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Sample records for fine-tunable monodentate phosphoramidite

  1. Asymmetric hydrogenation of quinolines catalyzed by iridium complexes of monodentate BINOL-derived phosphoramidites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrsic, Natasa; Lefort, Laurent; Boogers, Jeroen A. F.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Mršić, Nataša

    The monodentate BINOL-derived phosphoramidite PipPhos is used as ligand for the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 2- and 2,6-substituted quinolines. If tri-ortho-tolylphosphine and/or chloride salts are used as additives enantioselectivities are strongly enhanced up to 89%. NMR indicates

  2. Monodentate phosphoramidites : A breakthrough in rhodium-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation of olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Michel van den; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Haak, Robert M.; Leeman, Michel; Schudde, Ebe P.; Meetsma, Auke; de Vries, Andre H.M.; Maljaars, C. Elizabeth P.; Willans, Charlotte E.; Hyett, David; Boogers, Jeroen A.F.; Henderickx, Hubertus; Feringa, Ben L.

    2003-01-01

    Monodentate phosphoramidites based on BINOL or substituted BINOL are excellent ligands for the rhodium-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation of olefins. Very high enantioselectivities were obtained with MonoPhos (7a) the simplest member of this class, a ligand that is prepared in a single step from BIN

  3. Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Conjugate Additions of Boronic Acids Using Monodentate Phosphoramidite Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    -G Boiteau, J.; Imbos, R.; J. Minnaard, A.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Monodentate phosphoramidites have been used for the first time as chiral ligands in the Rh-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones, unsaturated esters, lactones, and nitro alkenes. High reaction rates and ee’s up to 89% have been obtained.

  4. Instant Ligand Libraries. Parallel Synthesis of Monodentate Phosphoramidites and in Situ Screening in Asymmetric Hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefort, Laurent; Boogers, Jeroen A.F.; Vries, André H.M. de; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2004-01-01

    Chiral phosphoramidites have been identified as excellent ligands for various metal-catalyzed enantioselective transformations. Taking advantage of their easy preparation and modular nature, we designed a fully automated protocol for the parallel preparation of a library of 32 phosphoramidites and i

  5. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organometallic reagents to N-formylimines using monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    [GRAPHICS] The asymmetric synthesis of protected amines via the copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed addition of organozine and organoaluminum reagents to N-acylimines, generated in situ from aromatic and aliphatic alpha-amidosulfones, is reported. High yields of optically active N-formyl-protected amin

  6. Catalytic Enantioselective Addition of Organometallic Reagents to N-Formylimines Using Monodentate Phosphoramidite Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzuti, Maria Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of protected amines via the copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed addition of organozinc and organoaluminum reagents to N-acylimines, generated in situ from aromatic and aliphatic α-amidosulfones, is reported. High yields of optically active N-formyl-protected amines and enantios

  7. Enantioselective Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation of N-formyl dehydroamino esters with monodentate phosphoramidite ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panella, L; Aleixandre, AM; Kruidhof, GJ; Robertus, J; Feringa, BL; de Vries, JG; Minnaard, AJ; Aleixandre, Alicia Marco; Kruidhof, Gerlof J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Enantioselectivities up to > 99% ee were achieved in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of N-formyl dehydroamino esters using morrodentate phosphoramidites as chiral ligands. The substrates were synthesized by condensation of methyl isocyanoacetate with a range of aldehydes and with

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Hydroxyamine Using Monodentate Phosphoramidites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG,Lin; CUN,Lin-Feng; GONG,Liu-Zhu; MI,Ai-Qiao; JIANG,Yao-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Development of new methods for the introduction of a nitrogen atom to a carbonyl group is still the most important synthetic target. Cu-catalyzed addition of organozinc reagents to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds has been the subject of intensive investigation.[1] Moreover, trapping of the intermediate Zn-enolates has been achieved using nitrosobenzene. To demonstrate the feasibility of developing enantioselective variants of these tandem C-C bond formations,α,β-unsaturated substrates a~d was subjected to standard reaction conditions using Feringa's (L1*, L2*) and our own phosphoramidite ligands (L3*, L4*). In this reaction, medium to high levels of enantioselectivities were observed.

  9. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, A; Grajkowski, A; Chmielewski, M K; Beaucage, S L; Phillips, L R

    2001-05-01

    The detailed preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites bearing a 4-[N-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)amino]butyl group for P(III) protection is presented. The use of this group circumvents nucleobase alkylation during oligonucleotide deprotection. Two syntheses of phosphoramidites starting from either a phosphordichloridite precursor or a bis-(N,N-diisopropylamino)chlorophosphine intermediate are described for the phosphinylation of suitably protected deoxyribonucleosides.

  10. Phosphoramidite accelerated copper(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloadditions of azides and alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan S.; Mirfeizi, Leila; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Monodentate phosphoramidite ligands are used to accelerate the copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC) rapidly yielding a wide variety of functionalized 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles; Cu(I) and Cu(II) salts both function as the copper source in aqueous solutio

  11. First Examples of Improved Catalytic Asymmetric C-C Bond Formation Using the Monodentate Ligand Combination Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, Ate; Hoen, Rob; Schuppan, Julia; Hulst, Ron; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Using a combination of chiral monodentate phosphoramidite ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of boronic acids to three different substrates, we have shown for the first time that the ligand combination approach is applicable for C-C bond formation. Chiral catalysts based on hetero-c

  12. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvar, L.; Hajihoseini, H.; Mahmoodi, H.; Tavassoli, S. H.; Fathipour, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 105, as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 107, a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  13. Secondary interactions or ligand scrambling? Subtle steric effects govern the iridium(I) coordination chemistry of phosphoramidite ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Tina; Rüegger, Heinz; Mezzetti, Antonio

    2010-01-25

    The like and unlike isomers of phosphoramidite (P*) ligands are found to react differently with iridium(I), which is a key to explaining the apparently inconsistent results obtained by us and other research groups in a variety of catalytic reactions. Thus, the unlike diastereoisomer (aR,S,S)-[IrCl(cod)(1 a)] (2 a; cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1 a=(aR,S,S)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis(1-phenylethyl)phosphoramidite) forms, upon chloride abstraction, the monosubstituted complex (aR,S,S)-[Ir(cod)(1,2-eta-1 a,kappaP)](+) (3 a), which contains a chelating P* ligand that features an eta(2) interaction between a dangling phenyl group and iridium. Under analogous conditions, the like analogue (aR,R,R)-1 a' gives the disubstituted species (aR,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1 a',kappaP)(2)](+) (4 a') with monodentate P* ligands. The structure of 3 a was assessed by a combination of X-ray and NMR spectroscopic studies, which indicate that it is the configuration of the binaphthol moiety (and not that of the dangling benzyl N groups) that determines the configuration of the complex. The effect of the relative configuration of the P* ligand on its iridium(I) coordination chemistry is discussed in the context of our preliminary catalytic results and of apparently random results obtained by other groups in the iridium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of allylic acetates and in rhodium(I)-catalyzed asymmetric cycloaddition reactions. Further studies with the unlike ligand (aS,R,R)-(1,1'-binaphthalene)-2,2'-diyl bis{[1-(1-naphthalene-1-yl)ethyl]phosphoramidite} (1 b) showed a yet different coordination mode, that is, the eta(4)-arene-metal interaction in (aS,R,R)-[Ir(cod)(1,2,3,4-eta-1 b,kappaP)](+) (3 b).

  14. Synthesis of Sugar Nucleotides by Application of Phosphoramidites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, H.; Delft, van P.; Meeuwenoord, N.; Codee, J.D.C.; Filippov, D.V.; Eggink, G.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Marel, van der G.A.

    2008-01-01

    new method for the construction of pyrophosphates is reported based on the coupling of a sugar phosphate and a nucleoside phosphoramidite. The in situ formed phosphate¿phosphite intermediate was subsequently oxidized with tBuOOH. Three UDP-N-acetylglucosamine derivatives were prepared using this one

  15. LNA 5'-phosphoramidites for 5'→3'-oligonucleotide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Kumar, Santhosh T.; Wengel, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Hereby we report an efficient synthesis of LNA thymine and LNA 5-methylcytosine 5′-phosphoramidites, allowing incorporation of LNA thymine and LNA 5-methylcytosine into oligonucleotides synthesized in the 5′→3′ direction. Key steps include regioselective enzymatic benzoylation of the 5′-hydroxy...

  16. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss antennas. The delay line includes two graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  17. Ultra-thin films with highly absorbent porous media fine-tunable for coloration and enhanced color purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lim, Jin Ha; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-03-02

    We demonstrate ultra-thin, fine-tunable optical coatings with enhanced color purity based on highly absorbent porous media on a metal substrate. We show that the color range provided by these ultra-thin film coatings can be extended by making the absorptive dielectric layer porous. Oblique angle deposition (OAD) of a thin (10-25 nm) germanium (Ge) film by e-beam evaporation onto a thick gold substrate yields controlled porosity. Reflectance spectra and color representations from both calculations and experiments verify the enhancement of resonance tunability and color purity in the nano-tailored coatings. Angle independent reflection properties, and the applicability of such porous Ge on various metal substrates, indicate the strength of these concepts.

  18. Preparation and Investigation of Monodentate and Bridging Pyrazole Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wynne

    2004-01-01

    Complexes of pyrazole-derived ligands are very popular due to the ability of the pyrazolato anion to form bridged polymetallic compounds in which the metals are held close enough to react with small molecules or facilitate magnetic exchange. The preparation of monodentate pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMHpz) nickel species and the…

  19. Synthetic strategies and parameters involved in the synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides according to the phosphoramidite method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, S L; Caruthers, M H

    2001-05-01

    The phosphoramidite approach has had a major impact on the synthesis of oligonucleotides. This unit describes parameters that affect the performance of this method for preparing oligodeoxyribonucleotides, as well as a number of compatible strategies. Milestones that led to the discovery of the approach are chronologically reported. Alternate strategies are also described to underscore the versatility by which these synthons can be obtained. Mechanisms of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite activation, factors affecting condensation, and deprotection strategies are discussed.

  20. Catalyst self-adaptation in conjugate addition to nitroalkenes and nitroacrylates: instant chirality control in diphenylmethane-based phosphoramidite ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuki; Aikawa, Kohsuke; Kawauchi, Susumu; Mikami, Koichi

    2008-04-16

    The tropos diphenylmethane-based phosphoramidite ligand (A) provides high catalytic activity and enantioselectivity in the Cu catalysis of conjugate addition to nitroalkenes and nitroacrylate, by virtue of instant chirality control in A.

  1. Synthesis of Novel C2-Symmetrical Bidentate Phosphoramidite Ligands for Rh-catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of β-(Acylamino)acrylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Heng ZENG; Xiang Ping HU; Xin Miao LIANG; Zhuo ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Two new C2-symmetrical bidentate phosphoramidite ligands were synthesized and employed in the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of β-(acylamino)acrylates, up to 89% ee with full conversions was obtained.

  2. Recent advances in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation:Renaissance of the monodentate phosphorus ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hongchao; DING Kuiling; DAI Lixin

    2004-01-01

    The history for the development of chiral phosphorus ligands in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation is briefly highlighted. This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of the monodentate phosphorus ligands and their applications in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation. The examples highlighted in this article clearly demonstrated the importance and advantages of monodentate phosphorus ligands, which had been ignored for 30 a and experienced a renaissance at the very beginning of this millennium, particularly in the area of asymmetric hydrogenation.

  3. Synthesis of the Tellurium-Derivatized Phosphoramidites and their Incorporation into DNA Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sibo; Sheng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this unit, an efficient method for the synthesis of 2’-tellerium modified phosphoramidite and its incorporation into oligonucleotide are presented. We choose 5’-O-DMTr-2,2’-anhydro-uridine and -thymidine nucleosides (S.1, S.2) as starting materials due to their easy preparation. The 5’-O-DMTr-2,2’-anhydro-uridine and -thymidine can be converted to corresponding the 2’-tellerium-derivatized nucleosides by treating with the telluride nucleophiles. Subsequently, the 2’-Te-nucleosides can be transformed into 3’-phosphoramidites, which are the building blocks for DNA/RNA synthesis. The DNA synthesis, purification and applications of oligonucleotides containing 2’-Te-U or 2’-Te-T are described in this protocol. PMID:22147418

  4. Synthesis of triazole-nucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Brandon J; Efthymiou, Tim C; Desaulniers, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-19

    Triazole-backbone oligonucleotides are macromolecules that have one or more triazole units that are acting as a backbone mimic. Triazoles within the backbone have been used within oligonucleotides for a variety of applications. This unit describes the preparation and synthesis of two triazole-nucleoside phosphoramidites [uracil-triazole-uracil (UtU) and cytosine-triazole-uracil (CtU)] based on a PNA-like scaffold, and their incorporation within oligonucleotides.

  5. Novel Method of Synthesis of 5''-Phosphate 2'-O-ribosyl-ribonucleosides and Their 3'-Phosphoramidites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin K. Chmielewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides [Nr(p] of four common ribonucleosides, and 3'-phosphoramidites of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyladenosine and 2'-O-ribosylguanosine using the H-phosphonate chemistry is described. An additional ring protected by benzoyl groups was incorporated into the main ribosyl ring in the reaction with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-d-ribofuranose in the presence of SnCl4. The obtained 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides (Nr were applied in the subsequent transformations with selective deprotection. Ethanolamine was applied as a very convenient reagent for selective removal of benzoyl groups. Additionally, the tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl (TIPDSi group was found to be stable under these deprotection conditions. Thus, the selectively deprotected 5''-hydroxyl group of Nr was transformed into an H-phosphonate monoester which was found to be stable under the following conditions: the removal of the TIPDSi group with triethylammonium fluoride and the dimethoxytritylation of the 5''-hydroxyl function. The 5''-H-phosphonate of Nr precursors was easily transformed to the corresponding dicyanoethyl 5''-O-phosphotriesters before phosphitylation, which gave 3'-phosphoramidite units of Nr(p in high yield. The derived phosphoramidite units were used in an automated oligonucleotide synthesizer to produce dimer Ar(pT via the phosphoramidite approach. The obtained products were fully deprotected under standard deprotection conditions giving dimers with a 5''-phosphate monoester function. Application of an alkaline phosphatase to prove the presence of an additional phosphate group was described.

  6. Riding the Wave of Monodentate Ligand Revival: From the A/B Concept to Noncovalent Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Luca; Gennari, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    The rediscovery of chiral monodentate ligands made in the period 1999-2003 had important consequences in enantioselective transition-metal catalysis, such as the introduction of the A/B concept (i.e., use of monodentate ligand mixtures) and, later, a renewed interest in supramolecular ligands capable of ligand-ligand and ligand-substrate interactions. This Personal Account summarizes the contributions made by our research group in this area in the period 2004-2015, which reflect the abovementioned developments. Within this area, we introduced some original concepts, such as 1) the use of chiral tropos ligand mixtures; 2) the development of new strategies to maximize heterocomplex formation from combinations of simple monodentate ligands; 3) the investigation of new ligand-ligand interactions to achieve selective heterocomplex formation; and 4) the development of highly efficient and synthetically accessible supramolecular ligands. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preparation of DNA Containing 5-Hydroxymethyl-2′-Deoxycytidine Modification Through Phosphoramidites with TBDMS as 5-Hydroxymethyl Protecting Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing; He, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes procedures for preparation of two phosphoramidite building blocks III and IV, both containing a TBDMS as 5-CH2OH-protecting group. Phosphoramidites III and IV allow efficient incorporation of 5-hmC into DNA and a “one-step” deprotection procedure to cleanly remove all the protecting groups. A “two-step” deprotection strategy is compatible with ultramild DNA synthesis, which enables the synthesis of 5hmC-containing DNA with additional modifications. Methods are also presented for their incorporation into oligonucleotides by solid-phase synthesis, subsequent deprotection, and HPLC analysis. PMID:22147420

  8. Design, testing and kinetic analysis of bulky monodentate phosphorus ligands in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, D.L.; Boele, M.D.K.; van Strijdonck, G.P.F.; de Vries, J.G.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Kamer, P.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the Mizoroki-Heck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new li

  9. Design, Testing and Kinetic Analysis of Bulky Monodentate Phosphorus Ligands in the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Deborah L.; Boele, Maarten D. K.; van Strijdonck, Gino P. F.; de Vries, Johannes G.; van Leeuwen, Piet W. N. M.; Kamer, Paul C. J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the MizorokiHeck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new lig

  10. Design, Testing and Kinetic Analysis of Bulky Monodentate Phosphorus Ligands in the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, Deborah L.; Boele, Maarten D. K.; van Strijdonck, Gino P. F.; de Vries, Johannes G.; van Leeuwen, Piet W. N. M.; Kamer, Paul C. J.

    A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the MizorokiHeck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new

  11. Design, testing and kinetic analysis of bulky monodentate phosphorus ligands in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodds, D.L.; Boele, M.D.K.; van Strijdonck, G.P.F.; de Vries, J.G.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Kamer, P.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the Mizoroki-Heck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new

  12. Determination of Molecular Structure of Bisphenylene Homologues of BINOL-Based Phosphoramidites by Chiroptical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julínek, Ondřej; Setnička, Vladimír; Miklášová, Natalia; Putala, Martin; Ruud, Kenneth; Urbanová, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Vibrational (VCD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and IR absorption spectra together with transparent spectral region optical rotation (OR) of two derivatives of bisphenylene 1,1'-binaphthyl-based phosphoramidites containing three stereogenic axes were measured and the results were compared with simulated data obtained by ab initio calculations with density functional theory. An excellent agreement between experimental and predicted B3LYP/6-31G** and BPW91/6-31G** VCD spectra enabled the assignment of all VCD bands in the experimental spectra, while the Gibbs free energy of all the conformers allowed the determination of their relative populations. The calculation of ECD spectra showed that CAM-B3LYP/6-311G** provided results superior to those of B3LYP/6-311G**. The theoretical results for the OR at the B3LYP/6-311G** and CAM-B3LYP/6-311G** levels were in good agreement with experimental optical rotations, but exhibited lower sensitivity in determining particular conformers than VCD and ECD. By a careful comparison of experimental VCD, IR, and ECD spectra and OR with calculated data, it was possible to assign the absolute configuration of all three stereogenic axes and to determine the molecular structure of the studied bisphenylene 1,1'-binaphthyl-based phosphoramidites in solution with a high degree of confidence.

  13. Chiral amino alcohol derived bis-phosphoramidite pincer palladium complexes and their applications in asymmetric allylation of aldimines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Novel P-stereogenic bis-phosphoramidite pincer palladium complexes 1 and 2 derived from (S)-(-)-R,R-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol and (S)-(þ)-indolinemethanol, respectively, were synthesized in reasonable yields (i.e., 55-62%) by using a flexible, modular synthetic approach and were characterized

  14. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of a-Enol Ester Phosphonates with 1-Phenylethylamine-Derived Phosphine- Phosphoramidite Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    HU Juan, WANG Dao-yong, ZHENG Zhuo, HU Xiang-ping J. Mol. Catal. (China) 2012, 26(6), 487 ~492 Chiral phosphine-phosphoramidite ligand, ( So, S,, )-2b, was found to be highly efficient in the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of various α-enol ester phosphonates, in which excellent enantioselectivities (up to 〉99% ee) and high catalyticactivity ( S/C up to 5000) were achieved.

  15. Synthesis of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligonucleotides and Their Chimeras Using Phosphoramidite Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sibasish; Caruthers, Marvin H

    2016-12-07

    Phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (PMOs) and PMO-DNA chimeras have been prepared on DNA synthesizers using phosphoramidite chemistry. This was possible by first generating boranephosphoroamidate morpholino internucleotide linkages followed by oxidative substitution with four different amines: N,N-dimethylamine, N-methylamine, ammonia, and morpholine. When compared to a natural DNA duplex, the amino modified PMO was found to have a higher melting temperature with either complementary DNA or RNA, whereas the remaining PMO analogues having morpholino, dimethylamino, or N-methylamino phosphorodiamidate linkages had melting temperatures that were either comparable or reduced. Additionally the N,N-dimethylamino PMO-DNA chimeras were found to stimulate RNaseH1 activity. Treatment of HeLa cells with fluorescently labeled PMO chimeras demonstrated that these analogues were efficiently taken up by cells in the presence of a lipid transfection reagent. Because of the simplistic synthesis procedures, various PMO analogues are now readily available and should therefore open new pathways for research into the antisense, diagnostic, and nanotechnology oligonucleotide fields.

  16. Application of monodentate secondary phosphine oxides, a new class of chiral ligands, in Ir(I)-catalyzed asymmetric imine hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Hessen, B.; Feringa, B.L.; Duchateau, A.L.L.; Andrien, J.G.O.; Boogers, J.A.F.; de Vries, J.G.; L. L. Duschateau, A.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary phosphine oxides were prepared from R1PCl2 and R2MgBr, followed by hydrolysis. They were obtained in an enantiopure form by preparative chiral HPLC. These new monodentate ligands were tested in the iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of imines at 25 bar. Enantioselectivities up to 76% were obt

  17. Bidentates versus monodentates in asymmetric hydrogenation catalysis: synergic effects on rate and allosteric effects on enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David W; Carraz, Charles A; Hyett, David J; Pringle, Paul G; Sweeney, Joseph B; Orpen, A Guy; Phetmung, Hirrahataya; Wingad, Richard L

    2008-05-28

    C 1-Symmetric phosphino/phosphonite ligands are prepared by the reactions of Ph 2P(CH 2) 2P(NMe 2) 2 with ( S)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (to give L A ) or ( S)-10,10'-bi-9-phenanthrol (to give L B ). Racemic 10,10'-bi-9-phenanthrol is synthesized in three steps from phenanthrene in 44% overall yield. The complexes [PdCl 2( L A,B )] ( 1a, b), [PtCl 2( L A,B )] ( 2a, b), [Rh(cod)( L A,B )]BF 4 ( 3a, b) and [Rh( L A,B ) 2]BF 4 ( 4a, b) are reported and the crystal structure of 1a has been determined. A (31)P NMR study shows that M, a 1:1 mixture of the monodentates, PMePh 2 and methyl monophosphonite L 1a (based on ( S)-1,1 '-bi-2-naphthol), reacts with 1 equiv of [Rh(cod) 2]BF 4 to give the heteroligand complex [Rh(cod)(PMePh 2)( L 1a )]BF 4 ( 5) and homoligand complexes [Rh(cod)(PMePh 2) 2]BF 4 ( 6) and [Rh(cod)( L 1a ) 2]BF 4 ( 7) in the ratio 2:1:1. The same mixture of 5- 7 is obtained upon mixing the isolated homoligand complexes 6 and 7 although the equilibrium is only established rapidly in the presence of an excess of PMePh 2. The predominant species 5 is a monodentate ligand complex analogue of the chelate 3a. When the mixture of 5- 7 is exposed to 5 atm H 2 for 1 h (the conditions used for catalyst preactivation in the asymmetric hydrogenation studies), the products are identified as the solvento species [Rh(PMePh 2)( L 1a )(S) 2]BF 4 ( 5'), [Rh(S) 2(PMePh 2) 2]BF 4 ( 6') and [Rh(S) 2( L 1a ) 2]BF 4 ( 7') and are formed in the same 2:1:1 ratio. The reaction of M with 0.5 equiv of [Rh(cod) 2]BF 4 gives exclusively the heteroligand complex cis-[Rh(PMePh 2) 2( L 1a ) 2]BF 4 ( 8), an analogue of 4a. The asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydroamino acid derivatives catalyzed by 3a, b is reported, and the enantioselectivities are compared with those obtained with (a) chelate catalysts derived from analogous diphosphonite ligands L 2a and L 2b , (b) catalysts based on methyl monophosphonites L 1a and L 1b , and (c) catalysts derived from mixture M. For the cinnamate and

  18. Synthesis of solution-phase phosphoramidite and phosphite ligand libraries and their in situ screening in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, Richard B. C.; Toullec, Patrick Y.; Schudde, Ebe P.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Feringa, Ben L.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2007-01-01

    Herein, we report the automated parallel synthesis of solution-phase libraries of phosphoramidite ligands for the development of enantioselective catalysts. The ligand libraries are screened in situ in the asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed addition of arylboronic acids to aldehydes and imines. It is show

  19. Application of 2-cyanoethyl n,n,n′,n′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite for in situ preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in polymer-supported synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Taagaard, Michael; Marugg, John E.

    1986-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites are prepared in situ from 5′-O,N-protected deoxyribonucleosides and 2-cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite with tetrazole as catalyst, and the solutions applied directly on an automatic solid-phase DNA synthesizer. Using LCAA-CPG support and a...

  20. Pd-catalyzed amidation of aryl chlorides using monodentate biaryl phosphine ligands: a kinetic, computational, and synthetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Barder, Timothy E; Biscoe, Mark R; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-10-31

    We present results on the amidation of aryl halides and sulfonates utilizing a monodentate biaryl phosphine-Pd catalyst. Our results are in accord with a previous report that suggests that the formation of kappa(2)-amidate complexes is deleterious to the effectiveness of a catalyst for this transformation and that their formation can be prevented by the use of appropriate bidentate ligands. We now provide data that suggest that the use of certain monodentate ligands can also prevent the formation of the kappa(2)-amidate complexes and thereby generate more stable catalysts for the amination of aryl chlorides. Furthermore, computational studies shed light on the importance of the key feature(s) of the biaryl phosphines (a methyl group ortho to the phosphorus center) that enable the coupling to occur. The use of ligands that possess a methyl group ortho to the phosphorus center allows a variety of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with various amides to be coupled in high yield.

  1. Integrated finely tunable microring laser on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Huang, X.; Kurczveil, G.; Fiorentino, M.; Beausoleil, R. G.

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale computer installations are severely limited by network-bandwidth constraints and energy costs that arise from architectural designs originally based on copper interconnects. Wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) photonic links can increase the network bandwidth but are sensitive to environmental perturbations and manufacturing imperfections that can affect the precise emission wavelength and output power of laser transmitters. Here, we demonstrate a new design of a three-terminal hybrid III-V-on-silicon laser that integrates a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor into the laser cavity. The MOS capacitor makes it possible to introduce the plasma-dispersion effect and thus change the laser modal refractive index and free-carrier absorption (FCA) loss to tune the laser wavelength and output power, respectively. The approach enables a highly energy efficient method to tune the output power and wavelength of microring lasers, with future prospects for high-speed, chirp-free direct laser modulation. The concept is potentially applicable to other diode laser platforms.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  3. Mechanistic studies on the phosphoramidite coupling reaction in oligonucleotide synthesis. I. Evidence for nudeophilic catalysis by tetrazole and rate variations with the phosphorus substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bjarne H.; Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1987-01-01

    Tetrazole catalyzed reactions of a series of phosphoramidites, 5′ -O- DMTdT-3′-O-P(OR 1)NRNR22 (1a-h), with 3′ O-SiBu tPh 2-6-N-benzoyl-dA (2a) in acetonitrite solution have been studied. It is found that the coupling rate depends very much on whether tetrazole is added before or after 2a, and th...

  4. Application of 2-cyanoethyl n,n,n′,n′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite for in situ preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in polymer-supported synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Taagaard, Michael; Marugg, John E.

    1986-01-01

    and a cycle time of 12.5 min, oligonucleotides of 16-25 bases are obtained with a DMT-efficiency per cycle of 98.0-99.3%. The crude and fully deblocked products are of a purity comparable to that obtained using purified phosphoramidites. In case of d(G) 16 the product was difficult to analyse and a better...... product was not obtained using doubly protected (0-6 diphenylcarbamoyl) guanine....

  5. Tetracarboxylatoplatinum(IV) complexes featuring monodentate leaving groups - A rational approach toward exploiting the platinum(IV) prodrug strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Doris; Varbanov, Hristo P; Legin, Anton; Jakupec, Michael A; Roller, Alexander; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-12-01

    A series of novel symmetrically and unsymmetrically coordinated platinum(IV) complexes with monodentate carboxylato ligands was synthesized. The compounds exhibit a general coordination sphere of [Pt(en)(OCOR)2(OCOR')(OCOR″)], where the carboxylato ligands are represented by acetato and succinic acid monoester ligands. Dicarboxylatoplatinum(II) complexes were synthesized and oxidized symmetrically or unsymmetrically to obtain platinum(IV) complexes, which were subsequently carboxylated with noncyclic anhydrides. The compounds were investigated in detail by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, infrared and multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (195)Pt) NMR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray diffraction in some cases. The reduction behavior was followed by NMR spectroscopy, while stability and lipophilicity were examined by analytical reversed phase HPLC measurements. Cytotoxic properties were studied in three human cancer cell lines derived from cisplatin sensitive ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA-1), cisplatin insensitive colon carcinoma (SW480) and non-small cell lung cancer (A549). Thereby, the most lipophilic (yet water soluble) platinum(IV) complexes showed promising IC50 values in the low micromolar and even nanomolar range, demonstrating the significant advantage of using equatorially coordinated monodentate carboxylato ligands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of (R)-Configured 2'-Fluorinated mC, hmC, fC, and caC Phosphoramidites and Oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Arne S; Kotljarova, Olga; Parsa, Edris; Iwan, Katharina; Raddaoui, Nada; Carell, Thomas

    2016-09-02

    Investigation of the function of the new epigenetic bases requires the development of stabilized analogues that are stable during base excision repair (BER). Here we report the synthesis of 2'-(R)-fluorinated versions of the phosphoramidites of 5-methylcytosine (mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine (fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (caC). For oligonucleotides containing 2'-(R)-F-fdC, we show that these compounds cannot be cleaved by the main BER enzyme thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG).

  7. 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-3-one-1-sulfinyl group for 5'-hydroxyl protection of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites in the solid-phase preparation of DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchán, Vicente; Cieślak, Jacek; Livengood, Victor; Beaucage, Serge L

    2004-08-11

    Several nitrogen-sulfur reagents have been investigated as potential 5'-hydroxyl protecting groups for deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites to improve the synthesis of oligonucleotides on glass microarrays. Out of the nitrogen-sulfur-based protecting groups so far investigated, the 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-3-one-1-sulfinyl group exhibited near optimal properties for 5'-hydroxyl protection by virtue of the mildness of its deprotection conditions. Specifically, the iterative cleavage of a terminal 5'-sulfamidite group in the synthesis of 5'-d(ATCCGTAGCCAAGGTCATGT) on controlled-pore glass is efficiently accomplished by treatment with iodine in the presence of an acidic salt. Hydrolysis of the oligonucleotide to its 2'-deoxyribonucleosides upon exposure to snake venom phosphodiesterase and bacterial alkaline phosphatase did not reveal the formation of any nucleobase adducts or other modifications. These findings indicate that the 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-3-one-1-sulfinyl group for 5'-hydroxyl protection of phosphoramidites, such as 10a-d, may lead to the production of oligonucleotide microarrays exhibiting enhanced specificity and sensitivity in the detection of nucleic acid targets.

  8. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  9. Conformationally locked aryl C-nucleosides: synthesis of phosphoramidite monomers and incorporation into single-stranded DNA and LNA (locked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B. Ravindra; Prasad, Ashok K.; Trikha, Smriti

    2002-01-01

    . The phosphoramidite approach was used for automated incorporation of the LNA-type beta-configured C-aryl monomers 17a-17e into short DNA and 2'-OMe-RNA/LNA strands. It is shown that universal hybridization can be obtained with a conformationally restricted monomer as demonstrated most convincingly for the pyrene LNA......Synthesis of a series of LNA-type beta-configured C-aryl nucleosides, i.e., 2'- O,4'-C-methylene-beta-D-ribofuranosyl derivatives containing phenyl, 4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl, 1-naphthyl, 1-pyrenyl and 2,4,5-trimethylphenyl groups as aglycons, has been accomplished. The key synthetic step consisted...... monomer 17d, both in a DNA context and in an RNA-like context. Increased binding affinity of oligonucleotide probes for universal hybridization can be induced by combining the pyrene LNA monomer 17d with affinity-enhancing 2'-OMe-RNA/LNA monomers....

  10. Mg(II)-induced second-harmonic generation based on bis-monodentate coordination mode of thiobarbiturate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Hao, Zhi; Li, JingHua; Wu, Tao; Lin, JianHua

    2013-05-14

    Utilizing a SHG inactive ligand, 2-thiobarbituric acid (H3L), three metal complexes formulated as M(H2L)2(H2O)2·2DMF (M = Mg 1 and Ni 2) and Co(H2L)2(H2O)2 (3) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit a similar uninodal 3D acentric diamondoid framework. Complex 1 displays SHG response using 1064 nm radiation, whereas complex 2 is SHG inactive under the same condition. Complex 3 is also SHG inactive, which exhibits a centro-symmetrical chain-like structure built from Co(II) ions and double strands of H2L(-)-bridge with the inversion center occupied by the metal(II) ion. In the three complexes, the negative charge of H2L(-) ligand is delocalized over the O=C-CH-C=O group and H2L(-) can be considered as a β-diketo derivative. H2L(-) shows a bis-monodentate coordination fashion and acts as a u2-bridge in the three complexes, which is different from the classical chelating fashion of β-diketo ligand. In complexes 1 and 2, the two β-diketo oxygen atoms of H2L(-) are coordinated to two metal centers. Whereas in complex 3, H2L(-) ligand links two Co(II) centers via one oxygen and one sulphur atoms. The three complexes exhibit different UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence properties and thermal stabilities.

  11. Synthesis of a Morpholino Nucleic Acid (MNA-Uridine Phosphoramidite, and Exon Skipping Using MNA/2′-O-Methyl Mixmer Antisense Oligonucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxiang Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we synthesised a morpholino nucleoside-uridine (MNA-U phosphoramidite and evaluated the potential of a MNA-modified antisense oligonucleotide (AO sequences to induce exon 23 skipping in mdx mouse myotubes in vitro towards extending the applicability of morpholino chemistry with other nucleotide monomers. We designed, synthesised, and compared exon skipping efficiencies of 20 mer MNA-modified 2′-O-methyl RNA mixmer AO on a phosphorothioate backbone (MNA/2′-OMePS to the corresponding fully modified 2′-O-methyl RNA AO (2′-OMePS as a control. Our results showed that the MNA/2′-OMePS efficiently induced exon 23 skipping. As expected, the 2′-OMePS AO control yielded efficient exon 23 skipping. Under the applied conditions, both the AOs showed minor products corresponding to exon 22/23 dual exon skipping in low yield. As these are very preliminary data, more detailed studies are necessary; however, based on the preliminary results, MNA nucleotides might be useful in constructing antisense oligonucleotides.

  12. Origin of the chemical stability of phosphine-phosphoramidites: structural study of an UPPhos-type crystal and application of UPPhos in the asymmetric hydrogenation of imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Szabolcs; Farkas, Gergely; Holczbauer, Tamás; Bakos, József

    2017-08-01

    Phosphine-phosphoramidites (PPAs) are heterobidentate ligands that have been developed in the last two decades and have been used successfully in asymmetric catalytic reactions. A single crystal of the PPA (11bS)-N-[(2S,4S)-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)pentan-2-yl]-N-methyldinaphtho[2,1-d:1',2'-f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin-4-amine, C38H35NO2P2, was prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Structure elucidation revealed unique features which might have a significant effect in the excellent chemical stability of this type of molecule. The conformation of the molecule provides an optimal chelating structure. Iridium complexes of UPPhos were found to be efficient catalysts in the asymmetric hydrogenation of imines {UPPhos is (11bS)-N-[(2S,4S)-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)pentan-2-yl]-N-(propan-2-yl)dinaphtho[2,1-d:1',2'-f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin-4-amine}.

  13. Chelate vs monodentate amine effects. Direct comparison of bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV) (JM216) with its N-cyclohexyl-1,3-propanediamine analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-A.; Kang, Shin Won; Park, Jong Yul; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the chelate effects on physicochemical properties including antitumor activity, new cis, trans, cis,-[Pt IVCl 2L 2(chpda)] complexes (L=OH, OCOCH 3; chpda= N-cyclohexyl-1,3-propanediamine) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of cis, trans, cis-[Pt IVCl 2(OCOCH 3) 2(chpda)] (monoclinic P2 1/ a, a=7.947(1), b=22.753(11), and c=10.581(3) Å, β=110.70(2)°, V=1790(1) Å 3, Z=4, R=0.0534) shows that the platinum(IV) center adopts a typical octahedral arrangement with two acetate groups in a trans position. The pattern and strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds are delicately different from those of JM216. Both in vitro and in vivo (oral) cytotoxicities on mouse leukemia L1210 cell line indicate that the activity of chpda chelate analogue is not better than that of the corresponding compound with two monodentate amines (JM216).

  14. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculation and biological activity of square-planar Ni(II) complexes with tridentate PNO ligands and monodentate pseudohalides. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Milica; Pevec, Andrej; Turel, Iztok; Vujčić, Miroslava; Milenković, Marina; Jovanović, Katarina; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Radulović, Siniša; Swart, Marcel; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Adaila, Kawther; Cobeljić, Božidar; Anđelković, Katarina

    2014-11-24

    Three square-planar complexes of Ni(II) with condensation derivative of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and 4-phenylsemicarbazide and monodentate pseudohalides have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of the results of X-ray, NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Investigated complexes exhibited moderate antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. The most pronounced cytotoxic activity (in the range of cisplatin) to HeLa cell line was observed for ligand and all the complexes. Azido complex and ligand induced concentration dependent cell cycle arrest in the S phase, as well as decrease of percentage of cells in G1 phase, without significant increase of apoptotic fraction of cells. The interaction of the azido complex and ligand with CT-DNA results in changes in UV-Vis spectra typical for non-covalent bonding. The observed intrinsic binding constant of azido complex-CT-DNA and ligand-CT-DNA were 3.22 × 10(5) M(-1) and 2.79 × 10(5) M(-1). The results of DNA cleavage experiments showed that azido complex nicked supercoiled plasmid DNA.

  15. Rhenium(V) and technetium(V) nitrido complexes with mixed tridentate π-donor and monodentate π-acceptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Cazzola, Emiliano; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Ferretti, Valeria; Bertolasi, Valerio; Duatti, Adriano

    2012-03-01

    Mixed-ligand [M(N)(SNS)(PPh(3))] complexes (M = Tc, Re) (1, 2) were prepared by reaction of the precursor [M(N)Cl(2)(PPh(3))(2)] with ligand 2,2'-dimercaptodiethylamine [H(2)SNS = NH(CH(2)CH(2)SH)(2)] in refluxing dichloromethane/ethanol mixtures. In these compounds, 2,2'-dimercaptodiethylamine acts as a dianionic tridentate chelating ligand bound to the [M≡N](2+) group through the two π-donor deprotonated sulfur atoms and the protonated amine nitrogen atom. Triphenylphosphine completes the coordination sphere, acting as a monodentate ligand. [M(N)(NS(2))(PPh(3))] complexes can assume two different isomeric forms depending on the syn and anti orientations of the hydrogen atom bound to the central nitrogen atom of the SNS ligand with respect to the M≡N moiety. X-ray crystallography of the syn isomer of complex 2 demonstrated that it has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry with the nitrido group and the two sulfur atoms defining the equatorial plane, the phosphorus atom of the monophosphine and the protonated amine nitrogen of the tridentate ligand spanning the two reciprocal trans positions along the axis perpendicular to the trigonal plane. Synthesis of the analogous Tc derivatives with tris(2-cyanoethyl)phosphine, [Tc(N)(SNS)(PCN)] [(PCN = P(CH(2)CH(2)CN)(3)], required the preliminary preparation of the new precursor [Tc(N)(PCN)(2)Cl(2)](2) (3), which was prepared by reacting [n-NBu(4)][Tc(N)Cl(4)] with a high excess of PCN. The crystal structure of compound 3 consists of a noncrystallographic centrosymmetric dimer of Tc(V) nitrido complexes having an octahedral geometry. In this arrangement, the apical positions are occupied by two tris(2-cyanoethyl)phosphine groups and the equatorial positions by the nitrido group whereas the two Cl(-) anions and one cyano ligand belong to the other octahedral component of the dimer. By reacting the new precursor [Tc(N)(PCN)(2)Cl(2)](2) with the ligand H(2)SNS the complex [Tc(N)(SNS)(PCN)] (5) was finally obtained in

  16. A Novel Copper(Ⅱ) Coordination Polymer with Figure-of-eight-shaped Channels Occupied by Flexible Monodentate and Bidentate N,N'-bipyrdyl Ligands%A Novel Copper(Ⅱ) Coordination Polymer with Figure-of-eight-shaped Channels Occupied by Flexible Monodentate and Bidentate N,N'-bipyrdyl Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Peng-Bin; ZHANG Xin; YANG Jin-Xia; YIN Pei-Xiu; YAO Yuan-Gen

    2011-01-01

    A copper(Ⅱ) coordination polymer, [Cu3(HOA)2(bpp)4]n (1, HnOA = 3,3',4,4'- oxidiphthalic acid, bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl) propane), has been hydrothermally synthesized. The crystal structure is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 11.544(3), b = 16.129(4), c = 21.181 (6) A, β = 98.848(5), V= 3897.0(2) A3, C84018N8H70Cu3, Mr = 1670.13, Z = 2, De = 1.423 g/cm^3, F(000) = 1722, μ = 0.887 mm^-1, R = 0.0878 and wR = 0.2583 for 8496 observed reflections (I 〉 2σ(I)). Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 is a three-dimensional (3D) framework based on a two-dimensional (2D) mesomeric layer of alternating left- and fight-handed helical chains. The monodentate terminal and bidentate bridging bpp ligands in the same conformation are all encapsulated in the figure-of-eight-shaped channels, thus further stabilizing the whole three-dimensional framework.

  17. Solid-Phase Parallel Synthesis of Phosphite Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennenhuis, Bert H.G.; Chen, Ruifang; Leeuwen, Piet W.N.M. van; Vries, Johannes G. de; Kamer, Paul C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Various routes for the synthesis of polymer-bound phosphites and phosphoramidites have been investigated. In the presence of a suitable activator the supported phosphoramidites react cleanly with alcohols to give the corresponding monodentate phosphite ligands in solution. We have applied this novel

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of PHP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)], a monodentate chiral phosphine derived from intramolecular C-C coupling of tetramethylcyclopentadienyl groups: an evaluation of steric and electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Bridgewater, B M; Churchill, D G; Parkin, G

    2001-10-22

    The chiral monodentate phosphine PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] is readily obtained by oxidation of the lithium complex Li(2)[PhP(C(5)Me(4))(2)] with I(2), which couples the two cyclopentadienyl groups to form a five-membered heterocyclic ring. The steric and electronic properties of PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)] have been evaluated by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopic studies on a variety of derivatives, including Ph[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]PE (E = S, Se), Cp*MCl(4)[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph] (M = Mo, Ta), Ir[P[(C(5)Me(4))(2)]Ph](2)(CO)Cl, and CpFe(CO)[PhP[(C(5)Me(4))(2)

  19. Structure of a dinuclear cadmium complex with 2,2′-bipyridine, monodentate nitrate and 3-carboxy-6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylate ligands: intramolecular carbonyl(lone pair...π(ring and nitrate(π...π(ring interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Granifo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric dinuclear complex bis(μ-3-carboxy-6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylato-κ3N,O2:O2;κ3O2:N,O2-bis[(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′(nitrato-κOcadmium] methanol monosolvate, [Cd2(C8H6NO42(NO32(C10H8N22]·CH3OH, was isolated as colourless crystals from the reaction of Cd(NO32·4H2O, 6-methylpyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (mepydcH2 and 2,2′-bipyridine in methanol. The asymmetric unit consists of a CdII cation bound to a μ-κ3N,O2:O2-mepydcH− anion, an N,N′-bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine group and an O-monodentate nitrate anion, and is completed with a methanol solvent molecule at half-occupancy. The Cd complex unit is linked to its centrosymmetric image through a bridging mepydcH− carboxylate O atom to complete the dinuclear complex molecule. Despite a significant variation in the coordination angles, indicating a considerable departure from octahedral coordination geometry about the CdII atom, the Cd—O and Cd—N distances in this complex are surprisingly similar. The crystal structure consists of O—H...O hydrogen-bonded chains parallel to a, further bound by C—H...O contacts along b to form planar two-dimensional arrays parallel to (001. The juxtaposed planes form interstitial columnar voids that are filled by the methanol solvent molecules. These in turn interact with the complex molecules to further stabilize the structure. A search in the literature showed that complexes with the mepydcH− ligand are rare and complexes reported previously with this ligand do not adopt the μ-κ3 coordination mode found in the title compound.

  20. Multilayered core-satellite nanoassemblies with fine-tunable broadband plasmon resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Sikdar, Debabrata; Yap, Lim Wei; Premaratne, Malin; Li, Xinyong; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    We report on a robust nanotemplating approach to synthesize plasmonic multilayered core-satellite (MCS) nanoassemblies. Templated with gold nanorods, ultrathin Au/Ag alloy cages and satellite gold nanoparticles can be constructed sequentially by galvanic replacement reactions and electrostatic self-assembly, respectively, forming structurally well-defined MCS. The MCS nanoassemblies exhibit strong broadband plasmon resonances from ~440 to ~1100 nm, and their resonant features can be fine-tuned by adjusting the size and number density of satellite nanoparticles and by adjusting the thickness of the silica spacer between cage and satellite particles. Such fine-engineered MCS nanoassemblies enable precise programming of the strength and distribution of ``hot spots'' to maximize the overall enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering.We report on a robust nanotemplating approach to synthesize plasmonic multilayered core-satellite (MCS) nanoassemblies. Templated with gold nanorods, ultrathin Au/Ag alloy cages and satellite gold nanoparticles can be constructed sequentially by galvanic replacement reactions and electrostatic self-assembly, respectively, forming structurally well-defined MCS. The MCS nanoassemblies exhibit strong broadband plasmon resonances from ~440 to ~1100 nm, and their resonant features can be fine-tuned by adjusting the size and number density of satellite nanoparticles and by adjusting the thickness of the silica spacer between cage and satellite particles. Such fine-engineered MCS nanoassemblies enable precise programming of the strength and distribution of ``hot spots'' to maximize the overall enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A method for preparing CGNRs and AuNPs. EDX mapping and UV-vis spectra for silica coated CGNR. A model for simulation and an additional E-field for MCS nanoassemblies. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06756h

  1. Synthesis of Versatile Building Blocks through Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Functionalized Itaconic Acid Mono-Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Koen F.W.; Lefort, Laurent; Vries, André H.M. de; Delft, Floris L. van; Schoemaker, Hans E.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    The rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of several β-substituted itaconic acid mono-esters, using a library of monodentate phosphoramidite and phosphite ligands is described. Two β-alkyl-substituted substrates were readily hydrogenated by the rhodium complex Rh(COD)2BF4 in combination with (S

  2. Synthesis of O-Phosphorylated Oligopeptides Using Phosphoramidite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is of great importance in the regulation of many cellular processes. Structurally well-defined compounds are needed for the study of the roles of the phospho-proteins in biological processes. In this paper, O-phosphorylated oligopeptides were synthesized using bis-alkyloxy-N,N-dialkylphosphoramidite reacting with the oligopeptide followed by oxidation. Many hydroxyl groups in oligopeptides can be phosphorylated in one step.

  3. Mechanism for the formation of substituted manganese(V) cyanidonitrido complexes: crystallographic and kinetic study of the substitution reactions of trans-[MnN(H2O)(CN)4]2- with monodentate pyridine and bidentate pyridine-carboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Hendrik J; Meijboom, Reinout; Schutte, Marietjie; Roodt, Andreas

    2010-10-18

    Dissolution of [(CH(3))N](2)Na[MnN(CN)(5)]·H(2)O in water results in the rapid dissociation of the trans-CN(-) ligand to form trans-[MnN(H(2)O)(CN)(4)](2-)(aq), which reacts with monodentate pyridine ligands such as 3-methyl and 4-methyl pyridine to form the corresponding mono-substituted complexes, of which the molecular structures obtained from X-ray crystallography, trans-[MnN(3-pic)(CN)(4)](2-) and trans-[MnN(4-pic)(CN)(4)](2-), are reported. [MnN(H(2)O)(CN)(4)](2-)(aq) also reacts with bidentate nucleophiles such as pyridine-2-carboxylate (pico) and quinoline-2-carboxylate (quino), yielding the corresponding [MnN(η(2)-pico)(CN)(3)](2-) and [MnN(η(2)-quino)(CN)(3)](2-) complexes as determined by X-ray crystallography. The formation kinetics of pyridine-2-carboxylate and three different pyridine-2,x-dicarboxylate ligands (x = 3, 4, 5) are reported, and two consecutive reaction steps are proposed, defined as the formation of the [MnN(η(1)-pico)(CN)(4)](3-) and [MnN(η(2)-pico)(CN)(3)](3-) complexes, respectively. Only the second steps could be spectrophotometrically observed and kinetically investigated. The first reaction is attributed to the rapid aqua substitution of [MnN(H(2)O)(CN)(4)](2-), thermodynamically unfavored and too fast to observe by conventional rapid third generation stopped-flow techniques. The second, slower reaction is attributed to cyanido substitution, with overall formation rate constants (25 °C; k(1)'; M(-1) s(-1)) and corresponding activation parameters (ΔH(k1')(double dagger), kJ mol(-1), ΔS(k1')(double dagger), J K(-1) mol(-1)) for the following entering bidentate nucleophiles: pyridine-2-carboxylate: (1.15 ± 0.04) × 10(-3), 102 ± 1, and 48 ± 3; pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate: (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(-3), 93 ± 2, and 20 ± 4; pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate (8.5 ± 0.5) × 10(-4), 123 ± 5, and 115 ± 14; pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate: (1.08 ± 0.04) × 10(-3), 106 ± 1, and 60 ± 2. A dissociative activation for the cyanido substitution

  4. Serial incorporation of a monovalent GalNAc phosphoramidite unit into hepatocyte-targeting antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Sawamura, Motoki; Wada, Fumito; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Obika, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The targeting of abundant hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) with trivalent N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is a reliable strategy for efficiently delivering antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to the liver. We here experimentally demonstrate the high systemic potential of the synthetically-accessible, phosphodiester-linked monovalent GalNAc unit when tethered to the 5'-terminus of well-characterised 2',4'-bridged nucleic acid (also known as locked nucleic acid)-modified apolipoprotein B-targeting ASO via a bio-labile linker. Quantitative analysis of the hepatic disposition of the ASOs revealed that phosphodiester is preferable to phosphorothioate as an interunit linkage in terms of ASGPR binding of the GalNAc moiety, as well as the subcellular behavior of the ASO. The flexibility of this monomeric unit was demonstrated by attaching up to 5 GalNAc units in a serial manner and showing that knockdown activity improves as the number of GalNAc units increases. Our study suggests the structural requirements for efficient hepatocellular targeting using monovalent GalNAc and could contribute to a new molecular design for suitably modifying ASO.

  5. Enthalpy of ligand substitution in cis organopalladium complexes with monodentate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Gorka; Casares, Juan A; Espinet, Pablo

    2009-10-21

    The enthalpy for the substitution reaction cis-[PdRf(2)(THF)(2)] + 2 L -->cis-[PdRf(2)L(2)] + 2THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) has been measured in THF by calorimetric methods for Rf = 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trifluorophenyl, L = PPh(3), AsPh(3), SbPh(3), PMePh(2), PCyPh(2), PMe(3), AsMePh(2), or L(2) = dppe (1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), dppf (1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene). The values determined show that the substitution enthalpy has a strong dependence on the electronic and steric properties of the ligand. The study of the consecutive substitution reactions cis-[PdRf(2)(THF)(2)] + L -->cis-[PdRf(2)L(THF)] + THF, and cis-[PdRf(2)L(THF)] + L -->cis-[PdRf(2)L(2)] + THF has been carried our for L = PPh(3) and L = PCyPh(2). The first substitution is clearly more favorable for the bulkier leaving ligand, but the second gives practically the same DeltaH value for both cases, indicating that the differences in steric hindrance happen to compensate the electronic differences for both ligands. The X-ray structures of cis-[PdRf(2)(PMePh(2))(2)], cis-[PdRf(2)(dppe)] and cis-[PdRf(2)(dppf)] are reported.

  6. Complexation of tris({beta}-diketonato)lanthanoids with monodentate and bidentate Lewis bases in chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Hirasawa, A.; Miratsu, M.; Yajima, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chem.

    1998-07-24

    The enthalpy change and the equilibrium constants for the formation of adducts of tris(1-(2-thienyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3- butanedionato)lanthanoids (LnA{sub 3}) with triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in chloroform across the lanthanoid series have been determined by calorimetric titration and solvent extraction techniques. The formation constants with phen increase from the light to the middle lanthanoids, and the constants do not change from the middle to the heavy lanthanoids, while the constants of the second adducts with TPPO (LnA{sub 3}/TPPO=1:2) decrease with increasing atomic number, although those of the first (1:1) adducts do not change much. The enthalpy change in adduct formation with phen changes remarkably from endothermic to exothermic from light to heavy lanthanoids, while the enthalpy changes with TPPO do not vary much across the series. This suggests that, in adduct formation with phen, the match between the N-N distance in phen and the size of the lanthanoids (III), as well as dehydration from LnA{sub 3}, is a significant factor in determining the stability order of the adducts, while the degree of dehydration is significant for adduct formation with TPPO. (orig.) 7 refs.

  7. Fast Palladium Catalyzed Arylation of Alkenes Using Bulky Monodentate Phosphorus Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijdonck, Gino P.F. van; Boele, Maarten D.K.; Kamer, Paul C.J.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Leeuwen, Piet W.N.M. van

    1999-01-01

    Complex 1b shows an unprecedented high activity in the Heck reaction. Kinetic studies show that in this system not the oxidative addition but the alkene coordination/migratory insertion is the rate determining step.

  8. Synthesis of meta-substituted monodentate phosphinite ligands and implication in hydroformylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATEJ S DESHMUKH; SHAHAJI R GAIKWAD; SWECHCHHA PANDEY; PRAMOD S MALI; SAMIR H CHIKKALI

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of meta-substituted phosphinite ligands 3,3' (methoxyphosphanediyl) bis (N,Ndiethylaniline) (4a) and methoxybis(3-methoxyphenyl)phosphane (4b), in high yields, has been demonstrated. Typical phosphorus chemical shift between 110–120 ppm, appearance of methoxy protons and corresponding carbon, as well as ESI-MS spectra unambiguously confirmed the existence of phosphinite ligands 4a and 4b. To demonstrate the synthetic usefulness of 4a and 4b, these ligands were tested in the rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation of 1-octene. The diethylamine substituted ligand 4a was found to be highly active, whereas4bwas less reactive but revealed slightly better regioselectivity of 62% under optimized conditions.Additionally, 4a and 4b were found to catalyze the hydroformylation of styrene, 1-undecenol and 1,1-disubstituted functionalolefin, methyl methacrylate. Both the ligands displayed excellent conversion of styrene, and 4b revealed an excellent branch selectivity of 75%. Although 1-undecenol proved to be amenable to hydroformylation (85–90% conversion to aldehyde), both the ligands failed to discriminate between the linear and branched products. Substrate methyl methacrylate proved to be highly challenging and reduced conversion (between 33–42%) was observed under optimized conditions. Ligand 4a was found to be highly selective towards linear aldehyde (81% linear selectivity).

  9. Luminescent single-ion magnets from Lanthanoid(III) complexes with monodentate ketone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanetomo, Takuya; Ishida, Takayuki, E-mail: takayuki.ishida@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We synthesized [Ln{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)(L)] (abbreviated as Ln-L; Ln = Gd, Tb, Eu; L = DTBK (di-t-butyl ketone), BP (benzophenone)), in which the carbonyl oxygen atom was coordinated to the Ln ion center, despite of such bulky substituents. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction study. Gd-DTBK is completely isomorphous to the di-t-butyl nitroxide derivative and accordingly can be regarded as a model with the ligand spin masked. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements on Tb-DTBK and -BP showed frequency dependence, characteristic of single-ion magnets. They also displayed photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The quantum yields of the luminescence of Tb-DTBK and -BP (λ{sub ex} = 360 nm) were improved to 57 and 35%, respectively, from that of the starting material [TbI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (28% at λ{sub ex} = 370 nm). Similarly, the quantum yields for Eu-DTBK and -BP were 8 and 15%, respectively, with λ{sub ex} = 400 nm, while that of the starting material [EuI{sup III}(hfac){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was 4% at λ{sub ex}=400 nm.

  10. Conversion of a monodentate amidinate-germylene ligand into chelating imine-germanate ligands (on mononuclear manganese complexes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego

    2014-08-18

    The unprecedented transformation of a terminal two-electron-donor amidinate-germylene ligand into a chelating three-electron-donor κ(2)-N,Ge-imine-germanate ligand has been achieved by treating the manganese amidinate-germylene complex [MnBr{Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (1; (i)Pr2bzam = N,N'-bis(isopropyl)benzamidinate) with LiMe or Ag[BF4]. In these reactions, which afford [Mn{κ(2)Ge,N-GeMe((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (2) and [Mn{κ(2)Ge,N-GeF((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (3), respectively, the anionic nucleophile, Me(-) or F(-), ends on the Ge atom while an arm of the amidinate fragment migrates from the Ge atom to the Mn atom. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with AgOTf (OTf = triflate) leads to [Mn(OTf){Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (4), which maintains intact the amidinate-germylene ligand. Complex 4 is very moisture-sensitive, leading to [Mn2{μ-κ(4)Ge2,O2-Ge2(t)Bu2(OH)2O}(CO)8] (5) and [(i)Pr2bzamH2]OTf (6) in wet solvents. In 5, a novel digermanate(II) ligand, [(t)Bu(OH)GeOGe(OH)(t)Bu](2-), doubly bridges two Mn(CO)4 units. The structures of 1-6 have been characterized by spectroscopic (IR, NMR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods.

  11. Sensitization of visible and NIR emitting lanthanide(III) ions in noncentrosymmetric complexes of hexafluoroacetylacetone and unsubstituted monodentate pyrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair; Iftikhar, K

    2013-11-07

    A series of highly volatile eight-coordinate air and moisture stable lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(hfaa)3(L)2] (Ln = Pr (1), Nd (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6), Ho (7), Er (8), Tm (9), and Yb (10); hfaa = anion of hexafluoroacetylacetone and L = pyrazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS(+), and NMR studies. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined for the Eu(III) and Dy(III) complexes. These complexes crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c. The lanthanide ion in each of these complexes is eight-coordinate with six oxygen atoms from three hfaa and two N-atoms from two pyrazole units, forming a coordination polyhedron best describable as a distorted square antiprism. The NMR spectra reveal that both the pyrazole units remain attached to the metal in solution and the β-diketonate and pyrazole protons are shifted in opposite directions in the case of paramagnetic complexes. The lanthanide-induced chemical shifts are dipolar in nature. The hypersensitive transitions of Nd(III), Ho(III), and Er(III) are sensitive to the environment (solvent), which is reflected by the oscillator strength and band shape of these transitions. The band shape due to the hypersensitive transition of Nd(III) in noncoordinating chloroform and dichloromethane is similar to those of the typical eight-coordinate Nd(III) β-diketonate complexes. The quantum yield and lifetime of Pr(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Tm(III) in visible and Pr(III), Nd(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) Tm(III), and Yb(III) in the NIR region are sizable. The environment around these metal ions is asymmetric, which leads to increased radiative rates and luminescence efficiencies. The quantum yield of the complexes reveal that ligand-to-metal energy transfer follows the order Eu(III) > Tb(III) ≫ Pr(III) > Dy(III) > Tm(III). Both ligands (hfaa and pyrazole) are good sensitizers for all the visible and NIR emitters effectively, except for Tb(III), Dy(III), and Tm(III), where pyrazole gave a negative effect (e.g., energy back-transfer) that is due to poor intramolecular energy transfer match. The good luminescent properties make these NIR-luminescent complexes to have potential application in optical communication, telecommunications, and fluoroimmunoassays.

  12. Mechanistic studies on the phosphoramidite coupling reaction in oligonucleotide synthesis. I. Evidence for nudeophilic catalysis by tetrazole and rate variations with the phosphorus substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bjarne H.; Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1987-01-01

    , and that dialkylammonium tetrazolide salts are inhibitors. These and other facts are evidence that the reactions are subjected to nucleophilic catalysis by tetrazole, in addition to acid catalysis. The rate variations with phosphorus substituents of 1a-h are NEt 2 > NRr12 > N(CH 2CH 2)O > NMePh, and OMe > OCH 2CH 2CN...... > OCHMeCH 2CN > OCMe 2CH 2CN >> OC 6H 4Cl. The inhibitor properties of dialkylammonium tetrazolides have practical consequences for the efficiency of DNA syntheses, when in situ prepared phosphramidites are used; the same would apply for segmented simultaneous syntheses or syntheses where recycling...

  13. Polycations XX: New Monodentate Cationic Ligands and Their Coordination with Ruthenium for the Construction of Complexes Expressing Enhanced Interaction with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Babukutty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior investigations from this laboratory concerned with the preparation of new types of organic cations for a variety of biological and nonbiological applications have been extended to the preparation of cation-bearing ligands with nitrogen coordinating sites for use in complexation reactions with ruthenium cores. The syntheses of new cationic ligands as well as ruthenium complexes bearing them are reported here. The introduction of these new types of ligands is intended to provide to the complexes an enhanced ability to interact with DNA, and thereby to have the potential to be enhanced antitumor agents. Preliminary observations of their interactions with DNA are presented.

  14. Potentiometric and spectrometric study: Copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes with potentially tridentate and monodentate ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Patel; Nripendra Singh; R P Shrivastava; K K Shukla; P K Singh

    2002-04-01

    Equilibrium and solution structural study of mixed-metal-mixed-ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with L-cysteine, L-threonine and imidazole are conducted in aqueous solution by potentiometry and spectrophotometry. Stability constants of the binary, ternary and quaternary complexes are determined at 25 ± 1 ° C and in = 0.1 M NaClO4. The results of these two methods are made selfconsistent, then rationalized assuming an equilibrium model including the species H3A, H2A, A, BH, B, M(OH), M(OH)2, M(A), MA(OH), M(B), M(A)(B), M2(A)2(B), M2(A)2(B-H), M1M2(A)2(B) and M1M2(A)2(B-H) (where the charges of the species have been ignored for the sake of simplicity) (A = L-cysteine, L-threonine, salicylglycine, salicylvaline and BH = imidazole). Evidence of the deprotonation of BH ligand is available at alkaline H. N1H deprotonation of the bidentate coordinated imidazole ligand in the binuclear species at H > 7.0 is evident from spectral measurements. Stability constants of binary M(A), M(B) and ternary M(A)(B), complexes follow the Irving-Williams order.

  15. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Electrochemical Studies on Some New Copper(II Complexes Containing 2-{[(Z-Phenyl (Pyridine-2-yl Methylidene] Amino}Benzenethiol and Monodentate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Rawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new mononuclear copper(II complexes, namely, [Cu(L(ImH]·ClO41; [Cu(L(Me-ImH]·ClO42; [Cu(L(Et-ImH]·ClO43; [Cu(L(2-benz-ImH]·ClO44; [Cu(L(benz-ImH]·ClO45, where HL = 2-{[(Z-phenyl (pyridine-2-yl methylidene] amino} benzenethiol; ImH = Imidazole; Me-ImH = Methy-limidazole; Et-ImH = Ethyl-imidazole; 2-benz-ImH = 2-methyl-benzimidazole; benz-ImH = benz-imidazole, have been synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. Magnetic moments, electronic spectra, and EPR spectra of the complexes suggested a square planar geometry around Cu(II ion. The synthesized HL ligand behaves as monobasic tridentate Schiff base bound with the metal ion in a tridentate manner, with N2S donor sites of the pyridine-N, azomethine-N, and benzenethiol-S atoms. The redox behaviour of the copper complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has been revealed to catalyse the dismutation of superoxide (O2- and IC50 values were evaluated and discussed.

  16. Investigation of antitumor potential of Ni(II) complexes with tridentate PNO acylhydrazones of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and monodentate pseudohalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čobeljić, Božidar; Milenković, Milica; Pevec, Andrej; Turel, Iztok; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Sladić, Dušan; Radulović, Siniša; Jovanović, Katarina; Anđelković, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    Square-planar azido Ni(II) complex with condensation product of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and Girard's T reagent was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined. Cytotoxic activity of the azido complex and previously synthesized isothiocyanato, cyanato and chlorido Ni(II) complexes with this ligand was examined on six tumor cell lines (HeLa, A549, K562, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-361 and LS-174) and two normal cell line (MRC-5 and BEAS-2B). All the investigated nickel(II) complexes were cytotoxic against all tumor cell lines. The newly synthesized azido complex showed selectivity to HeLa and A549 tumor cell lines compared to the normal cells (for A549 IC50 was similar to that of cisplatin). Azido complex interferes with cell cycle phase distribution of A549 and HeLa cells and possesses nuclease activity towards supercoiled DNA. The observed selectivity of the azido complex for some tumor cell lines can be connected with its strong DNA damaging activity.

  17. New di:thiophosphite, di:thiophosphate, thio:phosphoramidite and thio:phosphonite compounds - are intermediates for synthesis of oligo- and poly-nucleotide(s) having phosphorothioate linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    agents; for treatment of tumours, viral and bacterial infections; for targeting to deliver drugs, metal ions, toxins or intercalating agents to specific cell and tissue sites; and, by attachment to a label (e.g. a fluorophore, antigen, antibody, protein or metal ion), for the diagnosis of diseases...

  18. New di:thiophosphite, di:thiophosphate, thio:phosphoramidite and thio:phosphonite compounds - are intermediates for synthesis of oligo- and poly-nucleotide(s) having phosphorothioate linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    interrupted by heteroatoms). USE-(I) are intermediates in the synthesis of various types of oligo- and polynucleotides containing phosphorothioate (PS) groups between the units. Such oligo- and poly-nucleotides have many potential biological, therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Examples are: as antisense...... agents; for treatment of tumours, viral and bacterial infections; for targeting to deliver drugs, metal ions, toxins or intercalating agents to specific cell and tissue sites; and, by attachment to a label (e.g. a fluorophore, antigen, antibody, protein or metal ion), for the diagnosis of diseases...

  19. Oligo-nuclear silver thiocyanate complexes with monodentate tertiary phosphine ligands, including novel 'cubane' and 'step' tetramer forms of AgSCN : PR3 (1:1)4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmaker, Graham A; Di Nicola, Corrado; Effendy; Hanna, John V; Healy, Peter C; King, Scott P; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Robinson, Ward T; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; Tăbăcaru, Aurel; White, Allan H

    2013-01-07

    Adducts of a number of tertiary pnicogen ligands ER(3) (triphenyl-phosphine and -arsine (PPh(3),AsPh(3)), diphenyl,2-pyridylphosphine (PPh(2)py), tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine (P(C(6)H(4)-4F)(3)), tris(2-tolyl)phosphine (P(o-tol)(3)), tris(cyclohexyl)phosphine (PCy(3))), with silver(I) thiocyanate, AgSCN are structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The 1:3 AgSCN : ER(3) complexes structurally defined (for PPh(3),AsPh(3) (diversely solvated)) take the form [(R(3)E)(3)AgX], the thiocyanate X = NCS being N-bound, thus [(Ph(3)E)Ag(NCS)]. A 1:2 complex with PPh(2)py, takes the binuclear form [(pyPh(2)P)(2)Ag()Ag(PPh(2)py)(2)] with an eight-membered cyclic core. 1:1 complexes are defined with PPh(2)py, P(o-tol)(3) and PCy(3); binuclear forms [(R(3)P)Ag()Ag(PR(3))] are obtained with P(o-tol)(3) (two polymorphs), while novel isomeric tetranuclear forms, which may be envisaged as dimers of dimers, are obtained with PPh(2)py, and, as further polymorphs, with PCy(3); these latter may be considered as extensions of the 'cubane' and 'step' forms previously described for [(R(3)E)AgX](4) (X = halide) complexes. Solvent-assisted mechanochemical or solvent-assisted solid-state synthesis methods were employed in some cases, where complexes could not be obtained by conventional solution methods, or where such methods yielded a mixture of polymorphs unsuitable for solid-state spectroscopy. The wavenumbers of the ν(CN) bands in the IR spectra are in broad agreement with the empirical rule that distinguishes bridging from terminal bonding, but exceptions occur for compounds that have a double SCN bridged dimeric structure, and replacement of PPh(3) with PPh(2)py apparently causes a significant decrease in ν(CN) to well below the range expected for bridging SCN in these structures. (31)P CP MAS NMR spectra yield additional parameters that allow a correlation between the structures and spectra.

  20. Assessment of 4-nitrogenated benzyloxymethyl groups for 2'-hydroxyl protection in solid-phase RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Kauffman, Jon S; Kolodziejski, Michelle J; Lloyd, John R; Beaucage, Serge L

    2007-02-15

    The search for a 2'-OH protecting group that would impart ribonucleoside phosphoramidites with coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites led to an assessment of 2'-O-(4-nitrogenated benzyloxy)methyl groups through solid-phase RNA synthesis using phosphoramidites 2a-d, 12a, and 14a. These phosphoramidites exhibited rapid and efficient coupling properties. Particularly noteworthy is the cleavage of the 2'-O-[4-(N-methylamino)benzyloxy]methyl groups in 0.1 M AcOH, which led to U19dT within 15 min at 90 degrees C. [reaction: see text

  1. Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins with a dynamic library of chiral TROPOS phosphorus ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Chiara; Gennari, Cesare; Piarulli, Umberto; de Vries, Johannes G; de Vries, André H M; Lefort, Laurent

    2005-11-04

    A library of 19 chiral tropos phosphorus ligands, based on a flexible (tropos) biphenol unit and a chiral P-bound alcohol (11 phosphites) or secondary amine (8 phosphoramidites), was synthesized. These ligands were screened, individually and as a combination of two, in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydro-alpha-amino acids, dehydro-beta-amino acids, enamides and dimethyl itaconate. ee values up to 98% were obtained for the dehydro-alpha-amino acids, by using the best combination of ligands, a phosphite [4-P(O)2O] and a phosphoramidite [13-P(O)2N]. Kinetic studies of the reactions with the single ligands and with the combination of phosphite [4-P(O)2O] and phosphoramidite [13-P(O)2N] have shown that the phosphite, despite being less enantioselective, promotes the hydrogenation of methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate and methyl 2-acetamidocinnamate faster than the mixture of the same phosphite with the phosphoramidite, while the phosphoramidite alone is much less active. In this way, the reaction was optimized by lowering the phosphite/phosphoramidite ratio (the best ratio is 0.25 equiv phosphite/1.75 equiv phosphoramidite) with a resulting improvement of the product enantiomeric excess. A simple mathematical model for a better understanding of the variation of the enantiomeric excess with the phosphite/phosphoramidite ratio is also presented.

  2. Methidium intercalator inserted into synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, E. N.; Smirnov, I. P.; Haff, L. A.; Tishchenko, E. I.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Florentiev, V. L.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; PerSeptive BioSystems Inc.

    1996-01-01

    A new methidium intercalator phosphoramidite has been synthesized. Methidium incorporation into an oligonucleotide during the synthesis was confirmed by UV and MALDI TOF MS data. UV melting experiments showed enhanced stability of a duplex, containing internal methidium. Methidium phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used for insertion of intercalator into the deoxyoligonucleotides.

  3. Structure of a dinuclear cadmium complex with 2,2'-bi-pyridine, monodentate nitrate and 3-carb-oxy-6-methyl-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ate ligands: intra-molecular carbon-yl(lone pair)⋯π(ring) and nitrate(π)⋯π(ring) inter-actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granifo, Juan; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    The centrosymmetric dinuclear complex bis-(μ-3-carb-oxy-6-methyl-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ato)-κ(3) N,O (2):O (2);κ(3) O (2):N,O (2)-bis-[(2,2'-bi-pyridine-κ(2) N,N')(nitrato-κO)cadmium] methanol monosolvate, [Cd2(C8H6NO4)2(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2]·CH3OH, was isolated as colourless crystals from the reaction of Cd(NO3)2·4H2O, 6-methyl-pyridine-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid (mepydcH2) and 2,2'-bi-pyridine in methanol. The asymmetric unit consists of a Cd(II) cation bound to a μ-κ(3) N,O (2):O (2)-mepydcH(-) anion, an N,N'-bidentate 2,2'-bi-pyridine group and an O-mono-dentate nitrate anion, and is completed with a methanol solvent mol-ecule at half-occupancy. The Cd complex unit is linked to its centrosymmetric image through a bridging mepydcH(-) carboxyl-ate O atom to complete the dinuclear complex mol-ecule. Despite a significant variation in the coordination angles, indicating a considerable departure from octa-hedral coordination geometry about the Cd(II) atom, the Cd-O and Cd-N distances in this complex are surprisingly similar. The crystal structure consists of O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonded chains parallel to a, further bound by C-H⋯O contacts along b to form planar two-dimensional arrays parallel to (001). The juxtaposed planes form inter-stitial columnar voids that are filled by the methanol solvent mol-ecules. These in turn inter-act with the complex mol-ecules to further stabilize the structure. A search in the literature showed that complexes with the mepydcH(-) ligand are rare and complexes reported previously with this ligand do not adopt the μ-κ(3) coordination mode found in the title compound.

  4. Synthesis of Methoxyethyl Nucleoside Dimer Phosphoramidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gi Weon; Kang, Yong Han [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Four types of methoxyethyl (MOE) nucleoside phosphoramidites, which are categorized as second-generation building blocks of antisense oligonucleotide drugs, were synthesized. Also, three types of MOE nucleoside dimer phosphoramidites were synthesized to increase the efficiency and oligomer purity in solid phase synthesis. The block-like dimer phosphoramidites can prevent or minimize the formation of the (N-1) mer impurity, thereby affording the fabrication of pure oligonucleotides and reducing the synthesis time by performing coupling reactions in the order of 2 + 2 + 2.

  5. Enantioselective Synthesis of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereogenic Centers via Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of (Z)-Allyl Bromides with Organolithium Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Vitale, Romina; Perez, Manuel; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    A copper/phosphoramidite catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of Z trisubstituted allyl bromides with organolithium reagents is reported. The reaction affords all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields and very good regio- and enantioselectivity. This systematic study illustrates

  6. Synthesis and characterization of dinucleoside phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Brill, Wolfgang K D; Caruthers, Marvin H.

    1988-01-01

    Dinucleoside phosphoramidites, H2S, and tetrazole react to form dinucleoside H-phosphonothioates. Oxidation with sulfur yields phosphorodithioates. Iodine oxidation in the presence of amines, alcohols, or water yields phosphorothioamidates, thiotriesters or thiodiesters. © 1988....

  7. Synthesis and characterization of dinucleoside phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Brill, Wolfgang K D; Caruthers, Marvin H.

    1988-01-01

    Dinucleoside phosphoramidites, H2S, and tetrazole react to form dinucleoside H-phosphonothioates. Oxidation with sulfur yields phosphorodithioates. Iodine oxidation in the presence of amines, alcohols, or water yields phosphorothioamidates, thiotriesters or thiodiesters....

  8. Synthesis and hybridization properties of inverse oligonucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni, M.; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Augustijns, Patrick; Rozenski, Jef; Herdewijn , Piet

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of adenine and thymine cyclopentylethyl nucleosides is presented. This novel constrained monomeric building block is very difficult to incorporate into oligonucleotides. It was introduced in 13mer oligodeoxynucleotide sequences at a single position using H-phosphonate chemistry. Phosphoramidite chemistry completely failed in this particular case. The H-phosphonate building blocks were obtained starting from the corresponding phosphoramidites. Stability of duplexes with RNA and D...

  9. Rational Inhibitors of DNA Base Excision Repair Enzymes: New Tools for Elucidating the Role of BER in Cancer Chemotherapy. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    PROCEDURES2 Materials. The 2′-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidites, CPG supports, and DNA synthesis reagents were purchased from Glen Research (Sterling, VA...flipping enzymes (28). EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Materials. The 2′-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidites, CPG supports, and DNA synthesis reagents were...28425. (21) Klarmann, G. J.; Chen, X.; North, T. W.; Preston, B. D. J. Biol. Chem. 2003, 278, 7902- 7909 . (22) Mansky, L. M.; Preveral, S.; Selig, L

  10. Bis(ortho)-Chelated Bis(phosphanyl)aryl Ruthenium(II).Complexes Containing an h1 -P-Monodentate or m -BridgingP,h1-P' Bonded R—PCHP Arene Ligand, 1-R-3,5(CH2PPh2)2C2H2 [R= H, Br, or, Si(n-CH2CH2C2F17)3]—Cyclometalation Reaction Intermediates and Potential Catalysts for Use in Fluorinated Biphasic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Dani, P.; Richter, B.; Klink, G.P.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Mono- and binuclear ruthenium(II) complexes containing ligands derived from the meta-bis(phosphanyl)arene ligand 1-R-3,5-(CH2PPh2)2C6H3 [R-PCHP: R = H (5), Br (3), or Si(n-CH2CH2C8F17)3 (4)] have been synthesized and fully characterized. On reaction of equimolar amounts of the ruthenium starting mat

  11. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan

    2014-01-23

    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  12. 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl and 4-oxopentyl groups for phosphate/thiophosphate protection in oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Andrzej; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L; Phillips, Lawrence R

    2003-02-01

    This unit provides procedures for the preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites and appropriate phosphordiamidite precursors with P(III) protecting groups different than the standard 2-cyanoethyl group. Specifically, these phosphoramidites are functionalized with the 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl or 4-oxopentyl groups. The usefulness of these novel deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites in the solid-phase synthesis of a 20-mer DNA oligonucleotide and its phosphorothioated analog is demonstrated. It is also shown that removal of the 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl phosphate/thiophosphate-protecting group from these oligonucleotides is rapidly effected under thermolytic conditions at neutral pH, whereas the 4-oxopentyl group is preferably removed by treatment with pressurized ammonia gas or concentrated ammonium hydroxide at ambient temperature. These detailed methods constitute an economical and alkylation-free approach to large-scale preparations of therapeutic oligonucleotides.

  13. An exceptional P-H phosphonite: Biphenyl-2,2'-bisfenchylchlorophosphite and derived ligands (BIFOPs in enantioselective copper-catalyzed 1,4-additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudörfl J-M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biphenyl-2,2'-bisfenchol (BIFOL based chlorophosphite, BIFOP-Cl, exhibits surprisingly high stabilities against hydrolysis as well as hydridic and organometallic nucleophiles. Chloride substitution in BIFOP-Cl proceeds only under drastic conditions. New enantiopure, sterically demanding phosphorus ligands such as a phosphoramidite, a phosphite and a P-H phosphonite (BIFOP-H are hereby accessible. In enantioselective Cu-catalyzed 1,4-additions of ZnEt2 to 2-cyclohexen-1-one, this P-H phosphonite (yielding 65% ee exceeds even the corresponding phosphite and phosphoramidite.

  14. The 4-methylthio-1-butyl group for phosphate/thiophosphate protection in oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Livengood, Victor; Beaucage, Serge L

    2004-12-01

    The detailed preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites functionalized with a 4-methylthio-1-butyl group for P(III) protection is described, along with the incorporation of these phosphoramidites into DNA oligonucleotides via solid-phase techniques. The versatility of the thermolabile 4-methylthio-1-butyl phosphate/thiophosphate-protecting group is exemplified through its facile removal from oligonucleotides under neutral conditions or under standard basic conditions. The sulfonium salt that is produced during the thermolytic deprotection of oligonucleotides did not alter DNA nucleobases or desulfurize phosphorothioate diesters to a significant extent.

  15. The MOX/SUC precursor strategies: robust ways to construct functionalized oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushin, N

    2001-01-01

    The use of phosphoramidites bearing one or more methoxyoxalamido (MOX) or succinimido (SUC) reactive groups for construction of functionalized oligonucleotides is described. The efficiency of the new precursor strategy was demonstrated in the synthesis of oligonucleotide containing up to 16 imidazole residues.

  16. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Prochiral Olefins with a Dynamic Library of Chiral TROPOS Phosphorus Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, Chiara; Gennari, Cesare; Piarulli, Umberto; Vries, Johannes G. de; Vries, André H.M. de; Lefort, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    A library of 19 chiral tropos phosphorus ligands, based on a flexible (tropos) biphenol unit and a chiral P-bound alcohol (11 phosphites) or secondary amine (8 phosphoramidites), was synthesized. These ligands were screened, individually and as a combination of two, in the rhodium-catalyzed

  17. Synthesis, Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry, and PCR Amplification of 3'-5' and 3'-6' Disulfide-linked Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis Jul; Manuguerra, Ilenia; Kjelstrup, Michael Brøndum;

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide dithymidines linked 3'-5' or 3'-6' were synthesized and incorporated into oligonucleotides through a combined phosphotriester and phosphoramidite solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis approach. The disulfide links are cleaved and formed reversibly in the presence of thiols and oligonucl...

  18. Synthesis and properties of triplex-forming oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-(3-aminoprop-1-ynyl)-uridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Chenguang; Xiao, Qiang; Brennan, Lavinia;

    2010-01-01

    2'-O-(2-Methoxyethyl)-5-(3-aminoprop-1-ynyl)-uridine phosphoramidite (MEPU) has been synthesized from d-ribose and 5-iodouracil and incorporated into triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by automated solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. The TFOs gave very high triplex stability with their ta...

  19. Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T; Jacobsen, N; Fensholdt, J;

    2000-01-01

    advantages as they are able to generate highly reactive species in an orientation specific manner. As presented here, anthraquinone (AQ) mediated covalent DNA immobilization appears to be superior to currently known procedures. A synthetic procedure providing AQ-phosphoramidites is presented. These reagents...

  20. Nickel-catalyzed enantioselective hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols:An efficient access to homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols catalyzed by nickel complexes of chiral spiro phosphoramidite ligands was developed.A series of homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center were produced in high yields(up to 97%) and high enantioselectivities(up to 95% ee).The reaction provides an efficient method for preparing bifunctional compounds with a chiral quaternary carbon center.

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Enantioselective Allyl-Allyl Cross-Coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornillos, Valentin; Perez, Manuel; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    A Cu(I)-phosphoramidite-based catalytic system that allows asymmetric allyl-allyl cross-coupling with high enantioselectivity is reported. This transformation tolerates a large variety of functionalized substrates. The versatility of this new reaction is illustrated in the catalytic asymmetric

  2. Ru/Me-BIPAM-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Aliphatic Aldehydes and α-Ketoesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters with arylboronic acids has been developed, giving chiral alkyl(arylmethanols and α-hydroxy esters in good yields. The use of a chiral bidentate phosphoramidite ligand (Me-BIPAM achieved excellent enantioselectivities.

  3. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumrukcu, Y.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2015-01-01

    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooper

  4. Cooperative catalysis by palladium and a chiral phosphoric acid: enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Cooperative catalysis by [Pd(dba)2] and the chiral phosphoric acid BA1 in combination with the phosphoramidite ligand L8 enabled the efficient enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols with a variety of functionalized amines. This catalytic protocol is highly regio- and stereoselective (up to e.r. 96:4) and furnishes valuable chiral amines in almost quantitative yield.

  5. Hybrid diphosphorus ligands in rhodium catalysed asymmetric hydroformylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikkali, S.H.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to illustrate recent advances in the application of hybrid diphosphorus ligands for the Rh catalysed hydroformylation of alkenes, discussing the most prevalent classes of hybrid systems, i.e. phosphine-phosphinite, phosphine-phosphonite, phosphine-phosphite, phosphite-phosphoramidit

  6. Photoligation of self-assembled DNA constructs containing anthracene-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Karol; Pasternak, Anna; Gupta, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel anthracene-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA phosphoramidite derivative is described together with its incorporation into oligodeoxynucleotides. Two DNA strands with the novel 2'-N-anthracenylmethyl-2'-amino-LNA monomers can be effectively cross-linked by photoligation...

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.; Stambuli, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The transition metal catalyzed trimethylenemethane [3+2] cycloaddition provides a direct route to functionalized heterocycles. Herein, we describe a catalytic, asymmetric protocol for the reaction between 3-acetoxy-2-trimethylsilylmethyl-1-propene and various imines. The corresponding pyrrolidines were obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities making use of the novel phosphoramidite L10. PMID:17887679

  8. Ru/Me-BIPAM-catalyzed asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Shirai, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Kurihara, Kazunori; Miyaura, Norio

    2011-06-17

    A ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters with arylboronic acids has been developed, giving chiral alkyl(aryl)methanols and α-hydroxy esters in good yields. The use of a chiral bidentate phosphoramidite ligand (Me-BIPAM) achieved excellent enantioselectivities.

  9. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporat...

  10. Highly enantioselective rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, SLX; Minnaard, AJ; Hessen, B; Feringa, BL; Martina, Sébastien L.X.; Feringa, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The rhodium-phosphoramidite-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones proceeds at room temperature using [Rh(OH)(cod)](2) or [RhCl(cod)](2)/KOH as stable and readily available catalyst precursors. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions with organozinc and Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Koen; Fletcher, Stephen P.; van Zijl, Anthoni W.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Bignall, H. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L. L.; MacQuart, J. P.; Tingay, S. J.; Rayner, D. P.; Clay, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric allylic alkylations (AAAs) are among the most powerful C-C bond-forming reactions. We present a brief overview of copper-catalyzed AAAs with organometallic reagents and discuss our own contributions to this field. Work with zinc reagents and phosphoramidite ligands provided a framework fo

  12. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation...

  13. NEW HYDROGENOXALATO ADDUCTS AND MALONATO COMPLEX: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Two new hydrogenoxalato and one malonato adduct and complex have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete, the hydrogenoxalate behaving as a monodentate ligand or only involved in hydrogen bonding, the environment around the tin (IV) centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. The malonate anion is a monodentate ligand. In all the suggested structures, when extra hydrogen bonds are considered, supramolecular architectures are...

  14. NEW HYDROGENOXALATO ADDUCTS AND MALONATO COMPLEX: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOUHAMADOU BIRAME DIOP

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new hydrogenoxalato and one malonato adduct and complex have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete, the hydrogenoxalate behaving as a monodentate ligand or only involved in hydrogen bonding, the environment around the tin (IV centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. The malonate anion is a monodentate ligand. In all the suggested structures, when extra hydrogen bonds are considered, supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  15. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Ji

    2017-08-01

    Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  16. Element-sensitive computed tomography by fine tuning of PXR-based X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T.; Sakai, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Element-sensitive computed tomography (CT) experiments were carried out based on the absorption edge of a specific element using a finely tunable X-ray beam generated by parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). Tomographic images of specimens containing strontium were measured at energies both lower and higher than that of the Sr absorption edge. The difference between the images of the two energies successfully reveals the three-dimensional distributions of Sr. The results demonstrate that this method is effective for elemental analysis of considerably thick samples and could complement X-ray fluorescence analysis.

  17. Phosphate adsorption onto hematite: an in situ ATR-FTIR investigation of the effects of pH and loading level on the mode of phosphate surface complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Evert J; Sparks, Donald L

    2007-04-01

    Phosphate adsorption on hematite was characterized as a function of pH (3.5-8.9) and phosphate concentration (5-500 microM) by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Under most conditions a mixture of different (inner-sphere) phosphate complexes existed at the hematite surface, with the relative importance of these complexes varying with pH and surface coverage. Experiments using D(2)O and H(2)O indicated the presence of two protonated phosphate surface complexes at pH/pD=3.5-7.0. Comparison to spectra of protonated aqueous phosphate species suggested that these surface complexes are monoprotonated. The difference in the IR spectra of these complexes is tentatively interpreted to result from a different surface coordination, with one surface complex coordinated in a monodentate binuclear (bridging) fashion, and the second as a monodentate mononuclear complex. Alternatively, the bridging complex may be a (protonated) monodentate mononuclear complex exhibiting strong hydrogen bonding to an adjacent surface site, and the second species a monodentate complex exhibiting limited hydrogen bonding. Formation of the bridging complex is favored at lower pH values and higher surface loadings in the 3.5-7.0 pH range. At the highest pH values studied (8.5-9.0) a third complex, interpreted to be a nonprotonated monodentate mononuclear complex, is present along with the monodentate monoprotonated surface species. The importance of the nonprotonated monodentate complex increases with increasing surface coverage at these high pH values.

  18. Enantioselective Construction of Pyrrolidines by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of trimethylenemethane (TMM) with imines has been developed. Central to this effort were the novel phosphoramidite ligands developed in our laboratories. The conditions developed to effect an asymmetric TMM reaction using 2-trimethylsilylmethyl allyl acetate were shown to be tolerant of a wide variety of imine acceptors to provide the corresponding pyrrolidine cycloadducts with excellent yields and selectivities. Use of a bis-2-naphthyl phosphoramidite allowed the successful cycloaddition of the parent TMM with N-Boc imines, and has further permitted the reaction of substituted donors with N-tosyl aldimines and ketimines in high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Use of a diphenylazetidine ligand allows the complimentary synthesis of the exocyclic nitrile product shown, and we demonstrate control of the regioselectivity of the product based on manipulation of the reaction parameters. PMID:22309214

  19. Synthesis of G-N2-(CH2)3-N2-G Trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppi, Francesca; Salyard, Tracy L. Johnson; Rizzo, Carmelo J.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of G-N2-(CH2)3-N2-G trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) in a 5′-CG-3′ and 5′-GC-3′ sequence from oligodeoxynucleotides containing N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-fluoro-O6-(trimethylsilylethyl)inosine is presented. Automated solid-phase DNA synthesis was used for unmodified bases and modified nucleotides were incorporated via their corresponding phosphoramidite reagent by a manual coupling protocol. The preparation of the phosphoramidite reagents for incorporation of N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine is reported. The high-purity trimethylene DNA interstrand cross-link product is obtained through a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction between the N2-(3-aminopropyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-fluoro-O6-(trimethylsilylethyl)inosine containing oligodeoxynucleotides. PMID:25431636

  20. Solid-phase synthesis of siRNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Serge L

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as a means to silence the expression of specific genes, small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides have been recognized as powerful tools for targeting therapeutically important mRNAs and eliciting their destruction. This discovery has created a high demand for synthetic oligoribonucleotides as potential therapeutics and has spurred a renaissance in the development of rapid, efficient methods for solid-phase RNA synthesis. The design and implementation of 2'-hydroxyl protecting groups that provide ribonucleoside phosphoramidites with coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites are key to the production of RNA oligonucleotides in sufficient quantity and purity for pharmaceutical applications. In this context, various siRNAs were chemically modified to identify the biophysical and biochemical parameters necessary for effective and stable RNAi-mediated gene-silencing activities.

  1. Synthesis of acetylene-substituted probes with benzene-phosphate backbones for RNA labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Ueno, Yoshihito; Kitade, Yukio

    2014-06-24

    Conversion of dimethyl 5-aminoisophthalate into the iodoarene via the corresponding diazonium intermediate, followed by Sonogashira coupling with trimethylsilylacetylene afford the alkynylarene, which is reduced with LiAlH4 to give 5-ethynyl-1,3-benzenedimethanol (B(E)). One hydroxyl group is protected with a 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) group and subsequently another hydroxyl group is phosphitylated to produce the phosphoramidite. The mono-DMTr compound is also modified to afford the corresponding succinate, which is then reacted with controlled pore glass (CPG) to provide the solid support. Either the phosphoramidite or the solid support is employed in solid-phase synthesis of RNA containing B(E). RNA oligomers bearing B(E) rapidly react with 4-fluorobenzylazide to produce the cycloaddition products in good to excellent yield.

  2. Towards the Batch Synthesis of Long DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Laplacian on a Riemannian Manifold, Cambridge, Cambridge (1997). 131 Arfken , G., Mathematical Methods for Physicists. Academic Press, Orlando (1985...typical phosphoramidite chemical synthesis method .1 On the other hand, two ss (single-stranded) DNAs can be joined or ligated into a single ds (double...the preferred method for the de novo laboratory synthesis of long DNA.3 More generally there are undoubtedly profound clinical (e.g., gene therapeutic

  3. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide wit......, to a method for preparing a labelled oligonucleotide, and to the use of the labelled oligonucleotide as hybridisation probe, in polymerase chain reactions (PCR), in nucleic acid sequencing, in cloning recombinant DNA and $i(in vitro) mutagenesis....

  4. NMR spectroscopic investigations on copper-catalyzed reactions and zintl anions

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Carina

    2016-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugated 1,4-addition reaction of organozinc reagents to a,b-unsaturated compounds is a very effective and widely used method for the enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation. By the use of phosphoramidite ligands it is possible to reach ee-values and conversion up to > 99 %. Furthermore, this outstanding reaction provides lower costs in comparison to other transition-metal catalyzed reactions and compatibility to many functional groups. Despite the grea...

  5. An efficient reagent for the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides, DNA oligonucleotides, and their thermolytic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Cristina; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-09-15

    [reaction: see text] The phosphoramidite 11 was prepared in three steps from methyl 2-mercaptoacetate and demonstrated efficiency in the synthesis of conventional 5'-/3'-phosphate/thiophosphate monoester derivatives of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and DNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, the use of 11 has enabled the preparation of the dinucleoside phosphorothioate analogue 26 in high yields (>95%) with minimal cleavage (<2%) of the thermolytic thiophosphate protecting group.

  6. Dynamic kinetic cross-coupling strategy for the asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral heterobiaryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Abel; Estepa, Beatriz; Ramírez-López, Pedro; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Rosario; Lassaletta, José M

    2013-10-23

    A dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) technique has been designed for the synthesis of 2'-substituted 2-aryl pyridines/isoquinolines and related heterobiaryls. In this way, the Pd(0)-catalyzed coupling of racemic 2-triflates with aryl boroxines using a TADDOL-derived phosphoramidite as the ligand provides the corresponding coupling products with good to excellent enantioselectivities. Structural studies support that the formation of configurationally labile oxidative addition palladacycles is the key for the success of the methodology.

  7. Acetylated and Methylated β-Cyclodextrins as Viable Soluble Supports for the Synthesis of Short 2′-Oligodeoxyribo-nucleotides in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lönnberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel soluble supports for oligonucleotide synthesis 11a–c have been prepared by immobilizing a 5′-O-protected 3′-O-(hex-5-ynoylthymidine (6 or 7 to peracetylated or permethylated 6-deoxy-6-azido-β-cyclodextrins 10a or 10b by Cu(I-promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The applicability of the supports to oligonucleotide synthesis by the phosphoramidite strategy has been demonstrated by assembling a 3′-TTT-5′ trimer from commercially available 5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytritylthymidine 3′-phosphoramidite. To simplify the coupling cycle, the 5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl protecting group has been replaced with an acetal that upon acidolytic removal yields volatile products. For this purpose, 5′-O-(1-methoxy-1-methylethyl-protected 3′-(2-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl-phosphoramidites of thymidine (5a, N4-benzoyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5b and N6-benzoyl-2′-deoxyadenosine (5c have been synthesized and utilized in synthesis of a pentameric oligonucleotide 3′-TTCAT-5′ on the permethylated cyclodextrin support 11c.

  8. The 4-(N-dichloroacetyl-N-methylamino)benzyloxymethyl group for 2'-hydroxyl protection of ribonucleosides in the solid-phase synthesis of oligoribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Kauffman, Jon S; Duff, Robert J; Beaucage, Serge L

    2008-04-04

    Emerging RNA-based technologies for controlling gene expression have triggered a high demand for synthetic oligoribonucleotides and have motivated the development of ribonucleoside phosphoramidites that would exhibit coupling kinetics and coupling efficiencies comparable to those of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites. To fulfill these needs, the novel 4-(N-dichloroacetyl-N-methylamino)benzyloxymethyl group for 2'-hydroxyl protection of ribonucleoside phosphoramidites 9a-d has been implemented (Schemes 1 and 2). The solid-phase synthesis of AUCCGUAGCUAACGUCAUGG was then carried out employing 9a-d as 0.2 M solutions in dry MeCN and 5-benzylthio-1H-tetrazole as an activator. The coupling efficiency of 9a-d averaged 99% within a coupling time of 180 s. Following removal of all base-sensitive protecting groups, cleavage of the remaining 2'-[4-(N-methylamino)benzyl] acetals from the RNA oligonucleotide was effected in buffered 0.1 M AcOH (pH 3.8) within 30 min at 90 degrees C. RP-HPLC and PAGE analyses of the fully deprotected AUCCGUAGCUAACGUCAUGG were comparable to those of a commercial RNA oligonucleotide sharing an identical sequence. Enzymatic digestion of the RNA oligomer catalyzed by bovine spleen phosphodiesterase and bacterial alkaline phosphatase revealed no significant amounts of RNA fragments containing (2'-->5')-internucleotidic phosphodiester linkages or noteworthy nucleobase modifications.

  9. Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Lev M

    2011-01-01

    This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the firs...

  10. Revealing hidden optical transitions with tuneable optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Novelli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    While a vast amount of theoretical and experimental approaches can be used to study the band structure of simple solids, the investigation of the electronic properties of high-temperature superconductors and other strongly correlated systems is far less simple. Limitations to both theory and experiments arise from e.g. the many-body nature of the mathematical problem and from the non-trivial surface reconstructions, respectively. Here we propose a novel approach able to reveal energy gaps between band extrema that cannot be identified from the equilibrium optical properties. By combining finely-tunable visible pump pulses with terahertz probe fields, we identify changes to the transient conductivity as the pump wavelength is changed and the density of carriers in different parts of the band structure varies. This approach is demonstrated on a typical semiconductor, undoped silicon, where we identify the band minimum at the $L$ point of the conduction band, corresponding to the second lowest energy indirect ga...

  11. Adapting Axelrod's cultural dissemination model for simulating peer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christian; Lechner, Gernot; Brudermann, Thomas; Füllsack, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on. The Axelrod model was extended to cover the following additional features: •Consideration of empirical social science data for concrete social interaction.•Development of a variable and fine-tunable interaction function for agents.•Deployment of a generic procedure for modeling peer effects in agent-based models.

  12. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlin An

    Full Text Available Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI with a destabilizing domain (DD specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models.

  13. Gradients of Rectification: Tuning Molecular Electronic Devices by the Controlled Use of Different-Sized Diluents in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Gyu Don; Kim, Miso; Cho, Soo Jin; Yoon, Hyo Jae

    2016-08-22

    Molecular electronics has received significant attention in the last decades. To hone performance of devices, eliminating structural defects in molecular components inside devices is usually needed. We herein demonstrate this problem can be turned into a strength for modulating the performance of devices. We show the systematic dilution of a monolayer of an organic rectifier (2,2'-bipyridine-terminated n-undecanethiolate) with electronically inactive diluents (n-alkanethiolates of different lengths), gives remarkable gradients of rectification. Rectification is finely tunable in a range of approximately two orders of magnitude, retaining its polarity. Trends of rectification against the length of the diluent indicate the gradient of rectification is extremely sensitive to the molecular structure of the diluent. Further studies reveal that noncovalent intermolecular interactions within monolayers likely leads to gradients of structural defect and rectification.

  14. Pulsed Laser Deposition and Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction studies of epitaxial long range order, nano- and microstructured Ag thin films grown on MgO, Al2 O3 , STO and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Daniel; Seibert, Rachel; Man, Hamdi; Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition is a state-of-the-art technique that allows for the fine tunability of the deposition rate, highly uniform and epitaxial sample growth, the ability to introduce partial pressures of gases into the experimental chamber for growth of complex materials without interfering with the energy source (laser). An auxiliary in situ technique for growth monitoring, Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction, is a powerful characterization tool for predictability of the surface physical structure both, qualitatively and quantitatively. RHEED patterns during and post deposition of Ag thin films on MgO, Al2O3, Si and STO substrtates are presented and their interpretations are compared with surface imaging techniques (SEM, STM) to evidence the usefulness of the technique.

  15. Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Kulkarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications.

  16. Tunable mid-infrared emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Zhou, Zhiyue; Li, Zhixian; Zhang, Naiqian; Chen, Yubin

    2016-11-01

    We report here a step tunable mid-infrared laser emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber. Two kinds of anti-resonant hollow-core fibers are filled with mbar level of acetylene gas, and pumped with a modulated, amplified, narrow linewidth, fine tunable, 1.5 μm diode laser, then 3 μm laser emissions are generated by the intrinsic absorption of acetylene molecules. The laser wavelength is step-tunable in the range of 3.1 3.2 μm when the pump laser is precisely tuned to different absorption lines of P-branch of acetylene. By properly designing the fiber's transmission bands, and carefully selecting active gases and pump lasers, this paper provides a novel method for efficient, compact and tunable mid-infrared fiber lasers over a broad spectrum range.

  17. Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium (Technetium) Tricarbonyl Complexes Integrated in Estrogen Receptor Ligands for ER+ Tumor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Oxidation to the N-oxide 38 with peroxy acid, with subsequent rearrangement provides the alcohol 39. Treatment of 39 with triflic anhydride in...anionic monodentate ligand is bromide for the pyridyl-imine rhenium tricarbonyl bromide (PIRB VI) system. A nomenclature of PIRB ligands is based

  18. Ruthenium/1,1 '-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-Catalysed Oppenauer Oxidation of Alcohols and Lactonisation of alpha,omega-Diols using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone as Oxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicklaus, Celine M.; Phua, Pim Huat; Buntara, Teddy; Noel, Sebastien; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ruthenium catalysts, made in situ from [Ru(p-cymene)Cl-2](2) and various monodentate and bidentate phosphorus ligands were screened in the double Oppenauer oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol to caprolactone using methyl isobutyl ketone as oxidant and potassium carbonate as base. The catalyst ba

  19. Ruthenium/1,1 '-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-Catalysed Oppenauer Oxidation of Alcohols and Lactonisation of alpha,omega-Diols using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone as Oxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicklaus, Celine M.; Phua, Pim Huat; Buntara, Teddy; Noel, Sebastien; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ruthenium catalysts, made in situ from [Ru(p-cymene)Cl-2](2) and various monodentate and bidentate phosphorus ligands were screened in the double Oppenauer oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol to caprolactone using methyl isobutyl ketone as oxidant and potassium carbonate as base. The catalyst

  20. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour.

  1. Bis(nitrato-κ2O,O′bis[N-(triphenylmethylpyridin-2-amine-κN1]nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ning Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(NO32(C24H20N22], the NiII atom has a distorted pseudo-octahedral coordination geometry defined by two chelating nitrate groups and two pyridine N atoms of the monodentate N-(triphenylmethylpyridin-2-amine ligands. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the configuration.

  2. NEW TIN (IV, MX2 AND M’Cl3 (M= Zn, Hg; M’= Pr, Er ADDUCTS AND COMPLEXES OF BIS(AMINOMETHYLBENZENE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSANE TOURE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The new adducts and complexes obtained have discrete or dimeric structures; in these structures the diamine behaves as a monodentate and hydrogen bonds involved or bidentate ligand. In one rare earth halide adduct the high coordination number (7 proposed is common for this family. When extra intermolecular hydrogen bonds are taken into account, supramolecular architectures may be obtained.

  3. SOME SULFATO ADDUCTS AND DERIVATIVE: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOUHAMADOU BIRAME DIOP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new adducts and derivative have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete with a sulfate behaving as a monochelating, bichelating or monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being octahedral or pentagonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, proposed supramolecular architectures may be obtained when intermolecular hydrogen bonds are considered.

  4. Iminophosphanes : Synthesis, Rhodium Complexes, and Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitriles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, Mark K.; Van Duin, Koen; Van Dijk, Tom; De Pater, Jeroen J.M.; Deelman, Berth Jan; Nieger, Martin; Ehlers, A. W.; Slootweg, J. Chris; Lammertsma, Koop

    2017-01-01

    Highly stable iminophosphanes, obtained from alkylating nitriles and reaction of the resulting nitrilium ions with secondary phosphanes, were explored as tunable P-monodentate and 1,3-P,N bidentate ligands in rhodium complexes. X-ray crystal structures are reported for both κ1 and κ2 complexes with

  5. Ruthenium/1,1 '-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-Catalysed Oppenauer Oxidation of Alcohols and Lactonisation of alpha,omega-Diols using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone as Oxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicklaus, Celine M.; Phua, Pim Huat; Buntara, Teddy; Noel, Sebastien; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ruthenium catalysts, made in situ from [Ru(p-cymene)Cl-2](2) and various monodentate and bidentate phosphorus ligands were screened in the double Oppenauer oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol to caprolactone using methyl isobutyl ketone as oxidant and potassium carbonate as base. The catalyst ba

  6. Sorption mechanisms of cephapirin, a veterinary antibiotic, onto quartz and feldspar minerals as detected by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Jonathan W., E-mail: peterson@hope.ed [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Hope College, P.O. Box 9000, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); O' Meara, Theresa A. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Hope College, P.O. Box 9000, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Seymour, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, P.O. Box 9000, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Wang Wei; Gu Baohua [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate sorption mechanisms of cephapirin (CHP), a veterinary antibiotic, onto quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and feldspar (KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) at different pH. Sorption occurs by electrostatic attraction, monodentate and bidentate complexation. The zwitterion (CHP{sup o}) adsorbs to a quartz{sup (+)} surface by electrostatic attraction of the carboxylate anion group (-COO{sup -}) at low pH, but adsorbs to a quartz{sup (-)} surface through electrostatic attraction of the pyridinium cation, and possibly COO{sup -} bridge complexes, at higher pH. CHP{sup -} bonds to quartz{sup (-)} surfaces by bidentate complexation between one oxygen of -COO{sup -} and oxygen from carbonyl of an acetoxymethyl group. On a feldspar{sup (+/-)} surface, CHP{sup o} forms monodentate complexes between C=O, and possible -COO{sup -} bridges and/or electrostatic attachments to localized edge (hydr)oxy-Al surfaces. CHP{sup -} adsorbs to feldspar{sup (-)} through monodentate C=O complexation. Similar mechanisms may operate for other cephalosporins. Results demonstrate, for the first time, that Raman techniques can be effective for evaluating sorption mechanisms of antibiotics. - Raman spectroscopy indicates that cephapirin, a veterinary antibiotic, sorbs to quartz and feldspar by electrostatic attraction, and monodentate and bidentate complexation.

  7. Influence of Axial and Peripheral Ligands on the Electronic Structure of Titanium Phthalocyanines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickup, David F.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis; Ballesteros, Beatriz; Ganivet, Carolina R.; Garcia-Lastra, J. M.; Cook, Peter L.; Johnson, Phillip S.; Rogero, Celia; de Groot, Frank; Rubio, Angel; de la Torre, Gema; Enrique Ortega, J.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    To discover how molecular changes affect the electronic structure of dye molecules for solar cells, we have investigated four titanium phthalocyanines customized by axial and peripheral ligands (monodentate oxo versus bidentate catechol and tert-butyl versus tert-butylphenoxy, respectively). X-ray a

  8. Ligand-guided pathway selection in nickel-catalyzed couplings of enals and alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Montgomery, John

    2012-01-28

    Nickel-catalyzed couplings of enals and alkynes utilizing triethylborane as the reducing agent illustrate a significant dependence on ligand structure. Simple variation of monodentate phosphines allows selective access to alkylative couplings or reductive cycloadditions, while further variation of reaction conditions provides clean access to reductive couplings and redox-neutral couplings.

  9. Influence of axial and peripheral ligands on the electronic structure of titanium phthalocyanines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickup, David F.; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Rogero, Celia

    2013-01-01

    To discover how molecular changes affect the electronic structure of dye molecules for solar cells, we have investigated four titanium phthalocyanines customized by axial and peripheral ligands (monodentate oxo versus bidentate catechol and tert-butyl versus tert-butylphenoxy, respectively). X-ra...

  10. New insights into the mechanism of asymmetric hydrogenation catalysed by monophosphonite-rhodium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridnev, Ilya D; Fan, Cheng; Pringle, Paul G

    2007-04-07

    The solvento complex [Rh(L)2(S)2]+ where L=tBuP(R-binaphthoxo) is shown to be in equilibrium with an eta-arene dirhodium complex and only weak, monodentate binding of alkenes is observed; in addition, an intermediate Rh alkyl hydride complex containing two coordinated monophosphonites is unambiguously characterised by NMR.

  11. Tuning of gate adsorption: modification of a flexible metal-organic framework by secondary organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Fujii, Takuro; Maeda, Kazuyuki

    2014-06-14

    For realizing selective adsorption of targeted molecules, a flexible metal-organic framework (MOF) was modified with monodentate secondary ligands. Although the modified MOF retains CO2 adsorptivities with a vertical adsorption uptake, the material also shows gate adsorptivities of a specific gas molecule that the pristine MOF does not adsorb.

  12. Structural investigation of aryllithium clusters in solution. I. A 13C and 7Li NMR studyof phenyllithium and some methyl-substituted phenyllithium derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Wehman, E.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Ernsting, J.M.; Grove, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    }1{}3{C and }7{Li NMR spectra of phenyllithium and several methyl subsituted phenyllithium derivatives have been recorded in the presence of known amounts of coordinating solvents such as monodentate diethyl ether and THF and the potentially bidentate TMEDA (tetramethylethylenediamine). The relative

  13. Atmospheric Hydrogenation of Esters Catalyzed by PNP-Ruthenium Complexes with an N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Osamu; Nakayama, Yuji; Nara, Hideki; Fujiwhara, Mitsuhiko; Kayaki, Yoshihito

    2016-08-01

    New pincer ruthenium complexes bearing a monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized and demonstrated as powerful hydrogenation catalysts. With an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas, aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic esters as well as lactones were converted into the corresponding alcohols at 50 °C. This reaction protocol offers reliable access to alcohols using an easy operational setup.

  14. 2'-Hydroxy protection of ribonucleosides as 2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl ethers in solid-phase synthesis of RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Ausín, Cristina; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L

    2013-10-08

    The reaction of 2'-O-aminooxymethylribonucleosides with 2-cyano-2-methyl propanal leads to the formation of stable and yet reversible 2'-O-(2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl)ribonucleosides in post-purification yields of 54% to 82%. Phenoxyacetylation of the exocyclic amino functions of these ribonucleosides proceeds in yields of 74% to 89%, and subsequent 5'-O-dimethoxytritylation and 3'-O-phosphitylation of the corresponding N-phenoxyacetylated ribonucleosides provide the fully protected ribonucleoside phosphoramidite monomers in isolated yields of 69% to 88%. These ribonucleoside phosphoramidites are employed in solid-phase synthesis of three chimeric RNA sequences, each differing in purine/pyrimidine content. The stepwise coupling efficiency of the ribonucleoside phosphoramidites (as 0.15 M solutions in acetonitrile) averages 99% over a coupling time of 180 s when 5-benzylthio-1H-tetrazole is used as an activator. Upon completion of RNA chain assembly, removal of the nucleobase- and phosphate-protecting groups and release of sequences from the solid support are carried out under standard basic conditions. Finally, the 2'-O-(2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl) protective groups are cleaved from the RNA sequences by treatment with 0.5 M tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry DMSO for 24 to 48 hr at 55°C without releasing RNA-alkylating side-products. Characterization of the fully deprotected RNA sequences by PAGE, enzymatic hydrolysis, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirms the identity and high quality of these sequences.

  15. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  16. Rh-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of arylboronic acids with a dynamic library of chiral tropos phosphorus ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Chiara; Gennari, Cesare; Piarulli, Umberto

    2007-01-01

    A library of 19 chiral tropos phosphorus ligands, based on a free-to-rotate (tropos) biphenol unit and a chiral P-bonded alcohol (11 phosphites, 1-P(O)(2)O to 11-P(O)(2)O) or secondary amine (8 phosphoramidites, 12-P(O)(2)N to 19-P(O)(2)N), were screened, individually and in combinations of two, in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enones and enoates. High enantioselectivities (up to 99 % ee) and excellent yields were obtained in the addition to either cyclic or acyclic substrates. The flexible biphenolic P ligands outperformed the analogous rigid binaphtholic P ligands. Variable-temperature (31)P NMR studies revealed that the biphenolic ligands are tropos even at low temperature. Only below 190 K was a coalescence observed; upon further cooling, two atropisomers were detected. The Rh homocomplexes ([Rh(L(a))(2)](+)) were also studied: in general, a single doublet (P-Rh coupling) was observed in the case of the biphenolic phosphite ligands, over the temperature range 380-230 K, demonstrating their tropos nature in the rhodium complexes even at low temperatures. On the other hand, the phosphoramidites showed different behaviors depending on the structure of the ligand and on the nature of the rhodium source. The spectrum at 230 K of the mixture of [Rh(acac)(eth)(2)] (eth=C(2)H(4)) with phosphite 6-P(O)(2)O and phosphoramidite 19-P(O)(2)N (the most enantioselective ligand combination in the conjugate addition reaction) revealed the presence of four homocomplexes (total approximately 40 %: [Rh{6-P(O)(2)O}(2)], [Rh{(aR)-19-P(O)(2)N}(2)], [Rh{(aS)-19-P(O)(2)N}(2)], [Rh{(aR)-19-P(O)(2)N}{(aS)-19-P(O)(2)N}]) and one heterocomplex, [Rh{6-P(O)(2)O}{(aR)-19-P(O)(2)N}] (approximately 60 %) In the heterocomplex, the biphenol-derived phosphite is free to rotate (tropos) while the biphenol-derived phosphoramidite shows a temperature-dependent tropos/atropos behavior (coalescence temperature=310 K).

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Oligodeoxyribonucleotides Modified with 2'-Amino-α-l-LNA Adenine Monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai K; Anderson, Brooke A; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    The development of conformationally restricted nucleotide building blocks continues to attract considerable interest because of their successful use within antisense, antigene, and other gene-targeting strategies. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) and its diastereomer α-l-LNA are two interesting examples...... (ONs) modified with 2'-amino-α-l-LNA adenine monomers W-Z. The synthesis of the target phosphoramidites 1-4 is initiated from pentafuranose 5, which upon Vorbrüggen glycosylation, O2'-deacylation, O2'-activation and C2'-azide introduction yields nucleoside 8. A one-pot tandem Staudinger...

  18. Chemical syntheses of inhibitory substrates of the RNA-RNA ligation reaction catalyzed by the hairpin ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Archna P; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th

    2004-01-01

    The chemical syntheses of RNA oligomers containing modifications on the 5'-carbon of the 5'-terminal nucleoside for crystallographic and mechanistic studies of the hairpin ribozyme are reported. Phosphoramidites 4 and 8 were prepared and used in solid phase syntheses of RNA oligomers containing the sequence 5'-N'UCCUCUCC, where N' indicates either 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyguanosine or 5'-amino-5'-deoxyguanosine, respectively. A ribozyme ligation assay with the 5'-chloro- and 5'-amino-modified RNA oligomers demonstrated their inhibition of the hairpin-catalyzed RNA-RNA ligation reaction.

  19. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Gumrukcu; Bas de Bruin; Reek, Joost N. H.

    2015-01-01

    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and th...

  20. Quadracyclic adenine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierckx, Anke; Miannay, Francois-Alexandre; Ben Gaied, Nouha

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent-base analogues (FBAs) comprise a group of increasingly important molecules for the investigation of nucleic acid structure and dynamics as well as of interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules. Here, we report on the synthesis, detailed spectroscopic characterisation...... fluorescent adenine analogues for future detailed studies of nucleic acid-containing systems....... and base-pairing properties of a new environment-sensitive fluorescent adenine analogue, quadracyclic adenine (qA). After developing an efficient route of synthesis for the phosphoramidite of qA it was incorporated into DNA in high yield by using standard solid-phase synthesis procedures. In DNA qA serves...

  1. Synthesis of Aminoglycoside-2′-O-Methyl Oligoribonucleotide Fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Granqvist

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoramidite building blocks of ribostamycin (3 and 4, that may be incorporated at any position of the oligonucleotide sequence, were synthesized. The building blocks, together with a previously described neomycin-modified solid support, were applied for the preparation of aminoglycoside-2′-O-methyl oligoribonucleotide fusions. The fusions were used to clamp a single strand DNA sequence (a purine-rich strand of c-Myc promoter 1 to form triple helical 2′-O-methyl RNA/DNA-hybrid constructs. The potential of the aminoglycoside moieties to stabilize the triple helical constructs were studied by UV-melting profile analysis.

  2. Protecting groups for RNA synthesis: an increasing need for selective preparative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Alvaro

    2008-12-01

    RNA can be chemically synthesized by automated DNA/RNA synthesizers, using protected ribonucleosides activated as phosphoramidites. The efficiency of the synthesis depends greatly on the protecting groups used, especially the protecting group on the 2'-hydroxyl functionality. The strategies employed to place the protecting groups on the desired functionality are quite inefficient, requiring additional modifications of the substrate, or leading to mixtures of protected compounds. In this tutorial review, the methods available for the selective protection of ribonucleosides are commented on, introducing the reader to the synthetic challenges involved.

  3. OligoPrep PVA support for oligonucleotide synthesis in columns on a scale up to 10 micromol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sheena; Anderson, Emma

    2007-01-01

    OligoPrep is a macroporous polyvinylacetate (PVA) biodegradable support that has been designed for cost-effective automated synthesis of oligonucleotides using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Originally developed for large-scale oligonucleotide synthesis in beds and reactors, we present here its utility for medium-scale work of 1-10 micromol in column syntheses on standard DNA synthesizers. We show how an increase in scale, and, therefore, yield, can be achieved without significant increase in reagent quantity. Additional deblock and oxidation cycles can provide high coupling yields, and the use of concentrated ammonia in aqueous methylamine (AMA) for oligonucleotide cleavage and deprotection results in excellent recovery.

  4. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    acid (LNA)/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization......In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo...

  5. Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, Sergey A.; Timofeev, Edward N.; Chernov, Boris K.; Golova, Julia B.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2000-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dGiBu, dCBz and dABz. PMID:10734206

  6. Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surzhikov, S. A.; Timofeev, E. N.; Chernov, B. K.; Golova, J. B.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-04-15

    A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dG{sup iBu}, dC{sup Bz} and dA{sup Bz}.

  7. 31P NMR study of the desulfurization of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates effected by "aged" trichloroacetic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Ausín, Cristina; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Kauffman, Jon S; Snyder, John; Del-Grosso, Alfred; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-04-15

    When employing phosphoramidites 1a-d in the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleoside phosphorothioates, the thermolytic 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group is lost to a large extent during the course of the synthesis. The resulting phosphorothioate diesters are then substantially desulfurized upon recurring exposure to a commercial solution of deblocking reagent during chain assembly. This problem is caused by the secondary decomposition product(s) of the reagent and is alleviated by using a fresh solution of the deblocking reagent prepared from solid trichloroacetic acid.

  8. The 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl group as a potential phosphate/thiophosphate protecting group in solid-phase oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, A; Wilk, A; Chmielewski, M K; Phillips, L R; Beaucage, S L

    2001-05-03

    [reaction in text] The 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite 1 has been synthesized and used in the solid-phase synthesis of an octadecathymidylic acid as a cost-efficient monomer for potential application in the preparation of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl group can be cleaved from oligonucleotides according to a unique thermolytic cyclodeesterification process at pH 7.0. In addition to being cost-effective, the use of 1 simplifies oligonucleotide postsynthesis processing by eliminating the utilization of concentrated ammonium hydroxide in oligonucleotide deprotection.

  9. Syntheses of DNA Duplexes That Contain a N4C-alkyl-N4C Interstrand Cross-Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for preparing short DNA duplexes that contain a single N4C-alkyl-N4C interstrand cross-link. The synthesis is carried out on an automated DNA synthesizer using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. The cross-link is introduced during the synthesis of the duplex. The method can be used to prepare mg quantities of cross-linked duplexes suitable for physical studies and for the preparation of larger DNA molecules that can be used as substrates to study DNA repair in whole cell extracts and in living cells in culture. PMID:21400705

  10. Chimeric RNA Oligonucleotides with Triazole and Phosphate Linkages: Synthesis and RNA Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoko; Kogashi, Kanako; Okada, Koudai; Mattarella, Martin; Suzuki, Takeru; Yasumoto, Kenichi; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric RNA oligonucleotides with an artificial triazole linker were synthesized using solution-phase click chemistry and solid-phase automated synthesis. Scalable synthesis methods for jointing units for the chimeric structure have been developed, and after click-coupling of the jointing units with triazole linkers, a series of chimeric oligonucleotides was prepared by utilizing the well-established phosphoramidite method for the elongation. The series of chimeric 21-mer oligonucleotides that possessed the triazole linker at different strands and positions allowed for a screening study of the RNA interference to clarify the preference of the triazole modifications in small-interfering RNA molecules.

  11. Solid-phase synthesis of 2{sup '}-O-methoxyethyl oligonucleotides using dimeric phosphoramidate blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Gi Weon; Kang, Yong Han [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This research focused on the method of using dimeric phosphoramidite blocks to synthesize oligonucleotides for development as oligonucleotide drugs. A 16-mer oligonucleotide with the randomly selected sequence of C*C*T*C*G*C *T*C*T*C*G*C*C* C*G*C was synthesized using CC, GC, and TC dimers, a combination of monomers and dimers, or only monomers as building blocks. Using dimer blocks in this synthetic method provided a significant decrease in critical impurities that had similar properties to the main product, which was confirmed by LC-MS and HPLC analysis.

  12. DNA functionalization by dynamic chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kanlidere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC is an attractive method to efficiently generate libraries of molecules from simpler building blocks by reversible reactions under thermodynamic control. Here we focus on the chemical modification of DNA oligonucleotides with acyclic diol linkers and demonstrate their potential for the deoxyribonucleic acid functionalization and generation of libraries of reversibly interconverting building blocks. The syntheses of phosphoramidite building blocks derived from D-threoninol are presented in two variants with protected amino or thiol groups. The threoninol building blocks were successfully incorporated via automated solid-phase synthesis into 13mer oligonucleotides. The amino group containing phosphoramidite was used together with complementary single-strand DNA templates that influenced the Watson–Crick base-pairing equilibrium in the mixture with a set of aldehyde modified nucleobases. A significant fraction of all possible base-pair mismatches was obtained, whereas, the highest selectivity (over 80% was found for the guanine aldehyde templated by the complementary cytosine containing DNA. The elevated occurrence of mismatches can be explained by increased backbone plasticity derived from the linear threoninol building block as a cyclic deoxyribose analogue.

  13. Rational design of catalysts for asymmetric diamination reaction using transition state modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Garima; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2014-05-07

    The stereoselective synthesis of 1,2-diamines has remained a formidable challenge. A recent palladium-catalyzed asymmetric diamination of conjugated double bonds using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone appears promising. The axially chiral binol phosphoramidite ligands are successful in offering high enantioselectivity. The density functional theory investigations revealed that the energies of the stereocontrolling transition states for the C-N bond formation depend on a number of weak non-covalent interactions such as C-H···π, C-H···O and anagostic interactions. We envisaged that the modulation in these interactions in the transition states, through subtle changes in chiral phosphoramidite substituents, could be exploited toward steering the stereoselectivity. The effect of systematic modifications on both 3,3' positions of the binol as well as on the amido nitrogen on the stereochemical outcome is predicted. It is identified that high enantioselectivity requires a balance between the nature of the substituents on binol and amido groups. The reduced size of the amido substituents demands increased bulk on the binol whereas lowering the size on the binol demands increased bulk on the amido for higher stereoselectivity. The substituent at the α-position of the amido group is found to be vital and appears to be a hot spot for modifications. These insights derived from studies on the stereocontrolling transition states could help improve the catalytic efficacies in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric diamination reactions.

  14. Synthesis of a new intercalating nucleic acid 6H-INDOLO[2,3-b] quinoxaline oligonucleotides to improve thermal stability of Hoogsteen-type triplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amany M A; Pedersen, Erik B; Bergman, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A new intercalating nucleic acid monomer X was obtained in high yield starting from alkylation of 4-iodophenol with (S)-(+)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)ethanol under Mitsunobu conditions followed by hydrolysis with 80% aqueous acetic acid to give a diol which was coupled under Sonogashira conditions with trimethylsilylacetylene (TMSA) to achieve the TMS protected (S)-4-(4-((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)phenoxy)butane-1,2-diol. Tetrabutylammonium flouride was used to remove the silyl protecting group to obtain (S)-4-(4-ethynylphenoxy)butane-1,2-diol which was coupled under Sonogashira conditions with 2-(9-bromo-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxalin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine to achieve (S)-4-(4-((6-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxalin-9-yl)ethynyl)phenoxy)butane-1,2-diol. This compound was tritylated with 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl chloride followed by treatment with 2-cyanoethyltetraisopropylphosphordiamidite in the presence of N,N'-diisopropyl ammonium tetrazolide to afford the corresponding phosphoramidite. This phosphoramidite was used to insert the monomer X into an oligonucleotide which was used for thermal denaturation studies of a corresponding parallel triplex.

  15. Label-free electrochemical monitoring of protein addressing through electroactivated "click" chemistry on gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, Nadir; Ripert, Micaël; Chaix, Carole; Farre, Carole; De Crozals, Gabriel; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    In this work, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have, for the first time, label-free monitored protein immobilization on a gold surface through a strategy of electroaddressing, compatible with the production of microarrays for multi-detection. This functionalization is achieved via the alkyne/azide cycloaddition, better known as the "click" reaction. The electroaddressing was applied to a polythiol hexynyl derivative previously grafted onto the gold surface. This compound consists of two dithiol phosphate groups and a hexynyl function and was synthesized through a supported synthesis approach, from a dithiol reagent, phosphoramidite (DTPA), and a hexynyl phosphoramidite. Next, an azide-PEG3-biotin derivative was grafted onto the modified gold surface by electro-chronocoulometry. The "click" reaction was controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, showing the change in impedance only when the electroaddressing was performed at -300 mV. No effect on the EIS signal was observed when a positive potential was applied, confirming the specificity of the electroactivation. Biotin-modified electrodes were used to fix streptavidin and the immobilization was monitored using EIS. Fluorescent streptavidin-functionalized silica nanoparticles were also specifically grafted onto the biotinylated gold surface in order to confirm the "click" reaction using fluorescence microscopy. The obtained streptavidin platform was used to detect the surface coverage by biotinylated human serum albumin (HSA). The lowest detectable concentration is 10 pg/mL, and surface saturation is obtained with concentrations higher than 100 ng/mL.

  16. Thermolytic properties of 3-(2-pyridyl)-1-propyl and 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups in solid-phase synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L

    2003-12-26

    Thermolytic groups may serve as alternatives to the conventional 2-cyanoethyl group for phosphate/thiophosphate protection in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis to prevent DNA alkylation by acrylonitrile generated under the basic conditions used for oligonucleotide deprotection. Additionally, thermolytic groups are attractive in the context of engineering a "heat-driven" process for the synthesis of oligonucleotides on diagnostic microarrays. In these regards, the potential application of pyridine derivatives as thermolytic phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups has been investigated. Specifically, 2-pyridinepropanol and 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethanol were incorporated into deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites 7a-d and 9, which were found as efficient as 2-cyanoethyl deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. Whereas the removal of 3-(2-pyridyl)-1-propyl phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups from oligonucleotides is effected within 30 min upon heating at 55 degrees C in concentrated NH4OH or in an aqueous buffer at pH 7.0, cleavage of 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl groups occurs spontaneously when their phosphate or phosphorothioate esters are formed during oligonucleotide synthesis. The deprotection of these groups follows a cyclodeesterification process generating the bicyclic salts 13 and 14 as side products. These salts do not alkylate or otherwise modify any DNA nucleobases and do not desulfurize a phosphorothioate diester model under conditions mimicking large-scale oligonucleotide deprotection.

  17. Solid-phase synthesis of thermolytic DNA oligonucleotides functionalized with a single 4-hydroxy-1-butyl or 4-phosphato-/thiophosphato-1-butyl thiophosphate protecting group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Ausín, Cristina; Kauffman, Jon S; Snyder, John; Hess, Sonja; Lloyd, John R; Beaucage, Serge L

    2007-02-02

    Several thermolytic CpG-containing DNA oligonucleotides analogous to 1 have been synthesized to serve as potential immunotherapeutic oligonucleotide prodrug formulations for the treatment of infectious diseases in animal models. Specifically, the CpG motif (GACGTT) of each DNA oligonucleotide has been functionalized with either the thermolabile 4-hydroxy-1-butyl or the 4-phosphato-/thiophosphato-1-butyl thiophosphate protecting group. This functionalization was achieved through incorporation of activated deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite 8b into the oligonucleotide chain during solid-phase synthesis and, optionally, through subsequent phosphorylation effected by phosphoramidite 9. Complete conversion of CpG ODNs hbu1555, psb1555, and pob1555 to CpG ODN 1555 (homologous to 2) occurred under elevated temperature conditions, thereby validating the function of these diastereomeric oligonucleotides as prodrugs in vitro. Noteworthy is the significant increase in solubility of CpG ODN psb1555 and CpG pob1555 in water when compared to that of neutral CpG ODN fma1555 (homologous to 1).

  18. The 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl group as an attractive phosphate/thiophosphate protecting group for solid-phase oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Andrzej; Chmielewski, Marcin K; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Phillips, Lawrence R; Beaucage, Serge L

    2002-09-06

    Among the various phosphate/thiophosphate protecting groups suitable for solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, the 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl group is one of the most convenient, as it can be readily removed, as needed, under thermolytic conditions at neutral pH. The deprotection reaction proceeds rapidly (t(1/2) approximately 100 s) through an intramolecular cyclodeesterification reaction involving the amide function and the release of the phosphate/thiophosphate group as a 2-(tert-butylimino)tetrahydrofuran salt. Incorporation of the 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl group into the deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites 1a-d is achieved using inexpensive raw materials. The coupling efficiency of 1a-d in the solid-phase synthesis of d(ATCCGTAGCTAAGGTCATGC) and its phosphorothioate analogue is comparable to that of commercial 2-cyanoethyl deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites. These oligonucleotides were phosphate/thiophosphate-deprotected within 30 min upon heating at 90 degrees C in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS buffer, pH 7.2). Since no detectable nucleobase modification or significant phosphorothioate desulfurization occurs, the 3-(N-tert-butylcarboxamido)-1-propyl group represents an attractive alternative to the 2-cyanoethyl group toward the large-scale preparation of therapeutic oligonucleotides.

  19. Thermolytic 4-methylthio-1-butyl group for phosphate/thiophosphate protection in solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Livengood, Victor; Beaucage, Serge L

    2004-04-02

    The thermolabile 4-methylthio-1-butyl phosphate/thiophosphate protecting group for DNA oligonucleotides has been investigated for its potential application to a "heat-driven" process for either oligonucleotide synthesis on diagnostic microarrays or, oppositely, to the large-scale preparation of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The preparation of phosphoramidites 10a-d is straightforward, and the incorporation of these amidites into oligonucleotides via solid-phase techniques proceeds as efficiently as that achieved with 2-cyanoethyl deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites. The versatility of the 4-methylthio-1-butyl phosphate/thiophosphate protecting group is exemplified by its facile removal from oligonucleotides upon heating for 30 min at 55 degrees C in an aqueous buffer under neutral conditions or within 2 h at 55 degrees C in concentrated NH(4)OH. The deprotection reaction occurs through an intramolecular cyclodeesterification mechanism leading to the formation of sulfonium salt 18. When mixed with deoxyribonucleosides and N-protected 2'-deoxyribonucleosides or with a model phosphorothioate diester under conditions approximating those of large-scale (>50 mmol) oligonucleotide deprotection reactions, the salt 18 did not significantly alter DNA nucleobases or desulfurize the phosphorothioate diester model to an appreciable extent.

  20. DINUCLEAR NICKEL(II PIVALATE WITH µ-AQUA AND DI-µ-PIVALATO BRIDGES SHOWING A FERROMAGNETIC INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Mikuriya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear nickel(II complex, [Ni2{O2CC(CH33}4(OH2{HO2CC(CH33}4] (1, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities (4.5—300 K. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed a dinuclear core with µ-aqua and di-µ-pivalato bridges having monodentate pivalato and monodentate pivalic acid molecules. Magnetic data analysis showed a ferromagnetic interactions between the two nickel atoms with g = 2.251, J = 2.78 cm−1, D = 3.75 cm–1, and tip = 184 x 10–6 cm3 mol–1; g = 2.253, J = 2.73 cm−1, D = –3.26 cm–1, and tip = 176 x 10–6 cm3 mol–1.

  1. Synthesis and structural studies of half-sandwich Cp* rhodium and Cp* iridium complexes featuring mono, bi and tetradentate nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NARASINGA RAO PALEPU; WERNER KAMINSKY; MOHAN RAO KOLLIPARA

    2017-05-01

    A series of Cp*Rh and Cp*Ir complexes of various nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands were synthesized and characterized. Mono, bi and tetradentate ligands were used to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear complexes. Schiff base derivatives of picolinic hydrazine and 5-aminoquinoline were used in thesynthesis of complexes 1–8. Among the ligands used for complexation, L1 and L2 act as bidentate, L3 as monodentate and L4 as tetradentate in forming the corresponding complexes. All the complexes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques and the structures of complexes 2, 3, 5 and 7 were unambiguouslycharacterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Complexes 2 and 7 were found to have π-π stacking interactions and solvent to complex interactions, respectively. Metal-mediated deprotonation of N-H and monodentate binding of nitrogen are attributed to the formation of neutral complexes whereas ionic complexes are formed by (N,O) bonding.

  2. (Cy2NH22SO4.2SnMe3SO4Cy2NH2; 2(Cy2NH22SO4.5SnMe3SO4Cy2NH2: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allowing (Cy2NH22.SO4.2H2O or Cy2NH2.HSO4 to react with SnMe3Cl in ethanolic media in two specific ratios the sulphato complexes (mentioned in this paper title were obtained and their infrared study was carried out. Discrete structures containing the complex-anion [SO4(SO4SnMe32]4- consisting of a central bidentate sulphate linked to SnMe3 groups which are then coordinated to monodentate sulphate anions or the complex-anion [(SO46(SnMe35]7- consisting of planar SnMe3 groups, monodentate or bidentate sulphate anions, these complex-anions dimerizing through cations via hydrogen bonds, are suggested.

  3. Alternative models for determining the surface energy components in offset printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järn, M; Tåg, C-M; Järnström, J; Granqvist, B; Rosenholm, J B

    2006-09-15

    Different ways of calculating surface energy components for substrates used in offset printing are compared. The results of the very useful van Oss-Chaudhury-Good bi-bidentate model (vOCG) are simplified to mono-bidentate and mono-monodentate models. The unbalance in the acid-base values often obtained by the vOCG model is strongly reduced when applying the simple mono-monodentate model. Moreover, the frequently encountered problem of negative square roots of the acid and base components is removed. An attempt to describe the ink transfer during offset printing by calculating theoretical works of adhesion between ink/plate and ink/paper is also made. The effect of paper roughness on the wetting was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  4. (Quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κO)(quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid-κO)bis-(quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid-κN,O)potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-07-17

    The K atom in the title complex, [K(C(10)H(6)NO(2))(C(10)H(7)NO(2))(3)], lies on a twofold rotation axis that relates one N,O-chelating quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid to the other; their N and O atoms are cis to each other in the distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The K atom is also coordinated by another monodentate quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid; the acid is disordered with respect to a monodentate quinoline-2-carboxyl-ate anion; the acid and anion are linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. An O-H⋯N hydrogen bond links adjacent mol-ecules into a linear chain structure along the a axis.

  5. Dynamic adsorption of catechol at the goethite/aqueous solution interface: a molecular-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanli; Yan, Wei; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-10-16

    Insights from molecular-level mechanisms of catechol adsorption on goethite can further our understanding of the fate and transport of hydroxyaromatic compounds in the environment. The motivation for our study is to explore the dynamic adsorption process of catechol at the goethite/aqueous interface on the molecular scale. Multiple complementary techniques including macroscopic adsorption experiments, flow-cell ATR-FTIR measurement, 2D IR correlation analysis, and quantum chemical calculations were used to study the adsorption mechanisms. Our results show that the adsorption of catechol was elevated at high pH but was not affected by ionic strength because of the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Catechol adsorbed on goethite in mononuclear monodentate and binuclear bidentate configurations in the pH range of 5 to 9. Partial mononuclear monodentate structures could be converted to binuclear bidentate complexes under basic conditions and with increasing surface coverage.

  6. Di-μ-oxido-bis[bis(diisopropylacetamidinato-κN;κ2N,N′-germanium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank T. Edelmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ge2(C8H17N24O2], crystallizes with imposed twofold symmetry, which allows the monodentate amidinate ligands to be arranged in a cisoid fashion. The independent Ge—O distances within the central Ge2O2 ring, which is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.039 Å, are 1.7797 (8 and 1.8568 (8 Å. The germanium centres adopt a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, being coordinated by the two O atoms and by one bidentate and one monodentate amidinate ligand (three N atoms. One N-isopropyl group is disordered over two positions; these are mutually exclusive because of `collisions' between symmetry-equivalent methyl groups and thus each has 0.5 occupancy.

  7. Di-μ-oxido-bis-[bis-(diiso-propyl-aceta-midinato)-κN;κ(2) N,N'-germanium(IV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syre, Ronny; Frenzel, Nancy; Hrib, Cristian G; Burte, Edmund P; Jones, Peter G; Edelmann, Frank T

    2013-11-30

    The title compound, [Ge2(C8H17N2)4O2], crystallizes with imposed twofold symmetry, which allows the monodentate amidinate ligands to be arranged in a cisoid fashion. The independent Ge-O distances within the central Ge2O2 ring, which is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.039 Å), are 1.7797 (8) and 1.8568 (8) Å. The germanium centres adopt a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, being coordinated by the two O atoms and by one bidentate and one monodentate amidinate ligand (three N atoms). One N-isopropyl group is disordered over two positions; these are mutually exclusive because of 'collisions' between symmetry-equivalent methyl groups and thus each has 0.5 occupancy.

  8. Poly[(μ6-2-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzoatopotassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Danish

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title coordination polymer, [K(C8H5N2O6]n, each ligand bridges six K+ cations. The carboxylate group coordinates both bidentately to one K+ ion and monodentately to two K+ ions, while one nitro group coordinates bidentately to a fourth K+ ion. The last two K+ ions are coordinated by the remaining nitro group, one in a bidentate fashion, the other monodentately through one O atom. This bridging mode results in a three-dimensional network. The coordination geometry of the K+ ion is represented by an irregular KO9 polyhedron. Very weak C—H...O interactions are observed in the crystal structure.

  9. Formaldehyde adsorption and decomposition on rutile (110): A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the adsorption and decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) molecule on stoichiometric rutile TiO2(110) surface using first principles-calculations. By comparing the adsorption energy of one bidentate and two monodentate configurations, we found the bidentate configuration is the most stable one because of an additional C-O bond formation. The monodentate configuration can change into the bidentate configuration by overcoming a small barrier less than 0.1 eV. Then, we investigated the decomposition of HCHO which involves two deprotonation processes starting from different adsorption structures. The energy barrier of the first deprotonation is 1.3 eV and 1.1 eV for bidentate and monodentate configurations. After the first deprotonation, an adsorbed formate HCOO specie is formed. The second deprotonation needs 1.74 eV and 1.64 eV for bidentate and monodentate configurations, respectively. After that, an adsorbed CO2 is formed. It can desorb from the surface after overcoming a small barrier of 0.12 eV. In principle, it is also possible to obtain a CO molecule from the surface. Yet a large energy barrier higher than 1.74 eV needs to be overcome. By analyzing the energy level alignment of molecular orbitals with TiO2 energy band edges, we discussed the photocatalytic activity of the reactants and intermediates during the decomposition process. Our results give a clear description of the adsorption structure and thermal decomposition process of HCHO on rutile TiO2(110) surface. The discussion of photocatalytic reactivity based on energy level alignment provides valuable insights to understand the combined photocatalytic and thermally catalytic reactions.

  10. SOME NEW SULFONATO ADDUCT: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOUHAMADOU BIRAME DIOP

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. The suggested structures are discrete with a pyridine -3- sulfonate acting as a tri O-chelating and N-donor or as a non σ coordinating ligand, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate behaving as a monodentate O-donor, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral, octahedral or seven coordinated. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  11. {4-[(Diphenylphosphinomethylamino]pyridinium-κP}bis(nitrato-κOsilver(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title mononuclear complex, [Ag(C18H18N2P(NO32], the metal centre is coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal–planar geometry by the P atom of the phosphine ligand and the O atoms of the two monodentate nitrate anions. In the crystal structure, complex molecules are connected by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains running parallel to the b axis.

  12. PHOSPHATO AND PHOSPHONATO ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  13. 二烷基氨荒酸二苯基锗盐的合成及性质研究%Synthesis and Properties of Diphenylgermanium Bis-Dithiocarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如芬; 朱德中; 尹汉东; 马春林

    2002-01-01

    The diphenylgermanium bis-dithiocarbamates Ph2Ge(S2CR)2 (Ⅰ~Ⅷ) have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph2GeCl2 with RCS2Na in CH2Cl2 solvent.Their structures were characterized with IR,1H NMR,UV spectra and the in vitro antitumour activity are tested.In mentioned germanium complexes (Ⅰ~Ⅷ) the dithiocarbamatyl groups are monodentate ligands.

  14. Photoinitiated Electron Collection in Mixed-Metal Supramolecular Complexes: Development of Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production DE-FG02-05ER15751 Final Report of Progress August 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanko, James M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-10-06

    Mixed-metal supramolecular complexes containing one or two RuII light absorbing subunits coupled through polyazine bridging ligands to a RhIII reactive metal center were prepared for use as photocatalysts for the production of solar H2 fuel from H2O. The electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties upon variation of the monodentate, labile ligands coordinated to the Rh reactive metal center were investigated.

  15. Discrete fragment model for apparent formation constants of actinide ions with humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Yoshida, Hatsumi; Aoyama, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Taishi; Takagi, Ikuji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Moriyama, Hirotake [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2015-09-01

    A semi-empirical thermodynamic model was applied to estimate the apparent formation constants of actinide ions, i.e., Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Np(V), with humic substances (HSs), including humic and fulvic acids, over a wide range of solution conditions, i.e., pH, ionic strength, and HS and metal concentrations. The hypothetical HSs consist of humic and fulvic acids with nine types of simple organic ligands, which include aromatic and aliphatic carboxyl groups and phenol groups, as binding sites. The abundance of each binding site in the hypothetical HSs was determined via a fitting analysis using an acid-dissociation dataset for several HSs. To determine the apparent formation constant of a given metal ion with HSs, 54 specific binding sites were considered, including nine monodentate sites (1:1 metal/ligand complexes) and 45 bidentate sites (1:2 metal/ligand complexes). The formation constant of each monodentate binding was determined from the experimental data, while those of the bidentate bindings were determined by considering two monodentate bindings and the chelating effect, for which one of the adjustable parameters was introduced in the model. Introduction of the other parameter, which is related to the fraction of monodentate to bidentate sites (i.e., the heterogeneity), afforded the parameter values with good correlation with the apparent formation constant data. The present model with adjusted parameter values well reproduced the experimental apparent complex formation constants for actinide ion interaction with HSs in a wide range of solution conditions except for those obtained at trace concentrations.

  16. A Moessbauer investigation of complexes of tin tetrahalides with ambidentate Lewis bases containing nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, W.M. (Dept. de Quimica, ICEx, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); Allain, L.R. (Dept. de Quimica, ICEx, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); Filgueiras, C.A.L. (Dept. de Quimica, ICEx, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)); Abras, A. (Dept. de Fisica, ICEx, Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil))

    1994-02-01

    A series of 1 : 1 complexes was prepared with SnX[sub 4] (X = Cl, Br, I) and the Lewis bases 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole, 2-aminothiazole, 2-acetylpyridine, and 2,2'-bis(pyridyl)ketone. The latter two ligands yielded bidentate, N, O-bonded hexacoordinate complexes, whereas the other ligands produced monodentate, N-bonded pentacoordinate species, as suggested by Moessbauer parameters, which correlate quite well with the IR spectroscopy data. (orig.)

  17. A Mössbauer investigation of complexes of tin tetrahalides with ambidentate Lewis bases containing nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Wagner M.; Allain, Leonardo R.; Filgueiras, Carlos A. L.; Abras, Anuar

    1994-12-01

    A series of 1 : 1 complexes was prepared with SnX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and the Lewis bases 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole, 2-aminothiazole, 2-acetylpyridine, and 2,2'-bis(pyridyl)ketone. The latter two ligands yielded bidentate, N, O-bonded hexacoordinate complexes, whereas the other ligands produced monodentate, N-bonded pentaccoordinate species, as suggested by Mössbauer parameters, which correlate quite well with the IR spectroscopy data.

  18. Di-aqua-tetra-kis-(1H-imidazole-κN (3))magnesium dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalvizhi, M; Vasuki, G; Kaabi, Kamel; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mg(C3H3N2)4(H2O)2]Cl2, the Mg(II) cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated by two water mol-ecules and four N-atom donors from monodentate imidazole ligands, giving a slightly distorted octa-hedral stereochemistry. In the crystal, water O-H⋯Cl and imidazole N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds give rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  19. Diaquatetrakis(1H-imidazole-κN3magnesium dichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mg(C3H3N24(H2O2]Cl2, the MgII cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated by two water molecules and four N-atom donors from monodentate imidazole ligands, giving a slightly distorted octahedral stereochemistry. In the crystal, water O—H...Cl and imidazole N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds give rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  20. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN2cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Tomyn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr2(C5H8N22], the CoII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethylpyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intramolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bond is also present.

  1. Transformation of Coordinate Forms of Phosphate Adsorbed on Goethite Surfaces Under Conditions of Varying pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIEXIAO-LEI; WANGDIAN-FEN; 等

    1995-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and automatic titrimeter were used to study the relation bewteen pH and the transformation of the coordinate forms of P on goethite surfaces.The results showed that for a given P concentration,increasing the pH of suspension could cause a fast transformation of monodentate complexes of phosphate ions on goethite surfaces to binuclear ones,When lowering the pH,additional adsorption of P occurred and the binuclear complexes reverted slowly to the monodentate ones,The dissociation and association of protons of the sorbed P caused by pH changes was considered to be a major reason leading to the transformation of the coordinate forms of P on the surfaces.The stability of binuclear surface complex of P was greater than that of monodentate omplex.The possible reactions on the interface of goethite and solutions with pH changes,and the reasons causing the different stabilities of the two coordinate P complexes are discussed in the paper.

  2. Curcumin as the OO bidentate ligand in "2 + 1" complexes with the [M(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) tricarbonyl core for radiodiagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnou, Marina; Benaki, Dimitra; Triantis, Charalampos; Tsotakos, Theodoros; Psycharis, Vassilis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas; Pelecanou, Maria

    2011-02-21

    The synthesis and characterization of "2 + 1" complexes of the [M(CO)(3)](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core with the β-diketones acetylacetone (complexes 2, 8) and curcumin (complexes 5, 10 and 6, 11) as bidentate OO ligands, and imidazole or isocyanocyclohexane as monodentate ligands is reported. The complexes were synthesized by reacting the [NEt(4)](2)[Re(CO)(3)Br(3)] precursor with the β-diketone to generate the intermediate aqua complex fac-Re(CO)(3)(OO)(H(2)O) that was isolated and characterized, followed by replacement of the labile water by the monodentate ligand. All complexes were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR and IR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. In the case of complex 2, bearing imidazole as the monodentate ligand, X-ray analysis was possible. The chemistry was successfully transferred at (99m)Tc tracer level. The curcumin complexes 5 and 6, as well as their intermediate aqua complex 4, that bear potential for radiopharmaceutical applications due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activity of curcumin, were successfully tested for selective staining of β-amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease. The fact that the complexes maintain the affinity of the mother compound curcumin for β-amyloid plaques prompts for further exploration of their chemistry and biological properties as radioimaging probes.

  3. Quantification of a Helical Origami Fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Eric; Han, Xiaomin; Chen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, is traditionally viewed as an amusing pastime and medium of artistic expression. However, in recent years, origami has served as a source of inspiration for innovations in science and engineering. Here, we present the geometric and mechanical properties of a twisting origami fold. The origami structure created by the fold exhibits several interesting properties, including rigid foldibility, local bistability and finely tunable helical coiling, with control over pitch, radius and handedness of the helix. In addition, the pattern generated by the fold closely mimics the twist buckling patterns shown by thin materials, for example, a mobius strip. We use six parameters of the twisting origami pattern to generate a fully tunable graphical model of the fold. Finally, we present a mathematical model of the local bistability of the twisting origami fold. Our study elucidates the mechanisms behind the helical coiling and local bistability of the twisting origami fold, with potential applications in robotics and deployable structures. Acknowledgment to Branco Weiss Fellowship for funding.

  4. Versatile RNA tetra-U helix linking motif as a toolkit for nucleic acid nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, My N; Brittany Johnson, M; Viard, Mathias; Satterwhite, Emily; Martins, Angelica N; Li, Zhihai; Marriott, Ian; Afonin, Kirill A; Khisamutdinov, Emil F

    2017-04-01

    RNA nanotechnology employs synthetically modified ribonucleic acid (RNA) to engineer highly stable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions for medical applications. Despite the tremendous advantages in RNA nanotechnology, unmodified RNA itself is fragile and prone to enzymatic degradation. In contrast to use traditionally modified RNA strands e.g. 2'-fluorine, 2'-amine, 2'-methyl, we studied the effect of RNA/DNA hybrid approach utilizing a computer-assisted RNA tetra-uracil (tetra-U) motif as a toolkit to address questions related to assembly efficiency, versatility, stability, and the production costs of hybrid RNA/DNA nanoparticles. The tetra-U RNA motif was implemented to construct four functional triangles using RNA, DNA and RNA/DNA mixtures, resulting in fine-tunable enzymatic and thermodynamic stabilities, immunostimulatory activity and RNAi capability. Moreover, the tetra-U toolkit has great potential in the fabrication of rectangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal NPs, representing the power of simplicity of RNA/DNA approach for RNA nanotechnology and nanomedicine community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical advance: introducing a novel metric, directionality time, to quantify human neutrophil chemotaxis as a function of matrix composition and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Xian M; Loosley, Alex J; Oakley, Katie E; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    A direct consequence of cellular movement and navigation, migration incorporates elements of speed, direction, and persistence of motion. Current techniques to parameterize the trajectory of a chemotaxing cell most commonly pair migration speed with some measure of persistence by calculating MSD, RMS speed, TAD, and/or CI. We address inherent limitations in TAD and CI for comparative analysis by introducing two new analytical tools to quantify persistence: directionality index and directionality time. With the use of these tools, we show that the mechanical properties of the underlying substrate contribute significantly to the regulation of human neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP on Fgn-, Col-, and Fn-coated gels of varying elasticity. The β₁-integrin ligand Col demonstrated mechanosensitive speed. In contrast, β₂-integrin ligand Fgn supported mechanosensitive persistence. Fn, recognized by β₁ and β₂ integrins, mechanoregulated speed and persistence. Blocking β₂ integrins of cells migrating on Fn identified an underlying β₂-integrin-directed modulation of persistence. These data demonstrate that individual components of the neutrophil chemotactic response show integrin dependence and are finely tunable with different ligand, mechanotactic, and chemotactic cues, underscoring the need for sensitive analytical methods.

  6. Influence of nanoscale particle roughness on the stability of Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Adriana; Behrens, Sven H

    2012-08-21

    The wetting behavior of solid surfaces can be altered dramatically by introducing surface roughness on the nanometer scale. Some of nature's most fascinating wetting phenomena are associated with surface roughness; they have inspired both fundamental research and the adoption of surface roughness as a design parameter for man-made functional coatings. So far the attention has focused primarily on macroscopic surfaces, but one should expect the wetting properties of colloidal particles to be strongly affected by roughness, too. Particle wettability, in turn, is a key parameter for the adsorption of particles at liquid interfaces and for the industrially important use of particles as emulsion stabilizers; yet, the consequence of particle roughness for emulsion stability remains poorly understood. In order to investigate the matter systematically, we have developed a surface treatment, applicable to micrometer-sized particles and macroscopic surfaces alike, that produces surface coatings with finely tunable nanoscale roughness and identical surface chemistry. Coatings with different degrees of roughness were characterized with regard to their morphology, charging, and wetting properties, and the results were correlated with the stability of emulsions prepared with coated particles of different roughness. We find that the maximum capillary pressure, a metric of the emulsions' resistance to droplet coalescence, varies significantly and in a nonmonotonic fashion with particle roughness. Surface topography and contact angle hysteresis suggest that particle roughness benefits the stability of our emulsions as long as wetting occurs homogeneously (Wenzel regime), whereas the transition toward heterogeneous wetting (Cassie-Baxter regime) is associated with a loss of stability.

  7. Modeling specific heat and entropy change in La(Fe-Mn-Si)13-H compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Marco; Bennati, Cecilia; Curcio, Carmen; Kuepferling, Michaela; Basso, Vittorio

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we model the magnetocaloric effect of LaFexMnySiz-H1.65 compound (x + y + z = 13), a system showing a transition temperature finely tunable around room temperature by Mn substitution. The thermodynamic model takes into account the coupling between magnetism and specific volume as introduced by Bean and Rodbell. We find a good qualitative agreement between experimental and modeled entropy change - Δs(H , T). The main result is that the magnetoelastic coupling drives the phase transition of the system, changing it from second to first order by varying a model parameter η. It is also responsible for a decrease of - Δs at the transition, due to a small lattice contribution to the entropy counteracting the effect of the magnetic one. The role of Mn is reflected exclusively in a decrease of the strength of the exchange interaction, while the value of the coefficient β, responsible for the coupling between volume and exchange energy, is independent on the Mn content and it appears to be an intrinsic property of the La(Fe-Si)13 structure.

  8. Optimization of electrospinning techniques for the realization of nanofiber plastic lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, L.; Moffa, M.; Fasano, V.; Montinaro, M.; Morello, G.; Resta, V.; Spadaro, D.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Maragò, O. M.; Camposeo, A.; Pisignano, D.

    2016-02-01

    Electrospinning technologies for the realization of active polymeric nanomaterials can be easily up-scaled, opening perspectives to industrial exploitation, and due to their versatility they can be employed to finely tailor the size, morphology and macroscopic assembly of fibers as well as their functional properties. Light-emitting or other active polymer nanofibers, made of conjugated polymers or of blends embedding chromophores or other functional dopants, are suitable for various applications in advanced photonics and sensing technologies. In particular, their almost onedimensional geometry and finely tunable composition make them interesting materials for developing novel lasing devices. However, electrospinning techniques rely on a large variety of parameters and possible experimental geometries, and they need to be carefully optimized in order to obtain suitable topographical and photonic properties in the resulting nanostructures. Targeted features include smooth and uniform fiber surface, dimensional control, as well as filament alignment, enhanced light emission, and stimulated emission. We here present various optimization strategies for electrospinning methods which have been implemented and developed by us for the realization of lasing architectures based on polymer nanofibers. The geometry of the resulting nanowires leads to peculiar light-scattering from spun filaments, and to controllable lasing characteristics.

  9. Biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles for in vivo stem cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Lidia; Bigini, Paolo; Diana, Valentina; Sitia, Leopoldo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Pesce, Ruggiero Maria; Khalaf, Rushd; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Ubezio, Paolo; Lupi, Monica; Tortarolo, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Giardino, Daniela; Silani, Vincenzo; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Moscatelli, Davide

    2013-06-01

    Efficient application of stem cells to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires safe cell tracking to follow stem cell fate over time in the host environment after transplantation. In this work, for the first time, fluorescent and biocompatible methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based nanoparticles (fluoNPs) were synthesized through a free-radical co-polymerization process with a fluorescent macromonomer obtained by linking Rhodamine B and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. We demonstrate that the fluoNPs produced by polymerization of MMA-Rhodamine complexes (1) were efficient for the labeling and tracking of multipotent human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs); (2) did not alter the main biological features of hAFCs (such as viability, cell growth and metabolic activity); (3) enabled us to determine the longitudinal bio-distribution of hAFCs in different brain areas after graft in the brain ventricles of healthy mice by a direct fluorescence-based technique. The reliability of our approach was furthermore confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging analyses, carried out by incubating hAFCs with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and fluoNPs. Our data suggest that these finely tunable and biocompatible fluoNPs can be exploited for the longitudinal tracking of stem cells.

  10. Electromagnetic liquid pistons for capillarity-based pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouin, Bernard A; Vogel, Michael J; Olles, Joseph D; Cheng, Lili; Hirsa, Amir H

    2011-02-07

    The small scales associated with lab-on-a-chip technologies lend themselves well to capillarity-dominated phenomena. We demonstrate a new capillarity-dominated system where two adjoining ferrofluid droplets can behave as an electronically-controlled oscillator or switch by an appropriate balance of magnetic, capillary, and inertial forces. Their oscillatory motion can be exploited to displace a surrounding liquid (akin to an axial piston pump), forming electromagnetic "liquid pistons." Such ferrofluid pistons can pump a precise volume of liquid via finely tunable amplitudes (cf. pump stroke) or resonant frequencies (cf. pump speed) with no solid moving parts for long-term operation without wear in a small device. Furthermore, the rapid propagation of electromagnetic fields and the favorable scaling of capillary forces with size permit micron sized devices with very fast operating speeds (∼kHz). The pumping dynamics and performance of these liquid pistons is explored, with experimental measurements showing good agreement with a spherical cap model. While these liquid pistons may find numerous applications in micro- and mesoscale fluidic devices (e.g., remotely activated drug delivery), here we demonstrate the use of these liquid pistons in capillarity-dominated systems for chip-level, fast-acting adaptive liquid lenses with nearly perfect spherical interfaces.

  11. The complete microspeciation of ovothiol A, the smallest octafarious antioxidant biomolecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Orgován, Gábor; Hosztafi, Sándor; Noszál, Béla

    2014-04-01

    Ovothiol A, a small biomolecule with highly potent antioxidant capacity, and three newly synthesized derivatives were studied by (1)H NMR, (15)N NMR, UV-pH titrations, and a customized evaluation method. The omni-interactive imidazole, amino, carboxylate, and thiolate moieties of ovothiol A are quantified in terms of 32 microscopic protonation constants, the relative concentrations of 16 microspecies, 6 pairwise interactivity parameters, and 8 protonation shifts. The highest and lowest imidazole basicities differ by a record-breaking five orders of magnitude, and the predominant thiolate protonation constant is by far the smallest known thiolate logK value. The latter provides an indication as to why ovothiol A occurs naturally under deep-water circumstances only. Since thiolate basicities are in correlation with thiol-disulfide redox potentials, the eight different, fine-tunable thiolate basicities offer versatile and highly specific antioxidant capacities within one single molecular skeleton. This work is the first complete microspeciation of a tetrabasic, nonsymmetrical natural compound.

  12. Photostable water-dispersible NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots for high-resolution tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Yimei; Peng, Fei; Zhong, Yiling; Zhou, Yanfeng; Jiang, Xiangxu; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR, 700-900 nm) fluorescent quantum dots are highly promising as NIR bioprobes for high-resolution and high-sensitivity bioimaging applications. In this article, we present a class of NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots (QDs), which are directly prepared in aqueous phase via a facile microwave synthesis. Significantly, the prepared NIR-emitting QDs possess excellent aqueous dispersibility, strong photoluminescence, favorable biocompatibility, robust storage-, chemical-, and photo-stability, and finely tunable emission in the NIR range (700-800 nm). The QDs are readily functionalized with antibodies for use in immunofluorescent bioimaging, yielding highly spectrally and spatially resolved emission for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In comparison to the large size of 15-30 nm of the conventional NIR QDs, the extremely small size (≈ 4.2 nm or 7.5 nm measured by TEM or DLS, respectively) of our QDs offers great opportunities for high-efficiency and high-sensitivity targeted imaging in cells and animals.

  13. New analogues of the BODIPY dye PM597: photophysical and lasing properties in liquid solutions and in solid polymeric matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costela, A; García-Moreno, I; Pintado-Sierra, M; Amat-Guerri, F; Sastre, R; Liras, M; López Arbeloa, F; BañuelosPrieto, J; López Arbeloa, I

    2009-07-16

    New tailormade BODIPY dyes have been synthesized by a simple protocol to reach wavelength finely tunable laser action from 540 to 625 nm while maintaining highly efficient and photostable laser emission. The new dyes are analogues of the commercial dye PM597 with the eight position free (PTH8) or substituted by the groups acetoxymethyl (PTAlk) or p-acetoxymethylphenyl (PTAr). The photophysical properties strongly depend on the geometrical distortion from planarity of the indacene core generated by the presence of the bulky 2,6-di-tert-butyl groups and the eight substituent. In both liquid and polymeric solid solutions, lasing efficiencies of up to 63 and 48%, respectively, were observed under transversal pumping at 532 nm with high photostabilities. In the case of PTAlk incorporated into silicon-containing solid organic matrices, the laser emission remained at 92% of its initial intensity value after 100,000 pumping pulses in the same position of the sample at 30 Hz repetition rate. The laser action of the new dyes enhances that of the parent dye PM597 and outperforms the lasing behavior of dyes considered to be benchmarks over the green-yellow to red spectral region.

  14. Finely tuning MOFs towards high-performance post-combustion CO2 capture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-01-11

    CO2 capture science and technology, particularly for the post-combustion CO2 capture, has become one of very important research fields, due to great concern of global warming. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a unique feature of structural fine-tunability, unlike the traditional porous solid materials, can provide many and powerful platforms to explore high-performance adsorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Until now, several strategies for finely tuning MOF structures have been developed, in which either the larger quadrupole moment and polarizability of CO2 are considered: metal ion change (I), functional groups attachment (II) and functional group insertion (III), vary the electronic nature of the pore surface; or targeting the smaller kinetic diameter of CO2 over N2 is focused on: framework interpenetration (IV), ligand shortening (V) and coordination site shifting (VI) contract the pore size of frameworks to improve their CO2 capture properties. In this review, from the viewpoint of synthetic materials scientists/chemists, we would like to introduce and summarize these strategies based upon recent work published by other groups and ourselves.

  15. α,α'-Diarylacenaphtho[1,2-c]phosphole P-oxides: divergent synthesis and application to cathode buffer layers in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Yoshihiro; Saito, Arihiro; Suzuki, Yuto; Miyajima, Tooru; Akiyama, Seiji; Otsubo, Saika; Nakamoto, Emi; Aramaki, Shinji; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    A divergent method for the synthesis of α,α'-diarylacenaphtho[1,2-c]phosphole P-oxides has been established; α,α'-dibromoacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxide, which was prepared through a Ti(II)-mediated cyclization of 1,8-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)naphthalene, underwent a Stille coupling with three different kinds of aryltributylstannanes to afford the α,α'-diarylacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxides in moderate to good yields. X-ray crystallographic analyses and UV/Vis absorption/fluorescence measurements have revealed that the degree of π-conjugation, the packing motif, the electron-accepting ability, and the thermal stability of the acenaphtho[c]phosphole π-systems are finely tunable with the α-aryl substituents. All the P=O and P=S derivatives exhibited high stability in their electrochemically reduced state. To use this class of arene-fused phosphole π-systems as n-type semiconducting materials, we evaluated device performances of the bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPV) that consist of poly(3-hexylthiophene), an indene-C(70) bisadduct, and a cathode buffer layer. The insertion of the diarylacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxides as the buffer layer was found to improve the power conversion efficiency of the polymer-based OPV devices.

  16. Reversible Interactions of Proteins with Mixed Shell Polymeric Micelles: Tuning the Surface Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Balance toward Efficient Artificial Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Sun, Pingchuan; An, Yingli; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2016-03-22

    Molecular chaperones can elegantly fine-tune its hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance to assist a broad spectrum of nascent polypeptide chains to fold properly. Such precious property is difficult to be achieved by chaperone mimicking materials due to limited control of their surface characteristics that dictate interactions with unfolded protein intermediates. Mixed shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), which consist of two kinds of dissimilar polymeric chains in the micellar shell, offer a convenient way to fine-tune surface properties of polymeric nanoparticles. In the current work, we have fabricated ca. 30 kinds of MSPMs with finely tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties. We investigated the respective roles of thermosensitive and hydrophilic polymeric chains in the thermodenaturation protection of proteins down to the molecular structure. Although the three kinds of thermosensitive polymers investigated herein can form collapsed hydrophobic domains on the micellar surface, we found distinct capability to capture and release unfolded protein intermediates, due to their respective affinity for proteins. Meanwhile, in terms of the hydrophilic polymeric chains in the micellar shell, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) excels in assisting unfolded protein intermediates to refold properly via interacting with the refolding intermediates, resulting in enhanced chaperone efficiency. However, another hydrophilic polymer-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) severely deteriorates the chaperone efficiency of MSPMs, due to its protein-resistant properties. Judicious combination of thermosensitive and hydrophilic chains in the micellar shell lead to MSPM-based artificial chaperones with optimal efficacy.

  17. Glycoluril–tetrathiafulvalene molecular clips: on the influence of electronic and spatial properties for binding neutral accepting guests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Cotelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycoluril-based molecular clips incorporating tetrathiafulvalene (TTF sidewalls have been synthesized through different strategies with the aim of investigating the effect of electrochemical and spatial properties for binding neutral accepting guests. We have in particular focused our study on the spacer extension in order to tune the intramolecular TTF···TTF distance within the clip and, consequently, the redox behavior of the receptor. Carried out at different concentrations in solution, electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical experiments provide evidence of mixed-valence and/or π-dimer intermolecular interactions between TTF units from two closed clips. The stepwise oxidation of each molecular clip involves an electrochemical mechanism with three one-electron processes and two charge-coupled chemical reactions, a scheme which is supported by electrochemical simulations. The fine-tunable π-donating ability of the TTF units and the cavity size allow to control binding interaction towards a strong electron acceptor such as tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ or a weaker electron acceptor such as 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB.

  18. Widely tunable LP11 cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anitha S; Sudeep Kumar, V P; Joe, Hubert

    2015-03-10

    A record tunability of 35 nm for the LP(11) cladding-mode resonance in a twisted mechanically induced long-period fiber grating using standard single-mode communication fiber is demonstrated. By forming the LP(11) resonance far away from its cut-off wavelength and modifying the grooves of the grating in the form of smooth semicircular humps, a high twist sensitivity of 8.75 nm/(rad/cm) and a controlled tunability of 35 nm is achieved. The fiber with its lacquer coating is not broken even at a severe twist rate of 5.44 rad/cm. The present design can be used as a novel variable optical selective wavelength attenuator since the bandwidth, rejection efficiency, and center wavelength can be controlled by changing the grating length, pressure over the grating, and fiber twist, respectively. Using the results, a cost-effective tunable variable optical attenuator for selective channel-blanking applications is also demonstrated. A fine tunability of 1.5 nm is achieved for a twist rate change of 0.1 rad/cm.

  19. Cationic modified nucleic acids for use in DNA hairpins and parallel triplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Niels; Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    Non-nucleosidic DNA monomers comprising partially protonated amines at low pH have been designed and synthesized. The modifications were incorporated into DNA oligonucleotides via standard DNA phosphoramidite synthesis. The ability of cationic modifications to stabilize palindromic DNA hairpins...... and parallel triplexes were evaluated using gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism and thermal denaturation measurements. The non-nucleosidic modifications were found to increase the thermal stability of palindromic hairpins at pH 8.0 as compared with a nucleosidic tetraloop (TCTC). Incorporation...... of modifications at the 5'-end of a triplex forming oligonucleotide resulted in a significant increase in thermal stability at low pH when the modifications were placed as the 5'-dangling end....

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2’-Se-modified guanosine Containing DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salon, J.; Sheng, J; Gan, J; Huang, Z

    2010-01-01

    Selenium modification of nucleic acids is of great importance in X-ray crystal structure determination and functional study of nucleic acids. Herein, we describe a convenient synthesis of a new building block, the 2{prime}-SeMe-modified guanosine (G{sub Se}) phosphoramidite, and report the first incorporation of the 2{prime}-Se-G moiety into DNA. The X-ray crystal structure of the 2{prime}-Se-modified octamer DNA (5{prime}-GTG{sub Se}TACAC-3{prime}) was determined at a resolution of 1.20 {angstrom}. We also found that the 2{prime}-Se modification points to the minor groove and that the modified and native structures are virtually identical. Furthermore, we observed that the 2{prime}-Se-G modification can significantly facilitate the crystal growth with respect to the corresponding native DNA.

  1. Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-05-22

    Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

  2. Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Mark K; Hütter, Julia; Eriksson, Magdalena; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2011-12-16

    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented. The use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester phosphoramidite along with carbohydrates containing an alkylamine linker allows for on-column labeling during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. This modification method during solid-phase synthesis only requires the use of minimal amounts of complex carbohydrates. The covalently attached carbohydrates are presented in the major groove of the B-form duplex DNA as potential substrates for murine type II C-type lectin receptors mMGL1 and mMGL2. CD spectroscopy and thermal melting revealed only minimal disturbance of the overall helical structure. Surface plasmon resonance and cellular uptake studies with bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells were used to assess the capability of these carbohydrate-modified duplexes to bind to mMGL receptors.

  3. Diarylethene-modified nucleotides for switching optical properties in DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Barrois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarylethenes were attached to the 5-position of 2’-deoxyuridine in order to yield three different photochromic nucleosides. All nucleosides were characterized with respect to their absorption and photochromic properties. Based on these results, the most promising photochromic DNA base modification was incorporated into representative oligonucleotides by using automated phosphoramidite chemistry. The switching of optical properties in DNA can be achieved selectively at 310 nm (forward and 450 nm (backward; both wavelengths are outside the normal nucleic acid absorption range. Moreover, this nucleoside was proven to be photochemically stable and allows switching back and forth several times. These results open the way for the use of diarylethenes as photochromic compounds in DNA-based architectures.

  4. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  5. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gumrukcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and the carbonyl-moiety of the ligand. This hydrogen bond pattern facilitates the (rate-limiting C-O oxidative addition step and leads to lower energy isomers throughout the catalytic cycle, clarifying the role of the urea-moiety.

  6. Increasing the Analytical Sensitivity by Oligonucleotides Modified with Para- and Ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids - TINA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Uffe V; Géci, Imrich; Jøhnk, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnostic assays using DNA hybridization techniques are limited by the dissociation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antiparallel duplex helices. This situation can be improved by addition of DNA stabilizing molecules such as nucleic acid intercalators....... Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA) amidite utilizing the phosphoramidite approach, and examine the stabilizing effect of ortho- and para-TINA molecules in antiparallel DNA duplex formation. In a thermal stability assay, ortho- and para......-TINA molecules increased the melting point (Tm) of Watson-Crick based antiparallel DNA duplexes. The increase in Tm was greatest when the intercalators were placed at the 5' and 3' termini (preferable) or, if placed internally, for each half or whole helix turn. Terminally positioned TINA molecules improved...

  7. Synthesis of damaged DNA containing the oxidative lesion 3'-oxothymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Mel F; Li, Weiye; Gutwald, Taylor; Bryant-Friedrich, Amanda C

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative events that take place during regular oxygen metabolism can lead to the formation of organic or inorganic radicals. The interaction of these radicals with macromolecules in the organism and with DNA in particular is suspected to lead to apoptosis, DNA lesions and cell damage. Independent generation of DNA lesions resulting from oxidative damage is used to promote the study of their effects on biological systems. An efficient synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing the oxidative damage lesion 3'-oxothymidine has been accomplished via incorporation of C3'-hydroxymethyl thymidine as its corresponding 5'-phosphoramidite. Through oxidative cleavage using sodium periodate in aqueous solution, the lesion of interest is easily generated. Due to its inherent instability it cannot be directly isolated, but must be generated in situ. 3'-Oxothymidine is a demonstrated damage product formed upon generation of the C3'-thymidinyl radical in ODN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. DNA microarray synthesis by using PDMS molecular stamp (II) -- Oligonucleotide on-chip synthesis using PDMS stamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the standard phosphoramidites chemistry protocol, two oligonucleotides synthetic routes were studied by contact stamping reactants to a modified glass slide. Route A was a contact coupling reaction, in which a nucleoside monomer was transferred and coupled to reactive groups (OH) on a substrate by spreading the nucleoside activated with tetrazole on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. Route B was a contact detritylation, in which one nucleoside was fixed on the desired synthesis regions where dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting groups on the 5′-hydroxyl of the support-bound nucleoside were removed by stamping trichloroacetic acid (TCA) distributed on features on a PDMS stamp. Experiments showed that the synthetic yield and the reaction speed of route A were higher than those of route B. It was shown that 20 mer oligonucleotide arrays immobilized on the glass slide were successfully synthesized using the PDMS stamps, and the coupling efficiency showed no difference between the PDMS stamping and the conventional synthesis methods.

  9. Synthesis of Codon-optimized Human Interleukin-18 Gene by Combination of Chemical and Enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao-hui; SHI Xiao-yue; HOU Xin-tong; MENG Qing-fan; Zhang Ying-jiu; TENG Li-rong

    2008-01-01

    According to the amino acid sequence and codon preference of E,coli,the human interleukin-18(IL-18)gene was optimized to avoid the rare codons,The total length of the synthesized gene is 571 bp;18 oligonucleotides,DNA fragments were designed and synthesized by the phosphoramidite four-step chemical method,The whole DNAsequence was synthesized by a one-step total gene synthesis method,and then inserted in pUC18 vector,Five positive clones identified by blue-white colony screening were sent to Shanghai Sangon Biological Engineering Technology and Service Co.,Ltd,for sequencing,The sequencing result shows that one clone contained the complete correct gene in all the five positive clones.

  10. Chiral gold(I vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín-Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I and gold(I catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.

  11. Solution phase synthesis of short oligoribonucleotides on a precipitative tetrapodal support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gimenez Molina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for the synthesis of short oligoribonucleotides in solution has been elaborated. Novel 2'-O-(2-cyanoethyl-5'-O-(1-methoxy-1-methylethyl protected ribonucleoside 3'-phosphoramidites have been prepared and their usefulness as building blocks in RNA synthesis on a soluble support has been demonstrated. As a proof of concept, a pentameric oligoribonucleotide, 3'-UUGCA-5', has been prepared on a precipitative tetrapodal tetrakis(4-azidomethylphenylpentaerythritol support. The 3'-terminal nucleoside was coupled to the support as a 3'-O-(4-pentynoyl derivative by Cu(I promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Couplings were carried out with 1.5 equiv of the building block. In each coupling cycle, the small molecular reagents and byproducts were removed by two quantitative precipitations from MeOH, one after oxidation and the second after the 5'-deprotection. After completion of the chain assembly, treatment with triethylamine, ammonia and TBAF released the pentamer in high yields.

  12. Solution phase synthesis of short oligoribonucleotides on a precipitative tetrapodal support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Molina, Alejandro; Jabgunde, Amit M; Virta, Pasi

    2014-01-01

    Summary An effective method for the synthesis of short oligoribonucleotides in solution has been elaborated. Novel 2'-O-(2-cyanoethyl)-5'-O-(1-methoxy-1-methylethyl) protected ribonucleoside 3'-phosphoramidites have been prepared and their usefulness as building blocks in RNA synthesis on a soluble support has been demonstrated. As a proof of concept, a pentameric oligoribonucleotide, 3'-UUGCA-5', has been prepared on a precipitative tetrapodal tetrakis(4-azidomethylphenyl)pentaerythritol support. The 3'-terminal nucleoside was coupled to the support as a 3'-O-(4-pentynoyl) derivative by Cu(I) promoted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Couplings were carried out with 1.5 equiv of the building block. In each coupling cycle, the small molecular reagents and byproducts were removed by two quantitative precipitations from MeOH, one after oxidation and the second after the 5'-deprotection. After completion of the chain assembly, treatment with triethylamine, ammonia and TBAF released the pentamer in high yields. PMID:25298795

  13. Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-05-22

    Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

  14. Synthesis of 5'-O-DMT-2'-O-TBS Mononucleosides Using an Organic Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggi; Blaisdell, Thomas P; Kasaplar, Pinar; Sun, Xixi; Tan, Kian L

    2014-06-24

    This unit describes a highly effective method to produce 5'-O-DMT-2'-O-TBS mononucleosides selectively using a small organic catalyst. This methodology avoids the tedious protection/deprotection strategy necessary to differentiate the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups in a ribonucleoside. The catalyst was synthesized in two steps, starting from the condensation of valinol and cyclopentyl aldehyde, followed by anionic addition of N-methylimidazole. Ring closure of the amino alcohol with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal in methanol furnishes the catalyst. All four 2'-O-TBS protected mono-nucleosides, U, A(Bz), G(Ib), and C(Ac), were produced in a single step using 10 to 20 mol% of the catalyst at room temperature with excellent yields and selectivity. Further transformation to phosphoramidite demonstrates the utility of this protocol in the preparation of monomers useful for automated synthesis of RNA.

  15. Fabrication of microarray of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip by copolymerization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliskov, A. V.; Timofeev, E. N.; Surzhikov, S. A.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Shick, V. V.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology

    1999-09-01

    The manufacturing of microchips containing oligonucleotides and proteins immobilized within gel pads, ranging in size from 10 x 10 to 100 x 100 {mu}m, is described. The microchips are produced by photo- or persulfate-induced copolymerization of unsaturated derivatives of biomolecules with acrylamide-bisacrylamide mixture. Oligonucleotides containing 5'-allyl or 5'-butenediol units were synthesized using standard phosphoramidite chemistry. Acryloyl residues were attached to a protein by a twostep procedure. Photopolymerization was induced by illumination of the monomer solution containing initiator with UV light through the mask. The mask was applied directly over the monomer solution or projected through a microscope. Alternatively, copolymerization was carried out in drops of aqueous solution of monomers containing ammonium persulfate. Drops with different allyl-oligonucleotides were distributed on a glass slide, and the polymerization was induced by diffusion of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) from a hexane solution that covered the aqueous drops.

  16. A universal, photocleavable DNA base: nitropiperonyl 2'-deoxyriboside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, M C; Zhao, X; Harris, S V

    2001-03-23

    A universal, photochemically cleavable DNA base analogue would add desirable versatility to a number of methods in molecular biology. A novel C-nucleoside, nitropiperonyl deoxyriboside (NPdR, P), has been investigated for this purpose. NPdR can be converted to its 5'-DMTr-3'-CE-phosphoramidite and was incorporated into pentacosanucleotides by conventional synthesis techniques. The destabilizing effect on hybrid formation with a complementary strand when this P base opposes A, T, and G was found to be 3-5 kcal/mol, but 9 kcal/mol when it opposes C. Brief irradiation (lambda > 360 nm, 20 min) of DNA containing the P base and piperidine treatment causes strand cleavage giving the 3'- and 5'-phosphates. Two significant recent interests, universal/non-hydrogen-bonding base analogues and photochemical backbone cleavage, have thus been combined in a single molecule that serves as a light-based DNA scissors.

  17. Synthesis of 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TBS mononucleosides using an organic catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggi; Blaisdell, Thomas P.; Kasaplar, Pinar; Sun, Xixi

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes a highly effective method to produce 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TBS mononucleosides selectively using a small organic catalyst. This methodology avoids the tedious protection/deprotection strategy necessary to differentiate the 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups in a ribonucleoside. The catalyst was synthesized in two steps starting from the condensation of valinol and cyclopentyl aldehyde, followed by anionic addition of N-methylimidazole. Ring closure of the amino alcohol with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal in methanol furnishes the catalyst. All four 2′-O-TBS protected mono-nucleosides, U, ABz, GIb, and CAc, were produced in a single step using 10 to 20 mol% of the catalyst at room temperature with excellent yields and selectivity. Further transformation to phosphoramidite demonstrates the utility of this protocol toward the preparation of monomers useful for automated synthesis of RNA. PMID:24961720

  18. Recent advances in the chemical synthesis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Serge L; Reese, Colin B

    2009-09-01

    As a consequence largely of recent developments in RNA interference (RNAi) research, the availability of rapid and efficient methods for the chemical synthesis of RNA sequences has become a matter of considerable urgency. This unit is concerned mainly with work that has been carried out, especially in the past decade, on the design of new and improved methods of RNA synthesis. The main criteria for the choice of protecting groups for the 2'-hydroxy functions of the ribonucleoside building blocks, which is arguably the most crucial strategic decision to be made, are discussed. A number of new ether-, acetal-, orthoester-, and ester-based 2'-protecting groups are described and their application, mainly in phosphoramidite-based solid-phase synthesis, is discussed in some detail. Brief consideration is also given to solution-phase RNA synthesis, which may well prove to be of great importance if a systemic drug is developed and multikilogram quantities of synthetic RNA sequences are required.

  19. Time-dependent thermocontrol of the hydrophilic and lipophilic properties of DNA oligonucleotide prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausín, Cristina; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Gapeev, Alexei; Beaucage, Serge L

    2010-12-01

    This unit describes the preparation of alkylthioalkylated and formamidoalkylated alcohols, an amidoalkylated alcohol, a hydroxylalkylated phosphoramidate, and their phosphoramidothioate derivatives, all of which have been identified as heat-sensitive thiophosphate-protecting groups in the development of thermolytic immunostimulatory DNA prodrugs. The alcohols are converted to their deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidite derivatives, which are then used in the preparation of thermosensitive dinucleoside phosphorothioates. The thiophosphate-protecting groups of these dinucleoside phosphorothioates presumably undergo thermolytic cyclodeesterification at elevated temperature under essentially neutral conditions to release the desired phosphorothioate diester function. On the basis of their thermolytic deprotection kinetics, one can identify those thiophosphate-protecting groups that (i) may be useful for thiophosphate protection of CpG motifs of immunostimulatory DNA oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs); (ii) are suitable for protection of phosphodiester functions flanking the CpG motifs; and (iii) offer adequate protection of terminal phosphodiester functions against ubiquitous extracellular and intracellular exonucleases that may be found in biological environments.

  20. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  1. Efficiency, error and yield in light-directed maskless synthesis of DNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbavwe Christy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Light-directed in situ synthesis of DNA microarrays using computer-controlled projection from a digital micromirror device--maskless array synthesis (MAS--has proved to be successful at both commercial and laboratory scales. The chemical synthetic cycle in MAS is quite similar to that of conventional solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides, but the complexity of microarrays and unique synthesis kinetics on the glass substrate require a careful tuning of parameters and unique modifications to the synthesis cycle to obtain optimal deprotection and phosphoramidite coupling. In addition, unintended deprotection due to scattering and diffraction introduce insertion errors that contribute significantly to the overall error rate. Results Stepwise phosphoramidite coupling yields have been greatly improved and are now comparable to those obtained in solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides. Extended chemical exposure in the synthesis of complex, long oligonucleotide arrays result in lower--but still high--final average yields which approach 99%. The new synthesis chemistry includes elimination of the standard oxidation until the final step, and improved coupling and light deprotection. Coupling Insertions due to stray light are the limiting factor in sequence quality for oligonucleotide synthesis for gene assembly. Diffraction and local flare are by far the largest contributors to loss of optical contrast. Conclusions Maskless array synthesis is an efficient and versatile method for synthesizing high density arrays of long oligonucleotides for hybridization- and other molecular binding-based experiments. For applications requiring high sequence purity, such as gene assembly, diffraction and flare remain significant obstacles, but can be significantly reduced with straightforward experimental strategies.

  2. The 2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl group for the 2'-hydroxyl protection of ribonucleosides in the solid-phase synthesis of RNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślak, Jacek; Ausín, Cristina; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Beaucage, Serge L

    2013-04-02

    The reaction of 2-cyano-2-methyl propanal with 2'-O-aminooxymethylribonucleosides leads to stable and yet reversible 2'-O-(2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl)ribonucleosides. Following N-protection of the nucleobases, 5'-dimethoxytritylation and 3'-phosphitylation, the resulting 2'-protected ribonucleoside phosphoramidite monomers are employed in the solid-phase synthesis of three chimeric RNA sequences, each differing in their ratios of purine/pyrimidine. When the activation of phosphoramidite monomers is performed in the presence of 5-benzylthio-1H-tetrazole, coupling efficiencies averaging 99% are obtained within 180 s. Upon completion of the RNA-chain assemblies, removal of the nucleobase and phosphate protecting groups and release of the sequences from the solid support are carried out under standard basic conditions, whereas the cleavage of 2'-O-(2-cyano-2,2-dimethylethanimine-N-oxymethyl) protective groups is effected (without releasing RNA alkylating side-products) by treatment with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (0.5 M) in dry DMSO over a period of 24-48 h at 55 °C. Characterization of the fully deprotected RNA sequences by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), enzymatic hydrolysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and quality of these sequences. Thus, the use of 2'-O-aminooxymethylribonucleosides in the design of new 2'-hydroxyl protecting groups is a powerful approach to the development of a straightforward, efficient, and cost-effective method for the chemical synthesis of high-quality RNA sequences in the framework of RNA interference applications.

  3. A Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Acetic Acid Adsorption on Crystalline and Amorphous Surfaces of Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative density functional tight binding study of an organic molecule attachment to TiO2 via a carboxylic group, with the example of acetic acid. For the first time, binding to low-energy surfaces of crystalline anatase (101, rutile (110 and (B-TiO2 (001, as well as to the surface of amorphous (a- TiO2 is compared with the same computational setup. On all surfaces, bidentate configurations are identified as providing the strongest adsorption energy, Eads = −1.93, −2.49 and −1.09 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. For monodentate configurations, the strongest Eads = −1.06, −1.11 and −0.86 eV for anatase, rutile and (B-TiO2, respectively. Multiple monodentate and bidentate configurations are identified on a-TiO2 with a distribution of adsorption energies and with the lowest energy configuration having stronger bonding than that of the crystalline counterparts, with Eads up to −4.92 eV for bidentate and −1.83 eV for monodentate adsorption. Amorphous TiO2 can therefore be used to achieve strong anchoring of organic molecules, such as dyes, that bind via a -COOH group. While the presence of the surface leads to a contraction of the band gap vs. the bulk, molecular adsorption caused no appreciable effect on the band structure around the gap in any of the systems.

  4. Investigating silver coordination to mixed chalcogen ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Fergus R; Randall, Rebecca A M; Wakefield, Lucy; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2012-11-08

    Six silver(I) coordination complexes have been prepared and structurally characterised. Mixed chalcogen-donor acenaphthene ligands L1-L3 [Acenap(EPh)(E'Ph)] (Acenap = acenaphthene-5,6-diyl; E/E' = S, Se, Te) were independently treated with silver(I) salts (AgBF₄/AgOTf). In order to keep the number of variables to a minimum, all reactions were carried out using a 1:1 ratio of Ag/L and run in dichloromethane. The nature of the donor atoms, the coordinating ability of the respective counter-anion and the type of solvent used in recrystallisation, all affect the structural architecture of the final silver(I) complex, generating monomeric, silver(I) complexes {[AgBF₄(L)₂] (1 L = L1; 2 L = L2; 3 L = L3), [AgOTf(L)₃] (4 L = L1; 5 L = L3), [AgBF₄(L)₃] (2a L = L1; 3a L = L3)} and a 1D polymeric chain {[AgOTf(L3)](n) 6}. The organic acenaphthene ligands L1-L3 adopt a number of ligation modes (bis-monodentate μ₂-η²-bridging, quasi-chelating combining monodentate and η⁶-E(phenyl)-Ag(I) and classical monodentate coordination) with the central silver atom at the centre of a tetrahedral or trigonal planar coordination geometry in each case. The importance of weak interactions in the formation of metal-organic structures is also highlighted by the number of short non-covalent contacts present within each complex.

  5. Investigating Silver Coordination to Mixed Chalcogen Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derek Woollins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Six silver(I coordination complexes have been prepared and structurally characterised. Mixed chalcogen-donor acenaphthene ligands L1–L3 [Acenap(EPh(E'Ph] (Acenap = acenaphthene-5,6-diyl; E/E' = S, Se, Te were independently treated with silver(I salts (AgBF4/AgOTf. In order to keep the number of variables to a minimum, all reactions were carried out using a 1:1 ratio of Ag/L and run in dichloromethane. The nature of the donor atoms, the coordinating ability of the respective counter-anion and the type of solvent used in recrystallisation, all affect the structural architecture of the final silver(I complex, generating monomeric, silver(I complexes {[AgBF4(L2] (1 L = L1; 2 L = L2; 3 L = L3, [AgOTf(L3] (4 L = L1; 5 L = L3, [AgBF4(L3] (2a L = L1; 3a L = L3} and a 1D polymeric chain {[AgOTf(L3]n 6}. The organic acenaphthene ligands L1-L3 adopt a number of ligation modes (bis-monodentate μ2-η2-bridging, quasi-chelating combining monodentate and η6-E(phenyl-Ag(I and classical monodentate coordination with the central silver atom at the centre of a tetrahedral or trigonal planar coordination geometry in each case. The importance of weak interactions in the formation of metal-organic structures is also highlighted by the number of short non-covalent contacts present within each complex.

  6. Antituberculosis and cytotoxic activities of triorganotin(Ⅳ) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Nazia Bibi; Ahmed A1-Harrasi; Salman Siddiqi; Shahana U. Kazmi; Ying Zhang; Amin Badshah

    2012-01-01

    Five triorganotin(Ⅳ) (1-5) complexes of cinnamic acid,(Z)-2-acetamido-3-phenylacrylic acid,3-methylbut-2-enoic acid,and 2,2-diphenylacetic acid have been synthesized and characterized by 1H-13C-119Sn NMR,UV,and IR.The spectroscopic investigation demonstrated that the carboxylate group acts as a monodentate ligand in triorganotin(Ⅳ) compounds.Five triorganotin(Ⅳ) complexes were screened against the log phase culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by colorimetric method using XTT dye as growth indicator.The MICs were found to be 0.08 and 1.25 μg/mL.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and antitumor activity of new ethylenediamine platinum(IV) complexes containing mixed carboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, A R; Deng, Y; Kido, Y; Siddik, Z H

    1993-05-01

    A series of ethylenediamine platinum(IV) complexes of the type PtIV(en)XA2 and PtIV(en)X'2A2, where X = 1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato or malonato, X' = chloro, cyclobutanecarboxylato, cyclopentanecarboxylato, or cyclohexanecarboxylato, and A = acetato or trifluoroacetato were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, and NMR (13C and 195Pt) spectroscopic techniques. These compounds had good to excellent antitumor activity against murine leukemia L1210 cells. Complexes with axial trifluoroacetate groups were superior to those with acetate ligands. Those possessing both axial trifluoroacetate groups and monodentate bis-carboxylate ligands in the equatorial positions were the most active in the series investigated.

  8. Hydroformylation of olefins catalyzed by chiral phosphite- Rh(I) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; LI Xingshu; CHAN Albert Sunchi

    2003-01-01

    A series of chiral phosphite ligands based on chiral binaphthol have been designed and synthesized. Their Rhodium(I) complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydroformylation of styrene and vinyl acetate and showed excellent catalytic activities and chemos- electivities as well as good regioselectivities (branched aldehyde/linear aldehyde). The enantioselectivities up to 37.0% ee and 38.1% ee were achieved in the hydroformylation of styrene and vinyl acetate respectively. The chiral bidentate phosphite ligands provided better enantioselectivities, however lower regioselectivities than the chiral mono-dentate phosphite ligand.

  9. Transition metal M(II complexes with isonicotinoylhydrazone-9-anthraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianu M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New complexes of isonicotinoylhydrazone-9-anthraldehyde with Cu(II, Co(II and Ni(II have been prepared and characterized by analytical and physico-chemical techniques, such as elemental and thermal analyses, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, and electronic, EPR and IR spectral studies. The infrared spectral studies revealed the bidentate or monodentate nature of the Schiff base in the complexes; the pyridine nitrogen does not participate in the coordination. A tetrahedral geometry is suggested for the nitrate-complexes and an octahedral geometry for the others. Thermal studies support the chemical formulation of these complexes.

  10. Sequestering uranium from UO2(CO3)3(4-) in seawater with amine ligands: density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojing; Huang, Liangliang; Li, Cheng; Hu, Jiangtao; Wu, Guozhong; Huai, Ping

    2015-06-14

    The polystyrene-supported primary amine -CH2NH2 has shown an at least 3-fold increase in uranyl capacity compared to a diamidoxime ligand on a polystyrene support. This study aims to understand the coordination of substitution complexes from UO2(CO3)3(4-) and amines using density functional theory calculations. Four kinds of amines (diethylamine (DEA), ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA)) were selected because they belong to different classes and have different chain lengths. The geometrical structures, electronic structures and the thermodynamic stabilities of various substitution complexes, as well as the trends in their calculated properties were investigated at equilibrium. In these optimized complexes, DEA groups bind to uranyl as monodentate ligands; EDA groups serve as monodentate and bidentate ligands; DETA groups act as monodentate and tridentate ligands; while TETA groups serve as monodentate, bidentate and tridentate ligands. The thermodynamic analysis confirmed that the primary amines coordinate to uranyl more strongly than does the secondary amine. The stabilities of substitution complexes with primary amines were calculated to decrease with increasing chain length of the amine, except for UO2(L2)(2+). Of the complexes analyzed, only UO2L(CO3)2(2-) (L = EDA and DETA) and UO2L2CO3 (L = EDA) were predicted to form from the substitution reactions with UO2(CO3)3(4-) and protonated amines as reactants in aqueous solution. Amines were calculated to be comparable to, or sometimes weaker than, amidoximate in replacing CO3(2-) in UO2(CO3)3(4-) to coordinate to uranium. Therefore, the coordination mechanism, in which amines replace carbonates to bind to uranyl, is not primarily responsible for the experimentally observed 3-fold or greater increase in uranyl capacity of primary amines compared to a diamidoxime ligand. Based on the results of our calculations, we believe that the cation exchange mechanism, in which the

  11. Hexa-μ2-chlorido-μ4-oxido-tetrakis[(3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-κN2copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshan He

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu4Cl6O(C10H10N24], contains four CuII atoms which are bridged by six chloride anions. The central O atom is located on a crystallographic fourfold roto-inversion axis. Each CuII atom is coordinated by an N atom of a neutral monodentate 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole ligand, three Cl− anions, and one O2− anion. The geometry at each CuII atom is distorted trigonal–bipyramidal, with the three Cl− ions in the equatorial plane and the N and O atoms in the axial positions.

  12. Poly[μ3-aqua-aqua-μ5-(4-nitro­benzoato)-caesium

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C7H4NO2)(H2O)2]n, the caesium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid, the irregular CsO9 coordination sphere comprises three bridging nitro O-atom donors, a bidentate carboxylate O,O′-chelate interaction, a triple-bridging water molecule and a monodentate water molecule. A three-dimensional framework polymer is generated, within which there are water–carboxylate O—H...O and water–water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  13. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF SOME SULFATO TRIORGANOTIN DERIVATIVES AND ADDUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On allowing ethylenediammonium sulfate or Me4NSO4H to react with SnPh3Cl or SnBu2Cl2 in ethanolic media in specific ratios the three sulfato complexes were obtained and their infrared study carried out. The molecular structures of these compounds have been proposed on the basis of the infrared data. Discrete structures are suggested: the sulfate anion is tetradentate in two of them and monodentate in the other, the tin center being in a trigonal bipyramidal environment in all the structures. When the ethylenediammonium ion is involved through hydrogen bonds, dimeric structures may be obtained.

  14. Study of the spectroscopic characteristics of methyl (ligand) cobaloximes and their antibacterial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Navaneetha; P A Nagarjun; S Satyanarayana

    2007-01-01

    Spectroscopic characterization (IR, NMR and electronic spectra) of methyl (ligand) cobaloxime was done, where ligand = pyrazole, dimethyl pyrazole, alanine and alanine methyl ester. The frequency changes in the IR spectra and shifts in the NMR were explained on the basis of basicity of the ligand, steric hindrance, HSAB principle and - back-bonding from metal to ligand. Alanine and alanine methyl ester form more stable complexes than pyrazole and dimethyl pyrazole. Based on their IR and 1H NMR spectra it is inferred that pyrazole and dimethylpyrazole bind to Co (III) via N-2 ring nitrogen, i.e. monodentate coordination.

  15. Tetraaquabis(2,6-dihydroxybenzoato-κO1(2,6-dihydroxybenzoato-κ2O1,O1′gadolinium(III dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juangang Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Gd(C7H5O43(H2O4]·2H2O, the GdIII ion shows a distorted square antiprismatic coordination formed by four aqua ligands and four O atoms from the three 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate (L ligands. Two L ligands coordinate the GdIII ion in a monodentate mode, while the third coordinates it in a bidentate–chelating coordination mode. An extensive three-dimensional O—H...O hydrogen-bonding network consolidates the crystal packing.

  16. Poly[μ3-aqua-aqua-μ5-(4-nitrobenzoato-caesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C7H4NO2(H2O2]n, the caesium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid, the irregular CsO9 coordination sphere comprises three bridging nitro O-atom donors, a bidentate carboxylate O,O′-chelate interaction, a triple-bridging water molecule and a monodentate water molecule. A three-dimensional framework polymer is generated, within which there are water–carboxylate O—H...O and water–water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. Poly[μ3-aqua-aqua(μ3-3,5-dinitrobenzoato-κO1:O3:O5caesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C7H3N2O6(H2O2]n, the Cs salt of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, the metal complex centres have have irregular CsO8 coordination, comprising two water molecules (one triply bridging and the other monodentate and four O-atom donors from two nitro groups and one bridging carboxylate O-atom donor from the ligand. Intra-unit O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving both water molecules are observed in the three-dimensional polymeric complex structure.

  18. In situ FT-IR studies on the mechanism of selective catalytic reduction of NOx by propene over SnO2/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiming; Woo, Seong Ihl; Lee, Won Su

    2006-12-28

    The mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by propene over SnO2/Al2O3 catalyst in the presence of oxygen has been investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In situ IR measurements indicate that acetate and formate, which are the derivatives of the partial oxidation of propene, play a crucial role in the formation of NCO by reacting with the reactive monodentate nitrate species. The resulting NCO species subsequently reacts with NOx to form N2. The presence of oxygen substantially contributes to the partial oxidation of propene and thus shows a promoting effect for the NOx reduction.

  19. Highly enantioselective hydrogenation of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru-pybox complexes under hydrogenation or transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Pedregal, Estefanía; Vaquero, Mónica; Lastra, Elena; Gamasa, Pilar; Pizzano, Antonio

    2015-01-07

    The asymmetric reduction of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru complexes bearing both a pybox (2,6-bis(oxazoline)pyridine) and a monodentate phosphite ligand has been described. The catalysts show good activity with a diverse range of substrates, and deliver the amine products in very high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) under both hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol. From deuteration studies, a very different labeling is observed under hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions, which demonstrates the different nature of the hydrogen source in both reactions.

  20. Redetermination of tetrakis(N,N-diethyldithiocarbamatotin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco K. Y. A. Okio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Sn(C5H10NS24], was originally determined by Harreld & Schlemper [Acta Cryst. (1971, B27, 1964–1969] using intensity data estimated from Weissenberg films. In comparison with the previous refinement, the current redetermination reveals anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms, localization of the H atoms, and higher precision of lattice parameters and interatomic distances. The complex features a distorted S6 octahedral coordination geometry for tin and a cis disposition of the monodentate dithiocarbamate ligands.

  1. Octabutylbis{(E-2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetratin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkuan Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sn4(C4H98(C15H12NO32(CH3O2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be disordered over two sets of sites.

  2. Protonation of phosphate on the surface of goethite as studied by CIR-FTIR and electrophoretic mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I.; Anderson, M.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-03-01

    CIR-FTIR in situ spectroscopic studies have provided evidence for the formation of three different type of complexes, protonated and nonprotonated bridging bidentate as well as a nonprotonated monodentate, between orthophosphate ions and surface Fe(III) of {alpha}-FeOOH particles in aqueous suspensions. The speciation of these complexes is a function of pH and phosphate surface coverage ({Lambda}). Furthermore, the combination of CIR-FTIR, adsorption isotherm, and electrophoretic mobility data allows them to calculate the intrinsic pK value (4.6) for the bridging bidentate iron phosphate surface complex.

  3. [MII(NCS)2(nia)2(OH2)2]: Preparation, Crystal Structure and Thermal Properties (MII = Mn, Fe; nia = nicotinamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Počkaj, Marta; Kitanovski, Nives; Čeh, Boris; Cerc-Korošec, Romana

    2017-06-01

    Two novel isostructural coordination compounds of manganese(II) (1) and iron(II) (2) with common formulae [MII(NCS)2(nia)2(OH2)2] have been prepared from water solution of appropriate metal salt, nicotinamide and KSCN. Their crystal structures were determined by means of X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The mononuclear title compounds crystallize in a triclinic P-1 space group with six monodentate octahedrally arranged ligands around the metal centre. The coordination molecules are self-assembled with an extended network of hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional structure. Additionally, 1 and 2 were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, magnetic measurements and thermal analysis.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF POLYNUCLEAR DABCO ADDUCTS WITH NiCl2 AND CuCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMADOU NDIAYE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed structures for the studied adducts - DABCO.3[NiCl2·2H2O].EtOH and 2DABCO.3CuCl2.4EtOH or 3DABCO. 4CuCl2.5EtOH are discrete with two or three metallic components, the environments around the Nickel centres being octahedral or square planar, while being octahedral , linear or a square based prism around the Copper centres, the DABCO behaving as a monodentate or bridging bidentate ligand or being lattice. Extra intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds when considered, may lead to supramolecular architectures.

  5. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  6. Two New Dicyanamide Coordination Polymers with Alternating Parallel Chains: {Mn(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 and {Cu(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊; 周锡庚; 侯秀峰; 吴惠霞; 翁林红; 李艳荣

    2005-01-01

    Two new dicyanamide coordination polymers, {Mn(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 (1) and {Cu(dmpz)[N(CN)2]2}2 (2)(dmpz=3,5-dimethylpyrazole), were synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and IR spectroscopy. In 1 and 2 the metal ions have two different coordination modes, where one is coordinated to four dicyanamide anions and two monodentate dmpz molecules to form a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, while the other adopts octahedral geometry, surrounded by four nitrile N atoms and two amide N atoms of the dicyanamide anions. Both complexes contain two alternating chains that are parallel to each other.

  7. catena-Poly[[[bis(methylaminezinc(II]-μ-4,4′-oxydibenzoato] N,N-dimethylacetamide solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhu Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title zinc(II coordination polymer, {[Zn(C14H8O5(CH5N2]·C4H9NO}n, each Zn(II cation is tetrahedrally coordinated by two carboxylato O atoms of two oba anions (H2oba is 4,4′-oxydibenzoic acid, and two N atoms from two methylamine molecules. Each oba anion bridges two Zn(II cations through the two carboxylate groups in a monodentate fashion, forming one-dimensional polymeric chains. These chains are linked via N–H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network.

  8. Are 19F NMR Shifts a Measure for the Nakedness of Fluoride Ions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    CIF has been attributed to a low, lying electronic transition , which corresponds to electron’ circulation in opposite ses- n the two atoms and results...shielding tensor in the principle axis system in which all off-diagonal elements of the shielding tensor. are zero. Since in the monodentate CHCI3 and...preparations of N(CH3)4F [7] and P(CH3)4, (45] have previously been described. The KF and RbF were dried by fusion in a platinum crucible. The hot clinkers

  9. The trans influence in mer-trichloronitridobis(triphenylarsine)ruthenium(VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The title compound, mer-[RuCl(3)N(C(18)H(15)As)(2)], is the first structurally characterized example of a nitride complex in which ruthenium is six-coordinated to monodentate ligands only. The Ru[triple-bond]N bond length [1.6161 (15) A] is relatively long, and the trans influence of the nitride...... ligand is reflected by the difference between the Ru--Cl(trans) and Ru--Cl(cis) bond lengths [0.1234 (4) A]. The N--Ru--Cl(trans) axis is sited on a twofold axis....

  10. Poly[bis[μ2-1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethylbenzene-κ2N4:N4′]bis(nitrito-κOcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The CoII atom in the title complex, [Co(NO22(C12H12N62]n, lies on an inversion center and is coordinated by four N atoms from the triazole rings of two symmetry-related pairs of 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethylbenzene (bbtz ligands and two O atoms from two symmetry-related monodentate nitrate ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The Co atoms are bridged by four bbtz ligands, forming a two-dimensional (4,4 network parallel to (102.

  11. Tetra-aqua-bis-{3-carb-oxy-5-[(4-carb-oxy-phen-yl)diazen-yl]benzoato-κO}cobalt(II) dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Liang; Zhao, Jun

    2011-12-01

    In the title complex, [Co(C(15)H(9)N(2)O(6))(2)(H(2)O)(4)]·2H(2)O, the Co(II) ion is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two monodentate 3-carb-oxy-5-[(4-carb-oxy-phen-yl)diazen-yl]benzo-ate ligands and four water mol-ecules in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. In the crystal, inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  12. Undecacarbonyl-1κ3C,2κ4C,3κ4C-(triethyl phosphite-1κP-triangulo-triruthenium(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar bin Shawkataly

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title triangulo-triruthenium compound, [Ru3(C6H15O3P(CO11], each Ru atom has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The monodentate phosphine ligand is equatorially coordinated to one Ru atom, leaving one equatorial and two axial carbonyl substituents on the Ru atom. Each of the remaining two Ru atoms carries two equatorial and two axial carbonyl groups. In the crystal, molecules are linked into an inversion dimer by a pair of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and the dimers are stacked along the b axis.

  13. Crystal structure of dichloridobis(methyl isonicotinate-κNcopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ahadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CuCl2(C7H7NO22], the square-planar-coordinated CuII ion lies on a centre of symmetry and is bonded to two monodentate methylisonicotinate ligands through their N atoms and by two chloride ligands. The molecules pack in a herringbone pattern. Perpendicular to [100] there are weak intermolecular C—H...Cl and C—H...O contacts. Along [100] there are infinite chains of edge-sharing octahedra linked through the chlorido ligands

  14. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN)cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomyn, Stefania; Pavlenko, Vadim A; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Penkova, Larysa; Kotova, Natalia V

    2011-11-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr(2)(C(5)H(8)N(2))(2)], the Co(II) atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetra-hedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are linked by inter-molecular N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intra-molecular N-H⋯Br hydrogen bond is also present.

  15. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)cobalt(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomyn, Stefania; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Penkova, Larysa; Kotova, Natalia V.

    2011-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr2(C5H8N2)2], the CoII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bond is also present. PMID:22219744

  16. Di­aqua­tetra­kis­(1H-imidazole-κN 3)magnesium dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalvizhi, M.; Vasuki, G.; Kaabi, Kamel; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mg(C3H3N2)4(H2O)2]Cl2, the MgII cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated by two water mol­ecules and four N-atom donors from monodentate imidazole ligands, giving a slightly distorted octa­hedral stereochemistry. In the crystal, water O—H⋯Cl and imidazole N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds give rise to a three-dimensional structure. PMID:24426982

  17. Effect of Grafted Hydroquinone on the Acid-Base Properties of Poly(acrylic acid in the Presence of Copper (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Bensacia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric titration of poly(acrylic acid and hydroquinone-functionalized poly(acrylic acid was conducted in the presence of copper (II. The effects of hydroquinone functionalizing and copper (II complexing on the potentiometric titration of poly(acrylic acid were studied in an ionic environment and in its absence. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was applied to assess its validity for this titration. Coordination number and the stability constants of the copper- (II-complexed polymers were determined, and results showed the formation of mostly monodentate and bidentate copper- (II-polymer complexes.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand complexes of bio-metals with pyrimidine nucleoside (uridine) and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Rabindra Reddy; A Mohan Reddy

    2000-12-01

    The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity data, infrared spectra, electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility data. In these complexes, the nucleoside (uridine) acts as a monodentate ligand coordinating through O(4) under the conditions of investigation, whereas the amino acids coordinate through the carboxylate oxygen and the amino nitrogen. Distorted octahedral geometry for Cu(II) and octahedral geometries for both Ni(II) and Co(II) are proposed.

  19. (Acetato-κO(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′trimethylplatinum(IV monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Steinborn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrate, [Pt(CH33(CH3COO(C10H8N2]·H2O, the PtIV atom exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination geometry built up by three methyl ligands in a facial arrangement, a bipyridine ligand and a monodentately bound acetate ligand. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between the water molecule and the platinum complex, which link the molecules into chains along the c axis.

  20. Diaquabis(4-chlorobenzoato-κObis(N,N-diethylnicotinamide-κN1manganese(II

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    Hacali Necefoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Mn(C7H4ClO22(C10H14N2O2(H2O2], is a monomeric complex with the MnII atom lying on an inversion center. It contains two 4-chlorobenzoate and two diethylnicotinamide ligands and two water molecules, all of which are monodentate. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Mn atom form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the distorted octahedral geometry is completed by two N atoms in the axial positions. In the crystal structure, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into an infinite chain.

  1. Spectroscopic Observation of Water-Mediated Deformation of the CARBOXYLATE-M2+ (M= Mg, Ca) Contact Ion Pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Patrick J.; DePalma, Joseph W.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The binding of alkaline earth dications to the biologically relevant carboxylate ligand has previously been studied using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy of the air-water interface, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of clusters, and DFT methods. These results suggest the presence of both monodentate and bidentate binding motifs of the M2+ ions to the cayboxyl head groups depending on the extent of solvation. We revisit these systems using vibrational predissociation spectroscopy to measure the gas-phase vibrational spectra of the D2-tagged microhydrated [MgOAc(H2O)n=1-5]+ and [CaOAc(H2O)n=1-6]+ clusters. The spectra show that [MgOAc(H2O)n]+ switches from bidentate to monodentate binding promptly at n = 5, while [CaOAc(H2O)n]+ retains its bidentate attachment such that the sixth water molecule initiates the second solvation shell. The difference in binding behavior between these two divalent metal ions is analyzed in the context of the local acidity of the solvent water molecules and the strength of the metal-carboxylate and metal-water interactions. This cluster study provides insight into the chemical physics underlying the unique and surprising impacts of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the chemistry mediated by sea spray aerosols. Funding for this work was provided by the NSF's Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment.

  2. 2-Pyridyl selenolates of antimony and bismuth: Synthesis, characterization, structures and their use as single source molecular precursor for the preparation of metal selenide nanostructures and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Kedarnath, G; Jain, Vimal K; Wadawale, Amey; Nalliath, Manoj; Pillai, C G S; Vishwanadh, B

    2010-10-07

    Reactions of SbCl(3) and BiCl(3) with M'Se-C(5)H(3)(R-3)N (M' = Li or Na; R = H or Me) gave homoleptic selenolate complexes of the general formula [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(R-3)N}(3)] (M = Sb or Bi). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (77)Se) spectroscopy. The single crystal X-ray analysis of [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(3)].nH(2)O (M/n = Sb/1.5 and Bi/0.5) revealed that the antimony complex adopts a trigonal pyramidal configuration with monodentate selenolate ligands while the bismuth analogue acquires a distorted square pyramidal configuration defined by two chelating and one monodentate selenolate groups. Pyrolysis of [M{Se-C(5)H(3)(Me-3)N}(3)] either in a furnace or in hexadecylamine (HDA) at different temperatures gave a variety of M(2)Se(3) nanostructures. Thin films of metal selenides have also been deposited on glass substrate by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). Both nanostructures and thin films of metal selenides were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  3. Computational Molecular Simulation of the Oxidative Adsorption of Ferrous Iron at the Hematite (001)-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-04-30

    The interaction of Fe(II) with ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide phases is central to the biogeochemical redox chemistry of iron. Molecular simulation techniques were employed to determine the mechanisms and quantify the rates of Fe(II) oxidative adsorption at the hematite (001)-water interface. Molecular dynamics potential of mean force calculations of Fe(II) adsorbing on the hematite surface revealed the presence of three free energy minima corresponding to Fe(II) adsorbed in an outersphere complex, a monodentate innersphere complex, and a tridentate innersphere complex. The free energy barrier for adsorption from the outersphere position to the monodentate innersphere site was calculated to be similar to the activation enthalpy for water exchange around aqueous Fe(II). Adsorption at both innersphere sites was predicted to be unfavorable unless accompanied by release of protons. Molecular dynamics umbrella sampling simulations and ab initio cluster calculations were performed to determine the rates of electron transfer from Fe(II) adsorbed as an innersphere and outersphere complex. The electron transfer rates were calculated to range from 10^-4 to 10^2 s-1, depending on the adsorption site and the potential parameter set, and were generally slower than those obtained in the bulk hematite lattice. The most reliable estimate of the rate of electron transfer from Fe(II) adsorbed as an outersphere complex to lattice Fe(III) was commensurate with the rate of adsorption as an innersphere complex suggesting that adsorption does not necessarily need to precede oxidation.

  4. Square-pyramidal iron coordination modules as potential spin switches for the chemisorption on gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempf, Holger; Daunke, Daniel; Grohmann, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Chemie, Berlin (Germany); Heinemann, Frank W. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Octahedral iron(II) complexes of a unique pyridine-derived tetrapodal pentadentate polyamine ligand, 2,6-C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N(CMe[CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}]{sub 2}){sub 2}, show temperature-dependent spin crossover (SCO) depending on the nature of a sixth monodentate ligand L (imidazol or pyridine derivative). For L=1-methylimidazol, the redox behaviour of the complex, as determined by cyclic voltammetry, suggests an accompanying ligand exchange. Pyridine-4-thiol and the disulphides: 4-(2-methyldisulphanyl)pyridine, 4-(2-hexadecyldisulphanyl)pyridine and 1,2-bis([pyridine-4-yl]methyl)disulphane, were studied as mono-dentate ligands L, with a view to enable chemisorption of iron(II) complexes on a gold surface. In the case of pyridine-4-thiol, the participation of the thiolate functional group in iron coordination is difficult to suppress, whereas the disulphides enter into yet unrecorded redox chemistry with iron(II), yielding a di-iron(III) complex containing a persulphide bridge (S{sub 2}{sup 2-}). (orig.)

  5. ATR-FTIR and XPS study on the structure of complexes formed upon the adsorption of simple organic acids on aluminum hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii

    2007-01-01

    Information on the binding of organic ligands to metal (hydr)oxide surfaces is useful for understanding the adsorption behaviour of natural organic matter (NOM) on metal (hydr)oxide. In this study, benzoate and salicylate were employed as the model organic ligands and aluminum hydroxide as the metal hydroxide. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra revealed that the ligands benzoate and salicylate do coordinate directly with the surface of hydrous aluminum hydroxide, thereby forming inner-sphere surface complexes. It is concluded that when the initial pH is acidic or neutral, monodentate and bridging complexes are to be formed between benzoate and aluminum hydroxide while bridging complexes predominate when the initial pH is alkalic. Monodentate and bridging complexes can be formed at pH 5 while precipitate and bridging complexes are formed at pH 7 when salicylate anions are adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. The X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra demonstrated the variation of C 1s binding energy in the salicyate and phenolic groups before and after adsorption. It implied that the benzoate ligands are adsorbed through the complexation between carboxylate moieties and the aluminum hydroxide surface, while both carboxylate group and phenolic group are involved in the complexation reaction when salicylate is adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. The information offered by the XPS confirmed the findings obtained with ATR-FTIR.

  6. catena-Poly[[aquabis[N-(pyridin-3-ylisonicotinamide-κN1]copper(II]-μ-fumarato-κ2O1:O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan H. Qiblawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(C4H2O4(C11H9N3O2(H2O]n, CuII ions on crystallographic twofold rotation axes are coordinated in a square pyramidal environment by two trans O atoms belonging to two monodentate fumarate anions, two trans isonicotinamide pyridyl N-donor atoms from monodentate, pendant 3-pyridylisonicotinamide (3-pina ligands, and one apical aqua ligand, also sited on the crystallographic twofold rotation axis. The exobidentate fumarate ligands form [Cu(fumarate(3-pina2(H2O]n coordination polymer chains that are arranged parallel to [001]. In the crystal, these polymeric chains are anchored into supramolecular layers parallel to (100 by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between aqua ligands and unligating fumarate O atoms, and N—H...O(=C hydrogen bonds between 3-pina ligands. In turn, the layers aggregate by weak C—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, affording a three-dimensional network.

  7. QM/MM MD simulations of La(III)-phosphopeptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Christoph B; Bonn, Günther K; Hofer, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Several bioanalytical enrichment techniques are based on the interactions of phosphopeptides with Ln(III) ions. In order to gain an improved understanding of these complexes and the respective ion-peptide interactions, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of La(III) coordinating to the phosphopeptide VPQLEIVPNSpAEER were conducted. Simulations of di- as well as monoanionic phosphate groups were carried out. The La(III) ion and its first hydration layer, including the sidechain of the phosphoserine residue were treated quantum mechanically at RI-MP2/triple zeta level, whereas the remaining part of the system was treated with classical potentials. The simulation of the dianionic phosphopeptide revealed a 9-fold coordinated La(III) ion, with the phosphopeptide binding bi- as well as monodentate. The mean residence times (τ) of the first shell water molecules were 82 ps and 37 ps for the bi- and monodentate complexes, respectively, which is much higher compared to free La(III) in aqueous solution (τ=17 ps). The simulation of the monoanionic La(III)-phosphopeptide complex revealed a bidentate coordination throughout the 80 ps sampling period. An intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the phosphate group and the backbone was observed and a τ value of 14 ps was obtained, which is much lower as for the dianionic complex.

  8. Mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation (Part 4) infrared spectroscopy of acidic molybdena catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, R.

    1990-01-01

    Mo oxide catalysts supported over a complete series of silica-aluminas have been characterized in the oxidic and reduced states, by means of total acidity measurements and by infrared spectroscopy. Ammonia chemisorption was used to titrate the total acidity of the catalysts, and IR absorption of adsorbed pyridine to distinguish Bronsted from Lewis acid sites. The formation of new acidity upon deposition of molybdena on silica-alumina supports was then explained on the basis of a simple surface model. The new acidity is of both Lewis and Bronsted type, the preponderance of one over the other depending on support composition, as well as loading and state of oxidation of Mo. High-alumina supports and low Mo loading favor dispersed Mo species, in particular bidentate and monodentate di-oxo Mo species. The latter is responsible for the new Bronsted acidity. Coordinative unsaturation of polymolybdates is responsible for the new Lewis acidity, which is increased upon reduction of Mo. High-silica supports favor monodentate species (high Bronsted acidity) up to 4 wt % MoO{sub 3}. Beyond that, polymolybdates species and Lewis acidity predominate. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Poly[tetra-μ-aqua-diaquatetrakis[μ-(E-2-nitrocinnamato]tetrarubidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, [Rb4(C9H6NO44(H2O6]n, the asymmetric unit comprises four rubidium cations, two of which have an RbO7 coordination polyhedron with a monocapped distorted octahedral stereochemistry and two of which have a distorted RbO6 octahedral coordination. The bonding about both the seven-coordinate cations is similar, comprising one monodentate water molecule together with three bridging water molecules and three carboxylate O-atom donors, two of which are bridging. The environments around the six-coordinate cations are also similar, comprising a monodentate nitro O-atom donor, a bridging water molecule and four bridging carboxylate O-atom donors [overall Rb—O range = 2.849 (2–3.190 (2 Å]. The coordination leads to a two-dimensional polymeric structure extending parallel to (001, which is stabilized by interlayer water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations to water, carboxyl and nitro O-atom acceptors, together with weak inter-ring π–π interactions [minimum ring centroid–centroid separation = 3.5319 (19 Å].

  10. Probing the interaction of the amino acid alanine with the surface of ZnO(1010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y K; Traeger, F; Shekhah, O; Idriss, H; Wöll, C

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption modes and stability of the amino acid alanine (NH(2)-CH(CH(3))-COOH) have been studied on the nonpolar single crystal surface of zinc oxide, ZnO(1010), experimentally by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and computationally using density functional theory (DFT). Deposition at 200 K was found to lead to the formation of multilayers identified by an XPS N1s peak at 401.7 eV assigned to the NH(3)(+) group, a fingerprint of the zwitterionic structure of alanine in the solid state. Heating to 300 K resulted in the removal of most of the multilayers with the remaining surface coverage estimated to 0.4 with respect to Zn cations. At this temperature most of the alanine molecules are found to be deprotonated (dissociated), yielding a carboxylate species (NH(2)-CH(CH(3))-COO(-) (a) + OH (s); where O is surface oxygen, (a) for adsorbed and (s) for surface species). Further heating of the surface resulted in a gradual decrease of the surface coverage and by 500 K a large fraction of adsorbed alanine molecules have desorbed from the surface. Total energy DFT computations of different adsorbate species identified two stable dissociative adsorption modes: bidentate and monodentate. The bidentate species with adsorption energy of 1.75 eV was found to be more stable than the monodentate species by about 0.7 eV.

  11. Tetrakis[μ-3-(3-hydroxyphenylpropenoato]bis{aqua(2,2′-bipyridine[3-(3-hydroxyphenylpropenoato]neodymium(III} 2,2′-bipyridine disolvate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ke Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dinuclear title compound, [Nd2(C9H7O36(C10H8N22]·2C10H8N2·2H2O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The centrosymmetric complex consists of two nine-coordinated Nd3+ cations, six 3-hydroxycinnamate anions and two chelating 2,2′-bipyridine molecules. The coordination geometry around the cations can be best described as distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic. The carboxylate groups show different coordination and bridging modes. Two of them chelate to one Nd3+ cation, two bridge the two cations in a bis-monodentate fashion, and two chelate to one and bridge monodentately to the symmetry-related Nd3+ cation. The dinuclear molecule is surrounded by two 2,2′-bipyridine solvent and two water molecules. Extensive O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions between the components lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  12. The cocrystal μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis(aqua(nitrato-κO{[1-(2-pyridyl-κNethylidene]hydrazine-κN}copper(II μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis((methanol-κO(nitrato-κO{[1-(2-pyridyl-κNethylidene]hydrazine-κN}copper(II (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouph Bah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title cocrystal, [Cu2(C2O4(NO32(C7H9N32(H2O2][Cu2(C2O4(NO32(C7H9N32(CH4O2], is a 1:1 cocrystal of two centrosymmetric CuII complexes with oxalate dianions and Schiff base ligands. In each molecule, the CuII centre is in a distorted octahedral cis-CuN2O4 environment, the donor atoms of the N,N′-bidentate Schiff base ligand and the bridging O,O′-bidentate oxalate group lying in the equatorial plane. In one molecule, a monodentate nitrate anion and a water molecule occupy the axial sites, and in the other, a monodentate nitrate anion and a methanol molecule occupy these sites. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O, O—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a network. Weak intramolecular N—H...O interactions are also observed.

  13. Adsorption and decomposition mechanism of formic acid on the Ga2O3 surface by first principle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhen Hua

    2017-02-01

    The adsorption and decomposition of formic acid (FA) on the Ga2O3(100) surface was studied with density functional theory. On the perfect Ga2O3(100) surface, the preferred adsorption state of FA is a monodentate configuration while the most stable adsorption state is a bridging configuration. Heating the surface would convert FA from monodentate to bridging configuration and further heating would decompose FA into CO2 and two surface hydroxyl groups. On the other hand, on the O(2)-defect Ga2O3(100) surface the preferred adsorption state of FA is a bridging formate with one O atom of formate filling the O(2) vacancy. Heating the surface would generate CO and two surface hydroxyl groups. If the Ga2O3(100) surface is used as decomposition catalyst, then at low temperature the formation of a small amount of CO2 can be observed. On the other hand, at high temperature continuous formation of CO and H2O can be observed. The active sites for FA decomposition are the O(2) defects on the surface formed in situ from the removal of water from surface hydroxyl groups. The strong dependence of mechanism on experimental conditions explains why no consensus has been reached in the previous experimental studies regarding the adsorption and decomposition mechanism of FA.

  14. Poly[(μ2-4,4′-bipyridinebis(μ4-5-tert-butylisophthalatobis(μ3-5-tert-butylisophthalatodi-μ3-hydroxido-pentazinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Zhou

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Zn5(C12H12O44(OH2(C10H8N2]n, consists of three ZnII ions (one of which is located on a twofold rotation axis, two 5-tert-butylisophthalate ligands, one 4,4′-bipyridine ligand and one hydroxide group. The five ZnII ions form a pentanuclear zinc cluster, which is further bridged by ten organic ligands, forming two-dimensional sheets. The central zinc ion of the cluster has site symmetry 2 and is octahedrally coordinated in a N2O4 donor set, whereas the other four zinc atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated by four O atoms. The coordination modes for the 5-tert-butylisophthalates are bis(bidentate or bidentate-monodentate. Hydrogen bonds are formed between adjacent sheets through the hydroxide groups and the O atoms of the monodentate carboxylate groups. The two tert-butyl groups are disordered over two positions with ratios of 0.64 (2:0.36 (2 and 0.85 (3:0.15 (3.

  15. Theoretical insights into the effects of the diameter and helicity on the adsorption of formic acid on silicon carbide nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying; Wang Hongxia; Zhao Jingxiang, E-mail: xjz_hmily@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xiaoguang; Cai Qinghai [Harbin Normal University, Key Lab for Design and Synthesis of Functionalized Materials and Green Catalysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Ding Yihong, E-mail: yhdd@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry (China); Wang Xuanzhang [Harbin Normal University, Key Lab for Design and Synthesis of Functionalized Materials and Green Catalysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2012-01-15

    The anchoring of small organic molecules onto the semiconductor surface has a great application for developing various molecular devices, such as novel solar cells, fuel cells, hybrid systems, sensors, and so on. In the present work, by carrying out detailed density-functional theory calculations, we have investigated the adsorption of the formic acid (HCOOH) molecule on planar and various curved silicon carbide (SiC) nanotubes. By considering both the molecular and dissociative adsorptions of HCOOH on these SiC nanomaterials, we found that the HCOOH molecule prefers to dissociate into HCOO and H group. Interestingly, different adsorption modes were found for HCOOH on SiC nanotubes, i.e. dissociative monodentate or bidentate adsorption, which depends on the tube diameter and helicity. For (n, 0) SiC nanotube, the monodentate adsorption mode is energetically favorable when n is less than 10. However, HCOOH prefers to be adsorbed on other (n, 0) SiC nanotubes in a bridged bidentate mode, which is similar to those of on (n, n) SiC nanotubes or planar SiC sheet. Moreover, upon HCOOH adsorption, these SiC nanomaterials remain to be of the semiconducting nature and their band gaps are decreased to different degrees. In addition, we also explored the effects of HCOOH coverage on its adsorption on SiC nanotube.

  16. Photorelease of Pyridyl Esters in Organometallic Ru(II Arene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraha Habtemariam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New Ru(II arene complexes of formula [(η6-p-cymRu(N-N(X]2+ (where p-cym = para-cymene, N-N = 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy and X = m/p-COOMe-Py, 1–4 were synthesised and characterized, including the molecular structure of complexes [(η6-p-cymRu(bpy(m-COOMe-Py]2+ (3 and [(η6-p-cymRu(bpy (p-COOMe-Py]2+ (4 by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1–4 are stable in the dark in aqueous solution over 48 h and photolysis studies indicate that they can photodissociate the monodentate m/p-COOMe-Py ligands selectively with yields lower than 1%. DFT and TD-DFT calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ/6-31G** performed on singlet and triplet states pinpoint a low-energy triplet state as the reactive state responsible for the selective dissociation of the monodentate pyridyl ligands.

  17. A new one-dimensional nickel metal-organic framework: catena-poly[[[diaquabis(4-{[(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]methyl}benzoato-κO)nickel(II)]-μ-4,4'-bipyridine-κ(2)N:N'] monohydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Aijing; Zhang, Qingfu; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Haina; Sun, Dezhi

    2014-03-01

    The title complex, {[Ni(C15H11N4O2S)2(C10H8N2)(H2O)2]·H2O}n, was synthesized by the reaction of nickel chloride, 4-{[(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]methyl}benzoic acid (HL) and 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) under hydrothermal conditions. The asymmetric unit contains two half Ni(II) ions, each located on an inversion centre, two L(-) ligands, one bpy ligand, two coordinated water molecules and one unligated water molecule. Each Ni(II) centre is six-coordinated by two monodentate carboxylate O atoms from two different L(-) ligands, two pyridine N atoms from two different bpy ligands and two terminal water molecules, displaying a nearly ideal octahedral geometry. The Ni(II) ions are bridged by 4,4'-bipyridine ligands to afford a linear array, with an Ni...Ni separation of 11.361 (1) Å, which is further decorated by two monodentate L(-) ligands trans to each other, resulting in a one-dimensional fishbone-like chain structure. These one-dimensional fishbone-like chains are further linked by O-H...O, O-H...N and C-H...O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. The thermal stability of the title complex was investigated via thermogravimetric analysis.

  18. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of mononuclear RE(I) oximato complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Luciano; Huertos, Miguel A; Morales, Dolores; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel; Menéndez-Velazquez, Amador; García-Granda, Santiago

    2007-04-02

    Complexes [Re(ONCMe2)(CO)3(bipy)] (1) and [Re(ONCMe2)(CO)3(phen)] (2), synthesized by reaction of the respective triflato precursors [Re(OTf)(CO)3(N-N)] (N-N = bipy, phen) with KONCMe2, feature O-bonded monodentate oximato ligands. Compound [Re(CO)3(phen)(HONCMe2)]BAr'4 (3), with a monodentate N-bonded oxime ligand, was prepared by reaction of [Re(OTf)(CO)3(phen)], HONCMe2, and NaBAr'4. Deprotonation of 3 afforded 2. The oximato complexes reacted with p-tolylisocyanate, p-tolylisothiocyanate, maleic anhydride, and tetracyanoethylene, affording the products of the insertion of the electrophile into the Re-O bond, compounds 4-7. One representative of each type of compound was fully characterized, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The reactions of 1 and 2 with dimethylacetylenedicarboxylate were found to involve first an insertion as the ones mentioned above but followed by incorporation of water, loss of acetone, and formation of the charge-separated neutral amido complexes 9 and 10. The structure of 9 and 10 was determined by X-ray diffraction, and key features of their electronic distribution were studied using a topological analysis of the electron density as obtained from the Fourier map.

  19. p53 transactivation and the impact of mutations, cofactors and small molecules using a simplified yeast-based screening system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Andreotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p53 tumor suppressor, which is altered in most cancers, is a sequence-specific transcription factor that is able to modulate the expression of many target genes and influence a variety of cellular pathways. Inactivation of the p53 pathway in cancer frequently occurs through the expression of mutant p53 protein. In tumors that retain wild type p53, the pathway can be altered by upstream modulators, particularly the p53 negative regulators MDM2 and MDM4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given the many factors that might influence p53 function, including expression levels, mutations, cofactor proteins and small molecules, we expanded our previously described yeast-based system to provide the opportunity for efficient investigation of their individual and combined impacts in a miniaturized format. The system integrates i variable expression of p53 proteins under the finely tunable GAL1,10 promoter, ii single copy, chromosomally located p53-responsive and control luminescence reporters, iii enhanced chemical uptake using modified ABC-transporters, iv small-volume formats for treatment and dual-luciferase assays, and v opportunities to co-express p53 with other cofactor proteins. This robust system can distinguish different levels of expression of WT and mutant p53 as well as interactions with MDM2 or 53BP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that the small molecules Nutlin and RITA could both relieve the MDM2-dependent inhibition of WT p53 transactivation function, while only RITA could impact p53/53BP1 functional interactions. PRIMA-1 was ineffective in modifying the transactivation capacity of WT p53 and missense p53 mutations. This dual-luciferase assay can, therefore, provide a high-throughput assessment tool for investigating a matrix of factors that can influence the p53 network, including the effectiveness of newly developed small molecules, on WT and tumor-associated p53 mutants as well as interacting proteins.

  20. Tuning Equilibrium Compositions in Colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe Nanocrystals Using Diffusion Doping and Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Charles J; Chakraborty, Pradip; Kornowske, Lindsey M; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-01-26

    The physical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals can be tuned dramatically via composition control. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the synthesis of high-quality colloidal Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals by diffusion doping of preformed CdSe nanocrystals. Until recently, Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals proved elusive because of kinetic incompatibilities between Mn(2+) and Cd(2+) chemistries. Diffusion doping allows Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals to be prepared under thermodynamic rather than kinetic control, allowing access to broader composition ranges. We now investigate this chemistry as a model system for understanding the characteristics of nanocrystal diffusion doping more deeply. From the present work, a Se(2-)-limited reaction regime is identified, in which Mn(2+) diffusion into CdSe nanocrystals is gated by added Se(2-), and equilibrium compositions are proportional to the amount of added Se(2-). At large added Se(2-) concentrations, a solubility-limited regime is also identified, in which x = xmax = ∼0.31, independent of the amount of added Se(2-). We further demonstrate that Mn(2+) in-diffusion can be reversed by cation exchange with Cd(2+) under exactly the same reaction conditions, purifying Cd1-xMnxSe nanocrystals back to CdSe nanocrystals with fine tunability. These chemistries offer exceptional composition control in Cd1-xMnxSe NCs, providing opportunities for fundamental studies of impurity diffusion in nanocrystals and for development of compositionally tuned nanocrystals with diverse applications ranging from solar energy conversion to spin-based photonics.

  1. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion—from Molecules to Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P+(QAQB)- charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  2. Symbiosis of zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (rho-ZMOF) and hydrogels: Composites for controlled drug release

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthoji, Ramakanth

    2011-01-01

    The design and synthesis of new finely tunable porous materials has spurred interest in developing novel uses in a variety of systems. Zeolites, inorganic materials with high thermal and mechanical stability, in particular, have been widely examined for use in applications such as catalysis, ion exchange and separation. A relatively new class of inorganic-organic hybrid materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently surfaced, and many have exhibited their efficiency in potential applications such as ion exchange and drug delivery. A more recent development is the design and synthesis of a subclass of MOFs based on zeolite topologies (i.e. ZMOFs), which often exhibit traits of both zeolites and MOFs. Bio-compatible hydrogels already play an important role in drug delivery systems, but are often limited by stability issues. Thus, the addition of ZMOFs to hydrogel formulations is expected to enhance the hydrogel mechanical properties, and the ZMOF-hydrogel composites should present improved, symbiotic drug storage and release for delivery applications. Herein we present the novel composites of a hydrogel with a zeolite-like metal-organic framework, rho-ZMOF, using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (DHPMA), N-vinyl-2-pyrolidinone (VP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and the corresponding drug release. An ultraviolet (UV) polymerization method is employed to synthesize the hydrogels, VP 0, VP 15, VP 30, VP 45 and the ZMOF-VP 30 composite, by varying the VP content (mol%). The rho-ZMOF, VP 30, and ZMOF-VP 30 composite are all tested for the controlled release of procainamide (protonated, PH), an anti-arrhythmic drug, in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) using UV spectroscopy. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Four-Dimensional Printing Hierarchy Scaffolds with Highly Biocompatible Smart Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Leng, Jinsong; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to four-dimensional (4D) print novel biomimetic gradient tissue scaffolds with highly biocompatible naturally derived smart polymers. The term "4D printing" refers to the inherent smart shape transformation of fabricated constructs when implanted minimally invasively for seamless and dynamic integration. For this purpose, a series of novel shape memory polymers with excellent biocompatibility and tunable shape changing effects were synthesized and cured in the presence of three-dimensional printed sacrificial molds, which were subsequently dissolved to create controllable and graded porosity within the scaffold. Surface morphology, thermal, mechanical, and biocompatible properties as well as shape memory effects of the synthesized smart polymers and resultant porous scaffolds were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel content analysis confirmed the formation of chemical crosslinking by reacting polycaprolactone triol and castor oil with multi-isocyanate groups. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed an adjustable glass transition temperature in a range from -8°C to 35°C. Uniaxial compression testing indicated that the obtained polymers, possessing a highly crosslinked interpenetrating polymeric networks, have similar compressive modulus to polycaprolactone. Shape memory tests revealed that the smart polymers display finely tunable recovery speed and exhibit greater than 92% shape fixing at -18°C or 0°C and full shape recovery at physiological temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fabricated scaffolds revealed a graded microporous structure, which mimics the nonuniform distribution of porosity found within natural tissues. With polycaprolactone serving as a control, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation greatly increased on our novel smart polymers. The current work will significantly advance the future design and development of

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopy and supramolecular structures of two magnesium 4-nitrobenzoate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; Jyoti V Sawant; Christian Näther; Wolfgang Bensch

    2007-05-01

    The aqueous reaction of [Mg(H2O)6]Cl2 with the in situ generated sodium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid (4-nbaH) and N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) results in the formation of the dinuclear complex [Mg(H2O)(N-MeIm)2(4-nba)2]2 1 (4-nba = 4-nitro benzoate), while the direct reaction of [Mg(H2O)6]Cl2 with sodium 4-nba leads to the formation of the mononuclear complex, [Mg(H2O)6](4-nba)2.2H2O 2. In the centrosymmetric dimer 1, each Mg atom is coordinated to an aquo ligand, two monodentate N-MeIm ligands and a monodentate 4-nba ligand. The second 4-nba ligand functions as a bridging bidentate ligand, linking the metal centers and completes the hexacoordination around each Mg(II). The dimeric molecules of 1 are linked into a one-dimensional chain along with the aid of intra- as well as intermolecular H-bonding interactions between the coordinated water and the free oxygen atom of the monodentate 4-nba ligand. In the mononuclear complex [Mg(H2O)6](4-nba)2.2H2O 2, the Mg(II) is located on an inversion center and its structure consists of an octahedral [Mg(H2O)6]2+ dication, a free uncoordinated 4-nba anion and a lattice water molecule. One of the H atoms attached of the lattice water is disordered over two positions. The hexaaquomagnesium(II) dication, the 4-nba anion and the lattice water molecule are linked by intra- and intermolecular H-bonding interactions resulting in the formation of alternating layers of [Mg(H2O)6]2+ dications and 4-nba anions in the crystallographic plane. The lattice water molecules are situated between the cations, while the 4-nba anions are arranged antiparallel to each other along .

  5. Surface complexation model for strontium sorption to amorphous silica and goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criscenti Louise J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strontium sorption to amorphous silica and goethite was measured as a function of pH and dissolved strontium and carbonate concentrations at 25°C. Strontium sorption gradually increases from 0 to 100% from pH 6 to 10 for both phases and requires multiple outer-sphere surface complexes to fit the data. All data are modeled using the triple layer model and the site-occupancy standard state; unless stated otherwise all strontium complexes are mononuclear. Strontium sorption to amorphous silica in the presence and absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with tetradentate Sr2+ and SrOH+ complexes on the β-plane and a monodentate Sr2+complex on the diffuse plane to account for strontium sorption at low ionic strength. Strontium sorption to goethite in the absence of dissolved carbonate can be fit with monodentate and tetradentate SrOH+ complexes and a tetradentate binuclear Sr2+ species on the β-plane. The binuclear complex is needed to account for enhanced sorption at hgh strontium surface loadings. In the presence of dissolved carbonate additional monodentate Sr2+ and SrOH+ carbonate surface complexes on the β-plane are needed to fit strontium sorption to goethite. Modeling strontium sorption as outer-sphere complexes is consistent with quantitative analysis of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS on selected sorption samples that show a single first shell of oxygen atoms around strontium indicating hydrated surface complexes at the amorphous silica and goethite surfaces. Strontium surface complexation equilibrium constants determined in this study combined with other alkaline earth surface complexation constants are used to recalibrate a predictive model based on Born solvation and crystal-chemistry theory. The model is accurate to about 0.7 log K units. More studies are needed to determine the dependence of alkaline earth sorption on ionic strength and dissolved carbonate and sulfate concentrations for the development of

  6. A study of the effect of ammonia gas on the solid mono- and dinuclear oxorhenium(V complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. MASHALY

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of ammonia gas with the solid oxorhenium(V complexes [Re2 O3L2Cl4]·2H2O, [Re2O2L3Cl6]·2H2O, [ReOLCl(OH23]Cl2, [ReOL2(OH23]CCl3, [ReOLCl3(OH2], [ReOL(SCN2Cl(OH2]·H2O and [ReOL(SCNCl2(OH2] (where L = 2-benzimadazolethione, yielded the corresponding ammine and/or amine complexes, [Re2O3L2(NH32(NH22]Cl2 (I, [Re2O2L3(NH32(NH24]Cl2 (II, [Re2O3L2(NH32 (NH24]·H2O (III, [Re2O3L4(NH24] (IV, [Re2O3L2(NH32(NH24C (V, [Re2O3L2(SCN4(NH32] (VI and [Re2O3L2(Thio2(NH24] (VII, respectively, (Thio = thiourea where ammonia gas has replaced other ligands such as chlorine and water. In complex VII thiourea replaced the thiocyanate group in the start complex through its reaction with ammonia gas. The obtained ammine and/or amine of rhenium(V complexes have been observed to decompose through several isolatable, as well as non-isolatable complex species as intermediates during heating. [Re2O3L4], [Re2O3L2(NH24] and [Re2O3L2(SCN4], were synthesized pyrolytically in the solid state from the corresponding parent oxorhenium complexes. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes show that the Re(V cation has an octahedral configuration. IR,1H-NMR spectroscopy, conductivity measurements and thermal analysies show that ammonia and thiourea behave as neutral monodentate ligands, SCN- and NH2- as monodentate monoanionic ligands, the organic ligand (L as a neutral monodentate or bidentate ligand towards the metal cation.

  7. 2′-Deoxyriboguanylurea, the primary breakdown product of 5-aza-2′-deoxyribocytidine, is a mutagen, an epimutagen, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases and an inducer of 5-azacytidine-type fragile sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparska, Katarzyna; Clark, Jarrod; Babilonia, Gail; Bedell, Victoria; Yip, Wesley; Smith, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azaC-dR) has been employed as an inhibitor of DNA methylation, a chemotherapeutic agent, a clastogen, a mutagen, an inducer of fragile sites and a carcinogen. However, its effects are difficult to quantify because it rapidly breaks down in aqueous solution to the stable compound 2′-deoxyriboguanylurea (GuaUre-dR). Here, we used a phosphoramidite that permits the introduction of GuaUre-dR at defined positions in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides to demonstrate that it is a potent inhibitor of human DNA methyltransferase 1 (hDNMT1) and the bacterial DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoRII) and that it is a mutagen that can form productive base pairs with either Guanine or Cytosine. Pure GuaUre-dR was found to be an effective demethylating agent and was able to induce 5azaC-dR type fragile sites FRA1J and FRA9E in human cells. Moreover, we report that demethylation associated with C:G → G:C transversion and C:G → T:A transition mutations was observed in human cells exposed to pure GuaUre-dR. The data suggest that most of the effects attributed to 5azaC-dR are exhibited by its stable primary breakdown product. PMID:22850746

  8. 2'-Deoxyriboguanylurea, the primary breakdown product of 5-aza-2'-deoxyribocytidine, is a mutagen, an epimutagen, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases and an inducer of 5-azacytidine-type fragile sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparska, Katarzyna; Clark, Jarrod; Babilonia, Gail; Bedell, Victoria; Yip, Wesley; Smith, Steven S

    2012-10-01

    5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azaC-dR) has been employed as an inhibitor of DNA methylation, a chemotherapeutic agent, a clastogen, a mutagen, an inducer of fragile sites and a carcinogen. However, its effects are difficult to quantify because it rapidly breaks down in aqueous solution to the stable compound 2'-deoxyriboguanylurea (GuaUre-dR). Here, we used a phosphoramidite that permits the introduction of GuaUre-dR at defined positions in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides to demonstrate that it is a potent inhibitor of human DNA methyltransferase 1 (hDNMT1) and the bacterial DNA methyltransferase (M.EcoRII) and that it is a mutagen that can form productive base pairs with either Guanine or Cytosine. Pure GuaUre-dR was found to be an effective demethylating agent and was able to induce 5azaC-dR type fragile sites FRA1J and FRA9E in human cells. Moreover, we report that demethylation associated with C:G → G:C transversion and C:G → T:A transition mutations was observed in human cells exposed to pure GuaUre-dR. The data suggest that most of the effects attributed to 5azaC-dR are exhibited by its stable primary breakdown product.

  9. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fontenete

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo FISH-based method (FIVH that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performed during endoscopy. In a previous study we designed and synthesized a phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization step now takes only 30 minutes and, in addition to the buffer, uses only urea and probe at non-toxic concentrations. Importantly, the sensitivity and specificity of the FISH method was maintained in the range of conditions tested, even at low stringency conditions (e.g., low pH. In conclusion, this methodology is a promising approach that might be used in vivo in the future in combination with a confocal laser endomicroscope for H. pylori visualization.

  10. The N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine Adduct Does Not Alter the Structure of B-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Pratibha P; Gore, Kiran R; Harikrishna, S; Samanta, Biswajit; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Pradeepkumar, P I

    2016-01-15

    N(2)-Furfuryl-deoxyguanosine (fdG) is carcinogenic DNA adduct that originates from furfuryl alcohol. It is also a stable structural mimic of the damage induced by the nitrofurazone family of antibiotics. For the structural and functional studies of this model N(2)-dG adduct, reliable and rapid access to fdG-modified DNAs are warranted. Toward this end, here we report the synthesis of fdG-modified DNAs using phosphoramidite chemistry involving only three steps. The functional integrity of the modified DNA has been verified by primer extension studies with DNA polymerases I and IV from E. coli. Introduction of fdG into a DNA duplex decreases the Tm by ∼1.6 °C/modification. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA duplex bearing the fdG adduct revealed that though the overall B-DNA structure is maintained, this lesion can disrupt W-C H-bonding, stacking interactions, and minor groove hydrations to some extent at the modified site, and these effects lead to slight variations in the local base pair parameters. Overall, our studies show that fdG is tolerated at the minor groove of the DNA to a better extent compared with other bulky DNA damages, and this property will make it difficult for the DNA repair pathways to detect this adduct.

  11. Synthesis and antisense properties of 2'-O-(2S-methoxypropyl)-RNA-modified gapmer antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinghua; Pandey, Sanjay K; Khatri, Hetal; Prakash, Thazha P; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P

    2014-09-01

    To ascertain whether increasing hydrophobicity can enhance the activity of second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in muscle, we investigated the antisense properties of 2'-O-(2S-methoxypropyl)-RNA (2S-MOP)-modified ASOs. Synthesis of the 2S-MOP 5-methyl uridine phosphoramidite was accomplished on a multi-gram scale by Lewis-acid-catalyzed ring opening of 5'-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl ether-protected 2,2'-anhydro-5-methyl uridine with 2S-methoxy-1-propanol. Synthesis of the 2S-MOP 5-methyl cytidine nucleoside from the corresponding 5-methyl uridine nucleoside was accomplished by formation and displacement of a 4-triazolide intermediate with aqueous ammonia. 2S-MOP-modified oligonucleotides were prepared on an automated DNA synthesizer and showed similar enhancements in duplex thermal stability as 2'-O-methoxyethyl RNA (MOE)-modified oligonucleotides. 2S-MOP-containing antisense oligonucleotides were evaluated in Balb-c mice and showed good activity for decreasing the expression levels of scavenger receptor B1 (Srb1) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) mRNA in liver and muscle tissue. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction data of Thermus flavus 5S rRNA helices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallazza, Marco; Senge, Andrea; Lippmann, Corinna; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Bald, Rolf; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2001-11-01

    5S rRNA is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its unknown function in the ribosome will eventually be revealed in part by structural studies. To promote crystallization and enhance resolution in X-ray diffraction the molecule was subdivided into five domains A-E. Several RNA oligonucleotides were chemically produced by solid-phase phosphoramidite synthesis in order to construct the domains of the 5S rRNA. An improved RNA-MPD-screen was applied in crystallization which covers a complete 2D matrix for the components used. Crystallization analysis resulted in preferred combinations of pH, polyamine, monovalent and divalent cations for short RNA molecules. Six types of crystals corresponding to the domains B, C and E of Thermus flavus 5S rRNA could be obtained which were suitable for X-ray diffraction. Four RNA helices consist of seven base pairs and two of eight base pairs. As special features, they contain two adenines in a bulge position or G : U wobble base pairs assumed to be involved in RNA-protein recognition. With an increase in crystal size an increase in resolution by X-ray analysis was observed. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and cryogenic cooling techniques.

  13. Chemically-enzymatic synthesis of photosensitive DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kinga; Zdrowowicz, Magdalena; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Rak, Janusz

    2017-02-01

    The sensitizing propensity of radio-/photosensitizing nucleoside depends on DNA sequence surrounding a sensitizer. Therefore, in order to compare sensitizers with regard to their ability to induce a DNA damage one has to study the sequence dependence of damage yield. However, chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides labeled with sensitizing nucleosides is hindered due to the fact that a limited number of such nucleoside phosphoramidites are accessible. Here, we report on a chemically-enzymatic method, employing a DNA polymerase and ligase, that enables a modified nucleoside, in the form of its 5'-triphosphate, to be incorporated into DNA fragment in a pre-determined site. Using such a protocol two double-stranded DNA fragments - a long one, 75 base pairs (bp), and a short one, 30bp in length - were pin-point labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Four DNA polymerases together with DHPLC for the inspection of reaction progress were used to optimize the process under consideration. As an ultimate test showing that the product possessing an assumed nucleotide sequence was actually obtained, we irradiated the synthesized oligonucleotide with UVB photons and analyzed its photoreactivity with the LC-MS method. Our results prove that a general approach enabling precise labeling of DNA with any nucleoside modification processed by DNA polymerase and ligase has been worked out.

  14. Synthesis, nucleic acid hybridization properties and molecular modelling studies of conformationally restricted 3'-O,4'-C-methylene-linked alpha-L-ribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Andreas S; Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Kumar, T Santhosh; Wengel, Jesper

    2006-07-24

    Nucleotides with conformationally restricted carbohydrate rings such as locked nucleic acid (LNA), alpha-L-LNA or 2',5'-linked 3'-O,4'-C-methyleribonucleotides exhibit significant potential as building blocks for antigene and antisense strategies. 2',5'-Linked alpha-L-ribo configured monomer X (termed alpha-L-ONA) was designed as a potential structural mimic of alpha-L-LNA. The corresponding phosphoramidite building block of monomer X was obtained in five steps (10% overall yield) from the easily obtainable thymine derivative 1. Incorporation of monomer X into oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ONs) results in dramatically decreased thermal stabilities with DNA/RNA complements (DeltaTm/mod=-11.5 to -17.0 degrees C) compared to unmodified reference ONs. Less pronounced decreases (DeltaTm/mod=-4.5 to -8.5 degrees C) are observed when monomer X is incorporated into triplex forming ONs and targeted against double-stranded DNA (parallel orientation, pyrimidine motif). This biophysical data, together with modelling studies, suggest that 2',5'-linked alpha-L-ONA is a poor structural mimic of alpha-L-LNA.

  15. Anti-parallel triplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosbar, Tamer R.; Sofan, Mamdouh A.; Waly, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    -parallel TFO strand was modified with Y with one or two insertions at the end of the TFO strand, the thermal stability was increased 1.2 °C and 3 °C at pH 7.2, respectively, whereas one insertion in the middle of the TFO strand decreased the thermal stability 1.4 °C compared to the wild type oligonucleotide......The phosphoramidites of DNA monomers of 7-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-8-aza-7-deazaadenine (Y) and 7-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA (Z) are synthesized, and the thermal stability at pH 7.2 and 8.2 of anti-parallel triplexes modified with these two monomers is determined. When, the anti...... chain, especially at the end of the TFO strand. On the other hand, the thermal stability of the anti-parallel triplex was dramatically decreased when the TFO strand was modified with the LNA monomer analog Z in the middle of the TFO strand (ΔTm = -9.1 °C). Also the thermal stability decreased...

  16. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  17. Nucleic acid chemistry in the organic phase: from functionalized oligonucleotides to DNA side chain polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zheng, Lifei; Liu, Qing; de Vries, Jan Willem; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-10-08

    DNA-incorporating hydrophobic moieties can be synthesized by either solid-phase or solution-phase coupling. On a solid support the DNA is protected, and hydrophobic units are usually attached employing phosphoramidite chemistry involving a DNA synthesizer. On the other hand, solution coupling in aqueous medium results in low yields due to the solvent incompatibility of DNA and hydrophobic compounds. Hence, the development of a general coupling method for producing amphiphilic DNA conjugates with high yield in solution remains a major challenge. Here, we report an organic-phase coupling strategy for nucleic acid modification and polymerization by introducing a hydrophobic DNA-surfactant complex as a reactive scaffold. A remarkable range of amphiphile-DNA structures (DNA-pyrene, DNA-triphenylphosphine, DNA-hydrocarbon, and DNA block copolymers) and a series of new brush-type DNA side-chain homopolymers with high DNA grafting density are produced efficiently. We believe that this method is an important breakthrough in developing a generalized approach to synthesizing functional DNA molecules for self-assembly and related technological applications.

  18. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: hybridization assays on polymer particles obtained by direct solid phase assembly of the oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Heinonen, P; Iitiä, A; Lönnberg, H

    1997-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides were assembled by conventional phosphoramidite chemistry on uniformly sized (50 microns) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate (SINTEF) and compact polystyrene (Dynosphere) particles, the aminoalkyl side chains of which were further derivatized with DMTrO-acetyl groups. The linker was completely resistant toward ammonolytic deprotection of the base moieties. The quality of oligonucleotides was assessed by repeating the synthesis on the same particles derivatized with a cleavable ester linker. The ability of the oligonucleotide-coated particles to bind complementary sequences via hybridization was examined by following the attachment of oligonucleotides bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate to the particles. The fluorescence emission was measured directly on a single particle. The effects of the following factors on the kinetics and efficiency of hybridization were studied: number of particles in a given volume of the assay solution, loading of oligonucleotide on the particle, concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution, length of the hybridizing sequence, presence of noncomplementary sequences, and ionic strength. The fluorescence signal measured on a single particle after hybridization was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution over a concentration range of 5 orders of magnitude.

  19. Synthesis of RNAs with up to 100 Nucleotides Containing Site-Specific 2-methylseleno Labels for use in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobartner,C.; Rieder, R.; Kreutz, C.; Puffer, B.; Lang, K.; Polonskaia, A.; Serganov, A.; Micura, R.

    2005-01-01

    The derivatization of nucleic acids with selenium is a new and highly promising approach to facilitate their three-dimensional structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the chemical and enzymatic syntheses of RNAs containing 2'-methylseleno (2'-Se-methyl) nucleoside labels. Our approach includes the first synthesis of an appropriate purine nucleoside phosphoramidite building block. Most importantly, a substantially changed RNA solid-phase synthesis cycle, comprising treatment with threo-1, 4-dimercapto-2, 3-butanediol (DTT) after the oxidation step, is required for a reliable strand elongation. This novel operation allows for the chemical syntheses of multiple Se-labeled RNAs in sizes that can typically be achieved only for nonmodified RNAs. In combination with enzymatic ligation, biologically important RNA targets become accessible for crystallography. Exemplarily, this has been demonstrated for the Diels-Alder ribozyme and the add adenine riboswitch sequences. We point out that the approach documented here has been the chemical basis for the very recent structure determination of the Diels-Alder ribozyme which represents the first novel RNA fold that has been solved via its Se-derivatives.

  20. Terminal lipophilization of a unique DNA dodecamer by various nucleolipid headgroups: Their incorporation into artificial lipid bilayers and hydrodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Werz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of six cyanine-5-labeled oligonucleotides (LONs 10–15, each terminally lipophilized with different nucleolipid head groups, were synthesized using the recently prepared phosphoramidites 4b–9b. The insertion of the LONs within an artificial lipid bilayer, composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE, was studied by single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy with the help of an optically transparent microfluidic sample carrier with perfusion capabilities. The incorporation of the lipo-oligonucleotides into the bilayer was studied with respect to efficiency (maximal bilayer brightness as well as stability against perfusion (final stable bilayer brightness. Attempts to correlate these parameters with the log P values of the corresponding nucleolipid head groups failed, a result which clearly demonstrates that not only the lipophilicity but mainly the chemical structure and topology of the head group is of decisive importance for the optimal interaction of a lipo-oligonucleotide with an artificial lipid bilayer. Moreover, fluorescence half-live and diffusion time values were measured to determine the diffusion coefficients of the lipo-oligonucleotides.

  1. Synthesis of Specifically Modified Oligonucleotides for Application in Structural and Functional Analysis of RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Rublack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, RNA synthesis has become an essential tool not only in the field of molecular biology and medicine, but also in areas like molecular diagnostics and material sciences. Beyond synthetic RNAs for antisense, aptamer, ribozyme, and siRNA technologies, oligoribonucleotides carrying site-specific modifications for structure and function studies are needed. This often requires labeling of the RNA with a suitable spectroscopic reporter group. Herein, we describe the synthesis of functionalized monomer building blocks that upon incorporation in RNA allow for selective reaction with a specific reporter or functional entity. In particular, we report on the synthesis of 5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-2′-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl protected 3′-O-phosphoramidites of nucleosides that carry amino linkers of different lengths and flexibility at the heterocyclic base, their incorporation in a variety of RNAs, and postsynthetic conjugation with fluorescent dyes and nitroxide spin labels. Further, we show the synthesis of a flavine mononucleotide-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl ester and its conjugation to amino functionalized RNA.

  2. Conceptual "Heat-Driven" approach to the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides on microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, A; Cieślak, J; Chmielewski, M K; Marchán, V; Phillips, L R; Wilk, A; Beaucage, S L

    2003-12-01

    The discovery of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites, a novel class of phosphoramidite monomers for solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, has led to the development of a number of phosphate protecting groups that can be cleaved from DNA oligonucleotides under thermolytic neutral conditions. These include the 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl, 4-oxopentyl, 3-(N-tert-butyl)carboxamido-1-propyl, 3-(2-pyridyl)-1-propyl, 2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyl, and 4-methythiobutyl groups. When used for 5'-hydroxyl protection of nucleosides, the analogous 1-phenyl-2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyloxycarbonyl group exhibited excellent thermolytic properties, which may permit an iterative "heat-driven" synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides on microarrays. In this regard, progress has been made toward the use of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites in solid-phase oligonucleotide syntheses without nucleobase protection. Given that deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites produce oligonucleotides with heat-sensitive phosphate protecting groups, blocking the 5'-hydroxyl of these monomers with, for example, the thermolabile 1-phenyl-2-[N-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)]aminoethyloxycarbonyl group may provide a convenient thermo-controlled method for the synthesis of oligonucleotides on microarrays.

  3. Thermolytic CpG-containing DNA oligonucleotides as potential immunotherapeutic prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao; Wang, Vivian; Ausín, Cristina; Hess, Sonja; Verthelyi, Daniela; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-01-01

    A CpG-containing DNA oligonucleotide functionalized with the 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group (CpG ODN fma1555) was prepared from phosphoramidites 1a-d using solid-phase techniques. The oligonucleotide behaved as a prodrug by virtue of its conversion to the well-studied immunomodulatory CpG ODN 1555 through thermolytic cleavage of the 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl thiophosphate protecting group. Such a conversion occurred at 37 degrees C with a half-time of 73 h. The immunostimulatory properties of CpG ODN fma1555 were evaluated in two in vivo assays, one of which consisted of mice challenged in the ear with live Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes. Local intradermal administration of CpG ODN fma1555 was as effective as that of CpG ODN 1555 in reducing the size of Leishmania lesions over time. In a different infectious model, CpG ODN 1555 prevented the death of Tacaribe-infected mice (43% survival) when administered between day 0 and 3 post infection. Administration of CpG ODN fma1555 three days before infection resulted in improved immunoprotection (60-70% survival). Moreover, co-administration of CpG ODN fma1555 and CpG ODN 1555 in this model increased the window for therapeutic treatment against Tacaribe virus infection, and thus supports the use of thermolytic oligonucleotides as prodrugs in the effective treatment of infectious diseases.

  4. Solid-Phase Purification of Synthetic DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieslak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L

    2016-08-05

    Although high-throughput methods for solid-phase synthesis of DNA sequences are currently available for synthetic biology applications and technologies for large-scale production of nucleic acid-based drugs have been exploited for various therapeutic indications, little has been done to develop high-throughput procedures for the purification of synthetic nucleic acid sequences. An efficient process for purification of phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is described herein. This process consists of functionalizing commercial aminopropylated silica gel with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences carrying a 5'-siloxyl ether linker with a "keto" function through an oximation reaction. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites functionalized with the 5'-siloxyl ether linker were prepared in yields of 75-83% and incorporated last into the solid-phase assembly of DNA sequences. Capture of nucleobase- and phosphate-deprotected DNA sequences released from the synthesis support is demonstrated to proceed near quantitatively. After shorter than full-length DNA sequences were washed from the capture support, the purified DNA sequences were released from this support upon treatment with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry DMSO. The purity of released DNA sequences exceeds 98%. The scalability and high-throughput features of the purification process are demonstrated without sacrificing purity of the DNA sequences.

  5. Direct assignment of the absolute configuration of a distinct class of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites at phosphorus by M-GOESY nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Andrzej; Grajkowski, Andrzej; Bull, Thomas E; Dixon, Ann M; Freedberg, Darón I; Beaucage, Serge L

    2002-02-20

    The determination of the absolute configuration of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites at phosphorus toward the synthesis of P-stereodifined phosphorothioated oligodeoxyribonucleotides is easily accomplished with computer-assisted molecular modeling and M-GOESY NMR spectroscopy. Specifically, computer-modeling diasteromeric phosphoramidite 3 has identifed a proximal (2.55 A) through-space interaction between benzylic H-5 and sugar H-2' ', which can predictably be detected by M-GOESY NMR in SP-3 but not in RP-3 because of being too distant (5.85 A). Consistent with computer-assisted modeling predictions, M-GOESY NMR spectra of SP-3 and RP-3 revealed NOE signals generated from nuclei near the selectively excited H-2' ' that are common to both SP-3 and RP-3, namely those of H-2', H-4', H-3', and H-1'. In addition, a diagnostic NOE signal at 5.5 ppm (benzylic H-5) is, as predicted, only detected in SP-3 and thus provides an unequivocal assessment of the configuration of the diastereomer at phosphorus. M-GOESY NMR data also confirm that the condensation of deoxyribonucleoside cyclic N-acylphosphoramidites with base-activated nucleosidic or nucleotidic 5'-hydroxyls proceeds via a single nucleophilic event.

  6. Carborane derivative development for boron neutron capture therapy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnum, Beverly A.; Yan Hao; Moore, Roger; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Baum, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [BNCT] is a binary method of cancer therapy based on the capture of neutrons by a boron-10 atom [{sup 10}B]. Cytotoxic {sup 7}Li nuclei and {alpha}-particles are emitted, with a range in tissue of 9 and 5 {micro}m, respectively, about one cell diameter. The major obstacle to clinically viable BNCT is the selective localization of 5-30 ppm {sup 10}B in tumor cells required for effective therapy. A promising approach to BNCT is based on hydrophilic boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters, or ''trailers'' that have been shown to concentrate selectively in tumor tissue. Examples of these compounds were prepared previously at high cost using an automated DNA synthesizer. Direct synthesis methods are needed for the production of gram-scale quantities for further biological evaluation. The work accomplished as a result of the collaboration between Fluorochem, Inc. and UCLA demonstrates that short oligomers containing at least five carborane units with four phosphodiester linkages can be prepared in substantial quantities. This work was accomplished by the application of standard phosphoramidite coupling chemistry.

  7. Chemical synthesis of guanosine diphosphate mannuronic acid (GDP-ManA) and its C-4-O-methyl and C-4-deoxy congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingju; Howell, P Lynne; Overkleeft, Herman S; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Codée, Jeroen D C

    2017-10-10

    Described is the first synthesis of guanosine diphosphate mannuronic acid (GDP-ManA), the sugar donor used by algae and bacteria for the production of alginate, an anionic polysaccharide composed of β-d-mannuronic acid (ManA) and α-l-guluronic acid (GulA). Understanding the biosynthesis of these polyanionic polysaccharides on the molecular level, opens up avenues to use and modulate the biosynthesis machinery for biotechnological and therapeutic applications. The synthesis reported here delivers multi-milligram amounts of the GDP-ManA donor that can be used to study the polymerase (Alg8 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) that generates the poly-ManA chain. Also reported is the assembly of two close analogues of GDP-ManA: the first bears a C-4-O-methyl group, while the second has been deoxygenated at this position. Both molecules may be used as "chain stoppers" in future enzymatic ManA polymerisation reactions. The crucial pyrophosphate linkage of the GDP-mannuronic acids has been constructed by the phosphorylation of the appropriate ManA-1-phosphates with a guanosine phosphoramidite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of 2'-Methyl-RNA on a Homostar Support through Organic-Solvent Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Piers R J; Kim, Jeong F; Valtcheva, Irina B; Williams, Glynn D; Anson, Mike S; Buswell, Andrew M; Livingston, Andrew G

    2015-06-22

    Due to the discovery of RNAi, oligonucleotides (oligos) have re-emerged as a major pharmaceutical target that may soon be required in ton quantities. However, it is questionable whether solid-phase oligo synthesis (SPOS) methods can provide a scalable synthesis. Liquid-phase oligo synthesis (LPOS) is intrinsically scalable and amenable to standard industrial batch synthesis techniques. However, most reported LPOS strategies rely upon at least one precipitation per chain extension cycle to separate the growing oligonucleotide from reaction debris. Precipitation can be difficult to develop and control on an industrial scale and, because many precipitations would be required to prepare a therapeutic oligonucleotide, we contend that this approach is not viable for large-scale industrial preparation. We are developing an LPOS synthetic strategy for 2'-methyl RNA phosphorothioate that is more amenable to standard batch production techniques, using organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) as the critical scalable separation technology. We report the first LPOS-OSN preparation of a 2'-Me RNA phosphorothioate 9-mer, using commercial phosphoramidite monomers, and monitoring all reactions by HPLC, (31)P NMR spectroscopy and MS. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  10. Circular DNA by "Bis-Click" Ligation: Template-Independent Intramolecular Circularization of Oligonucleotides with Terminal Alkynyl Groups Utilizing Bifunctional Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haozhe; Seela, Frank

    2016-01-22

    A highly effective and convenient "bis-click" strategy was developed for the template-independent circularization of single-stranded oligonucleotides by employing copper(I)-assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Terminal triple bonds were incorporated at both ends of linear oligonucleotides. Alkynylated 7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyuridine residues with different side chains were used in solid-phase synthesis with phosphoramidite chemistry. The bis-click ligation of linear 9- to 36-mer oligonucleotides with 1,4-bis(azidomethyl)benzene afforded circular DNA in a simple and selective way; azido modification of the oligonucleotide was not necessary. Short ethynyl side chains were compatible with the circularization of longer oligonucleotides, whereas octadiynyl residues were used for short 9-mers. Compared with linear duplexes, circular bis-click constructs exhibit a significantly increased duplex stability over their linear counterparts. The intramolecular bis-click ligation protocol is not limited to DNA, but may also be suitable for the construction of other macrocycles, such as circular RNAs, peptides, or polysaccharides.

  11. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Ferreira, Rui Manuel; Figueiredo, Céu; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo FISH-based method (FIVH) that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performed during endoscopy. In a previous study we designed and synthesized a phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA)/ 2’ O-methyl RNA (2’OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization step now takes only 30 minutes and, in addition to the buffer, uses only urea and probe at non-toxic concentrations. Importantly, the sensitivity and specificity of the FISH method was maintained in the range of conditions tested, even at low stringency conditions (e.g., low pH). In conclusion, this methodology is a promising approach that might be used in vivo in the future in combination with a confocal laser endomicroscope for H. pylori visualization. PMID:25915865

  12. A High-Throughput Process for the Solid-Phase Purification of Synthetic DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L

    2017-06-19

    An efficient process for the purification of synthetic phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is presented. The process is based on the use of an aminopropylated silica gel support functionalized with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences through an oximation reaction with the keto function of a linker conjugated to the 5'-terminus of DNA sequences. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites carrying this linker, as a 5'-hydroxyl protecting group, have been synthesized for incorporation into DNA sequences during the last coupling step of a standard solid-phase synthesis protocol executed on a controlled pore glass (CPG) support. Solid-phase capture of the nucleobase- and phosphate-deprotected DNA sequences released from the CPG support is demonstrated to proceed near quantitatively. Shorter than full-length DNA sequences are first washed away from the capture support; the solid-phase purified DNA sequences are then released from this support upon reaction with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and precipitated in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The purity of solid-phase-purified DNA sequences exceeds 98%. The simulated high-throughput and scalability features of the solid-phase purification process are demonstrated without sacrificing purity of the DNA sequences. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. A structural and vibrational study of the chromyl chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate, and nitrate compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brandán, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    A Structural and Vibrational Study of the Chromyl Chlorosulfate, Fluorosulfate and Nitrate Compounds presents important studies related to the structural and vibrational properties on the chromyl compounds based on Ab-initio calculations. The synthesis and the study of such properties are of chemical importance because the stereo-chemistries and reactivities of these compounds are strongly dependent on the coordination modes that adopt the different ligands linked to the chromyl group. In this book, the geometries of all stable structures in gas phase for chromyl chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate, and nitrate are optimized by using Density functional Theory (DFT). Then, the complete assignments of all observed bands in the infrared and Raman spectra are performed combining DFT calculations with Pulay´s Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology and taking into account the type of coordination adopted by the chlorosulfate, fluorosulfate and nitrate ligands as monodentate and bidentate. Moreover, the ...

  14. Synthesis and transition metal coordination chemistry of a novel hexadentate bispidine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Rudolf, Henning; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2015-02-14

    Reported is the new bispidine-derived hexadentate ligand (L = 3-(2-methylpyridyl)-7-(bis-2-methylpyridyl)-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) with two tertiary amine and four pyridine donor groups. This ligand can form heterodinuclear and mononuclear complexes and, in the mononuclear compounds discussed here, the ligand may coordinate as a pentadentate ligand, with one of the bispyridinemethane-based pyridine groups un- or semi-coordinated, or as a hexadentate ligand, leading to a pentagonal pyramidal coordination geometry or, with an additional monodentate ligand, to a heptacoordinate pentagonal bipyramidal structure. The solution and solid state data presented here indicate that, with the relatively small Cu(II) and high-spin Fe(II) ions the fourth pyridine group is only semi-coordinated for steric reasons and, with the larger high-spin Mn(II) ion genuine heptacoordination is observed but with a relatively large distortion in the pentagonal equatorial plane.

  15. A Hirshfeld surface analysis, crystal structure and physicochemical studies of a new Cd(II) complex with the 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klai, Kacem; Kaabi, Kamel; Kaminsky, Werner; Jelsch, Christian; Lefebvre, Frédéric; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2017-01-01

    A new Cd(II) complex with the monodentate ligand 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine, [Cd(NO3)2(C5N3H7)2(H2O)2], has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, CP-MAS NMR and IR spectroscopy. The basic coordination patterns of the 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine coordinated metal cations are slightly distorted octahedra in this compound. The crystal structure is characterized by CdN2O4 octahedra interconnected via O-H…O and O-H…N hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to the (b, c) plane. The crystal structure is stabilized by sets of hydrogen bonds, one of which is trifurcated. Intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces. The 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are discussed and the vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. Electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were derived.

  16. Poly[[bis(dimethylformamide[μ7-5,5′-(methylenedioxydiisophthalato]dizinc] dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong He

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title coordination polymer, {[Zn2(C17H8O10(C3H7NO2]·C3H7NO}n, the molecular building block (MBB, viz. {Zn2(CO24(C3H7NO2}, comprises two zinc atoms, each bridged by three carboxylate groups. These two Zn atoms exhibit different coordination environments: a distorted coordination intermediate between trigonal–pyramidal, and square–pyramidal formed by the two coordinated dimethylformamide molecules and three carboxylate groups, and a distorted tetrahedral coordination defined by carboxylate groups of which three are bidentate bridging and the fourth is a monodentate ligand. Thus, each ligand connects four MBBs, forming the three-dimensional polymer.

  17. 四(1-乙基咪唑)二异硫氰酸锰的晶体结构和热性能%Crystal and Thermal Behavior of Tetrakis(1-ethylimidazole-kN3)diisothiocyanatomanganese(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法谦; 李荣勋; 李少香

    2008-01-01

    A complex [Mn(NCS)2(Eim)4] (where Eim=1-ethylimidazole) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction single-crystal structure analysis. The compound crystallizes in the Orthorhombic space group Pbca with the cell parameters: a=1.618 9(3) nm, b=1.787 4(4) nm, c=1.9994(4) nm, and V=5.786(2) nm3, Z=8. In the structure, each Mn atom is coordinated by four Eim ligands and a pair of monodentate isothiocyanic groups, affording a compressed octahedral MnN6 core. The NCS- anions are trans and four N atoms imidazole rings of Eim link the molecules into independent chains running along the c-axis. The thermal gravity (TG) data indicates that thermal decomposition of the title complex takes place in two steps, the residue is Fe.CCDC: 646113.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermal Decomposition of [Ce(NO3)5H2O]·(C3N2H5)2%[Ce(NO3)5H2O]·(C3H5N2)2的合成、晶体结构及热分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛岗林; 杨一心; 李恒新; 何水样; 李君

    2001-01-01

    Colorless crystal,[Ce(NO3) 5H2O]·(C3N2H5)2, has been obtained from the reaction of Ce(NO3)3 with imdazole in the aqueous solution and its crystal structure has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The crystal belongs to triclinic, space group P1. The cell parameters are: a=0.7489(1) nm, b=0.7914(2)nm, c=1.8139(3)nm, α=89.39(2)°, β=89.37(1)°, γ=63.18(2)°, Dc=2. lg·cm-3, Z=2, R=0.0319. In the compound, all of five nitrates are bidentate and one molecule of water is monodentate, the coordination number of Ce(Ⅲ) is 11.The processes of thermal decomposition of the compound was proposed by its TG curve.

  19. Synthesis and Structure of Bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) Cadmium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The title complex, bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) cadmium iodide (C16H16CdI2N8O4S2) crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1 with a=9.632(2), b=11.227(2), c=14.031(3), α= 67.50(3), β= 86.99(3), γ= 66.64(3)°, V=1278.13, Z = 2, Dc = 2.117gcm-3, F(000) = 772, μ =3.472mm-1 MoKα radiation (λ=0.71073), R = 0.0443, wR= 0.1425 for 4529 observed reflections [I>2σ(I)] of 4731 independent reflections. The result shows that the structure contains CdL2I2 (where L = 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) distorted tetrahedral units in which the two ligands are S-bonded as monodentate to cadmium ion; the two iodide ions are also coordinated to Cd(II).

  20. Poly[μ2-aqua-aqua-μ5-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonato-strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the polymeric title compound, [Sr(C10H6O6S2(H2O2]n, the naphthalene-2,7-disulfonate dianion uses one –SO3 unit to bind to two SrII cations and the other –SO3 unit to bind to three SrII cations; of the two coordinated water molecules, one is monodentate to one SrII cation, whereas the other bridges two SrII cations. The μ5-bridging mode of the dianon and the μ2-bridging mode of the water molecule generate a polymeric three-dimensional network which is consolidated by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The SrII cation exists in an undefined eight-coordinate environment.

  1. New organophilic kaolin clays based on single-point grafted 3-aminopropyl dimethylethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, A; Perrin, F-X; Teodorescu, M; Radu, A-L; Iordache, T-V; Florea, A-M; Donescu, D; Sarbu, A

    2015-10-14

    In this study, the organophilization procedure of kaolin rocks with a monofunctional ethoxysilane- 3 aminopropyl dimethyl ethoxysilane (APMS) is depicted for the first time. The two-step organophilization procedure, including dimethyl sulfoxide intercalation and APMS grafting onto the inner hydroxyl surface of kaolinite (the mineral) layers was tested for three sources of kaolin rocks (KR, KC and KD) with various morphologies and kaolinite compositions. The load of APMS in the kaolinite interlayer space was higher than that of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) due to the single-point grafting nature of the organophilization reaction. A higher long-distance order of kaolinite layers with low staking was obtained for the APMS, due to a more controllable organiphilization reaction. Last but not least, the solid state (29)Si-NMR tests confirmed the single-point grafting mechanism of APMS, corroborating monodentate fixation on the kaolinite hydroxyl facets, with no contribution to the bidentate or tridentate fixation as observed for APTS.

  2. Crystal structure of NH4[La(SO42(H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Benslimane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal building units in the crystal structure of ammonium aquabis(sulfatolanthanate(III are slightly distorted SO4 tetrahedra, LaO9 polyhedra in the form of distorted tricapped trigonal prisms, and NH4+ ions. The La3+ cation is coordinated by eight O atoms from six different sulfate tetrahedra, two of which are bidentate coordinating and four monodentate, as well as one O atom from a water molecule; each sulfate anion bridges three La3+ cations. These bridging modes result in the formation of a three-dimensional anionic [La(SO42(H2O]− framework that is stabilized by O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. The disordered ammonium cations are situated in the cavities of this framework and are hydrogen-bonded to six surrounding O atoms.

  3. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′(sulfato-Ocopper(II ethane-1,2-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(SO4(C12H8N22]·C2H6O2, the CuII ion is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal manner by four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligands and one O atom from a monodentate sulfate anion. The four N atoms comprise a square and the one O atom the apex of a square pyramid. The two chelating N2C2 groups are oriented at 71.1 (2°. In the crystal, the components are connected by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding. The presence of pseudosymmetry in the structure suggests the higher symmetry space group C2/c, but attempts to refine the structure in this space group resulted in an unsatisfactory model.

  4. Enhanced effect of water vapor on complete oxidation of formaldehyde in air with ozone over MnOx catalysts at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Zhi; Shi, Chuan; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Jang, Ben W-L

    2012-11-15

    At room temperature, the enhanced effect of water vapor on ozone catalytic oxidation (OZCO) of formaldehyde to CO2 over MnOx catalysts and the reaction stability was reported. In a dry air stream, only below 20% of formaldehyde could be oxidized into CO2 by O3. In humid air streams (RH≥55%), ∼100% of formaldehyde were oxidized into CO2 by O3 and the reaction stability was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectra of OZCO of HCHO demonstrate that the amount of both monodentate and bidentate carbonate species on MnOx, in the dry stream, increased gradually with time on stream (TOS). However, in the humid stream, almost no accumulation of carbonate species on the catalysts was observed. To clarify the enhanced mechanism, formaldehyde surface reactions and CO2 adsorption/desorption on the fresh, O3 and O3+H2O treated MnOx catalysts were examined comparatively.

  5. Bis(dimethyl-malonato-κO,O')bis-[4-(4-pyridylamino-κN)pyridinium]nickel(II) hexa-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Gregory A; Laduca, Robert L

    2008-11-22

    In the title compound, [Ni(C(5)H(6)O(4))(2)(C(10)H(10)N(3))(2)]·6H(2)O, divalent nickel ions situated on the crystallographic twofold axis are octa-hedrally coordinated by four O atoms from two dimethyl-malonate ligands in a 1,3-chelating mode and two N atoms from two protonated monodentate 4,4'-dipyridylamine mol-ecules. The mol-ecules link into chains via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding mediated by protonated pyridyl groups. The chains form layer patterns via π-π stacking [centroid-centroid distance = 3.777 (2) Å] . Water mol-ecule hexa-mers are generated from the unligated water mol-ecules (three per asymmetric unit) by inversion centers at Wyckoff position d. These clusters are situated between the pseudolayers, providing hydrogen-bonding pathways that build up the three-dimensional structure.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and Thermogravimetry of ortho-phthalic acid bridged coordination polymer of Copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BABITA SARMA; SAURAV BHARALI; DIGANTA KUMAR DAS

    2016-06-01

    Coordination polymer of Cu(II) bridged by o-phthalic acid alone is not known. The reaction of$CuCl_{2}.2H_{2}O$ with (2-butoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid yielded three dimensional coordination polymer bridged byo-phthalic acid. X-ray crystal structure shows structure with monoclinic P21/c space group. o-Phthalic acidmolecules act as bridge between two Cu(II), one carboxylate binds to one Cu(II) as bidentate while the othercarboxylate binds to another Cu(II) as monodentate. The four planar co-ordination positions of Cu(II) aresatisfied by two chelated carboxylates while fifth and sixth co-ordination positions are satisfied by monodentatecarboxylates. EPR and TGA of the coordination polymer are also reported.

  7. Actinides sorption onto hematite. Experimental data, surface complexation modeling and linear free energy relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, Anna Y.; Kalmykov, Stephan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    The sorption of actinides in different valence states - Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) onto hematite have been revisited with the special emphasis on the equilibrium constants of formation of surface species. The experimental sorption data have been treated using surface complexation modeling from which the set of new values of equilibrium constants were obtained. Formation of inner sphere monodentate surface species adequately describes the pH-sorption edges for actinide ions indicative the ionic electrostatic nature of bonding with small or no covalency contribution. The linear free energy relationship representing the correlation between the hydrolysis constants and surface complexation constants has been developed for various cations including K(I), Li(I), Na(I), Ag(I), Tl(I), Sr(II), Cu(II), Co(II), La(III), Eu(III), Ga(III), Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), U(VI). (orig.)

  8. Computational assessment of electron density in metallo-organic nickel pincer complexes for formation of PC bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Joshua J; Downey, Karen

    2015-10-05

    Hydrophosphination is an atomically efficient method for introducing new carbon-phosphorous bonds in organic synthesis. New late-transition metal catalytic complexes are proposed to facilitate this process. These nickel-based complexes are analyzed using semiempirical (SE), Hartree-Fock (H-F), and density functional theory (DFT) models. H-F proves to be ineffective, while the SE approach has limited, qualitative use. DFT shows electron density at the metal center suitable for catalyzing bond formation in the proposed, reductive hydrophosphination mechanism. It also shows that the pincer complexes under investigation are relatively insensitive to solvent dielectric constant and to the chemical character of the monodentate ligand, both in terms of electron distribution and in terms of molecular orbital energies.

  9. Grafting of swelling clay materials with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongping; Duchet, Jannick; Galy, Jocelyne; Gerard, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    The grafting reaction between a trifunctional silylating agent and two kinds of 2:1 type layered silicates was studied using FTIR, XRD, TGA, and 29Si CP/MAS NMR. XRD patterns clearly indicate the introduction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (gamma-APS) into the clay interlayer. In the natural montmorillonite, gamma-APS adopts a parallel-bilayer arrangement, while it adopts a parallel-monolayer arrangement in the synthetic fluorohectorite. These different silane arrangements have a prominent effect on the mechanism of the condensation reaction within the clay gallery. In natural montmorillonite, the parallel-bilayer arrangement of gamma-APS results in bidentate (T2) and tridendate (T3) molecular environments, while the parallel-monolayer arrangement leads to monodentate (T1), as indicated by 29Si CP/MAS NMR spectra. This study demonstrates that the silylation reaction and the interlayer microstructure of the grafting products strongly depend on the original clay materials.

  10. Diaquabis[4-(dimethylaminobenzoato-κO](isonicotinamide-κN1manganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Hökelek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The title MnII complex, [Mn(C9H10NO22(C6H6N2O(H2O2], contains two 4-(dimethylaminobenzoate (DMAB anions, one isonicotinamide (INA ligand and two coordinated water molecules. One of the DMAB anions acts as a bidentate ligand, while the other is monodentate. The four O atoms in the equatorial plane around the Mn atom form a highly distorted square-planar arrangement, while the distorted octahedral coordination geometry is completed by the N atom of the INA ligand and the O atom of the second water molecule in the axial positions. In the crystal structure, strong intermolecular O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. Two weak C—H...π interactions are also found.

  11. Diaquabis(N,N-diethylnicotinamide-κN1bis(4-formylbenzoato-κO1manganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Mn(C8H5O32(C10H14N2O2(H2O2], contains one MnII atom lying on an inversion centre, two 4-formylbenzoate and two diethylnicotinamide ligands and two coordinated water molecules. All ligands are monodentate. The four O atoms around the Mn atom form a slightly distorted equatorial plane, while the distorted octahedral coordination is completed by the two N atoms in the axial positions. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the complex. In the crystal structure, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules through an R22(16 ring motif, forming a one-dimensional chain along the a axis. The π–π contact between the pyridyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.629 (2 Å] may further stabilize the structure.

  12. Poly[[[μ-3,3′-(dimethylsilanediyldibenzoato][μ-1,1′-(1,4-phenylenedi-1H-imidazole]zinc] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Zn(C16H16O4Si(C12H10N4]·H2O}n, consists of one ZnII ion, two half 3,3′-(dimethylsilanediyldibenzoate ligands and two half 1,1′-(1,4-phenylenedi-1H-imidazole ligands. The ZnII ion is four-coordinated by two O atoms from two carboxlate ligands, two N atoms from two imidazole ligands. Two ZnII ions are bridged by two carboxylate groups in chelating mode, generating a binuclear secondary building unit (SBU, which is further coordinated by two N atoms from two imidazole ligands in monodentate mode. Thus, the binuclear SBUs are further bridged by imidazole ligands in two different directions, giving rise to a chain. The water solvent molecules are hydrogen bonded within the chain along the c axis.

  13. Crystal structure of the magnesium salt of the herbicide 2,4-D: pentaaqua[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetato-κO]magnesium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate hemihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title magnesium salt of the phenoxy herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), [Mg(C8H5Cl2O3)(H2O)5](C8H5Cl2O3)·0.5H2O, the discrete cationic MgO6 complex unit comprises a carboxylate O-donor from a monodentate 2,4-D anionic ligand and five water molecules, resulting in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination sphere. The free 2,4-D anions are linked to the complex units through duplex water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bonds through the coordinati...

  14. Crystal structure of the magnesium salt of the herbicide 2,4-D: penta­aqua­[(2,4-di­chloro­phenoxy)acetato-κO]magnesium (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetate hemihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title magnesium salt of the phen­oxy herbicide (2,4-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), [Mg(C8H5Cl2O3)(H2O)5](C8H5Cl2O3)·0.5H2O, the discrete cationic MgO6 complex unit comprises a carboxyl­ate O-donor from a monodentate 2,4-D anionic ligand and five water mol­ecules, resulting in a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere. The free 2,4-D anions are linked to the complex units through duplex water–carboxyl­ate O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds through the coor...

  15. Aquadipyridinebis(N-p-tolysulfonyl-l-leucinatonickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Shi Tai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In each of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(C13H18NO4S2(C5H5N2(H2O], the geometry of the Ni2+ ion is an extremely distorted trans-NiN2O4 octahedron, arising from its coordination by one water molecule, two pyridine molecules, and one O-monodentate and one O,O′-bidentate deprotonated N-p-tolysulfonyl-l-leucine ligand. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c axis. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in one of the molecules.

  16. cis-Tetraaquabis{5-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl-κN3phenyl]tetrazolido}manganese(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mn(C10H7N62(H2O4]·2H2O, the complex unit comprises an Mn2+ ion, coordinated by two imidazole N atoms from cis-related monodentate 5-[4-(imidazol-1-ylphenyl]tetrazolide ligands and four water molecules, together with two water molecules of solvation. The Mn2+ ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and has a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The molecules are connected by O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving both coordinated and solvent water molecules, generating a three-dimensional structure. Two C atoms of the imidazole ring of the ligand are each disordered over two sites with occupancy factors of 0.75 and 0.25.

  17. Poly[aqua(μ3-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoato-κ3O1:O1′:O2rubidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of title compound, [Rb(C7H4NO5(H2O]n, the centrosymmetric cyclic dimeric repeating unit comprises two irregular RbO4 complex centres bridged by the carboxylate groups of the 5-nitrosalicylate ligands. The coordination about each Rb atom is completed by a monodentate water molecule and a phenolic O-atom donor which gives a bridging extension [Rb—O range = 3.116 (7–3.135 (5 Å]. The polymeric structure is stabilized by intermolecular water O—H...Ocarboxylate hydrogen bonds and weak inter-ring π–π interactions [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.620 (4 Å]. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between phenol and carboxylate groups is also present.

  18. Crystal and Electrochemical Property of Tetrakis(1-vinyl-1H-imidazole-kN3)diisothiocyanatocadmium(Ⅱ)%四(1-乙烯基咪唑)二异硫氰酸镉的晶体结构和电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光烨; 陈红纳; 刘法谦; 李少香; 李荣勋; 黄素逸

    2007-01-01

    A complex [Cd(NCS)2(Vim)4] (where Vim=1-vinylimidazole) was synthesized and it's crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The compound crystallizes in the Monoclinic space group P21/cwith the parameters: a=0.858 50(17) nm, b=0.909 90(18) nm, c=1.782 3(4) nm,β=100.14(3)°, V=1.370 5(5) nm3,Z=2. In the structure, each Cd atom is coordinated by four 1-vinylimidazole ligands and a pair of monodentate isothiocyanic groups, affording a compressed octahedral CdN6 core. The NCS- anions are trans and four N atoms from the 1-vinylimidazole ligands define the equatorial plane. From the cyclic voltammogram measurement in H2O, we know that the electrode reaction was a quasi-reversible process. CCDC: 630897.

  19. Bis{μ-2-meth-oxy-6-[(methyl-imino)-meth-yl]phenolato}bis-({2-meth-oxy-6-[(methyl-imino)-meth-yl]phenolato}copper(II)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydoruk, Tetyana V; Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C9H10NO2)4], is built of discrete centrosymmetric dimers. The Cu(II) atoms are each five coordinated by two deprotonated Schiff base ligands that are bonded differently to the metal atoms. Of the two phenolate O atoms, one is coordinated to one Cu(II) atom, whereas another bridges the two metal atoms. The basal plane of the square pyramid around Cu(II) atoms is formed by the imino N and phenolate O atoms of the bidentate and the monodentate/bidentate Schiff base ligands. The bridging phenolate oxygen occupies the apical position of the coordination sphere with a considerably longer Cu-O bond length. In the crystal, the dimeric mol-ecules pack relative to each other in such a way that the Cu2O2 planes of adjacent dimers are orthogonal.

  20. Half-sandwich pentamethylcyclopentadienyl group 9 metal complexes of 2-aminopyridyl ligands: Synthesis, spectral and molecular study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahesh Kalidasan; Scott Forbes; Yurij Mozharivskyj; Mohan Rao Kollipara

    2015-06-01

    Thereaction of [Cp*M(-Cl)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir) with 2-aminopyridyl based ligands lead to the formation of mononuclear neutral complexes of general formula [Cp*MCl2(L)] {where L1= 2-aminopyridine, L2= 2-amino-3-picoline, L3= 2-amino-3-nirtopyridine, and L4= 2-amino-3-pyridine carboxyaldehyde}. The complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H-13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystallographic studies of the complexes have shown typical piano-stool geometry around the metal centre in which 2-aminopyridyl ligand acts as an N-monodentate ligand and the amino functionality is not involved in metal coordination. The intra/intermolecular arrangement is due to hydrogen bonding.

  1. Poly[1H-imidazol-3-ium [di-μ-nitrato-sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahrazed Trifa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound {(C3H5N2[Na(NO32]}n, the NaI ion is coordinated by eight O atoms from three bidentate nitrate anions and two O atoms from two monodentate nitrate anions, displaying a bicapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. The imidazolium cation is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation for all non-H atoms = 0.0018 Å. In the crystal, the NaI ions are connected by bridging nitrate ligands, forming layers parallel to (010. The imidazolium cations are sandwiched between these layers. Weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the layers into a three-dimensional network. In addtion, π–π interactions between the imidazolium rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.588 (3 Å] are observed.

  2. O2CC6H4C6H4CO2(SnPh32∙4H2O AND HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2SnBu2Cl: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When the diphenic acid HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2H is allowed to react with SnBu2Cl2 or SnPh3OH, HO2CC6H4C6H4CO2. SnBu2Cl (A and O2CC6H4C6H4CO2(SnPh32∙4H2O(B were obtained and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The structures are an infinite chain or an oligomer, the diphenic anion being a monodentate or a monochelating ligand. The environment around the tin centers is trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of a calcium coordination polymer based on a 3-bridging tetradentate binding mode of glycine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subramanian Natarajan; Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; J Kalyana Sundar; K Ravikumar; R V Krishnakumar; J Suresh

    2012-07-01

    A new coordination polymer namely [[Ca6(H-gly)12(H2O)18]Cl12·6H2O] (1) (H-gly = glycine) has been isolated from the calcium chloride-glycine-water system and structurally characterized. Each Ca(II) in 1 is eight-coordinated and is bonded to eight oxygen atoms three of which are from terminal water molecules and five oxygen atoms from four symmetry related zwitterionic glycine ligands. The H-gly ligands exhibit two different binding modes viz. a monodentate carboxylate ligation and a 3-tetradentate bridging carboxylate binding mode, which results in the formation of a one-dimensional coordination polymer. In the infinite chain the Ca(II) atoms are organized in a zigzag fashion. A comparative study reveals a rich and diverse structural chemistry of calcium halide-glycine compounds.

  4. (N-Benzoyl-N′-phenylthiourea-κSchlorido(η4-1,5-cyclooctadienerhodium(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Riekert Kotze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [RhCl(C8H12(C14H12N2OS], is a rhodium(I derivative with a functionalized thiourea ligand. Despite the presence of several heteroatoms, the thiourea ligand coordinates only in a monodentate fashion via the S atom. The geometry of the coordination sphere is approximately square planar about the RhI atom, with two bonds to the π-electrons of the 1,5-cyclooctadiene ligand, one bond to the Cl− ligand and one bond to the S atom of the thiourea ligand. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding. Intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions lead to the formation of layers extending parallel to (011.

  5. Crystal structure of cis-diamminebis(nitrito-κN)platinum(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Gelbrich, Thomas; Tessadri, Richard; Klauser, Frederik

    2015-04-01

    Single crystals of cis-[Pt(NO2)2(NH3)2], were obtained by means of hyper-saturation directly out of a plating electrolyte. The square-planar coordination environment of the divalent Pt(II) atom is formed by four N atoms belonging to two ammine and two monodentate nitrite ligands. The ligands adopt a cis configuration. The crystal structure contains stacks of close-packed mol-ecules which run parallel to [001]. There are nine crystallographically independent inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a hydrogen-bonded hxl-type framework in which each mol-ecule serves as an eight-connected node. Four of the nine distinct hydrogen bonds connect complexes which belong to the same close-packed column parallel to [001]. In contrast to the previously reported crystal structure of the trans isomer, the title structure does not display intra-molecular hydrogen bonding.

  6. The Combinatorial Approach to Asymmetric Hydrogenation: More Miles out of Monophos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes G. de Vries

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In custom manufacturing time-to-market is of overriding importance. Thus, asymmetric hydrogenation will be applied only if an appropriate catalyst can be found in a very short period of time. For this reason we have build up a full-scale capability for High Throughput Experimentation, encompassing several robot systems. As ligand synthesis was the last remaining barrier we have explored, together with the University of Groningen, the use of simple monodentate ligands, such as MonoPhosTM. These ligands can be synthesised in two chemical steps, from BINOL, PCl3 and an amine.Surprisingly, very high enantioselectivities can be obtained in the asymmetric hydrogenation of α-and β-dehydro-amino acids and esters, aromatic enamides, itaconic acid and ester[1]. See Scheme 1 and 2(at page 830).

  7. An attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopic study of gas adsorption on colloidal stearate-capped ZnO catalyst substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Ian P; Keyworth, Colin W; Brown, Neil J; Shaffer, Milo S P; Williams, Charlotte K; Hellgardt, Klaus; Kelsall, Geoff H; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy has been applied in situ to study gas adsorption on a colloidal stearate-capped zinc oxide (ZnO) surface. Infrared spectra of a colloidal stearate-capped ZnO catalyst substrate were assigned at room temperature using zinc stearate as a reference compound. Heating was shown to create a monodentate species that allowed conformational change to occur, leading to altered binding geometry of the stearate ligands upon cooling. CO2 and H2 adsorption measurements demonstrated that the ligand shell was permeable and did not cover the entire surface, allowing adsorption and reaction with at least some portion of the ZnO surface. It has been demonstrated that stearate ligands did not prevent the usual chemisorption processes involved in catalytic reactions on a model ZnO catalyst system, yet the ligand-support system is dynamic under representative reaction conditions.

  8. The Conjugation Stress of Ligand via Metal Core as the Cause of Changes in the Reactivity of Coordinated 1-Hetero-1,3-Dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Kuramshin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using quantum-chemical calculations carried out for interpretation of the experimentally discovered reactivity of 1-hetero-1,3-dienes that are mono- and bidentally coordinated with the transition metal core, we have revealed that the difference in hydrophosphorylation directions of the free organic molecule and the same molecule involved in the coordination sphere of the transition metal can be explained by either weakening or complete loss of conjugation between the C=C and C=X fragments as a result of coordination. In the case of monodentate coordination of heterodiene with the transition metal according to the eta(2(C,C-type, the conjugation weakening is suggested to be maximum for the transition metal characterized by the minimum electronegativity, which predetermines the increased contribution of the metalcyclopropane resonance structure into the general bonding mode. Organometallic compounds having the heterodiene ligand bidentally coordinated demonstrate the conjugation weakening parallel to the metal radius.

  9. Bis[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-methyldithiocarbamato-κS][2,4,6-tris(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-κ3N1,N2,N6]zinc dioxane sesquisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Zn(C4H8NOS22(C18H12N6]·1.5C4H8O2, comprises a Zn-containing molecule and one and a half dioxane molecules as one of the solvent molecules is located about a crystallographic inversion centre. The approximately square-pyramidal N3S2 donor set is defined by two monodentate dithiocarbamate ligands and two pyridine and one triazine N atom from the tridentate triazine ligand. Molecules are connected into a supramolecular array via O—H...S and O—H...N hydrogen bonds. These stack along the b axis and the solvent molecules reside in the channels thus formed.

  10. Octa­butyl­bis{(E)-2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­ideneamino)phen­yl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetra­tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenkuan; Yin, Handong; Wen, Liyuan; Wang, Daqi; Fan, Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Sn4(C4H9)8(C15H12NO3)2(CH3O)2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­idene­amino)phen­yl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be d...

  11. QM/MM molecular dynamics study of the potential of mean force for the association of K{sup +} with dimethyl ether in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-15

    We present a hybrid Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics study of the free energy profile for the association of K{sup +} with dimethyl ether (DME) in H{sub 2}O. We calculate a potential of mean force and find a weak solvent separated ion-dipole pair (SSIDP) at 5.4 A separation and a contact ion-dipole (CIDP) free energy minimum at 2.7 A separation of the K{sup +} with the oxygen of DME. The latter distance agrees well with the gas-phase optimized K{sup +}/DME structure. This study demonstrates the nonadditive interactions of a solvated cation with a simple monodentate organic ligand. These results are useful for interpreting K{sup +} complexation by multidentate ligands, such as the crown ethers. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Energetics of methanol and formic acid oxidation on Pt(111): Mechanistic insights from adsorption calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbaugh, Trent L.; Karp, Eric M.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation and reforming of methanol and formic acid have received intense interest due to potential use in direct fuel cells and as prototype models for understanding electrocatalysis. Consequently, the reaction energy diagram (energies of all the adsorbed intermediates and activation energies of all the elementary steps) have been estimated for these reactions on Pt(111) by density functional theory (DFT) in several studies. However, no experimental measurement of these energy diagrams have been reported, nor is there a consensus on the mechanisms. Here, we use energies of key intermediates on Pt(111) from single crystal adsorption calorimetry (SCAC) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) to build a combined energy diagram for these reactions. It suggests a new pathway involving monodentate formate as a key intermediate, with bidentate formate only being a spectator species that slows the rate. This helps reconcile conflicting proposed mechanisms.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and DFT-Based Investigation of a Novel Trinuclear Singly-Chloro-Bridged Copper(II)-1-Vinylimidazole Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Zuhal; Demir, Serkan; Andaç, Ömer; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    A novel trinuclear copper(II) complex [Cu3(μ-Cl)2Cl4(1-Vim)6] with monodentate 1-vinylimidazole (1-Vim) and chloro ligands has been prepared and experimentally characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry (TGA, DTG, DTA), X-ray single crystal diffractometry, TOF-MS and FT-IR spectroscopies. The electronic and structural properties of the complex were further investigated by DFT/TD-DFT methods. Density functional hybrid method (B3LYP) was applied throughout the calculations. The calculated UV-Vis results based on TD-DFT approach were simulated and compared with experimental spectrum. Based on the data obtained, DFT calculations have been found in reasonable accordance with experimental data.

  14. Crystal structure of (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-{[(6,6′-dimethyl-2′-oxido-1,1′-biphenyl-2-ylimino]methyl}phenolato-κ3O,N,O′bis(propan-2-olato-κOtitanium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear TiIV title complex, [Ti(C29H33NO2(C3H6O2], the TiNO4 coordination polyhedron comprises an N-atom and two O-atom donors from the dianionic Schiff base ligand and two O-atom donors from monodentate isopropoxide anions. The stereochemistry is distorted trigonal–bipyramidal with the N-donor in an elongated axial site [Ti—N = 2.2540 (17 Å], the O-donors having normal Ti—O bond lengths [1.7937 (14 Å (axial–1.8690 (14 Å]. In the crystal, C—H...π interactions link molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.

  15. Solid and solution NMR studies of the complexation of Ag + with the trans isomer of captopril: Biological activities of this high blood pressure drug along with its Ag + complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Wazeer, Mohamed I. M.

    2006-09-01

    Complexation of Ag + with captopril, 1-[(2 S)-3-mercapto-2-methylpropionyl]- L-proline, has been studied by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The equilibrium constants for the trans to cis isomers of captopril bound to Ag + were measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. It is observed that the trans isomer of the drug binds more strongly to Ag + between pH 5 and 8, as shown by the broadening of the trans isomer's resonances in 13C NMR spectra on complexation. A monodentate complexation of the trans captopril with Ag + via the thiol site is proposed based on the solid-state NMR and IR data. A superior antimicrobial activity is exhibited by the Cap-Ag(I) complex compared to captopril ligand itself against Heterotrotropic Plate Counts (HPC), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fecal streptococcus bacteria.

  16. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cu(II and Co(II complexes with 1,3-dimethyl-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaćimović Željko K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the reaction of 1,3-dimethyl-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (HL with M(OAc2•4H2O, (M = Cu, Co two novel complexes have been prepared, square-planar [CuL2(H2O2] and octahedral [CoL2(MeOH4]. The crystal structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In both complexes the deprotonated acid displays monodentate coordination to the metal ions. According to the results of CSD survey this is the first structural report on the metal complexes with N1-substituted pyrazole-5-carboxylic ligand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172014 i br. 172035

  17. Tetraaquabis(2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylato-κO4nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Mei Fu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C10H6NO32(H2O4], the central NiII atom is located on an inversion center and coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by two O atoms from two 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylate ligands and four water molecules, all of which act as monodentate ligands. The crystal structure features an extensive network of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions (O—H...O and N—H...O and offset face-to-face π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.525 (3 and 3.281 (5 Å].

  18. Molecular orientation of molybdate ions adsorbed on goethite nanoparticles revealed by polarized in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davantès, Athénaïs; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2016-11-01

    The speciation of species adsorbed on nanoparticles is a major concern for several fields, as environmental pollution and remediation, surface functionalization, or catalysis. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was amongst the rare methods able to give in situ information about the geometry of surface complexes on nanoparticles. A new possibility using this technique is illustrated here with the MoO42 -/goethite system. Using deuterated goethite to avoid spectral interferences, adsorption of molybdate ions on a spontaneous oriented film of nanoparticles has been followed using a polarized infrared beam. From the decomposition of spectra in the x, y and z directions, a monodentate surface complex on the {101} faces has been found as the most probable geometry. This result demonstrates that polarized ATR-IR allows to characterize in more details adsorption mode at the atomic scale, in comparison with usual ATR-IR spectroscopy.

  19. [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]4.SnPh2C2O4.C2O4(SnPh32 and [(i-Bu2NH2 2C2O4]3.SnBu2C2O4: SYNTHESIS, INFRARED AND MOSSBAUER STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAYA SOW

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]4.SnPh2C2O4.C2O4(SnPh32 and [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]3. SnBu2C2O4 have been synthesized and characterized by infrared and Mossbauer spectroscopies. The suggested structure are discrete (one being a two metallic components, the environments around the tin(IV centres being octahedral and pentagonal bipyramidal, the oxalate anions being monodentate, the cations linking through N-H….O hydrogen bonds the free oxygen atoms of the oxalate. The second metallic component of one of the structures is cis coordinated C2O4(SnPh32.

  20. Diaqua-μ3-oxido-hexakis(μ2-trichloroacetato-κ2O:O′(trichloroacetato-κOtrichromium(III acetonitrile trisolvate

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    Seik Weng Ng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cr3(C2Cl3O27O(H2O2]·3CH3CN, the trinuclear [Cr3O(H2O2(Cl3CCO27] molecule has an oxide O atom that is connected to one monodentate trichloroacetate-coordinated and two water-coordinated CrIII atoms, the three metal atoms forming the points of an equilateral triangle. Each of the six remaining carboxylate groups bridges a Cr–O–Cr fragment. The cluster interacts with the three solvent molecules through water–acetonitrile O—H...N hydrogen bonds. Adjacent clusters are linked by a water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bond to give a helical chain. One of the CCl3 groups was found to be disordered over two positions, with the major component having a site-occupancy factor of 0.64 (1.

  1. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal and electrochemical studies of the N,N'-bis[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methylidene]cyclohexane-1,4-diamine and its Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolaz, Mustafa; McKee, Vickie; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    In this study, N,N'-bis[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methylidene]cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (L) and its Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were prepared and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [M(2)L(Cl)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. The compound (L) behaves as a monodentate ligand. But, obtained complexes have binuclear nature. The electrochemical properties of the metal complexes are dependent on reversible, irreversible and quasi-reversible redox waves in the anodic and cathodic regions due to oxidation and reduction of the metal ions. The single crystal of the ligand (L) was obtained from CH(3)CN solution. Space group and crystal system of the ligand are P2(1)/C and monoclinic, respectively.

  2. Two-dimensional, phenanthroline-based, extended {pi}-conjugated molecules for single-molecule conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlthat, Soeren; Reimers, Jeffrey R [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pauly, Fabian [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: reimers@chem.usyd.edu.au

    2008-07-23

    The conduction properties of phenanthroline-terminated, polycyclic extended {pi}-conjugated molecular wires are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in combination with Green's function techniques and group theory. While these molecules could possibly be thought of as accessible graphene-like fragments, they are calculated to conduct poorly. The decay constant for their exponential decrease of conductance with length is in excess of 0.6 A{sup -1} for the addition of internal fused quinoxaline groups and in excess of 0.9 A{sup -1} for the addition of internal pyrazine-fused pyrene groups. Furthermore, while the bidentate phenanthroline connectors adhere strongly to gold, they are sometimes predicted to be less conductive than related monodentate connectors. Careful design is thus required for any graphene-like extended {pi}-system intended for single-molecule conduction applications.

  3. Poly[aqua[μ2-cis-1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene-κ2N:N′](μ2-5-nitroisophthalato-κ3O:O′,O′′nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhong Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C8H3NO6(C12H10N2(H2O]n, the NiII atom is octahedrally coordinated by two cis N atoms from two different 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene (bpe ligands, two O atoms from one chelating carboxyl group of the 5-nitroisophthalic acid (nip ligand, one O atom from another monodentate nip ligand and one O atom from a water molecule, forming a three-dimensional network structure. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding stabilizes this arrangement. The asymmetric unit of the structure contains one NiII atom, one water molecule, one nip ligand and two half-molecules of the bpe ligand with an inversion centre at the mid-point of the central C=C bond.

  4. Poly[[[[1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylato]cadmium]-μ-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato] trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ping Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title layered coordination polymer, {[Cd(C17H18F2N3O3(C8H4O4]·3H2O}n, the CdII atom exhibits a very distorted CdO6 octahedral geometry defined by one O3,O4-bidentate 1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (lome ligand, one O,O′-bidentate benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate (bdc dianion and two O-monodentate bdc dianions. Both the bdc species in the asymmetric unit are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The bridging bdc dianions link the cadmium nodes into a rectangular grid lying parallel to (01overline{1}. A network of N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing.

  5. Improved Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Endo, Koji; Patel, Paresma R.; Herbert, Myles B.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Several new C-H activated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis have been synthesized. Both the carboxylate ligand and the aryl group of the N-heterocyclic carbene have been altered and the resulting catalysts were evaluated using a range of metathesis reactions. Substitution of bidentate with monodentate X-type ligands led to a severe attenuation of metathesis activity and selectivity, while minor differences were observed between bidentate ligands within the same family (e.g. carboxylates). The use of nitrato-type ligands, in place of carboxylates, afforded a significant improvement in metathesis activity and selectivity. With these catalysts, turnover numbers approaching 1000 were possible for a variety of cross-metathesis reactions, including the synthesis of industrially-relevant products. PMID:22097946

  6. Seven-coordinate iridium(V) polyhydrides with chelating bis(silyl) ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loza, M.; Faller, J.W.; Crabtree, R.H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1995-05-24

    The pentahydride IrH{sub 5}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} reacts with chelating silanes with loss of H{sub 2} to form the classical seven-coordinate distorted pentagonal bipyramidal silyl polyhydride complexes IrH{sub 3}(disil)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(disil: dmsb, 3a; tids, 3b) with monodentate silanes to give IrH{sub 4}(SiR{sub 3})(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} (R: Et, 4a; Ph, 4b) and with triphenyltin hydride to give IrH{sub 3{minus}} (SnPh{sub 3}){sup 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} (5), all rare examples of Ir(V). A crystal structure was obtained for 3a. Crystal data: orthorhombic; space group Pbca (No. 61); a = 17.1534(6) {Angstrom}; b = 25.688(2) {Angstrom}; c = 19.0641(9) {Angstrom}; V=8400(1) {Angstrom}{sup 3}; Z=8.

  7. catena-Poly[di-μ3-bromido-bis-[(1-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))disilver(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Bian, Qingquan; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title coordination complex, [Ag2Br2(C5H8N2)2] n , comprises a monodentate 1-ethyl-imida-zole ligand, an Ag(+) cation and a μ3-bridging Br(-) anion, giving a distorted tetra-hedral AgNBr3 stereochemistry about the Ag(+) cation [Ag-N = 2.247 (2) Å and Ag-Br = 2.7372 (4)-2.7523 (4) Å]. Two bridging bromide anions generate the dimeric [Ag2Br2(C5H8N)2] repeat unit [Ag⋯Ag = 3.0028 (5) Å], while a third Br(-) anion links the units through corner sharing in an inversion-related Ag2Br2 association [Ag⋯Ag = 3.0407 (4) Å], generating a one-dimensional ribbon step-polymer structure, extending along the c axis.

  8. An analysis of formic acid decomposition on metal surfaces by the bond-order-conservation-Morse-potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustorovich, Evgeny; Bell, Alexis T.

    1989-11-01

    The bond-order-conservation-Morse-potential method, extended to treat the heat of chemisorption of bidentate species and of molecular radicals, has been used to analyze the energetics of formic acid decomposition at low coverages on Ag(111), Ni(111), and Fe/W(110) surfaces. These calculations project that on all three surfaces formate species are produced, with a parallel formation of formyl plus hydroxyl species on Ni and Fe/W. Bidentate coordination of formate species is preferred over monodentate coordination, the energy difference increasing in the order Ag < Ni < Fe/W. The decomposition of formate species leads to atomic hydrogen and CO 2 on Ag, whereas on Ni and especially on Fe/W formate decomposition leads mainly to atomic oxygen and formyl species, the latter of which decomposes practically without activation to CO and atomic hydrogen. The findings of this study are in general agreement with experimental observation.

  9. Bis(4-aminopyridine{2,2′-[1,2-phenylenebis(nitrilomethanylylidene]diphenolato}cobalt(III nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanesan Dharmalingam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co(C20H14N2O2(C5H6N22]NO3, the CoIII atom is coordinated in a slightly elongated octahedral geometry by the N2O2 donor set of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and by the pyridine N atoms of two trans-arranged monodentate 4-aminopyridine molecules. The pyridine rings are aligned nearly perpendicularly to each other [dihedral angle = 82.28 (13°]. The phenoxy rings form dihedral angles of 12.37 (12 and 12.16 (14° with the phenylene ring. In the crystal, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a three-dimensional network.

  10. Poly[tri-μ-aqua-diaqua-μ-phosphonoformato-cobalt(IIsodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Jian Luo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [CoNa(CO5P(H2O5]n, was obtained by reacting sodium phosphonoformate with cobalt nitrate. The complex contains cobalt(II and sodium ions, which are bridged by the O atoms of two aqua ligands. The CoII ion is octahedrally coordinated by three phosphonoformato ligands (one bi- and the other monodentate and by two O atoms from the bridging aqua ligands. The sodium cation is hexacoordinated by six O atoms from four bridging and two terminal aqua ligands. The complex molecules are linked to give a three-dimensional structure by phosphonoformate ligands bridging CoII atoms and water molecules establishing cobalt–sodium bridges. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the aqua ligands and all O atoms of the phosphonoformato ligand and neighbouring aqua ligands help to consolidate the packing.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of palladium(II complexes containing phenyltetrazole. Crystal structure of trans-[C40H64N8 O2PdCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo Hugo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The new 5-(n-alkoxyphenyl-2-n-alkyltetrazole (L¹ and alpha,omega-bis-[5-(4-pentoxyphenyl-2-alkanetetrazoles] (L² ligands and their Pd(II complexes have been synthesized. The X-ray diffraction study of the palladium complex with L¹ reveals a mononuclear structure in which the geometry of the Pd(L¹2Cl2 chromophore is planar as required by the inversion center at the palladium atom, where each molecule of phenyltetrazole binds to the metal ion in a monodentate fashion via a Pd-N1 sigma-bond. For the palladium complex with L², a dinuclear structure ([Pd2(L²2Cl4 ] has been proposed on the basis of NMR and IR spectroscopy.

  12. Aquabis(4-methylbenzoato-κO;κ2O,O′-bis(pyridine-κNnickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Ji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title mononuclear complex, [Ni(C8H7O22(C5H5N2(H2O], the NiII atom is in a distorted octahedral arrangement, coordinated by three carboxylate O atoms from one bidentate 4-methylbenzoate ligand and one monodentate 4-methylbenzoate ligand, two N atoms from pyridine ligands, axially positioned, and a water molecule. The equatorially positioned water molecule and uncoordinated carboxylate O atom form an intramolecular hydrogen bond. An intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the coordinated water molecule and carboxylate O atom of the 4-methylbenzoate ligand forms infinite chains along the b axis. These chains are connected by C—H...π interactions.

  13. catena-Poly[[tri-aqua-copper(II)]-μ-5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) O (1):O (3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Hong; Ma, Pi-Zhuang; Yao, Ting; Hao, Jing-Tuan

    2013-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cu(C9H4O6)(H2O)3] n , the Cu(II) cation exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry involving five O atoms from two monodentate 5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate anions and three water mol-ecules. The 5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate anions bridge Cu(II) cations into zigzag polymeric chains running along the b-axis direction. These chains are further linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between coordinating water mol-ecules or carboxyl groups and carboxylate groups into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. In the crystal, π-π stacking is observed between parallel benzene rings of adjacent chains, the centroid-centroid distances being 3.584 (3) and 3.684 (3) Å.

  14. μ-1,4-Bis(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)piperazine-κN:N'-bis-[aqua-bis-(3-bromo-5-carb-oxy-benzoato-κO)copper(II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jodi L; Laduca, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(2)(C(8)H(4)BrO(4))(4)(C(16)H(20)N(4))(H(2)O)(2)], slightly distorted square-planar-coordinated Cu(II) ions are bound by one aqua ligand and two monodentate 3-bromo-5-carb-oxy-benzoate anions, and linked into a centrosymmetric dinuclear mol-ecule by a bridging 1,4-bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)piperazine (4-bpmp) ligand. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected into a supra-molecular two-dimensional network parallel to (131) via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the aqua ligands and 3-bromo-5-carb-oxy-benzoate carboxyl-ate groups.

  15. (N,N-Dimethylformamide-κObis(3-hydroxypicolinato-κ2N,O2phenylbismuth(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie Stavila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title organometallic complex, [Bi(C6H5(C6H4NO32(C3H7NO], features a BiIII atom in a distorted pentagonal-pyramidal coordination by two N,O-donating bidentate 3-hydroxypicolinate (3-hpic ligands, one monodentate dimethylformamide (dmf molecule and one phenyl ring. The C atom of the aryl ligand occupies the apical position of the BiCN2O3 coordination polyhedron, while the equatorial plane is formed by one O atom of the dmf ligand and two sets of N and O atoms from the chelating 3-hpic ligands. Intermolecular secondary Bi...O [3.485 (3 Å] and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions connect the complexes into a three-dimensional network. Intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds are also observed.

  16. Transition Metal Complexes Coordinated by Water Soluble Phosphane Ligands: How Cyclodextrins Can Alter the Coordination Sphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of platinum(II and palladium(0 complexes coordinated by various hydrosoluble monodentate phosphane ligands has been investigated by 31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy in the presence of randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAME-β-CD. This molecular receptor can have no impact on the organometallic complexes, induce the formation of phosphane low-coordinated complexes or form coordination second sphere species. These three behaviours are under thermodynamic control and are governed not only by the affinity of RAME-β-CD for the phosphane but also by the phosphane stereoelectronic properties. When observed, the low-coordinated complexes may be formed either via a preliminary decoordination of the phosphane followed by a complexation of the free ligand by the CD or via the generation of organometallic species complexed by CD which then lead to expulsion of ligands to decrease their internal steric hindrance.

  17. Photochemistry of RuII 4,4′-Bi-1,2,3-triazolyl (btz) Complexes: Crystallographic Characterization of the Photoreactive Ligand-Loss Intermediate trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+

    OpenAIRE

    Welby, Christine E.; Armitage, Georgina K.; Bartley, Harry; Wilkinson, Aaron; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Uppal, Baljinder S; Rice, Craig R.; Elliott, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    We report the unprecedented observation and unequivocal crystallographic characterization of the meta-stable ligand loss intermediate solvento complex trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+ (1 a) that contains a monodentate chelate ligand. This and analogous complexes can be observed during the photolysis reactions of a family of complexes of the form [Ru(equation image)(btz)2]2+ (1 a–d: btz=1,1′-dibenzyl-4,4′-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl; equation image=a) 2,2′-bipyridyl (bpy), b) 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-...

  18. Bis(μ-pyridinium-2-carboxylato-κ2O:O′bis[triaqua(sulfato-κOmanganese(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Rasekh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn2(SO42(C6H5NO22(H2O6], comprises half of a centrosymmetric dimer. The MnII atom is coordinated by two O atoms of the monodentate carboxylate ligand, an O atom of the sulfate anion in axial position and three water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal, molecules are connected through N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal structure is further stabilized by intermolecular π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.842 (2 Å].

  19. Bis[μ-2,2′-dimethyl-1,1′-(3-oxapentane-1,5-diyldi-1H-benzimidazole-κ2N3:N3′]bis[bis(4-methoxybenzoato-κO;κ2O,O′-cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Peng Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecule of the title complex, [Co2(C8H7O34(C20H22N4O2], is a dimer of the paddle-wheel-type generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The CoII ion is pentacoordinated by three O atoms from two 4-methoxybenzoate anions (one bidentate and one monodentate and two N atoms from two 2,2′-bis(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazoleether ligands. This results in a very distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry for the metal ion, with both N atoms in equatorial sites. The dihedral angle between the benzimidazole ring systems in the ligand is 60.04 (8°. The configuration of the molecule is supported by intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Theoretical study of the Pb(II)-catechol system in dilute aqueous solution: Complex structure and metal coordination sphere determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapouge, Christine; Cornard, Jean-Paul

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the unknown interaction of Pb(II) with catechol ligand in diluted aqueous solution by electronic spectroscopies combined with quantum chemical calculations. The aim of this work is the determination of the complete structure of the complex formed and particularly the metal coordination sphere. Three successive steps have been necessary to reach this goal: (i) the comparison of the experimental electronic absorption spectrum with theoretical spectra calculated from various hypothetical structures, (ii) complexation reaction pathways calculations in vacuum and with taking into account the solvent effects and finally (iii) the fluorescence emission wavelength calculations. All these investigations led to identify a monodentate complex with the monodeprotonated ligand, in which the Pb atom presents a coordination number of five. The formula of the complex is [Pb(Hcat)(HO)4]mono+.

  1. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Action of(η-C5H5)2Ti(Sal)2 and (η-C5H5)2Ti(Clo)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new complexes (Cp)2Ti(Sal)2 and(Cp)2Ti(Clo)2(Cp=Cyclopentadienyl η5-C5H5), have been synthesized in anhydrous THF by the reaction of Hsal(o-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylate acid) or Hclo[N-(m-chloro-phe-nyl) anthranili acid, acidum clofenamicum] with (Cp)2TiCl2 and characterized by means of elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV and molar conductivity. In complex (Cp)2Ti(Sal)2 or (Cp)2Ti(Clo)2, the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group coordinates to Ti(IV) in a monodentate manner. The inhibitory action of the complexes on mouse ear tumefaction caused by croton oil and rat foot granulation growth caused by cotton balls is higher than that of the corresponding ligands Hsal, Hclo and [(Cp)2TiCl2], whereas their toxicity is lower than those of the free ligands.

  2. Nonacarbonyl-1κ3C,2κ3C,3κ3C-μ-bis(diphenylarsinomethane-1:2κ2As:As'-[tris(2-chloroethyl phosphite-3κP]-triangulo-triruthenium(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar bin Shawkataly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title triangulo-triruthenium(0 compound, [Ru3(C25H22As2(C6H12Cl3O3P(CO9], the bis(diphenylarsinomethane ligand bridges an Ru—Ru bond and the monodentate phosphine ligand bonds to the third Ru atom. Both the arsine and phosphine ligands are equatorial with respect to the Ru3 triangle. In addition, each Ru atom carries one equatorial and two axial terminal carbonyl ligands. In the crystal packing, the molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional framework. Weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions further stabilize the crystal structure.

  3. Bis(dimethylmalonato-κ2O,O′bis[4-(4-pyridylamino-κN4pyridinium]nickel(II hexahydrate

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    Robert L. LaDuca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C5H6O42(C10H10N32]·6H2O, divalent nickel ions situated on the crystallographic twofold axis are octahedrally coordinated by four O atoms from two dimethylmalonate ligands in a 1,3-chelating mode and two N atoms from two protonated monodentate 4,4′-dipyridylamine molecules. The molecules link into chains via N—H...O hydrogen bonding mediated by protonated pyridyl groups. The chains form layer patterns via π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.777 (2 Å] . Water molecule hexamers are generated from the unligated water molecules (three per asymmetric unit by inversion centers at Wyckoff position d. These clusters are situated between the pseudolayers, providing hydrogen-bonding pathways that build up the three-dimensional structure.

  4. Aquachlorido(4-methylbenzoato-κO(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Miao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title mononuclear complex, [Cu(C8H7O2Cl(C12H8N2(H2O], the CuII atom is coordinated by one carboxylate O atom from a monodentate 4-methylbenzoate ligand, two N atoms from the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, one chloride ion and one water molecule in a square-pyramidal geometry. The crystal structure exhibits inter- and intramolecular C—H...Cl, C—H...O, O—H...Cl and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H...π interactions of phenanthroline and methyl H atoms towards the π-systems of neighboring 4-methylbenzoate units and the pyridine rings of the phenanthroline system [centroid–centroid distances are 2.706 (2 and 2.992 (1 Å, respectively].

  5. (Sulfasalazinato-κObis(triphenylphosphine-κPcopper(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Bin Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title mixed-ligand copper(I complex, [Cu(C18H13N4O5S(C18H15P2], was synthesized via solvothermal reaction of [Cu(PPh32(MeCN2]ClO4 and sulfasalazine [systematic name: 2-hydroxy-5-(2-{4-[(2-pyridylaminosulfonyl]phenyl}diazenylbenzoic acid]. The mononuclear complex displays a trigonal coordination geometry for the Cu(I atom, which is surrounded by two P-atom donors from two different PPh3 ligands and one O-atom donor from the monodentate carboxylate group of the sulfasalazinate ligand. The latter ligand is found in a zwitterionic form, with a deprotonated amine N atom and a protonated pyridine N atom. Such a feature was previously described for free sulfasalazine. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...O, C—H...N, N—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Synthesis and Structure of Copper(Ⅱ)Complex [Cu(C5H5N)2(H2O)(C6H5COO)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞娜; 李彩云; 刘应凡; 金斗满; 谌了容

    2001-01-01

    At room temperature,the reaction of dibenzoyl peroxide with metallic copper powder in the presence of pyridine affords the copper(Ⅱ)complex [Cu(C5H5N)2(H2O)-(C6H5COO)2 ].Crystal is monoclinic,Mr=483.002,space group Cc with parameters: a=6.078(4),b=15.879(4),c=23.091(3)A,β=97.61(2)°,V=2209.1(2)A3,Z=4,Dc=1.464g/cm3,μ=10.279 cm-1,F(000)=996,R=0.031,Rw=0.036,1595 reflections with I≥3σ(Ⅰ)were considered to be observed.Each copper(Ⅱ)ion is coordinated by two monodentate benzoate ligands,two pyridines and one water molecule.The complex is also characterized by its IR,XPS and thermal properties.

  7. Synthesis and Structure of the Copper(Ⅰ) Complex [Cu (PPh3) 2 (BH4) ]%Synthesis and Structure of the Copper(Ⅰ) Complex [Cu(PPh3)2(BH4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mononuclear copper( Ⅰ ) complex [Cu(PPh3)2(BH4)] has been synthesized by ligand replacement reaction in methanol and characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determination, IR spectra and X-ray single crystal analysis,its conductivity has also been measured. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2/c, a =24.776(4), b=9.173(7), c=15.564(2)A; β=116.10(1)°, V=3176.73 A3, Z =4, F(000)=1256, μ(MoKα)=8.11 cm-1, Dc=1. 26 g/cm3, M=602.79, R=0. 039, Rw= 0. 050. The results show that PPh3 coordinates as monodentate ligand to the Cu ( Ⅰ ) atoms, and BH4 behaves as a bidentate ligand in the prepared complex.The central copper atom belongs to tetrahedron coordination geometry.

  8. Effects of calcium substitute in LaMnO3 perovskites for NO catalytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Meiqing; ZHAO Zhen; CHEN Jiahao; SU Yugeng; WANG Jun; WANG Xinquan

    2013-01-01

    La1-xCaxMnO3 (x=0-0.3) perovskite-type oxides were synthesized by citrate sol-gel method.The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Brumauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),NO+O2-TPD (temperature-programmed desorption),activated oxygen evaluation and H2-TPR (temperature-programmed reduction) technologies.The results showed that NO catalytic oxidation activity was significantly improved by Ca substitution,especially for lower temperature activity.The La0.9Ca0.1UnO3 sample showed the maximum conversion of 82% at 300 ℃.The monodentate nitrates played a crucial role for the formation of NO2.The reducibility of Mn4+ ions and reactivity of activated oxygen were favorable for the catalytic performances of NO oxidation.

  9. Combined EXAFS Spectroscopic and Quantum Chemical Study on the Complex Formation of Am(III) with Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Kremleva, Alena; Rossberg, André; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Koke, Carsten; Krüger, Sven; Rösch, Notker; Panak, Petra J

    2017-06-19

    The complexation of Am(III) with formate in aqueous solution is studied as a function of the pH value using a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA), and quantum chemical calculations. The Am LIII-edge EXAFS spectra are analyzed to determine the molecular structure (coordination numbers; Am-O and Am-C distances) of the formed Am(III)-formate species and to track the shift of the Am(III) speciation with increasing pH. The experimental data are compared to predictions from density functional calculations. The results indicate that formate binds to Am(III) in a monodentate fashion, in agreement with crystal structures of lanthanide formates. Furthermore, the investigations are complemented by thermodynamic speciation calculations to verify further the results obtained.

  10. A new palladium precatalyst allows for the fast Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of unstable polyfluorophenyl and 2-heteroaryl boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Tom; Zhang, Yong; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2010-10-13

    Boronic acids which quickly deboronate under basic conditions, such as polyfluorophenylboronic acid and five-membered 2-heteroaromatic boronic acids, are especially challenging coupling partners for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Nevertheless, being able to use these substrates is highly desirable for a number of applications. Having found that monodentate biarylphosphine ligands can promote these coupling processes, we developed a precatalyst that forms the catalytically active species under conditions where boronic acid decomposition is slow. With this precatalyst, Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of a wide range of (hetero)aryl chlorides, bromides, and triflates with polyfluorophenyl, 2-furan, 2-thiophene, and 2-pyrroleboronic acids and their analogues proceed at room temperature or 40 °C in short reaction times to give the desired products in excellent yields.

  11. Solution Studies on Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II Complexes of Hexamethylenetetramine in Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awawou G. Paboudam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric studies in aqueous medium and spectrophotometric study in non-aqueous medium were used to understand the behavior of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA complexes. The protometric studies of HMTA enabled us to confirm that only one basic site of this ligand is protonated in acidic medium and this ligand is decomposed in acidic medium. In aqueous medium, only hexa-aqua complexes in which HMTA is present in the second coordination sphere forming H-bonds with hydrogen atoms of coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules are obtained. In non-aqueous solvents, HMTA coordinates to metal ions displaying diversity in the structures of the resulting complexes in which HMTA can either be monodentate, bridged bidentate, tridentate, or tetradentate.

  12. Tetraaqua{1-[(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole}sulfatozinc(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Zhi Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Zn(SO4(C9H8N6(H2O4]·2H2O, the ZnII ion is six-coordinated by one N atom from a 1-[(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole ligand and five O atoms from one monodentate sulfate anion and four water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The sulfate tetrahedron is rotationally disordered over two positions in a 0.618 (19:0.382 (19 ratio. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are linked through O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the cation, the anion, and the coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules into a three-dimensional network.

  13. Tetraaqua{1-[(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole}sulfatocadmium dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xian Li

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cd(SO4(C9H8N6(H2O4]·2H2O, the CdII ion is six-coordinated by one N atom from a 1-[(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole ligand and by five O atoms from four water molecules and one monodentate sulfate anion in a distorted octahedral geometry. The sulfate tetrahedron is rotationally disordered over two positions in a 0.651 (12:0.349 (12 ratio. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are linked through O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  14. Bis(1H-pyrazole-κN2bis(2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoato-κOcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Hrib

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C16H23O22(C3H4N22] or (C3H4N22Co(O2CC6H2iPr3-2,4,6, is a rare example of a tetracoordinate cobalt(II carboxylate stabilized by ancillary N-heterocyclic ligands. The Co(II ion resides on a crystallographic twofold axis so that the asymmetric unit comprises one half-molecule. Due to the steric bulk of the 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl substituents, the carboxylate ligands are both coordinated in a monodentate fashion despite the low coordination number. The coordination geometry around the central Co(II ion is distorted tetrahedral with angles at Co ranging from 92.27 (18° to 121.08 (14°.

  15. Organic carbonates as alternative solvents for palladium-catalyzed substitution reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, Benjamin; Holz, Jens; Verevkin, Sergey P; Börner, Armin

    2008-01-01

    Organic carbonates, such as propylene carbonate, butylene carbonate, and diethyl carbonate, were tested in the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions of rac-1,3-diphenyl-3-acetoxy-prop-1-ene with dimethyl malonate or benzylamine as nucleophiles. Bidentate diphosphanes were used as chiral ligands. The application of monodentate phosphanes capable of self-assembling with the metal was likewise tested. In the substitution reaction with dimethyl malonate, enantioselectivities up to 98% were achieved. In the amination reaction, the chiral product was obtained with up to 83% ee. The results confirm that these "green solvents" can be advantageously used for this catalytic transformation as an alternative to those solvents usually employed which run some risk of being harmful to the environment.

  16. Iron Group Hydrides in Noyori Bifunctional Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert H

    2016-12-01

    This is an overview of the hydride-containing catalysts prepared in the Morris group for the efficient hydrogenation of simple ketones, imines, nitriles and esters and the asymmetric hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of prochiral ketones and imines. The work was inspired by and makes use of Noyori metal-ligand bifunctional concepts involving the hydride-ruthenium amine-hydrogen HRuNH design. It describes the synthesis and some catalytic properties of hydridochloro, dihydride and amide complexes of ruthenium and in one case, osmium, with monodentate, bidentate and tetradentate phosphorus and nitrogen donor ligands. The iron hydride that has been identified in a very effective asymmetric transfer hydrogenation process is also mentioned. The link between the HMNH structure and the sense of enantioinduction is demonstrated by use of simple transition state models.

  17. Diaquabis[N,N′-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(isonicotinamide-κN]bis(hydrogen phthalato-κOnickel(II hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torél Beard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title solvated coordination complex, [Ni(C8H5O42(C14H14N4O22(H2O2]·6H2O, the NiII cation is octahedrally coordinated by trans carboxylate O-atom donors from two crystallographically distinct monodentate hydrogen phthalate (Hpht− ligands, two trans aqua ligands, and trans pyridyl N-atom donors from two crystallographically distinct N,N′-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(isonicotinamide (ebin ligands. Extensive O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen-bonding patterns involving the water molecules of crystallization anchor neighboring coordination complexes into a three-dimensional network.

  18. Poly[{μ2-1,2-bis[4-(3-pyridylpyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]ethane}di-μ2-cyanido-dicopper(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Cu2(CN2(C20H16N6S2]n, contains one CuI cation, one cyanide ligand and half of a centrosymmetric 1,2-bis[4-(3-pyridylpyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]ethane (bppe ligand. The CuI atom displays a trigonal coordination geometry, being surrounded by one C atom from one cyanide anion and two N atoms from one cyanide and one bppe ligand. In the complex, each cyanide anion links two CuI atoms in a bis-monodentate mode into a zigzag [–Cu—CN–]n chain. Two parallel chains are linked by bppe ligands into a ladder chain.

  19. Influence of pH on Chemical Forms of Phosphate Adfsorbed on Gothite Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFAN; WANGDIAN-FEN; 等

    1995-01-01

    Chemical forms of the phosphate adsorbed on goethite surfaces and characteristics of the coordinate groups which exchange with P on goethite surfaces in solutions with different pll values were investigated.Results showed that the chemical forms of P on goethite surfaces changed from the dominance of monodentate corrdination to that of bidentate one with increasing pH of the solution.By influencing types of phosphate ions in solutions,pH affected the chemical forms of P on goethite surfaces,The amount of OH- displaced by phosphae on goethite surfaces was the most at pH 7.0,the second at pH 9.0,and the least at pH 4.5.

  20. Dicyclo-hexyl-ammonium trimethyl-bis-(hydrogen phenyl-phospho-nato)stannate(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Tidiane; Diop, Libasse; Diop, Cheikh A K; Molloy, Kieran C; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    In the title compound, (C(12)H(24)N)[Sn(CH(3))(3)(C(6)H(6)O(3)P)(2)], the SnMe(3) residues are axially coordinated by two monodentate [PhPO(3)H](-) anions, leading to a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry for the Sn(IV) atom. The two [SnMe(3)(PhPO(3)H)(2)](-) anions in the unit cell are associated into infinite chains along the a axis by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the hy-droxy group of the hydrogen phenyl-phospho-nate ion. The chains inter-act with one another via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds along the c axis. These networks of anions assemble with the dicyclo-hexyl-ammonium ion through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  1. catena-Poly[[[diaqua(1,10-phenanthrolinemanganese]-μ-3-[3-(carboxylatomethoxyphenyl]acrylato] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Mn(C11H8O5(C12H8N2(H2O2]·H2O, was obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The coordination environment of the Mn(II atom is a distorted MnN2O4 octahedron defined by two N atoms from 1,10-phenanthroline, two water O atoms and two carboxylate O atoms from two acrylate anions. The bis-monodentate coordination mode of the anion leads to the formation of chains propagating in [010]. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the chains into a two-dimensional network parallel to (100. In the voids of this arrangement, disordered lattice water molecules are present.

  2. Synthesis, spectral elucidation, electrochemistry and DFT interpretation of manganese(II)-thioalkyl-arylazoimidazole complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Soumendranath; Das, Kuheli; Datta, Amitabha; Banerjee, Debashis; Roy, Suman; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Debashree; Nanda, Prasanta Kumar; Akitsu, Takashiro; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2017-04-01

    One new Mn(II) thioalkyl-arylazoimidazole complex (1), [Mn(SRaaiNR/)2(SCN)2] (SRaaiNR/ = 1-alkyl-2-{(o-thioalkyl)phenylazo}imidazole and R = Me, R/ = Et) is afforded and systematically characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy. The single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals that in complex 1, the central Mn atom possesses a tetrahedral environment of MnN4 sphere; coordinated by a pair of monodentate orientation of Nimidazolyl and NSCN atoms. Variable temperature magnetic moment confirms that in complex 1, there exists an antiferromagnetic coupling in tetrahedral symmetry. Cyclic voltammogram study of complex 1 evidenced the presence of a Mn(III)/Mn(II) redox response at 1.25 V alongwith azo reductions at -0.8 V. DFT computational using optimized geometry clearly explains the electronic and redox properties which is in accordance with the experimental evidence.

  3. Zinc interaction with struvite during and after mineral formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouff, Ashaki A; Juarez, Karen M

    2014-06-03

    Sorption of Zn with struvite was assessed both during and after mineral formation at pH 9.0 for 1-100 μM (0.065-6.54 mg L(-1)) aqueous Zn. The Zn loadings of recovered solids were lower when Zn was present during struvite precipitation compared to when Zn was added to struvite-bearing solutions. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy confirmed that Zn added to struvite-bearing solutions at concentrations≤5 μM sorbed as both octahedral and tetrahedral complexes (Zn-O 1.98-2.03 Å), with evidence for bidentate configuration (Zn-P 3.18 Å). Bidentate complexes were incorporated into the near-surface structure, contributing to distortion of the struvite ν3 PO4(3-) band in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. At Zn concentrations>5 μM, tetrahedral monodentate adsorbates (Zn-O 1.98 Å) dominated, transitioning to a Zn-phosphate precipitate at 100 μM. When Zn is present during struvite precipitation, octahedral monodentate sorbates detected at 1 μM (Zn-O 2.08-2.10 Å; Zn-P 3.60-3.64 Å) polymerized at 5-50 μM, ultimately forming a Zn-hydroxide precipitate at 100 μM. The lowest initial Zn concentrations (0.065 mg L(-1)) and resultant solid loadings from precipitation experiments (13 mg kg(-1)) are consistent with those reported for struvite recovered from wastewater, suggesting that similar Zn sorption processes may occur in more complex systems.

  4. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H2L)(bix)(H2O)2]·2h2O}n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ni(L)0.5(bpp)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H4L=terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4‧-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H4L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework with H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]n ribbon chains motif, in which the H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η1 and μ1-η1:η0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H4L ligand displays a μ4-bridging coordination mode. The H4L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1-3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented.

  5. NO2-induced synthesis of nitrato-iron(III) porphyrin with diverse coordination mode and the formation of isoporphyrin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagannath Bhuyan; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2013-07-01

    Two nitrato-iron(III) porphyrinates [Fe(4-Me-TPP)(NO3)] 1 and [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)(NO3)] 2 are reported. Interestingly, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)(NO3)] 1 has nitrate ion coordinated as monodentate (by single oxygen atom), while [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)(NO3)] 2 has nitrate coordination through bidentate mode. Compound 1 was found serendipitously in the reaction of [Fe(4-Me-TPP)Cl] with nitrous acid, which was performed for the synthesis of nitro-iron(III) porphyrin, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)NO2]. The compound 2 was synthesized by passing NO2 gas through a solution of [Fe(4-OMe-TPP)]2O. Upon passing NO2 gas through a solution of a -oxo-dimer, [Fe(4-Me-TPP)]2O also produces 1. It is interesting that in more electron-rich porphyrin 2, binding of the nitrate in a symmetrical bidentate way while in less electron-rich porphyrin 1, binding of the anion is unidentate by a terminal oxygen atom. However, it is expected that the energy difference between the monodentate and bidentate coordination mode is very small and the interchange between these coordination is possible. Upon passing NO2 gas through a solution of -oxo-dimeric iron(III) porphyrin, the nitrato-iron(III) porphyrin forms first, that later gets oxidized to -cation radical to yield hydroxy-isoporphyrin in the presence of trace amount of water. These nitrato-iron(III) porphyrinates in moist air slowly converted back to their respective -oxo-dimeric iron(III) porphyrins.

  6. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Mercury(II) and Copper(II) Complexes of an 18-Membered NS{sub 4}-Macrocycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunji; Lee, Shim Sung [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    An 18-membered NS{sub 4}-macrocycle was employed, and its complexation behaviors with hard and soft metal ions were investigated. Reactions of L with mercury(II) nitrate and thiocyanate afforded endocyclic mononuclear complexes [Hg(L)(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1) and [Hg(L)(SCN){sub 2}] (2), respectively, with anion coordinations. In the nitrato complex 1, the mercury(II) center is six-coordinate, being bound to three S donors and one pyridine N atom in L, and the coordination sphere is completed by two monodentate nitrate ions from both sides of the macrocyclic plane adopting a distorted octahedral geometry. The thiocyanato complex 2, which contains two crystallographically independent but almost isostructural complex units is five-coordinate, being bound to NS{sub 2} donors in L and two monodentate thiocyanate ions on the same side of the bound macrocycle unlike 1, adopting a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Reaction of L with CuCl{sub 2} 2H{sub 2}O yielded a dark-green bis(macrocycle) trinuclear complex, [Cu{sub 3}(L){sub 2}Cl{sub 6}] 0.5CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (3), in which two endocyclic monocopper (II) complex units are linked by an exocyclic one Cu and two bridging Cl atoms. In 3, interestingly, the local coordination environments of the three copper(II) atoms are different, with four, five, or six coordination, adopting a distorted square pyramidal, tetrahedral, or octahedral geometry, respectively. From these results, it is found that the ditopic ligand L reacts with both soft and hard metal-ion species to give diverse types of endocyclic complexes whose structures are also dependent on the anions used.

  7. Mechanisms and origins of switchable chemoselectivity of Ni-catalyzed C(aryl)-O and C(acyl)-O activation of aryl esters with phosphine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Liang, Yong; Houk, K N

    2014-02-05

    Many experiments have shown that nickel with monodentate phosphine ligands favors the C(aryl)-O activation over the C(acyl)-O activation for aryl esters. However, Itami and co-workers recently discovered that nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands can selectively activate the C(acyl)-O bond of aryl esters of aromatic carboxylic acids. The chemoselectivity with bidentate phosphine ligands can be switched back to C(aryl)-O activation when aryl pivalates are employed. To understand the mechanisms and origins of this switchable chemoselectivity, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been conducted. For aryl esters, nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands cleaves C(acyl)-O and C(aryl)-O bonds via three-centered transition states. The C(acyl)-O activation is more favorable due to the lower bond dissociation energy (BDE) of C(acyl)-O bond, which translates into a lower transition-state distortion energy. However, when monodentate phosphine ligands are used, a vacant coordination site on nickel creates an extra Ni-O bond in the five-centered C(aryl)-O cleavage transition state. The additional interaction energy between the catalyst and substrate makes C(aryl)-O activation favorable. In the case of aryl pivalates, nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands still favors the C(acyl)-O activation over the C(aryl)-O activation at the cleavage step. However, the subsequent decarbonylation generates a very unstable tBu-Ni(II) intermediate, and this unfavorable step greatly increases the overall barrier for generating the C(acyl)-O activation products. Instead, the subsequent C-H activation of azoles and C-C coupling in the C(aryl)-O activation pathway are much easier, leading to the observed C(aryl)-O activation products.

  8. Structure of Hydrated Zn2+ at the Rutile TiO2 (110)-Aqueous Solution Interface: Comparison of X-ray Standing Wave, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Catalano, Jeffery G. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Sturchio, N. C. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Northwestern University, Evanston

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} at the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110)-aqueous interface was studied with Bragg-reflection X-ray standing waves (XSW), polarization-dependent surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the interrelated issues of adsorption site, its occupancy, ion-oxygen coordination and hydrolysis. At pH 8, Zn{sup 2+} was found to adsorb as an inner-sphere complex at two different sites, i.e., monodentate above the bridging O site and bidentate between two neighboring terminal O sites. EXAFS results directly revealed a four or fivefold first shell coordination environment for adsorbed Zn{sup 2+} instead of the sixfold coordination found for aqueous species at this pH. DFT calculations confirmed the energetic stability of a lower coordination environment for the adsorbed species and revealed that the change to this coordination environment is correlated with the hydrolysis of adsorbed Zn{sup 2+}. In addition, the derived adsorption locations and the occupancy factors of both sites from three methods agree well, with some quantitative discrepancies in the minor site location among the XSW, EXAFS, and DFT methods. Additional XSW measurements showed that the adsorption sites of Zn{sup 2+} were unchanged at pH 6. However, the Zn{sup 2+} partitioning between the two sites changed substantially, with an almost equal distribution between the two types of sites at pH 6 compared to predominantly monodentate occupation at pH 8.

  9. Structure of Hydrated Zn2+ at the Rutile TiO2 (110)-Aqueous Solution Interface: Comparsion of X-ray Standing Wave, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,Z.; Fenter, P.; Kelly, S.; Catalano, J.; Bandura, A.; Kubicki, J.; Sofo, J.; Wesolowski, D.; Machesky, M.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} at the rutile TiO2 (110)-aqueous interface was studied with Bragg-reflection X-ray standing waves (XSW), polarization-dependent surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the interrelated issues of adsorption site, its occupancy, ion-oxygen coordination and hydrolysis. At pH 8, Zn{sup 2+} was found to adsorb as an inner-sphere complex at two different sites, i.e., monodentate above the bridging O site and bidentate between two neighboring terminal O sites. EXAFS results directly revealed a four or fivefold first shell coordination environment for adsorbed Zn{sup 2+} instead of the sixfold coordination found for aqueous species at this pH. DFT calculations confirmed the energetic stability of a lower coordination environment for the adsorbed species and revealed that the change to this coordination environment is correlated with the hydrolysis of adsorbed Zn{sup 2+}. In addition, the derived adsorption locations and the occupancy factors of both sites from three methods agree well, with some quantitative discrepancies in the minor site location among the XSW, EXAFS, and DFT methods. Additional XSW measurements showed that the adsorption sites of Zn{sup 2+} were unchanged at pH 6. However, the Zn{sup 2+} partitioning between the two sites changed substantially, with an almost equal distribution between the two types of sites at pH 6 compared to predominantly monodentate occupation at pH 8.

  10. Characterisation, phase stability and surface chemical properties of photocatalytic active Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Andreas; Lejon, Christian; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Štengl, Vaclav; Österlund, Lars

    2013-03-01

    We report on the characterization, phase stability, surface chemical and photocatalytic properties of Zr and Y co-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by homogenous hydrolysis methods using urea as precipitating agent. The materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, BET isotherm and BJH pore size distribution measurements. It is shown that Y and Zr ions replace Ti ions in the anatase TiO2 structures up to a critical total dopant concentration of approximately 13 wt%. The co-doped particles show increased phase stability compared to pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. The anatase to rutile phase transformation is shown to be preceded by cation segregation and dissolution with concomitant precipitation of Y2Ti2-xZrxO7 and ZrTiO4. Co-doping modifies the optical absorption edge with a resulting attenuation of the Urbach tail. The band gap is slightly blue-shifted at high doping concentrations, and red shifted at lower doping concentrations. Formic acid adsorption was used as a probe molecule to investigate surface chemical properties and adsorbate structures. It was found that the relative abundance of monodentate formate compared to bidentate coordinated formate decreases with increasing doping concentration. This is attributed to an increased surface acidity with increasing dopant concentration. Photodegradation of formic acid occurred on all samples. With mode-resolved in situ FTIR spectroscopy it is shown that the rate of photodegradation of monodentate formate species are higher than for bidentate formate species. Thus our results show that the trend of decreasing photo-degradation rate with increasing dopant concentration can be explained by the adsorbate structure, which is controlled by the acidity of the surface.

  11. Mechanisms of chromate adsorption on boehmite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad P; Chrysochoou, Maria

    2015-01-08

    Adsorption reactions play an important role in the transport behavior of groundwater contaminants. Molecular-scale information is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which ions coordinate to soil mineral surfaces. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of chromate adsorption on boehmite (γ-AlOOH) using a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and aqueous chromate concentration were investigated. Our overall findings were that chromate primarily forms outer-sphere complexes on boehmite over a broad range of pH and aqueous concentrations. Additionally, a small fraction of monodentate and bidentate inner-sphere complexes are present under acidic conditions, as evidenced by two sets of chromate stretching vibrations at approximately 915, 870, and 780cm(-1), and 940, 890, 850, and 780cm(-1), respectively. The bidentate complex is supported by a best-fit CrAl distance in the EXAFS of 3.2Å. Results from DFT also support the formation of monodentate and bidentate complexes, which are predicted to results in Gibbs energy changes of -140.4 and -62.5kJmol(-1), respectively. These findings are consistent with the intermediate binding strength of chromate with respect to similar oxyanions such as sulfate and selenite. Overall, the surface species identified in this work can be used to develop a more accurate stoichiometric framework in mechanistic adsorption models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of Cu(II) to Bacillus subtilis: A pH-dependent EXAFS and thermodynamic modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ellen M.; Peacock, Caroline L.

    2011-11-01

    Bacteria are very efficient sorbents of trace metals, and their abundance in a wide variety of natural aqueous systems means biosorption plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of many elements. We measured the adsorption of Cu(II) to Bacillus subtilis as a function of pH and surface loading. Adsorption edge and XAS experiments were performed at high bacteria-to-metal ratio, analogous to Cu uptake in natural geologic and aqueous environments. We report significant Cu adsorption to B. subtilis across the entire pH range studied (pH ˜2-7), with adsorption increasing with pH to a maximum at pH ˜6. We determine directly for the first time that Cu adsorbs to B. subtilis as a (CuO 5H n) n-8 monodentate, inner-sphere surface complex involving carboxyl surface functional groups. This Cu-carboxyl complex is able to account for the observed Cu adsorption across the entire pH range studied. Having determined the molecular adsorption mechanism of Cu to B. subtilis, we have developed a new thermodynamic surface complexation model for Cu adsorption that is informed by and consistent with EXAFS results. We model the surface electrostatics using the 1p K basic Stern approximation. We fit our adsorption data to the formation of a monodentate, inner-sphere tbnd RCOOCu + surface complex. In agreement with previous studies, this work indicates that in order to accurately predict the fate and mobility of Cu in complex biogeochemical systems, we must incorporate the formation of Cu-bacteria surface complexes in reactive transport models. To this end, this work recommends log K tbnd RCOOCu + = 7.13 for geologic and aqueous systems with generally high B. subtilis-to-metal ratio.

  13. ATR-FTIR and density functional theory study of the structures, energetics, and vibrational spectra of phosphate adsorbed onto goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, James D; Paul, Kristian W; Kabalan, Lara; Zhu, Qing; Mrozik, Michael K; Aryanpour, Masoud; Pierre-Louis, Andro-Marc; Strongin, Daniel R

    2012-10-16

    Periodic plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) and molecular cluster hybrid molecular orbital-DFT (MO-DFT) calculations were performed on models of phosphate surface complexes on the (100), (010), (001), (101), and (210) surfaces of α-FeOOH (goethite). Binding energies of monodentate and bidentate HPO(4)(2-) surface complexes were compared to H(2)PO(4)(-) outer-sphere complexes. Both the average potential energies from DFT molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations and energy minimizations were used to estimate adsorption energies for each configuration. Molecular clusters were extracted from the energy-minimized structures of the periodic systems and subjected to energy reminimization and frequency analysis with MO-DFT. The modeled P-O and P---Fe distances were consistent with EXAFS data for the arsenate oxyanion that is an analog of phosphate, and the interatomic distances predicted by the clusters were similar to those of the periodic models. Calculated vibrational frequencies from these clusters were then correlated with observed infrared bands. Configurations that resulted in favorable adsorption energies were also found to produce theoretical vibrational frequencies that correlated well with experiment. The relative stability of monodentate versus bidentate configurations was a function of the goethite surface under consideration. Overall, our results show that phosphate adsorption onto goethite occurs as a variety of surface complexes depending on the habit of the mineral (i.e., surfaces present) and solution pH. Previous IR spectroscopic studies may have been difficult to interpret because the observed spectra averaged the structural properties of three or more configurations on any given sample with multiple surfaces.

  14. Photochemistry of RuII 4,4′-Bi-1,2,3-triazolyl (btz) Complexes: Crystallographic Characterization of the Photoreactive Ligand-Loss Intermediate trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, Christine E; Armitage, Georgina K; Bartley, Harry; Wilkinson, Aaron; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Uppal, Baljinder S; Rice, Craig R; Elliott, Paul I P

    2014-01-01

    We report the unprecedented observation and unequivocal crystallographic characterization of the meta-stable ligand loss intermediate solvento complex trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+ (1 a) that contains a monodentate chelate ligand. This and analogous complexes can be observed during the photolysis reactions of a family of complexes of the form [Ru()(btz)2]2+ (1 a–d: btz=1,1′-dibenzyl-4,4′-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl; =a) 2,2′-bipyridyl (bpy), b) 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridyl (dmbpy), c) 4,4′-dimethoxy-2,2′-bipyridyl (dmeobpy), d) 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)). In acetonitrile solutions, 1 a–d eventually convert to the bis-solvento complexes trans-[Ru()(btz)(NCMe)2]2+ (3 a–d) along with one equivalent of free btz, in a process in which the remaining coordinated bidentate ligands undergo a new rearrangement such that they become coplanar. X-ray crystal structure of 3 a and 3 d confirmed the co-planar arrangement of the and btz ligands and the trans coordination of two solvent molecules. These conversions proceed via the observed intermediate complexes 2 a–d, which are formed quantitatively from 1 a–d in a matter of minutes and to which they slowly revert back on being left to stand in the dark over several days. The remarkably long lifetime of the intermediate complexes (>12 h at 40 °C) allowed the isolation of 2 a in the solid state, and the complex to be crystallographically characterized. Similarly to the structures adopted by complexes 3 a and d, the bpy and κ2-btz ligands in 2 a coordinate in a square-planar fashion with the second monodentate btz ligand coordinated trans to an acetonitrile ligand. PMID:24889966

  15. Crystal structures of μ-oxalato-bis[azido(histaminecopper(II] and μ-oxalato-bis[(dicyanamido(histaminecopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis[[4-(2-aminoethyl-1H-imidazole-κ2N3,N4](azido-κN1copper(II], [Cu2(C2O4(N32(C5H9N32], (I, and μ-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′-bis[[4-(2-aminoethyl-1H-imidazole-κ2N3,N4](dicyanamido-κN1copper(II], [Cu2(C2O4(C2N32(C5H9N32], (II, are two oxalate-bridged dinuclear copper complexes. Each CuII ion adopts a five-coordinate square-pyramidal coordination sphere where the basal N2O2 plane is formed by two O atoms of the oxalate ligand and two N atoms of a bidentate chelating histamine molecule. The apical coordination site in compound (I is occupied by a monodentate azide anion through one of its terminal N atoms. The apical coordination site in compound (II is occupied by a monodentate dicyanamide anion through one of its terminal N atoms. The molecules in both structures are centrosymmetric. In the crystals of compounds (I and (II, the dinuclear complexes are linked through N—H...X and C—H...X (X = N, O hydrogen bonds where the donors are provided by the histamine ligand and the acceptor atoms are provided by the azide, dicyanamide, and oxalate ligands. In compound (I, the coordinatively unsaturated copper ions interact with the histamine ligand via a C—H...Cu interaction. The coordinatively unsaturated copper ions in compound (II interact via a weak N...Cu interaction with the dicyanamide ligand of a neighboring molecule. The side chain of the histamine ligand is disordered over three sets of sites in (II.

  16. Understanding the complexation of Eu3 + with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu3 + with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu3 + to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu3 + in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C3h. Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of Eusbnd O bond followed the trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for 5D0-7F2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Supplementary Table 2: Determination of inner sphere water molecules from the different empirical formulae reported in the literature.

  17. Theoretical insights on the interaction of uranium with amidoxime and carboxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Luo, Qiong; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ke; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-09-15

    Recovery of uranium from seawater is extremely challenging but important for the persistent development of nuclear energy, and thus exploring the coordination structures and bonding nature of uranyl complexes becomes essential for designing highly efficient uranium adsorbents. In this work, the interactions of uranium and a series of adsorbents with various well-known functional groups including amidoximate (AO(-)), carboxyl (Ac(-)), glutarimidedioximate (HA(-)), and bifunctional AO(-)/Ac(-), HA(-)/Ac(-) on different alkyl chains (R'═CH3, R″═C13H26) were systematically studied by quantum chemical calculations. For all the uranyl complexes, the monodentate and η(2) coordination are the main binding modes for the AO(-) groups, while Ac(-) groups act as monodentate and bidentate ligands. Amidoximes can also form cyclic imide dioximes (H2A), which coordinate to UO2(2+) as tridentate ligands. Kinetic analysis of the model displacement reaction confirms the rate-determining step in the extraction process, that is, the complexing of uranyl by amidoxime group coupled with the dissociation of the carbonate group from the uranyl tricarbonate complex [UO2(CO3)3](4-). Complexing species with AO(-) groups show higher binding energies than the analogues with Ac(-) groups. However, the obtained uranyl complexes with Ac(-) seem to be more favorable according to reactions with [UO2(CO3)3](4-) as reactant, which may be due to the higher stability of HAO compared to HAc. This is also the reason that species with mixed functional group AO(-)/Ac(-) are more stable than those with monoligand. Thus, as reported in the literature, the adsorbability of uranium can be improved by the synergistic effects of amidoxime and carboxyl groups.

  18. Syntheses,Characterization and Equilibrium between Mono—and Aqua—bridged Dicobalt(Ⅱ)Complexes.A Structural Model for Methionine Aminopeptidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE,Bao-Hui; CHEN,Xiao-Ming

    2003-01-01

    A monomeric complex[Co(Im)2(O2CMe)2](1) and a novel aquabridged dimeric complex [Co2(μ-H2O)(μ-O2CMe)2(Im)4-(O2CMe)2](2) (Im=imidazole) have been synthesized and characterized.Complexes 1 and 2 coexisted in solution.Pure forms of either complex can be obtained from the same solution by controlling the crystallization conditions.All two complexes possess a carboxylate-Im-cobalt(Ⅱ) triad system analogous to the carboxylate-histidine-metal triad systems that have been found in many zinc enzymes and coblat(Ⅱ)-substituted enzymes.In2,two Co2+ ions are conected by a wate nolecule in a bridging fasion with Co……Co[0.3687(1)nm],Co-OH2[0.2159(3)nm],and Co-OH2-Co[0.3687(1)nm],Co-OH2[0.2159(3)nm],and Co-OH2-Co[117.2(3)°],in which the water molecule is further stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds with the oxygens of the terminal monodentate acetate groups with the distance of 0……0[0.2609(7)nm].The terminal monodentate acetate groups display quite abnormal geometry due to the strong "pulling effect"on the carboxylates by intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds.Complex 2 showed weak antiferromagnetic coupling at low temperature with g=2.22 and J=-1.60 cm-1.

  19. Sulphate behaviour from dissolution of gypsum in organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, M.K.; Gogoi, P.C.; Kotoky, P. [NNS College, Titabar (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-01-01

    The solubility of gypsum in organic acids namely acetic, oxalic, tartaric and succinic acids at low temperature (30{degree}C) was studied. The results show that sulphate sulphur content increases with increasing acid concentration from 0.1 to 0.25 M and decreases again at higher concentration. It is suggested that different behaviour of the acids beyond 0.25 M solution could be due to incorporation of sulphate into the co-ordination sphere of calcium-organic complexes. It is suggested that the occurrence of free and fixed sulphate in the solution is highly pH dependent. The nature of incorporation of sulphate in a system containing calcium species and natural organic matter has also been studied. Humic acids, extracted from forest and tea-garden soils, were treated with a solution of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) at room temperature and the infrared spectra of the gypsum treated samples reveal that sulphate has been incorporated into the calcium complex as a monodentate ligand. Further an inorganic-sulphur free high-sulphur coal when treated with the gypsum solution, incorporated sulphate as bidentate ligand. It is concluded that the nature of the organic matter plays an important role for the occurrence of various fixed sulphates either as monodentate or bidentate ligand in natural systems. This work is a novel breakthrough for the occurrence of varying sulphate content in some of the natural environments and has considerable environmental and geochemical interest. Short communication. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[aquabis(4-cyanobenzoato-κOcopper(II]-μ-N,N-diethylnicotinamide-κ2N1:O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Akduran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric compound, [Cu(C8H4NO22(C10H14N2O(H2O]n, contains one CuII atom, one coordinating water molecule, two 4-cyanobenzoate (CB ligands and one coordinating N,N-diethylnicotinamide (DENA molecule. The DENA ligand acts as a bis-monodentate ligand, while the CB anions are monodentate. Two O atoms of the CB ligands, one O atom of the water molecule and the pyridine N atom of the DENA ligand form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement around the CuII atom which is completed to a square-pyramidal coordination by the apically placed O atom of the DENA ligand, with a Cu—O distance of 2.4303 (15 Å. In the two CB anions, the carboxylate groups are twisted relative to the attached benzene rings by 2.19 (12 and 3.87 (15°, while the benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 5.52 (8°. The DENA ligands bridge adjacent Cu2+ ions, forming polymeric coordination chains running along the b axis. In the crystal, strong water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bonds link adjacent chains into layers parallel to (10-1 and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds further stabilize the crystal structure. The cyano group C and N atoms of one of the CB ligands are disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies.

  1. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  2. Increasing the analytical sensitivity by oligonucleotides modified with para- and ortho-twisted intercalating nucleic acids--TINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uffe V Schneider

    Full Text Available The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnostic assays using DNA hybridization techniques are limited by the dissociation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antiparallel duplex helices. This situation can be improved by addition of DNA stabilizing molecules such as nucleic acid intercalators. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA amidite utilizing the phosphoramidite approach, and examine the stabilizing effect of ortho- and para-TINA molecules in antiparallel DNA duplex formation. In a thermal stability assay, ortho- and para-TINA molecules increased the melting point (Tm of Watson-Crick based antiparallel DNA duplexes. The increase in Tm was greatest when the intercalators were placed at the 5' and 3' termini (preferable or, if placed internally, for each half or whole helix turn. Terminally positioned TINA molecules improved analytical sensitivity in a DNA hybridization capture assay targeting the Escherichia coli rrs gene. The corresponding sequence from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa rrs gene was used as cross-reactivity control. At 150 mM ionic strength, analytical sensitivity was improved 27-fold by addition of ortho-TINA molecules and 7-fold by addition of para-TINA molecules (versus the unmodified DNA oligonucleotide, with a 4-fold increase retained at 1 M ionic strength. Both intercalators sustained the discrimination of mismatches in the dsDNA (indicated by ΔTm, unless placed directly adjacent to the mismatch--in which case they partly concealed ΔTm (most pronounced for para-TINA molecules. We anticipate that the presented rules for placement of TINA molecules will be broadly applicable in hybridization capture assays and target amplification systems.

  3. Origin of Stereodivergence in Cooperative Asymmetric Catalysis with Simultaneous Involvement of Two Chiral Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskararao, Bangaru; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2015-12-23

    Accomplishing high diastereo- and enantioselectivities simultaneously is a persistent challenge in asymmetric catalysis. The use of two chiral catalysts in one-pot conditions might offer new avenues to this end. Chirality transfer from a catalyst to product gets increasingly complex due to potential chiral match-mismatch issues. The origin of high enantio- and diastereoselectivities in the reaction between a racemic aldehyde and an allyl alcohol, catalyzed by using axially chiral iridium phosphoramidites PR/S-Ir and cinchona amine is established through transition-state modeling. The multipoint contact analysis of the stereocontrolling transition state revealed how the stereodivergence could be achieved by inverting the configuration of the chiral catalysts that are involved in the activation of the reacting partners. While the enantiocontrol is identified as being decided in the generation of PR/S-Ir-π-allyl intermediate from the allyl alcohol, the diastereocontrol arises due to the differential stabilizations in the C-C bond formation transition states. The analysis of the weak interactions in the transition states responsible for chiral induction revealed that the geometric disposition of the quinoline ring at the C8 chiral carbon of cinchona-enamine plays an anchoring role. The quinolone ring is noted as participating in a π-stacking interaction with the phenyl ring of the Ir-π-allyl moiety in the case of PR with the (8R,9R)-cinchona catalyst combination, whereas a series of C-H···π interactions is identified as vital to the relative stabilization of the stereocontrolling transition states when PR is used with (8S,9S)-cinchona.

  4. Increasing the Analytical Sensitivity by Oligonucleotides Modified with Para- and Ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acids – TINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uffe V.; Géci, Imrich; Jøhnk, Nina; Mikkelsen, Nikolaj D.; Pedersen, Erik B.; Lisby, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnostic assays using DNA hybridization techniques are limited by the dissociation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antiparallel duplex helices. This situation can be improved by addition of DNA stabilizing molecules such as nucleic acid intercalators. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel ortho-Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA) amidite utilizing the phosphoramidite approach, and examine the stabilizing effect of ortho- and para-TINA molecules in antiparallel DNA duplex formation. In a thermal stability assay, ortho- and para-TINA molecules increased the melting point (Tm) of Watson-Crick based antiparallel DNA duplexes. The increase in Tm was greatest when the intercalators were placed at the 5′ and 3′ termini (preferable) or, if placed internally, for each half or whole helix turn. Terminally positioned TINA molecules improved analytical sensitivity in a DNA hybridization capture assay targeting the Escherichia coli rrs gene. The corresponding sequence from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa rrs gene was used as cross-reactivity control. At 150 mM ionic strength, analytical sensitivity was improved 27-fold by addition of ortho-TINA molecules and 7-fold by addition of para-TINA molecules (versus the unmodified DNA oligonucleotide), with a 4-fold increase retained at 1 M ionic strength. Both intercalators sustained the discrimination of mismatches in the dsDNA (indicated by ΔTm), unless placed directly adjacent to the mismatch – in which case they partly concealed ΔTm (most pronounced for para-TINA molecules). We anticipate that the presented rules for placement of TINA molecules will be broadly applicable in hybridization capture assays and target amplification systems. PMID:21673988

  5. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  6. Optimized synthesis of phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides substituted with a 5'-protected thiol function and a 3'-amino group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Y; Bourgerie, S; Meunier, L; Mayer, R; Roche, A C; Monsigny, M; Thuong, N T; Asseline, U

    2000-02-01

    A new deprotection procedure enables a medium scale preparation of phosphodiester and phosphor-othioate oligonucleotides substituted with a protected thiol function at their 5'-ends and an amino group at their 3'-ends in good yield (up to 72 OD units/micromol for a 19mer phosphorothioate). Syntheses of 3'-amino-substituted oligonucleotides were carried out on a modified support. A linker containing the thioacetyl moiety was manually coupled in two steps by first adding its phosphor-amidite derivative in the presence of tetrazole followed by either oxidation or sulfurization to afford the bis-derivatized oligonucleotide bound to the support. Deprotection was achieved by treating the fully protected oligonucleotide with a mixture of 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and concentrated aqueous ammonia in the presence of phenol and methanol. This proced-ure enables (i) cleavage of the oligonucleotide from the support, releasing the oligonucleotide with a free amino group at its 3'-end, (ii) deprotection of the phosphate groups and the amino functions of the nucleic bases, as well as (iii) transformation of the 5'-terminal S -acetyl function into a dithiopyridyl group. The bis-derivatized phosphorothioate oligomer was further substituted through a two-step procedure: first, the 3'-amino group was reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate to yield a fluoresceinylated oligo-nucleotide; the 5'-dithio-pyridyl group was then -quantitatively reduced to give a free thiol group which was then substituted by reaction with an N alpha-bromoacetyl derivative of a signal peptide containing a KDEL sequence to afford a fluoresceinylated peptide-oligonucleotide conjugate.

  7. A Metal-free Click Chemistry Approach for the Assembly and Probing of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sibaprasad; Viazovkina, Ekaterina; Gall, Alexander; Lyubchenko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Probing of biomolecular complexes by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) methods including AFM requires proper and suitable coupling methods for immobilization of biomolecules onto the AFM tip and the surface. The use of flexible tethers for the coupling process has dual advantages. First, they allow the specific immobilization of interacting molecules, and second, their flexibility facilitates the proper orientation of the interacting partners. Recently, we developed an approach termed Flexible Nano Array (FNA) in which interacting partners are located on the same polymeric FNA molecule separated by a flexible segment with a defined length. In this paper, we modified the FNA tether approach by incorporating click chemistry with non-metal modification. FNA was synthesized using DNA synthesis chemistry, in which phosphoramidite (PA) spacers containing six ethylene glycol units were used instead of nucleoside triphosphates. During the synthesis, two T modifiers conjugated to two dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO) residues were incorporated at selected positions within the FNA. The DBCO functionality allows for coupling azide labeled biomolecules via click chemistry. Amyloid peptide Aβ(14-23) terminated with azide was incorporated into the FNA and the reaction was controlled with mass-spectrometry. Assembly of tethered Aβ(14-23) peptides into dimers was characterized by AFM force spectroscopy experiments in which the AFM tip functionalized with FNA terminated with biotin probed a streptavidin-coated mica surface. The formation of the peptide dimer was verified with force spectroscopy that showed the appearance of a specific fingerprint for dimer dissociation followed by a rupture event for the biotin-streptavidin link. The developed approach is capable of multiple probing events to allow the collection of a large set of data for a quantitative analysis of the force spectroscopy events.

  8. High-density functionalization and cross-linking of DNA: "click" and "bis-click" cycloadditions performed on alkynylated oligonucleotides with fluorogenic anthracene azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Suresh S; Ingale, Sachin A; Seela, Frank

    2014-10-15

    High density functionalization of DNA with ethynyl and octadiynyl side chains followed by CuAAC "click labeling" with 9-azidomethylanthracene was performed. Alkynyl DNA was also cross-linked with fluorogenic 9,10-bis-azidomethylanthracene employing the "bis-click" reaction. By this means the fluorescence of the anthracene moiety was imparted to the virtually nonfluorescent DNA. Phosphoramidites of 8-aza-7-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine with short and long linker arms in a steric nondemanding 7-position were utilized in solid phase oligodeoxynucleotide synthesis. High density alkynylated DNA-without anthracene residues-was found to be of comparable stability with both long and short linker arms. High density anthracene functionalized DNA became less stable with the short linker compared to that with the long linker connectivity. Interstrand cross-linked homodimers constructed from alkynylated oligonucleotides with fluorogenic 9,10-bis-azidomethylanthracene were hybridized with complementary strands to form double helices. They are more stable when the linker was located at a terminus than in a central position. Short linker anthracene adducts were destabilizing compared to long linker adducts. The fluorogenic anthracene residues not only have a significant effect on the duplex stability, but also impart fluorescence to the species. Fluorescence of cross-linked double helices with long linker connectivity was quenched when the cross-link was in a terminal position and was dequenched when the linker was connecting the two double helices at the center of the molecule. The fluorescence of the anthracene cross-linked double helices was strongly increased (dequenched) when the correct base pair was formed, while no change occurred upon mismatch formation.

  9. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: quantitation and optimization of a sandwich type assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Mäki, E; Lönnberg, H

    1998-01-01

    Uniformly sized (50 micro m) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate particles (SINTEF) were used as the solid phase in a sandwich type mixed-phase hybridization assay based on time-resolved fluorescence detection on a single particle. These particles were coated with oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes by conventional phosphoramidite chain assembly. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate, ¿2,2',2",2"'-¿¿4'-¿4"'-[(4, 6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]phenyl¿-2,2':6',2"-terpyrid ine-6, 6"-diyl¿bis(methylenenitrilo)¿tetrakis(acetato)¿eur opi um(III), was hybridized to a complementary sequence of the target oligonucleotide, and the resulting duplex was further hybridized to the particle-bound probes. The latter binding was quantified by time-resolved measurement of the emission signal of a single particle. Kinetics of hybridization and the effect of the concentration of the target oligomer and the fluorescently tagged probe on the efficiency of hybridization were studied. The intensity of the emission signal was linearly related to the concentration of the target oligomer over a range of 5 orders of magnitude. The length of the complementary region between the target oligomer and the particle-bound probe was varied, and the effect of point mutations and deletions on the hybridization efficiency was determined in each case. The maximal selectivity was observed with 10-16-base pair complementary sequences, the optimal length depending on the oligonucleotide loading on the particle. Discrimination between the complete matches and point mismatches was unequivocal, a single point mutation and/or deletion decreasing the efficiency of hybridization by more than 2 orders of magnitude.

  10. Simultaneous detection of several oligonucleotides by time-resolved fluorometry: the use of a mixture of categorized microparticles in a sandwich type mixed-phase hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Virta, P; Salo, H; Lönnberg, H

    1998-12-15

    Porous, uniformly sized (50 micrometer) glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate particles (SINTEF) were used as a solid phase to construct a sandwich type hybridization assay that allowed simultaneous detection of up to six oligonucleotides from a single sample. The assay was based on categorization of the particles by two organic prompt fluorophores, viz. fluorescein and dansyl, and quantification of the oligonucleotide hybridization by time-resolved fluorometry. Accordingly, allele-specific oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes were assembled on the particles by conventional phosphoramidite strategy using a non-cleavable linker, and the category defining fluorescein and/or dansyl tagged building blocks were inserted in the 3'-terminal sequence. An oligonucleotide bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate was hybridized to the complementary 3'-terminal sequence of the target oligonucleotide, and the resulting duplex was further hybridized to the particle-bound allele-specific probes via the 5'-terminal sequence of the target. After hybridization each individual particle was subjected to three different fluorescence intensity measurements. The intensity of the prompt fluorescence signals of fluorescein and dansyl defined the particle category, while the europium(III) chelate emission quantified the hybridization. The length of the complementary region between the target oligonucleotide and the particle-bound probe was optimized to achieve maximal selectivity. Furthermore, the kinetics of hybridization and the effect of the concentration of the target oligomer on the efficiency of hybridization were evaluated. By this approach the possible presence of a three base deletion (DeltaF508), point mutation (G542X) and point deletion (1078delT) related to cystic fibrosis could unequivocally be detected from a single sample.

  11. Synthesis and crystal structure study of 2′-Se-adenosine-derivatized DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SALON; Jozef

    2010-01-01

    The selenium derivatization of nucleic acids is a novel and promising strategy for 3D structure determination of nucleic acids.Selenium can serve as an excellent anomalous scattering center to solve the phase problem,which is one of the two major bottlenecks in macromolecule X-ray crystallography.The other major bottleneck is crystallization.It has been demonstrated that the incorporated selenium functionality at the 2′-positions of the nucleosides and nucleotides is stable and does not cause significant structure perturbation.Furthermore,it was observed that the 2′-Se-derivatization could facilitate crystallization of oligonucleotides with fast crystal growth and high diffraction quality.Herein,we describe a convenient synthesis of the 2′-Se-adenosine phosphoramidite,and report the first synthesis and X-ray crystal structure determination of the DNA containing the 2′-Se-A derivatization.The 3D structure of 2′-Se-A-DNA decamer 5′-GTACGCGT(2′-Se-A)C-3′2 was determined at 1.75 ? resolution,the 2′-Se-functionality points to the minor groove,and the Se-modified and native structures are virtually identical.Moreover,we have observed that the 2′-Se-A modification can greatly facilitate the crystal growth with high diffraction quality.In conjunction with the crystallization facilitation by the 2′-Se-U and 2′-Se-T,this novel observation on the 2′-Se-A functionality suggests that the 2′-Se moiety is sole responsible for the crystallization facilitation and the identity of nucleobases does not influence the crystal growth significantly.

  12. Detection of cyclin D1 mRNA by hybridization sensitive NIC-oligonucleotide probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliov, Marina; Segal, Meirav; Kafri, Pinhas; Yavin, Eylon; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Fischer, Bilha

    2014-05-01

    A large group of fluorescent hybridization probes, includes intercalating dyes for example thiazole orange (TO). Usually TO is coupled to nucleic acids post-synthetically which severely limits its use. Here, we have developed a phosphoramidite monomer, 10, and prepared a 2'-OMe-RNA probe, labeled with 5-(trans-N-hexen-1-yl-)-TO-2'-deoxy-uridine nucleoside, dU(TO), (Nucleoside bearing an Inter-Calating moiety, NIC), for selective mRNA detection. We investigated a series of 15-mer 2'-OMe-RNA probes, targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA, containing one or several dU(TO) at various positions. dU(TO)-2'-OMe-RNA exhibited up to 7-fold enhancement of TO emission intensity upon hybridization with the complementary RNA versus that of the oligomer alone. This NIC-probe was applied for the specific detection of a very small amount of a breast cancer marker, cyclin D1 mRNA, in total RNA extract from cancerous cells (250 ng/μl). Furthermore, this NIC-probe was found to be superior to our related NIF (Nucleoside with Intrinsic Fluorescence)-probe which could detect cyclin D1 mRNA target only at high concentrations (1840 ng/μl). Additionally, dU(T) can be used as a monomer in solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis, thus avoiding the need for post-synthetic modification of oligonucleotide probes. Hence, we propose dU(TO) oligonucleotides, as hybridization probes for the detection of specific RNA in homogeneous solutions and for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  13. Design and development of thermolytic DNA oligonucleotide prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Pedras-Vasconcelos, Joao; Ausín, Cristina; Verthelyi, Daniela; Beaucage, Serge L

    2005-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites functionalized with the thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methyl)aminoethyl group for phosphorus protection (1a-d) have been prepared and employed in the solid-phase synthesis of CpG ODN fma1555. Given that this modified oligonucleotide can be converted to the immunomodulatory CpG ODN 1555 under neutral conditions at 37 degrees C, its biologic activity was demonstrated in vivo by studies showing that intraperitoneal administration of CpG ODN fma1555 in mice resulted in the activation of cytokine-secreting splenocytes. Furthermore, administration of CpG ODN fma1555 to mice that were challenged intradermally in the ear with live L. major metacyclic promastigotes, reduced the severity of Leishmania skin lesions over time to an extent similar to that obtained with CpG ODN 1555. In another infectious model experiment, CpG ODN fma1555 protected newborn mice from death (65% survival) when administered 3 days before infection with the aggressive Tacaribe (TCRV) virus. A comparable immunoprotection was obtained by treatment of TCRV-infected mice with CpG ODN 1555 administered on the same day of infection (45% survival). However, when TCRV-infected mice were treated with CpG ODN fma1555 on the day of infection, they died as a consequence of the relatively slow conversion of the oligonucleotide prodrug to the bioactive CpG ODN 1555. Co-administration of both CpG ODN 1555 and CpG ODN fma1555 to mice 3 days prior to TCRV infection or on the day of infection provided protection from death (45-65% survival) and thus widened the immunoprotection window against TCRV-infection.

  14. Design, synthesis and evaluation of constrained methoxyethyl (cMOE) and constrained ethyl (cEt) nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Punit P; Siwkowski, Andrew; Allerson, Charles R; Vasquez, Guillermo; Lee, Sam; Prakash, Thazha P; Kinberger, Garth; Migawa, Michael T; Gaus, Hans; Bhat, Balkrishen; Swayze, Eric E

    2008-01-01

    Antisense drug discovery technology is a powerful method to modulate gene expression in animals and represents a novel therapeutic platform.(1) We have previously demonstrated that replacing 2'O-methoxyethyl (MOE, 2) residues in second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with LNA (3) nucleosides improves the potency of some ASOs in animals. However, this was accompanied with a significant increase in the risk for hepatotoxicity.(2) We hypothesized that replacing LNA with novel nucleoside monomers that combine the structural elements of MOE and LNA might mitigate the toxicity of LNA while maintaining potency. To this end we designed and prepared novel nucleoside analogs 4 (S-constrained MOE, S-cMOE) and 5 (R-constrained MOE, R-cMOE) where the ethyl chain of the 2'O-MOE moiety is constrained back to the 4' position of the furanose ring. As part of the SAR series, we also prepared nucleoside analogs 7 (S-constrained ethyl, S-cEt) and 8 (R-constrained Ethyl, R-cEt) where the methoxymethyl group in the cMOE nucleosides was replaced with a methyl substituent. A highly efficient synthesis of the nucleoside phosphoramidites with minimal chromatography purifications was developed starting from cheap commercially available starting materials. Biophysical evaluation revealed that the cMOE and cEt modifications hybridize complementary nucleic acids with the same affinity as LNA while greatly increasing nuclease stability. Biological evaluation of oligonucleotides containing the cMOE and cEt modification in animals indicated that all of them possessed superior potency as compared to second generation MOE ASOs and a greatly improved toxicity profile as compared to LNA.

  15. Development of an Innovative Intradermal siRNA Delivery System Using a Combination of a Functional Stearylated Cytoplasm-Responsive Peptide and a Tight Junction-Opening Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Ibaraki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new category of therapeutics for skin diseases including atopic dermatitis (AD, nucleic acids are gaining importance in the clinical setting. Intradermal administration is noninvasive and improves patients′ quality of life. However, intradermal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is difficult because of two barriers encountered in the skin: intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum and tight junctions in the stratum granulosum. Tight junctions are the major barrier in AD; therefore, we focused on functional peptides to devise an intradermal siRNA delivery system for topical skin application. In this study, we examined intradermal siRNA permeability in the tape-stripped (20 times back skin of mice or AD-like skin of auricles treated with 6-carboxyfluorescein-aminohexyl phosphoramidite (FAM-labeled siRNA, the tight junction modulator AT1002, and the functional cytoplasm-responsive stearylated peptide STR-CH2R4H2C by using confocal laser microscopy. We found that strong fluorescence was observed deep and wide in the epidermis and dermis of back skin and AD-like ears after siRNA with STR-CH2R4H2C and AT1002 treatment. After 10 h from administration, brightness of FAM-siRNA was significantly higher for STR-CH2R4H2C + AT1002, compared to other groups. In addition, we confirmed the nontoxicity of STR-CH2R4H2C as a siRNA carrier using PAM212 cells. Thus, our results demonstrate the applicability of the combination of STR-CH2R4H2C and AT1002 for effective intradermal siRNA delivery.

  16. Activation of the C-I and C-OH bonds of 2-iodoethanol by gas phase silver cluster cations yields subvalent silver-iodide and -hydroxide cluster cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2007-08-07

    The gas phase ion-molecule reactions of silver cluster cations (Ag(n)(+)) and silver hydride cluster cations (Ag(m)H(+)) with 2-iodoethanol have been examined using multistage mass spectrometry experiments in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. These clusters exhibit size selective reactivity: Ag(2)H(+), Ag(3)(+), and Ag(4)H(+) undergo sequential ligand addition only, while Ag(5)(+) and Ag(6)H(+) also promote both C-I and C-OH bond activation of 2-iodoethanol. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of Ag(5)HIO(+), the product of C-I and C-OH bond activation by Ag(5)(+), yielded Ag(4)OH(+), Ag(4)I(+) and Ag(3)(+), consistent with a structure containing AgI and AgOH moieties. Ag(6)H(+) promotes both C-I and C-OH bond activation of 2-iodoethanol to yield the metathesis product Ag(6)I(+) as well as Ag(6)H(2)IO(+). The metathesis product Ag(6)I(+) also promotes C-I and C-OH bond activation.DFT calculations were carried out to gain insights into the reaction of Ag(5)(+) with ICH(2)CH(2)OH by calculating possible structures and their energies for the following species: (i) initial adducts of Ag(5)(+) and ICH(2)CH(2)OH, (ii) the subsequent Ag(5)HIO(+) product, (iii) CID products of Ag(5)HIO(+). Potential adducts were probed by allowing ICH(2)CH(2)OH to bind in different ways (monodentate through I, monodentate through OH, bidentate) at different sites for two isomers of Ag(5)(+): the global minimum "bowtie" structure, 1, and the higher energy trigonal bipyramidal isomer, 2. The following structural trends emerged: (i) ICH(2)CH(2)OH binds in a monodentate fashion to the silver core with little distortion, (ii) ICH(2)CH(2)OH binds to 1 in a bidentate fashion with some distortion to the silver core, and (iii) ICH(2)CH(2)OH binds to 2 and results in a significant distortion or rearrangement of the silver core. The DFT calculated minimum energy structure of Ag(5)HIO(+) consists of an OH ligated to the face of a distorted trigonal bipyramid with I located at a vertex, while

  17. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

    2009-12-15

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photochemical and photophysical properties and biological activities of ruthenium complexes with mono- and bi-dentate histamine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Carolina R; de Aguiar, Inara; Camilo, Mariana R; Lima, Márcia V S; Ito, Amando S; Baptista, Maurício S; Pavani, Christiane; Venâncio, Tiago; Carlos, Rose M

    2012-06-14

    The monodentate cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(hist)(2)](2+)1R and the bidentate cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(hist)](2+)2A complexes were prepared and characterized using spectroscopic ((1)H, ((1)H-(1)H)COSY and ((1)H-(13)C)HSQC NMR, UV-vis, luminescence) techniques. The complexes presented absorption and emission in the visible region, as well as a tri-exponential emission decay. The complexes are soluble in aqueous and non-aqueous solution with solubility in a buffer solution of pH 7.4 of 1.14 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) for (1R + 2A) and 6.43 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) for 2A and lipophilicity measured in an aqueous-octanol solution of -1.14 and -0.96, respectively. Photolysis in the visible region in CH(3)CN converted the starting complexes into cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(CH(3)CN)(2)](2+). Histamine photorelease was also observed in pure water and in the presence of BSA (1.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)). The bidentate coordination of the histamine to the ruthenium center in relation to the monodentate coordination increased the photosubstitution quantum yield by a factor of 3. Pharmacological studies showed that the complexes present a moderate inhibition of AChE with an IC(50) of 21 μmol L(-1) (referred to risvagtini, IC(50) 181 μmol L(-1) and galantamine IC(50) 0.006 μmol L(-1)) with no appreciable cytotoxicity toward to the HeLa cells (50% cell viability at 925 μmol L(-1)). Cell uptake of the complexes into HeLa cells was detected by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Overall, the observation of a luminescent complex that penetrates the cell wall and has low cytotoxicity, but is reactive photochemically, releasing histamine when irradiated with visible light, are interesting features for application of these complexes as phototherapeutic agents.

  19. Mononuclear Ni(III) complexes [NiIII(L)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]0/1- (L = thiolate, selenolate, CH2CN, Cl, PPh3): relevance to the nickel site of [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ming; Chuang, Ya-Lan; Chiang, Chao-Yi; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2006-12-25

    The stable mononuclear Ni(III)-thiolate complexes [NiIII(L)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]- (L = SePh (2), Cl (3), SEt (4), 2-S-C4H3S (5), CH2CN (7)) were isolated and characterized by UV-vis, EPR, IR, SQUID, CV, 1H NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The increased basicity (electronic density) of the nickel center of complexes [NiIII(L)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]- modulated by the monodentate ligand L and the substituted groups of the phenylthiolate rings promotes the stability and reactivity. In contrast to the irreversible reduction at -1.17 V (vs Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+) for complex 3, the cyclic voltammograms of complexes [NiIII(SePh)(P(o-C6H4S)3)]-, 2, 4, and 7 display reversible NiIII/II redox processes with E(1/2) = -1.20, -1.26, -1.32, and -1.34 V (vs Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+), respectively. Compared to complex 2 containing a phenylselenolate-coordinated ligand, complex 4 with a stronger electron-donating ethylthiolate coordinated to the Ni(III) promotes dechlorination of CH2Cl2 to yield complex 3 (kobs = (6.01 +/- 0.03) x 10-4 s-1 for conversion of complex 4 into 3 vs kobs = (4.78 +/- 0.02) x 10-5 s-1 for conversion of complex 2 into 3). Interestingly, addition of CH3CN into complex 3 in the presence of sodium hydride yielded the stable Ni(III)-cyanomethanide complex 7 with a NiIII-CH2CN bond distance of 2.037(3) A. The NiIII-SEt bond length of 2.273(1) A in complex 4 is at the upper end of the 2.12-2.28 A range for the NiIII-S bond lengths of the oxidized-form [NiFe] hydrogenases. In contrast to the inertness of complexes 3 and 7 under CO atmosphere, carbon monoxide triggers the reductive elimination of the monodentate chalcogenolate ligand of complexes 2, 4, and 5 to produce the trigonal bipyramidal complex [NiII(CO)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3]- (6).

  20. Syntheses, structures and characterization of isomorphous Co(II) and Ni(II) coordination polymers based on 2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu Ying; Zhao, Yang; Meng, Xiang Ru

    2017-08-01

    Careful choice of the organic ligands is one of the most important parameters in the rational design and synthesis of coordination polymers. Aromatic polycarboxylates have been widely used in the preparation of metal-organic polymers since they can utilize various coordination modes to form diverse structures and can act as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors in the assembly of supramolecular structures. Nitrogen-heterocyclic organic compounds have also been used extensively as ligands for the construction of polymers with interesting structures. In the polymers catena-poly[[[diaquabis{2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-κN(3)}cobalt(II)]-μ2-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(2)O(1):O(4)] dihydrate], {[Co(C8H4O4)(C12H11N4)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n, (I), and catena-poly[[[diaquabis{2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole-κN(3)}nickel(II)]-μ2-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(2)O(1):O(4)] dihydrate], {[Ni(C8H4O4)(C12H11N4)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n, (II), the Co(II) or Ni(II) ion lies on an inversion centre and exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, coordinated by two N atoms from two imidazole rings and four O atoms from two monodentate carboxylate groups and two water molecules. The dicarboxylate ligands bridge metal ions forming a polymeric chain. The 2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-6-methyl-1H-benzimidazole ligands coordinate to the Co(II) or Ni(II) centres in monodentate modes through an imidazole N atom and are pendant on opposite sides of the main chain. The two structures are isomorphous. In the crystal, the one-dimensional chains are further connected through O-H...O, O-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In addition, the IR spectroscopic properties, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric behaviours and fluorescence properties of both polymers have been investigated.

  1. Cationic Gold Clusters Ligated with Differently Substituted Phosphines: Effect of Substitution on Ligand Reactivity and Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Olivares, Astrid M.; Hill, David E.; Laskin, Julia

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of the number of methyl (Me) and cyclohexyl (Cy) functional groups in monodentate phosphine ligands on the solution-phase synthesis of ligated sub-nanometer gold clusters and their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Small mixed ligand cationic gold clusters were synthesized using ligand exchange reactions between pre-formed triphenylphosphine ligated (PPh3) gold clusters and monodentate Me- and Cy-substituted ligands in solution and characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Under the same experimental conditions, larger gold-PPh3 clusters undergo efficient exchange of unsubstituted PPh3 ligands for singly Me- and Cy-substituted PPh2Me and PPh2Cy ligands. The efficiency of ligand exchange decreases with an increasing number of Me or Cy groups in the substituted phosphine ligands. CID experiments performed for a series of ligand-exchanged gold clusters indicate that loss of a neutral Me-substituted ligand is preferred over loss of a neutral PPh¬3 ligand while the opposite trend is observed for Cy-substituted ligands. The branching ratio of the competing ligand loss channels is strongly correlated with the electron donating ability of the phosphorous lone pair as determined by the relative proton affinity of the ligand. The results indicate that the relative ligand binding energies increase in the order PMe3 < PPhMe2 < PPh2Me < PPh3< PPh2Cy < PPhCy2< PCy3. Furthermore, the difference in relative ligand binding energies increases with the number of substituted PPh3-mMem or PPh3-mCym ligands (L) exchanged onto each cluster. This study provides the first experimental determination of the relative binding energies of ligated gold clusters containing differently substituted monophosphine ligands, which are important to controlling their synthesis and reactivity in solution. The results also indicate that ligand substitution is an important

  2. Energetic studies on DNA-peptide interaction in relation to the enthalpy-entropy compensation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robin C K; Huang, Jonathan T B; Chien, Shih-Chuan; Huang, Roy; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Chen, Yen-Chung; Liao, Mokai; Wu, Jia-Rong; Hung, Wei-Kang; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ling; Waring, Michael J; Sheh, Leung

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to interpret the energetic basis of complex DNA-peptide interactions according to a novel allosteric interaction network approach. In common with other designed peptides, five new conjugates incorporating the XPRK or XHypRK motif (Hyp = hydroxyproline) attached to a N-methylpyrrole (Py) tract with a basic tail have been found to display cooperative binding to DNA involving multiple monodentate as well as interstrand bidentate interactions. Using quantitative DNase I footprinting it appears that allosteric communication via cooperative binding to multiple sites on complementary DNA strands corresponds to two different types of DNA-peptide interaction network. Temperature variation experiments using a dodecapeptide RY-12 show that lower temperature (25 °C) favor a circuit type of allosteric interaction network, whereas higher temperatures (31 and 37 °C) afford only a partial-circuit type of network. Circular dichroism studies show that our five peptides induce significant local conformational changes in DNA via the minor groove, with apparently dimeric binding stoichiometry. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that these peptides, together with another seven for comparison, are strongly exothermic upon binding to a model 13-mer DNA duplex, characterized by ΔH ranging from -14.7 to -74.4 kcal mol(-1), and also high TΔS ranging from -6.5 to -65.9 kcal mol(-1). Multiple monodentate and bidentate interactions, as well as ionic forces that mediate positive cooperativity in sequence recognition, are consistent with a dramatic decrease in entropy and a 'tightening' effect of DNA conformation. Distinctive enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) relationships are demonstrated for the interaction of all twelve designed peptides with DNA, affording a straight line of slope close to unity when ΔH is plotted versus TΔS, with a y-axis intercept (average ΔG) corresponding to -8.5 kcal mol(-1), while the observed ΔG ranges from -8.2 to -9.1 kcal mol(-1) for

  3. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14

    by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  4. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  5. Predictive model for Pb(II) adsorption on soil minerals (oxides and low-crystalline aluminum silicate) consistent with spectroscopic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usiyama, Tomoki; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    Mobility of Pb(II) in surface condition is governed by adsorption processes on soil minerals such as iron oxides and low-crystalline aluminum silicates. The adsorption effectiveness and the surface complex structures of Pb(II) vary sensitively with solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength, Pb(II) loading, and electrolyte anion type. This study was undertaken to construct a quantitative model for Pb(II) on soil minerals. It can predict the adsorption effectiveness and surface complex structures under any solution conditions using the extended triple layer model (ETLM). The Pb(II) adsorption data for goethite, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), quartz, and low-crystalline aluminum silicate (LCAS) were analyzed with ETLM to retrieve the surface complexation reactions and these equilibrium constants. The adsorption data on goethite, HFO and quartz were referred from reports of earlier studies. Those data for LCAS were measured under a wide range of pH, ionic strength and Pb(II) loadings in NaNO3 and NaCl solutions. All adsorption data can be reasonably regressed using ETLM with the assumptions of inner sphere bidentate complexation and inner sphere monodentate ternary complexation with electrolyte anions, which are consistent with previously reported spectroscopic evidence. Predictions of surface speciation under widely various solution conditions using ETLM revealed that the inner sphere bidentate complex is the predominant species at neutral to high pH conditions. The inner sphere monodentate ternary complex becomes important at low pH, high surface Pb(II) coverage, and high electrolyte concentrations, of which the behavior is consistent with the spectroscopic observation. Comparisons of the obtained adsorption constants on goethite, HFO and quartz exhibited good linear relations between the reciprocals of dielectric constants of solids and adsorption constants. Those linear relations support predictions of the adsorption constants of all oxides based on Born

  6. Hexacoordinate Silicon Compounds with a Dianionic Tetradentate (N,N′,N′,N-Chelating Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gerlach

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of our systematic investigations of penta- and hexacoordinate silicon compounds, which included dianionic tri- (O,N,O′; O,N,N′ and tetradentate (O,N,N,O; O,N,N′,O′ chelators, we have now explored silicon coordination chemistry with a dianionic tetradentate (N,N′,N′,N chelator. The ligand [o-phenylene-bis(pyrrole-2-carbaldimine, H2L] was obtained by condensation of o-phenylenediamine and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and subsequently silylated with chlorotrimethylsilane/triethylamine. Transsilylation of this ligand precursor (Me3Si2L with chlorosilanes SiCl4, PhSiCl3, Ph2SiCl2, (Anis2SiCl2 and (4-Me2N-C6H4PhSiCl2 afforded the hexacoordinate Si complexes LSiCl2, LSiPhCl, LSiPh2, LSi(Anis2 and LSiPh(4-Me2N-C6H4, respectively (Anis = anisyl = 4-methoxyphenyl. 29Si NMR spectroscopy and, for LSiPh2, LSi(Anis2 and LSiPh(4-Me2N-C6H4, single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirm hexacoordination of the Si atoms. The molecular structures of LSiCl2 and LSiPhCl were elucidated by computational methods. Despite the two different N donor sites (pyrrole N, X-type donor; imine N, L-type donor, charge delocalization within the ligand backbone results in compounds with four similar Si–N bonds. Charge distribution within the whole molecules was analyzed by calculating the Natural Charges (NCs. Although these five compounds carry electronically different monodentate substituents, their constituents reveal rather narrow ranges of their charges (Si atoms: +2.10–+2.22; monodentate substituents: −0.54–−0.56; L2−: −1.02–−1.11.

  7. Luminescence study of europium(III) tris(β-diketonato)/phosphonate complexes in chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Lis; Zbigniew Piskula; Krzysztof Staninski; Sayaka Tamaki; Masayuki Inoue; Yuko Hasegawa

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of Eu(III) with β-diketone, HA, and monodentate or bidentate Lewis bases, B, into chloroform and the luminescence properties of the extracted species were studied. Pivaloyltrifluoroacetone, Hpta, and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, Htta, were used as the β-diketones. The Lewis bases, B, were tetraethyl methylene diphosphonate, POPO, which was bidentate, and diethyl benzylphosphonate, PhPO which was monodentate. Based on the extraction data, the stability constants, log β of the first complexes between tris(β-diketonato)Eu(III) and the phosphonate, EuA3B, were determined to be 6.0 for the POPO complex and 3.40 for the PhPO complex. The Eu(III) luminescence intensity in the EuA3POPO was larger than EuA3 where A was either pta or tta at similar concentrations of Eu(III), while that in Eu(pta)3PhPO was stronger than EuA3; however, in Eu(tta)3PhPO, it was weaker than Eu(tta)3. The POPO functions as a sensitizer, and the PhPO functions as a quencher for the tta chelate and as a sensitizer for the pta chelate. From the lifetime and quantum yield, φ, of the Eu(III) luminescence in the complexes as well as the observation of the extractability of Eu(III) with the Hpta and the phosphonates and of the luminescence spectra of the complexes, it was confirmed that the extraction of Eu(III) was remarkably enhanced with a β-diketonate and a strong Lewis base, and also the ternary complex that was formed as the extracted species, showed luminescence enhancement. This phenomenon may be due the formation of a strong bond between the Eu(III) and the strong Lewis base leading to more hydrophobicity in the extracted species and also to more effective energy transfer from the Lewis base to the Eu(III). It was not significant whether the donor atoms were N or O.

  8. Polymeric networks of copper(II) phenylmalonate with heteroaromatic n-donor ligands: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasán, Jorge; Sanchiz, Joaquín; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2005-10-31

    Two new phenylmalonate-bridged copper(II) complexes with the formulas [Cu(4,4'-bpy)(Phmal)](n).2nH(2)O (1) and [Cu(2,4'-bpy)(Phmal)(H(2)O)](n)() (2) (Phmal = phenylmalonate dianion, 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, 2,4'-bpy = 2,4'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1), Z = 4, with unit cell parameters of a = 9.0837(6) Angstroms, b = 9.3514(4) Angstroms, c = 11.0831(8) Angstroms, and beta = 107.807(6) degrees , whereas complex 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group C2cb, Z = 8, with unit cell parameters of a = 10.1579(7) Angstroms, b = 10.3640(8) Angstroms, and c = 33.313(4) Angstroms. The structures of 1 and 2 consist of layers of copper(II) ions with bridging bis-monodentate phenylmalonate (1 and 2) and 4,4'-bpy (1) ligands and terminal monodentate 2,4'-bpy (2) groups. Each layer in 1 contains rectangles with dimensions of 11.08 x 4.99 Angstroms(2), the edges being defined by the Phmal and 4,4'-bpy ligands. The intralayer copper-copper separations in 1 through the anti-syn equatorial-apical carboxylate-bridge and the 4,4'-bpy molecule are 4.9922(4) and 11.083(1) Angstroms, respectively. The anti-syn equatorial-equatorial carboxylate bridge links the copper(II) atoms in complex 2 within each layer with a mean copper-copper separation of 5.3709(8) Angstroms. The presence of 2,4'-bpy as a terminal ligand accounts for the large interlayer separation of 15.22 Angstroms. The copper(II) environment presents a static pseudo-Jahn-Teller disorder which has been studied by EPR and low-temperature X-ray diffraction. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of both compounds in the temperature range 2-290 K show the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic [J = -0.59(1) cm(-1) (1)] and ferromagnetic [J = +0.77(1) cm(-1) (2)] interactions between the copper(II) ions. The conformation of the phenylmalonate-carboxylate bridge and other structural factors, such as the planarity of the exchange

  9. Photochemistry of RuII 4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl (btz) complexes: crystallographic characterization of the photoreactive ligand-loss intermediate trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, Christine E; Armitage, Georgina K; Bartley, Harry; Wilkinson, Aaron; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Uppal, Baljinder S; Rice, Craig R; Elliott, Paul I P

    2014-07-01

    We report the unprecedented observation and unequivocal crystallographic characterization of the meta-stable ligand loss intermediate solvento complex trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ(2) -btz)(κ(1) -btz)(NCMe)](2+) (1 a) that contains a monodentate chelate ligand. This and analogous complexes can be observed during the photolysis reactions of a family of complexes of the form [Ru({NN})(btz)(2)](2+) (1 a-d: btz=1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl; {NN}=a) 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy), b) 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dmbpy), c) 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridyl (dmeobpy), d) 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)). In acetonitrile solutions, 1 a-d eventually convert to the bis-solvento complexes trans-[Ru({NN})(btz)(NCMe)(2)](2+) (3 a-d) along with one equivalent of free btz, in a process in which the remaining coordinated bidentate ligands undergo a new rearrangement such that they become coplanar. X-ray crystal structure of 3 a and 3 d confirmed the co-planar arrangement of the {NN} and btz ligands and the trans coordination of two solvent molecules. These conversions proceed via the observed intermediate complexes 2 a-d, which are formed quantitatively from 1 a-d in a matter of minutes and to which they slowly revert back on being left to stand in the dark over several days. The remarkably long lifetime of the intermediate complexes (>12 h at 40 °C) allowed the isolation of 2 a in the solid state, and the complex to be crystallographically characterized. Similarly to the structures adopted by complexes 3 a and d, the bpy and κ(2) -btz ligands in 2 a coordinate in a square-planar fashion with the second monodentate btz ligand coordinated trans to an acetonitrile ligand.

  10. Technetium Complexes of a Hydrazinonicotinamide-Conjugated Cyclic Peptide and 2-Hydrazinopyridine: Synthesis and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Edwards, D. Scott; Harris, Anthony R.; Heminway, Stuart J.; Barrett, John A.

    1999-03-22

    complexes are identical. The NMR ((1)H and (13)C) data suggests that the complex [(99)Tc(HYPY)(PPh(3))(tricine)] have an octahedral coordination geometry with a monodentate diazenido HYPY, a tetradentate tricine, and a monodentate triphenylphosphine coligand.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a cadmium(II)-organic supramolecular coordination compound based on the multifunctional 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gan Yin; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Meng Jie; Zhang, Kou Lin

    2016-12-01

    Much attention has been paid by chemists to the construction of supramolecular coordination compounds based on the multifunctional ligand 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H3SSA) due to the structural and biological interest of these compounds. However, no coordination compounds have been reported for the multifunctional amino-substituted sulfobenzoate ligand 2-amino-5-sulfobenzoic acid (H2asba). We expected that H2asba could be a suitable building block for the assembly of supramolecular networks due to its interesting structural characteristics. The reaction of cadmium(II) nitrate with H2asba in the presence of the auxiliary flexible dipyridylamide ligand N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide (4bpme) under ambient conditions formed a new mixed-ligand coordination compound, namely bis(3-amino-4-carboxybenzenesulfonato-κO(1))diaquabis{N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-κN}cadmium(II)-N,N'-bis[(pyridin-4-yl)methyl]oxamide-water (1/1/4), [Cd(C7H6NO5S)2(C14H14N4O2)2(H2O)2]·C14H14N4O2·4H2O, (1), which was characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopic analyses in the solid state. The central Cd(II) atom in (1) occupies a special position on a centre of inversion and exhibits a slightly distorted octahedral geometry, being coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 4bpme ligands, four O atoms from two monodentate 4-amino-3-carboxybenzenesulfonate (Hasba(-)) ligands and two coordinated water molecules. Interestingly, complex (1) further extends into a threefold polycatenated 0D→2D (0D is zero-dimensional and 2D is two-dimensional) interpenetrated supramolecular two-dimensional (4,4) layer through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The interlayer hydrogen bonding further links adjacent threefold polycatenated two-dimensional layers into a three-dimensional network. The optical properties of complex (1) indicate that it may be used as a

  12. Assembly of tetra, di and mononuclear molecular cadmium phosphonates using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) (Ar = 2,4,6-iPr(3)-C(6)H(2)) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O using various co-ligands such as methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMPZH) resulted in the formation of tetranuclear assemblies [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)].3(CH(3)OH) (1), [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(4)].3(DMF) (2) and [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(2)(DMPZH)(2)].2(DMF).2(H(2)O) (3). In all of these compounds the tetranuclear cadmium array, containing two five-coordinate and two six-coordinate cadmium atoms, is held together by two mu(4) capping [ArPO(3)](2-) and four anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound to an additional ancillary ligand. The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O in the presence of the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) leads to the exclusive formation of the dinuclear assembly [Cd(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(bipy)(2)].(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O) (4). The latter contains an eight-membered Cd(2)P(2)O(4) inorganic ring formed as a result of the bridging coordination action of two anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound by one chelating bipy and one monodentate [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Use of four equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole leads to the formation of the mononuclear derivative [Cd(ArPO(3)H)(2)(DMPZH)(4)] (5). The molecular structure of the latter comprises of a central cadmium atom surrounded by six monodentate ligands. Four of these are neutral pyrazole ligands that occupy the equatorial plane; the remaining two are anionic phosphinate ligands which are present trans to each other. The thermal analysis of 1 and 4 reveals that the char residue obtained at 600 degrees C consists predominantly of Cd(2)P(2)O(7).

  13. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[aquabis(4-formylbenzoato-κ2O1,O1′;κO1-zinc]-μ-pyrazine-κ2N:N′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Şefiye Aşkın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title polymeric compound, [Zn(C8H5O32(C4H4N2(H2O]n, contains two molecular units. Each unit comprises two 4-formylbenzoate (FB anions, one pyrazine molecule and one coordinating water molecule; the FB anions act either as bidentate or as monodentate ligands. The O atoms of the bidentately coordinating FB anions are disordered over two positions, and they were refined with fixed occupancy ratios of 0.75:0.25 and 0.70:0.30, respectively. In the ordered monodentately coordinating FB anions, the carboxylate groups are twisted away from the attached benzene rings (B and E by 12.1 (2 and 9.2 (2°, respectively. In the disordered FB anions, the corresponding angles are 14.1 (1 and 4.0 (2° for benzene rings A and D, respectively. Benzene rings A and B are oriented at a dihedral angle of 45.7 (1°, D and E at 23.2 (1°. Pyrazine ring C makes dihedral angles of 85.6 (1 and 72.7 (1°, respectively, with benzene rings A and B, and pyrazine ring F makes dihedral angles of 87.0 (1 and 81.3 (1° with benzene rings D and E, respectively. The pyrazine ligands bridge the ZnII cations, forming polymeric chains running parallel to the b-axis direction. Medium-strength intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the water molecules to the carboxylate O atoms. In the crystal, water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen bonds link adjacent chains into layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak pyrazine–formyl C—H...O and formyl–carboxylate C—H...O hydrogen bonds. π–π contacts between the benzene rings, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.7765 (16, 3.7905 (15 and 3.8231 (16 Å, may further stabilize the structure. There are also weak C—H...π interactions present.

  14. A new series of bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)tungsten(IV), -(V), -(VI) complexes as reaction centre models of tungsten enzymes: preparation, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Hatakeda, Kohei; Toyota, Kazuo; Tatemoto, Susumu; Kubo, Minoru; Ogura, Takashi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2013-03-07

    The carbomethoxy substituted dithiolene ligand (L(COOMe)) enabled us to develop a series of new bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)tungsten complexes including W(IV)O, W(IV)(OSiBuPh(2)), W(VI)O(2), W(VI)O(OSiBuPh(2)) and W(VI)O(S) core structures. By using these tungsten complexes, a systematic study of the terminal monodentate ligand effects has been performed on the structural, spectroscopic properties and reactivity. The structure and spectroscopic properties of the tungsten complexes have also been compared to those of the molybdenum complexes coordinated by the same ligand to investigate the effects of the metal ion (W vs. Mo). X-ray crystallographic analyses of the tungsten(IV) complexes have revealed that the tungsten centres adopt a distorted square pyramidal geometry with a dithiolene ligand having an ene-1,2-dithiolate form. On the other hand, the dioxotungsten(VI) complex exhibits an octahedral structure consisting of the bidentate L(COOMe) and two oxo groups, in which π-delocalization was observed between the W(VI)O(2) and ene-1,2-dithiolate units. The tungsten(IV) and dioxotungsten(VI) complexes are isostructural with the molybdenum counter parts. DFT calculation study of the W(VI)O(S) complex has indicated that the W=S bond of 2.2 Å is close to the bond length between the tungsten centre and ambiguously assigned terminal monodentate atom in aldehyde oxidoreductase of the tungsten enzyme. Resonance Raman (rR) spectrum of the W(VI)O(S) complex has shown the two inequivalent L(COOMe) ligands with respect to their bonding interactions with the tungsten centre, reproducing the appearance of two ν(C=C) stretches in the rR spectrum of aldehyde oxidoreductase. Sulfur atom transfer reaction from the W(VI)O(S) complex to triphenylphosphines has also been studied kinetically to demonstrate that the tungsten complex has a lower reactivity by about one-order of magnitude, when compared with its molybdenum counterpart.

  15. Pi-Stack Engineering of Semiconducting Perylene Tetracarboxylic Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenming

    D crystalline intra-layer order. Chapter 4, PDI pi-stacking order has been engineered in the crystalline phase. By introducing two structuring factors, a series of crystalline PDIs with finely tunable PDI pi-stacking order was obtained. The crystalline PDIs with exceptionally red-shifted lambda max were obtained. Several PDIs possess lambdamax values greater than any literature-reported ones. These materials can be excellent candidates in solar cell devices. In Chapter 5, new chiral main-chain PDI containing polymers were synthesized. These polymers can form intramolecular helical pi-stacks in diluted solutions. In Chapter 6, a novel synthetic route leading to unsymmetrical perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives has been developed. Based on this synthetic method, more perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives can be generated. In my research in this thesis, not only synthesis is an important part because it provides novel materials, but the characterization is critical as well. Infrared spectroscopy, Ultra-violet, fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, polarized light microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction including both small angle and wide angle have been used. Additionally, molecular simulation is also very useful in design and obtaining details in molecular packing. Overall, the achievements in this research contribute a considerable advance in the field of generating semiconducting perylene tetracarboxylic derivatives which have versatile potential applications such as in solar cell devices, organic field effect transistors and light emitting diodes.

  16. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  17. Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of new La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) complexes of enalapril maleate drug. In vitro antimicrobial assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The 1:1 M ratio metal complexes of enalapril maleate hypertensive drug with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) were synthesized. The suggested structures of the resulted complexes based on the results of elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment, thermal analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were discussed. The infrared spectral data were suggested that enalapril reacts with metal ions as an ionic bidentate ligand through its carboxylate oxygen and the amide carbonyl oxygen, but in case of the Sm(III) complex, it reacted as a monodentate through its amide carbonyl oxygen. Maleate moiety acts with all these metals as bidentate ligand through its carboxylate or carbonyl oxygen. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the enalapril maleate and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  18. Diaqua(2,6-dihydroxybenzoato-κ2O1,O1′bis(2,6-dihydroxybenzoato-κO1bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′lanthanum(III–1,10-phenanthroline (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Cai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [La(C7H5O43(C12H8N23(H2O2]·C12H8N2, the LaIII atom is coordinated by four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligands, four O atoms from three 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB anions (one monodentate, the other bidentate and two water O atoms, completing a distorted LaN4O6 bicapped square-antiprismatic geometry. Within the mononuclear complex molecule, intramolecular π–π stacking interactions are observed, the first between a coordinated phen molecule and a DHB ligand [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7291 (16 Å], and the second between a coordinated phen molecule and an uncoordinated phen ligand [centroid–centroid distance = 3.933 (2 Å]. Intermolecular π–π stacking is observed between adjacent complexes [interplanar distance = 3.461 (3 Å]. Intra- and intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in the DHB ligands and between a water molecule and DHB ligands, respectively. O—H...N hydrogen bonds are also observed in the DHB ligands and between uncoordinated phen molecules and aqua ligands.

  19. Rhodium(I) complexes of -keto-stabilised 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)alkane mono ylides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Saravanabharathi; T S Venkatakrishnan; M Nethaji; S S Krishnamurthy

    2003-10-01

    Rhodium(I) complexes of the hybrid ylide-phosphine ligands, Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2(CHC(O)C6H5) ( = 1: dppm-yl, or 2: dppe-yl) have been synthesised from [Rh(-Cl)(COD)]2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and characterized by NMR spectroscopic and X-ray structural methods. The dppe-yl behaves as an ambidentate ligand; it functions as a monodentate P-donor ligand with a dangling ylidic carbon in the neutral chloro complex, [(COD)Rh(Cl)(dppe-yl)] (1), whereas replacement of the chloride by a non-coordinating counter anion results in the formation of the complexes, [(COD)Rh(L-L')]+ (L-L' = dppe-yl (2) or dppm-yl (3)) respectively in which the ligands are bonded to the metal via the phosphorus and the ylidic carbon atoms. The 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), present in the Rh(I) precursor, remains intact in the products. The structures of 1, 2 and 3 have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  20. On the passivation mechanism of Fe3O4 nanoparticles during Cr(VI) removal from water: A XAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinakidou, F.; Katsikini, M.; Simeonidis, K.; Kaprara, E.; Paloura, E. C.; Mitrakas, M.

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopies (XAFS) are employed in order to gather a thorough insight on the uptake mechanism of Cr(VI) by Fe3O4 nanoparticles under water treatment conditions. The XANES measurements identify that the reducing potential of Fe3O4 activates the precipitation of Cr(VI) in the form of insoluble and non-toxic Cr(III). However, electron donation from Fe(II) is responsible for its gradual consumption, resulting in the presence of a surface maghemite layer and the formation of structural vacancies. EXAFS analysis reveal that adsorption of Cr(III)-oxyanions occurs on sorption sites provided by the vacancies in the maghemite layer, where Cr(III) is involved in a bidentate binuclear (2E) geometry with Fe-octahedra while it also forms monodentate (1V) complexes with the Fe(III)O4 tetrahedra. The surface maghemitization along with the reduced Cr(III) adsorption into the vacancies, tracks the degree of Cr-reduction, since this surface structural modifications hinder Cr(VI) access to the Fe(II) ions of the magnetite nanoparticles. Thus, high surface coverage leads to the passivation of the reduction ability since physisorbed Cr(VI) is also detected through the formation of outer sphere complexes.

  1. Synthesis and Structures of Two Lanthanide Complexes Containing a Mixed Ligand System: [Ln(Phen){sub 2}(L){sub 3}(HL)]·H{sub 2}O [Ln = La, Ce; Phen = Phenanthroline; HL = Salicylic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iravani, Effat [UNiv. of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nami, Navabeh; Nabizadeh, Fatemeh; Bayani, Elham [Islamic Azad Univ., Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neumueller, Bernhard [Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The reaction of LnCl{sub 3}·7H{sub 2}O [Ln = La (1), Ce (2)] with salicylic acid (HL) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) at 20 .deg. C in H{sub 2}O/ethanol gave after work-up and recrystallization two novel lanthanide complexes with general formula [Ln(Phen){sub 2}(L){sub 3}(HL)]·H{sub 2}O. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, TGA, CHN as well as by X-ray analysis. According to these results, compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and contain Ln{sup 3+} ions with coordination number nine. Complexes 1 and 2 consist of two Phen, one neutral HL and three L anions (two L anions act as monodentate ligands and the third one is chelating to Ln{sup 3+}). Thermal decomposition led to primary loss of the Phen molecules. Then HL molecules and finally L moieties left the material to give Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Reactive adsorption of NO2 on copper-based metal-organic framework and graphite oxide/metal-organic framework composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Benoit; Petit, Camille; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2010-12-01

    Composites of a copper-based metal-organic framework (MOF) and graphite oxide (GO) were tested for NO2 adsorption and retention of NO in dry and moist conditions. The samples were analyzed before and after exposure to NO2 by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and adsorption of nitrogen at -196 °C. In dry conditions, the composites exhibit an enhanced NO2 breakthrough capacity compared to MOF and GO separately. This improvement is linked to the increased porosity and the reactive adsorption of NO2 on copper, which leads to the formation of bidentate and monodentate nitrate. Even though less NO2 is adsorbed in moist conditions than in dry ones, the materials are more stable than in dry conditions and the NO retention is enhanced. Water in the challenge gas competes with NO2 to bind to copper, and thus, the number of reactive adsorption sites on which NO2 can be adsorbed/reacted decreases.

  3. Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Retention/Release in Geochemical Processes in Soil - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert W.

    2000-12-29

    Effective, remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals requires a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over a long period of time. Studies on reaction of Cr(VI) with iron-rich clays indicated that structural iron (II) in these surfaces is capable of reducing chromate to chromium (III). We found that iron (II) either found naturally or produced by treatment of clay with sodium dithionite, effectively reduced Cr (VI) to Cr (III). Thus, in situ remediation of chromium combines reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) and immobilization of chromium on mineral surfaces. During this study, lead sorption on a kaolin surface was found to be a rapid and a pH dependant process in which lead sorption significantly increased with the amount of phosphate on the clay surface. This study verifies that methylmercury cation remains intact when it binds to humic acids, forming a monodentate complex with some sub-population of humic thiol ligands .

  4. Facile synthesis of bis(dichalcogenophosphinate)s and a remarkable [Li8(OH)6]2+ polyhedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert P; Martinelli, M Giovanna; Patel, Laura; White, Andrew J P

    2010-05-17

    The synthesis and characterization of three lithium complexes of novel bis(dichalcogenophosphinate) ligands are reported: (PhP(S)(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(S)(2)Ph)Li(2)(THF)(4) (2), (PhP(Se)(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(Se)(2)Ph)Li(2)(THF)(4).(PhP(Se)(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(Se)(2)Ph)Li(2)(THF)(6) (3), and [PhP(Te)(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(Te)(2)Ph][Li(8)(OH)(6)(THF)(8)] (4). The synthetic route to these complexes proceeds via the insertion reaction of elemental chalcogens into the phosphorus-lithium bonds of 1,2-dilithio-1,2-di(phenylphosphine)ethylene (1). X-ray analysis of 2 revealed isobidentate coordination of the lithiums by the dithiophosphinate groups. In contrast, the diselenophosphinate groups in 3 coordinate the lithium centers in both isobidentate and monodentate modes, and the ditellurophosphinate groups in 4 form non-coordinate separate ion pairs. The countercation in 4 is shown to be a unique [Li(8)(OH)(6)](2+) rhombic dodecahedral polyhedron, putatively formed from the capping of a hexameric [Li(OH)](6) aggregate with lithium cations on its open faces.

  5. Probing the Viability of Oxo-Coupling Pathways in Iridium-Catalyzed Oxygen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeupner, Jonathan; Hintermair, Ulrich; Huang, Daria L; Thomsen, Julianne M; Takase, Mike; Campos, Jesús; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2013-10-14

    A series of Cp*Ir(III) dimers have been synthesized to elucidate the mechanistic viability of radical oxo-coupling pathways in iridium-catalyzed O2 evolution. The oxidative stability of the precursors toward nanoparticle formation and their oxygen evolution activity have been investigated and compared to suitable monomeric analogues. We found that precursors bearing monodentate NHC ligands degraded to form nanoparticles (NPs), and accordingly their O2 evolution rates were not significantly influenced by their nuclearity or distance between the two metals in the dimeric precursors. A doubly chelating bis-pyridine-pyrazolide ligand provided an oxidation-resistant ligand framework that allowed a more meaningful comparison of catalytic performance of dimers with their corresponding monomers. With sodium periodate (NaIO4) as the oxidant, the dimers provided significantly lower O2 evolution rates per [Ir] than the monomer, suggesting a negative interaction instead of cooperativity in the catalytic cycle. Electrochemical analysis of the dimers further substantiates the notion that no radical oxyl-coupling pathways are accessible. We thus conclude that the alternative path, nucleophilic attack of water on high-valent Ir-oxo species, may be the preferred mechanistic pathway of water oxidation with these catalysts, and bimolecular oxo-coupling is not a valid mechanistic alternative as in the related ruthenium chemistry, at least in the present system.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Mn(Ⅱ) Complex with Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Pyridine-3-carbaldehyde Showing Unusual Coordination Mode of Tridentate Thiosemicarbazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-Xue; ZHOU Jing; WANG Jing-Ping; WANG Zi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    The title complex Mn(HL)4(NCS)2(CH3CH2OH)2 has been achieved via selfassembly by incorporating manganese(Ⅱ) into pyridine-3-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazonate ligand,and characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The crystal crystallizes in triclinic, space group P1 with a = 8.896(2), b = 9.530(2), c = 14.520(4) (A), α =87.035(4), β= 88.112(4), γ= 69.434(4)°, V= 1150.9(5) (A)3, Z = 1, Mr = 984.17, Dc = 1.420 g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 0.612 mm-1, F(000) = 511, the final R = 0.0574 and wR = 0.1547 for 2855 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The complex contains one six-coordinated manganese ion connected by two thiosemicarbazide ligands, in which the thiosemicarbazone ligand acts as a monodentate ligand and coordinates to the center metal atoms via the pyridyl nitrogen atoms, two ethanol molecules and two isothiocyanic anions to give rise to a mononuclear structure. The coordination of a potentially tridentate thiosemicarbazone in manganese(Ⅱ) complex without using its sulfur and imine nitrogen sites is unusual. Hydrogen bonds existing in the complex link the different components to stabilize the crystal structure.

  7. The structure and binding mode of citrate in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Johani, Hind

    2017-03-27

    Elucidating the binding mode of carboxylate-containing ligands to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is crucial to understand their stabilizing role. A detailed picture of the three-dimensional structure and coordination modes of citrate, acetate, succinate and glutarate to AuNPs is obtained by 13C and 23Na solid-state NMR in combination with computational modelling and electron microscopy. The binding between the carboxylates and the AuNP surface is found to occur in three different modes. These three modes are simultaneously present at low citrate to gold ratios, while a monocarboxylate monodentate (1κO1) mode is favoured at high citrate:gold ratios. The surface AuNP atoms are found to be predominantly in the zero oxidation state after citrate coordination, although trace amounts of Auδ+ are observed. 23Na NMR experiments show that Na+ ions are present near the gold surface, indicating that carboxylate binding occurs as a 2e− L-type interaction for each oxygen atom involved. This approach has broad potential to probe the binding of a variety of ligands to metal nanoparticles.

  8. Knigth's Move in the Periodic Table, From Copper to Platinum, Novel Antitumor Mixed Chelate Copper Compounds, Casiopeinas, Evaluated by an in Vitro Human and Murine Cancer Cell Line Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Mora, I; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Gómez-Ruiz, C; Tinoco-Méndez, M; Márquez-Quiñones, A; Lira, L R; Marín-Hernández, A; Macías-Rosales, L; Bravo-Gómez, M E

    2001-01-01

    We synthesized a novel anticancer agents based on mixed chelate copper (II) complexes, named Casiopeínas((R)) has of general formula [Cu(N-N)(N-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where, N-N = diimines as 1,10- phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine, or substituted and N-O=aminoeidate or [Cu(N-N)(O-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where NN= diimines as 10-phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine or substituted Casiopeínas I, II, IV, V, VI, VII VIII and O-O=acetylacetonate, salicylaldehidate Casiopínas III). We evaluated the in vitro antitumor activity using a human cancer cell panel and some nurine cancer cells. Eleven Casiopeinas are evaluated in order to acquire some structure-activity correlations and some monodentated Casiopeinäs analogues; cisplatinum was used as control drug. The 50% growth inhibition observed is, in all cases reach with concentrations of Casiopeina's 10 or 100 times lower than cisplatinum. In a previous work we reported the induction of apoptosis by Casiopeina II. The results indicate that Casiopeinass are a promising new anticancer drug candidates to be developed further toward clinical trials.

  9. Uranium (VI)Bis(imido) chalcogenate complexes:synthesis and density functional theory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Bis(imido) uranium(VI) trans- and cis-dichalcogenate complexes with the general formula U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 (EAr = O-2-tBuC6H4, SPh, SePh, TePh) and U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(R2bpy) (EAr = SPh, SePh, TePh) (R2bpy = 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl, R = Me, tBu) have been prepared. This family of complexes includes the first reported monodentate selenolate and tellurolate complexes of uranium(VI). Density functional theory calculations show that covalent interactions in the U-E bond increase in the trans-dichalcogenate series U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 as the size of the chalcogenate donor increases and that both 5f and 6d orbital participation is important in the M-E bonds of U-S, U-Se, and U-Te complexes.

  10. A novel approach for arsenic adsorbents regeneration using MgO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresintsi, Sofia; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Katsikini, Maria; Paloura, Eleni C; Bantsis, Georgios; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2014-01-30

    An integrated procedure for the regeneration of iron oxy-hydroxide arsenic adsorbents by granulated MgO is proposed in this study. A continuous recirculation configuration, with a NaOH solution flowing sequentially through the saturated adsorbent (leaching step) and the MgO (adsorption step) column beds, was optimized by utilizing the high arsenic adsorption efficiency of MgO at strong alkaline environments. Experimental results indicated that the total amount of leached arsenic was captured by MgO whereas the regenerated iron oxy-hydroxide recovered around 80% of its removal capacity upon reuse. The improved adsorption capacity of MgO for As(V), which is maximized at pH 10, is explained by the intermediate hydration to Mg(OH)2 and the following As(V) oxy-anions adsorption on its surface through the formation of monodentate inner sphere complexes, as it is deduced from the AsK-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. In addition to the economical-benefits, corresponding tests proved that the solid wastes of this process, namely spent MgO/Mg(OH)2, can be environmentally safely disposed as stable additives in cement products, while the alkaline solution is completely detoxified and can be recycled to the regeneration task.

  11. Structure-activity relationship of Au-ZrO2 catalyst on formation of hydroxyl groups and its influence on CO oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwacki, Christopher J [US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground; Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL; Kent, P. R. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gordon, Wesley O [ORNL; Peterson, Gregory W [US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground; Niu, Jun Jie [Drexel University; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University

    2013-01-01

    The effect of changes in morphology and surface hydroxyl species upon thermal treatment of zirconia on the oxidation activity of Au/ZrO2 catalyst was studied. We observed using transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy progressive changes in the presence of monodentate (type I), bidentate (type II) and hydrogen bridged species (type III) for each of the thermally treated (85 to 500 C) supports consisting of bare zirconia and Au/ZrO2 catalysts. Furthermore, structural changes in zirconia were accompanied by an increase in crystal size (7 to 58 nm) and contraction of the supports porosity (SSA 532 to 7 m2 g 1) with increasing thermal treatment. Deposition of gold nanoparticles under similar preparation conditions on different thermally treated zirconia resulted in changes in the mean gold cluster size, ranging from 3.7 to 5.6 nm. Changes in the surface hydroxyl species, support structure and size of the gold centers are important parameters responsible for the observed decrease (>90%) in CO conversion activity for the Au/ZrO2 catalysts. Density functional theory calculations provide evidence of increased CO binding to Au nanoclusters in the presence of surface hydroxyls on zirconia, which increases charge transfer at the perimeter of the gold nanocluster on zirconia support. This further helps in reducing a model CO-oxidation reaction barrier in the presence of surface hydroxyls. This work demonstrates the need to understand the structure activity relationship of both the support and active particles for the design of catalytic materials.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of new biologically active Cu(II) complexes with ligand derived from N-substituted sulfonamide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ADRIANA CORINA HANGAN; ALEXANDRU TURZA; ROXANA LIANA STAN; BOGDAN SEVASTRE; EMÖKE PÁLL; SÎNZIANA CETEAN; LUMINI¸TA SIMONA OPREAN

    2016-05-01

    A new N-sulfonamide ligand (HL1= N-(5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-[1,3,4]–thiadiazole–2-yl)-toluenesulfonamide)and two Cu(II) complexes, $[Cu(L1)­_{2}(py)_{2}]$ (C1) and $[Cu(L2)_{2}(py)_{2}(H_{2}O)]$ (C2) (HL2 = N-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-[1,3,4]–thiadiazole–2-yl)-benzenesulfonamide) were synthesized. The X-ray crystal structuresof the complexes were determined. In the complex C1, the Cu(II) ion is four-coordinated, forming a $CuN_{4}$ chromophore and in the complex C2, the Cu(II) ion is five-coordinated, forming a $CuN_{4}O$ chromophore. Theligand acts as monodentate, coordinating the Cu(II) ion through a single $N_{thiadiazole}$ atom. The molecules fromthe reaction medium (pyridine and water) are also involved in the coordination of the Cu(II) ion. The complexesC1 and C2 are square-planar and a slightly distorted square pyramidal, respectively. The compounds werecharacterized by FT-IR, electronic, EPR spectroscopic and magnetic methods. The nuclease binding activitystudies of the synthesized complexes confirm their capacity to cleave the DNA molecule. The cytotoxicitystudies were carried out on melanoma cell line WM35 which confirm that both compounds inhibit the growthof these cells. They have a higher activity compared to a platinum drug, carboplatin.

  13. Study of the interaction of formic acid, formaldehyde and formamide with the bulk terminated (1 × 1) and reconstructed (2 × 1) surfaces of rutile TiO2(011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J. M. R.; Idriss, H.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of interactions of formaldehyde (HCHO), formamide (NH2CHO) and formic acid (HCOOH) is studied for the bulk terminated TiO2 (011) (1 × 1) surface and its most stable real surface structure the “brookite-like” (2 × 1) reconstruction; denoted (011)R. On the (011) (1 × 1) strong bridging adsorptions are seen for formic acid (1.71 eV) and formamide (1.57 eV) whereas the formaldehyde adsorbs in an η2 (C,O) structure (1.31 eV). On the (011)R there is a marked decrease in binding with only weak monodentate structures seen for formic acid (0.38, 0.27 eV) and formamide (0.44, 0.29 eV) and an η1 (O) adsorption seen for formaldehyde (0.23 eV). The reasons for this weak adsorption are examined. The arrangement of surface O atoms in the (011)R forces longer Tisbnd Oadsorbate bonds resulting in weak adsorption energy. Charge transfer to the surface is also reduced and in the case of bridging adsorptions the destabilising effect of the surface O atoms is considerable. The crystal field of the titanium surface atoms is examined and the (011) (1 × 1) Ti is found to have a higher proportion of states in the conduction band available to bind to the adsorbate when compared to their counterparts of the (011)R surface.

  14. Bis(dimethyl­malonato-κ2 O,O′)bis­[4-(4-pyridylamino-κN 4)pyridinium]nickel(II) hexa­hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Gregory A.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C5H6O4)2(C10H10N3)2]·6H2O, divalent nickel ions situated on the crystallographic twofold axis are octa­hedrally coordinated by four O atoms from two dimethyl­malonate ligands in a 1,3-chelating mode and two N atoms from two protonated monodentate 4,4′-dipyridylamine mol­ecules. The mol­ecules link into chains via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding mediated by protonated pyridyl groups. The chains form layer patterns via π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.777 (2) Å] . Water mol­ecule hexa­mers are generated from the unligated water mol­ecules (three per asymmetric unit) by inversion centers at Wyckoff position d. These clusters are situated between the pseudolayers, providing hydrogen-bonding pathways that build up the three-dimensional structure. PMID:21581200

  15. Coordination chemistry of mercury(ii) with 2-pyridylnitrones: monomers to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizpoor Fard, Mahmood; Behnia, Ava; Puddephatt, Richard J

    2017-03-14

    The coordination chemistry of mercury(ii) halides, HgX2, X = Cl, Br, I, with N-methyl-α-(2-pyridyl)nitrone, L1, and N-t-butyl-α-(2-pyridyl)nitrone, L2, is reported. The structures of 1 : 1 complexes [HgX2L], X = Cl, L = L1; X = Br, L = L2, 2 : 1 complexes [(HgX2)2L], X = Br or I, L = L1; X = Cl or I, L = L2, and a unique compound [(HgBr2)5(L2)3] have been determined. In the 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes, the ligand L1 adopts the anti conformation, and is either monodentate or bridging, while the ligand L2 adopts the syn conformation and acts as a chelate ligand. In the compound [(HgBr2)5(L2)3] the ligand L2 is present in both syn-chelate and anti-bridging bonding modes. Secondary intermolecular bonding, involving OHg or XHg interactions, can lead to association of the molecular compounds to form polymers of several kinds. In solution, the complexes are labile and the crystalline products do not necessarily reflect the reaction stoichiometry.

  16. Structural and Theoretical Evidence of the Depleted Proton Affinity of the N3-Atom in Acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vílchez-Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydronium salt (H3O2[Cu(N7–acv2(H2O2(SO42]·2H2O (1, acv = acyclovir has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectral methods. Solvated Cu(OH2 is a by-product of the synthesis. In the all-trans centrosymmetric complex anion, (a the Cu(II atom exhibits an elongated octahedral coordination; (b the metal-binding pattern of acyclovir (acv consists of a Cu–N7(acv bond plus an (aquaO–H···O6(acv interligand interaction; and (c trans-apical/distal sites are occupied by monodentate O-sulfate donor anions. Neutral acyclovir and aqua-proximal ligands occupy the basal positions, stabilizing the metal binding pattern of acv. Each hydronium(1+ ion builds three H-bonds with O–sulfate, O6(acv, and O–alcohol(acv from three neighboring complex anions. No O atoms of solvent water molecules are involved as acceptors. Theoretical calculations of molecular electrostatic potential surfaces and atomic charges also support that the O-alcohol of the N9(acv side chain is a better H-acceptor than the N3 or the O-ether atoms of acv.

  17. Metal-Anion Pairing at Oxide/Water Interfaces: Theoretical and Experimental Investigations from the Nanoscale to the Macroscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Heather [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-11-14

    We combine the use of several techniques including bulk adsorption experiments, X-ray absorption, infrared, total internal reflection Raman, and vibrational sum frequencygeneration (XAS, IR, TIR-Raman, VSFG) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling to investigate ion adsorption at mineral surfaces. XAS and TIR-Raman provides data on how the metal binds to the surface (e.g., monodentate, bidentate), IR provides data on bulk anion adsorption at mineral surfaces from aqueous solutions, and VSFG provides surface specific data on anion adsorption at the mineral surface as well as impact of adsorbed metal-anion pairs on water structure at the mineral surface. Molecular modeling is used to guide spectroscopic data interpretation by providing information on water structure around ions in solution and the structure of metal-anion complexes in aqueous solutions. In addition, molecular modeling is used to provide insight into water structure at mineral surfaces, the surface sites involved in ion adsorption, and the distribution of ion pairs between aqueous solution and the mineral surface. Our studies have focused on systems involving alkaline earth metal (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) and heavy metal (Co2+, Cd2+) cations. The anions we have selected for studyinclude Cl-, NO3-, ClO4-, SO42-, SeO32-, and SeO42-. Ion adsorption and the potential formation ofternary complexes on silica (quartz, amorphous silica), alumina (corundum and gibbsite), and ferric iron oxides (goethite and hematite) are under investigation.

  18. Crystal structure of a compact three-dimensional metal–organic framework based on Cs+ and (4,5-dicyano-1,2-phenylenebis(phosphonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Mendes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new metal–organic framework compound, poly[[μ7-dihydrogen (4,5-dicyano-1,2-phenylenediphosphonato](oxoniumcaesium], [Cs(C8H4N2O6P2(H3O]n (I, based on Cs+ and the organic linker 4,5-dicyano-1,2-phenylenebis(phosphonic acid, (H4cpp, containing two distinct coordinating functional groups, has been prepared by a simple diffusion method and its crystal structure is reported. The coordination polymeric structure is based on a CsO8N2 complex unit comprising a monodentate hydronium cation, seven O-atom donors from two phosphonium groups of the (H2cpp2− ligand, and two N-atom donors from bridging cyano groups. The high level of connectivity from both the metal cation and the organic linker allow the formation of a compact and dense three-dimensional network without any crystallization solvent. Topologically (I is a seven-connected uninodal network with an overall Schäfli symbol of {417.64}. Metal cations form an undulating inorganic layer, which is linked by strong and highly directional O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. These metallic layers are, in turn, connected by the organic ligands along the [010] direction to form the overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and spectral characterization of the first Ag+ complex compounds involving O,N,O-coordinated N-acylhydrazones of salicylaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repich, H. H.; Orysyk, S. I.; Orysyk, V. V.; Zborovskii, Yu. L.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Vovk, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    N-acylhydrazones of salicylaldehyde is a well known class of ligands bearing O,N,O tridentate chelate coordination site. But up to now no structurally characterized Ag+ complexes with O,N,O coordinated N-acylhydrazones of salicylaldehyde were known. Therefore three Ag+ coordination compounds with functionally substituted N-acylhydrazones of salicylaldehyde were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric studies. In solutions the complexes were studied by 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The influence of the presence and location of additional nitrogen donor atoms in N-acylhydrazones of salicylaldehyde on their coordination modes was investigated. Ligand N'-salicylidenephenylacetohydrazide (contains no additional donor atoms) coordinates to Ag+ in classical O,N,O tridentate chelate manner. Ligand N‧-salicylidene-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (contains β-N additional donor atom in acyl moiety) involves mixed O,N,O + β-N coordination. Whereas N'-salicylidene-4-pyridinecarbohydrazide (contains γ-N additional donor atom) coordinates to Ag+ in monodentate manner only via γ-N atom of heterocyclic substituent. All the complexes provide high coordination numbers of Ag+ and irregular shapes of coordination polyhedra which are not consistent with classical concepts of Ag+ coordination chemistry. However all the complexes are not thermally stable and easily undergo solvolysis upon dissolution.

  20. Crystal structure of hexakis(dmpu-di-μ2-hydroxido-dialuminium tetraiodide dmpu tetrasolvate [dmpu is 1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one]: a centrosymmetric dinuclear aluminium complex containing AlO5 polyhedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lundberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Al2(OH2(C6H12N2O6]I4·4C6H12N2O (systematic name: di-μ2-hydroxido-bis{tris[1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one-κO]aluminium} tetraiodide 1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one tetrasolvate, is composed of two Al(C6H12N2O3 moieties linked into a centrosymmetric dinuclear unit by a pair of bridging hydroxide ions. The aluminium cations show a distorted trigonal bipyramidal AlO5 coordination environment formed only by monodentate ligands. The Al—O bond lengths are in the range 1.789 (2–1.859 (2 Å (mean bond length = 1.818 Å. The non-coordinating iodide anions compensate the charge of the complex cation. The remaining solvent molecules and the iodide counter-anions interact with the complex cation by weak non-classical C—H...I and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.