, 76.00% and 73.33%, respectively, and for fWP they were 92.31%, 82.35% and 86.67%, respectively. Finally, the decision tree combining the three parameters

  12. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  13. Mechanism and epidemiology of paediatric finger injuries at Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W H; Lok, Johann; Lau, M S; Hung, Y W; Wong, Clara W Y; Tse, W L; Ho, P C

    2015-06-01

    To determine the mechanism and epidemiology of paediatric finger injuries in Hong Kong during 2003-2005 and 2010-2012. Comparison of two case series. University-affiliated teaching hospital, Hong Kong. This was a retrospective study of two cohorts of children (age, 0 to 16 years) admitted to Prince of Wales Hospital with finger injuries during two 3-year periods. Comparisons were made between the two groups for age, involved finger(s), mechanism of injury, treatment, and outcome. Telephone interviews were conducted for parents of children who sustained a crushing injury of finger(s) by door. A total of 137 children (group A) were admitted from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005, and 109 children (group B) were admitted from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Overall, the mechanisms and epidemiology of paediatric finger injuries were similar between groups A and B. Most finger injuries occurred in children younger than 5 years (group A, 56%; group B, 76%) and in their home (group A, 67%; group B, 69%). The most common mechanism was crushing injury of finger by door (group A, 33%; group B, 41%) on the hinge side (group A, 63%; group B, 64%). The right hand was most commonly involved. The door was often closed by another child (group A, 37%; group B, 23%) and the injury often occurred in the presence of adults (group A, 60%; group B, 56%). Nailbed injury was the commonest type of injury (group A, 31%; group B, 39%). Fractures occurred in 24% and 23% in groups A and B, respectively. Traumatic finger amputation requiring replantation or revascularisation occurred in 12% and 10% in groups A and B, respectively. Crushing injury of finger by door is the most common mechanism of injury among younger children and accounts for a large number of hospital admissions. Serious injuries, such as amputations leading to considerable morbidity, can result. Crushing injury of finger by door occurs even in the presence of adults. There has been no significant decrease in the number of

  14. Large-signal modeling of multi-finger InP DHBT devices at millimeter-wave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio; Squartecchia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A large-signal modeling approach has been developed for multi-finger devices fabricated in an Indium Phosphide (InP) Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) process. The approach utilizes unit-finger device models embedded in a multi-port parasitic network. The unit-finger model is based...

  15. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...

  16. Fine finger motor skill training with exoskeleton robotic hand in chronic stroke: stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenfeld, Corinna; Tong, Raymond K Y; Susanto, Evan A; Ho, Sze-Kit; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2013-06-01

    Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke patients. Case Descriptions. Two post-stroke patients participated in a 20-session training program by integrating 10 minutes physical therapy, 20 minutes robotic hand training and 15 minutes functional training tasks with delicate objects(card, pen and coin). These two patients (A and B) had cerebrovascular accident at 6 months and 11 months respectively when enrolled in this study. Outcomes. The results showed that both patients had improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Patients had better isolation of the individual finger flexion and extension based on the reduced muscle co-contraction from the electromyographic(EMG) signals and finger extension force after 20 sessions of training. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that by focusing on the fine finger motor skills together with the exoskeleton robotic hand, it could improve the motor recovery of the upper extremity in the fingers and hand function, which were showed in the ARAT. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness.

  17. Fingers crossed! An investigation of somatotopic representations using spatial directional judgements.

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    Alyanne M de Haan

    Full Text Available Processing of tactile stimuli requires both localising the stimuli on the body surface and combining this information with a representation of the current posture. When tactile stimuli are applied to crossed hands, the system first assumes a prototypical (e.g. uncrossed positioning of the limbs. Remapping to include the crossed posture occurs within about 300 ms. Since fingers have been suggested to be represented in a mainly somatotopic reference frame we were interested in how the processing of tactile stimuli applied to the fingers would be affected by an unusual posture of the fingers. We asked participants to report the direction of movement of two tactile stimuli, applied successively to the crossed or uncrossed index and middle fingers of one hand at different inter-stimulus intervals (15 to 700 ms. Participants almost consistently reported perceiving the stimulus direction as opposite to what it was in the fingers crossed condition, even with SOAs of 700 ms, suggesting that on average they did not incorporate the unusual relative finger positions. Therefore our results are in agreement with the idea that, by default, the processing of tactile stimuli assumes a prototypical positioning of body parts. However, in contrast to what is generally found with tactile perception with crossed hands, performance did not improve with SOAs as long as 700 ms. This suggests that the localization of stimuli in a somatotopic reference and the integration of this representation with postural information are two separate processes that apply differently to the hands and fingers.

  18. Differences in Activation Area Within Brodmann Area 2 Caused by Pressure Stimuli on Fingers and Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Baek, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Sung-Phil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a constant pressure stimulus was applied on the 3 joints (first [p1], second [p2], and third [p3] joints) of 4 fingers (index, middle, ring, and little fingers), and the activation areas within Brodmann area 2 (BA 2) were compared for these different fingers and joints by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy male college students (25.4 ± 1.32 years) participated in the study. Each session was composed of 3 blocks, and each block was composed of a Control phase (30 seconds) and a Pressure phase (30 seconds). No pressure stimulus was applied in the Control phase, during which the subjects would simply lay comfortably with their eyes closed. In the Pressure phase, a pressure stimulus was applied onto one of the joints of the selected finger. For each finger and joint, BA 2 areas activated by the pressure stimulus were extracted by the region of interest method. There was a significant difference in the activation areas for the different fingers (P = .042) as well as for the different joints (P = .050). The activation area decreased in the order of the little, index, and middle fingers, as well as in the order of p1, p3, and p2. PMID:26402840

  19. The effects of human finger and Chinese character on Chinese handwriting performance on mobile touch devices.

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    Chen, Zhe; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Chen, Cuiling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate Chinese handwriting on mobile touch devices, considering the effects of three characteristics of the human finger (type, length, and width) and three characteristics of Chinese characters (direction of the first stroke, number of strokes, and structure). Due to the popularity of touch devices in recent years, finger input for Chinese characters has attracted more attention from both industry and academia. However, previous studies have no systematical consideration on the effects of human finger and Chinese characters on Chinese handwriting performance. An experiment was reported in this article to illustrate the effects of the human finger and Chinese characters on the Chinese handwriting performance (i.e., input time, accuracy, number of protruding strokes, mental workload, satisfaction, and physical fatigue). The experiment results indicated that all six factors have significant effects on Chinese handwriting performance, especially on the input time, accuracy, and number of protruding strokes. Finger type, finger length, finger width, direction of the first stroke, number of strokes, and character structures are significantly influencing Chinese handwriting performance. These factors should be taken into more consideration in future research and the practical design for Chinese handwriting systems.

  20. The effects of strength training on finger strength and hand dexterity in healthy elderly individuals.

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    Olafsdottir, Halla B; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of 6 wk of strength training on maximal pressing (MVC) force, indexes of finger individuation (enslaving), and performance in accurate force production tests and in functional hand tests in healthy, physically fit, elderly individuals. Twelve participants (average age 76 yr) exercised with both hands. One of the hands exercised by pressing with the proximal phalanges (targeting mainly intrinsic hand muscles), whereas the other hand exercised by pressing with the finger tips (targeting mainly extrinsic hand muscles). Training led to higher MVC forces, higher enslaving indexes, and improved performance on the pegboard grooved test. Changes in an index of multi-finger force stabilizing synergy showed a significant correlation with changes in the index of force variability in the accurate force production test. Strong transfer effects were seen to the site that did not perform strength training exercise within each hand. Effects of exercise at the proximal site were somewhat stronger compared with those of exercise at the finger tips, although the differences did not reach significance level. Control tests showed that repetitive testing by itself did not significantly change the maximal finger force and enslaving. The results suggest that strength training is an effective way to improve finger strength. It can also lead to changes in finger interaction and in performance of accurate force production tasks. Adaptations at a neural level are likely to mediate the observed effects. Overall, the data suggest that strength training can also improve the hand function of less healthy elderly subjects.