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Sample records for fine structure measurement

  1. Helium 23P Fine Structure Measurement in a Discharge Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelevinsky, T.; Farkas, D.; Gabrielse, G.

    2005-12-01

    A precise measurement of helium 23P fine structure was carried out in a discharge cell using Doppler-free laser spectroscopy. It is the only known experiment to directly measure all three fine structure intervals at a 1 kHz level of accuracy. The 23P1 - 23P2 interval value agrees with other experiments but disagrees with theoretical predictions of two-electron QED. When this disagreement is resolved, the 23P0 - 23P1 interval measurement reported here will allow a determination of the fine structure constant to 14 parts in 109, surpassing the precision of the well known QED-independent quantum Hall effect and Josephson effect determinations. The discharge cell is shown to be advantageous in the study and correction of systematic frequency shifts related to light pressure, and the use of the cell ensures that the possible systematic errors are substantially different from those reported in other experiments.

  2. Measurement of the Running of the Fine-Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; Cozzoni, B; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hirstius, A; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zöller, M

    2000-01-01

    Small-angle Bhabha scattering data recorded at the Z resonance and large-angleBhabha scattering data recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 189$ \\textrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V} bythe L3 detector at LEP are used to measure the running of the effective fine-structure constant for spacelike momentum transfers. The results are\\begin{eqnarray*} \\alpha^{-1}(-2.1 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-6.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 0.78 \\pm 0.26 \\\\ \\alpha^{-1}(-12.25 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) - \\alpha^{-1}(-3434 \\mathrm{Ge\\kern -0.1em V}^{2}) & = & 3.80 \\pm 1.29, \\\\\\end{eqnarray*}in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  3. Precision Measurement of the Three 23PJ Helium Fine Structure Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelevinsky, T.; Farkas, D.; Gabrielse, G.

    2005-11-01

    The three 23P fine structure intervals of He4 are measured at an improved accuracy that is sufficient to test two-electron QED theory and to determine the fine structure constant α to 14 parts in 109. The more accurate determination of α, to a precision higher than attained with the quantum Hall and Josephson effects, awaits the reconciliation of two inconsistent theoretical calculations now being compared term by term. A low pressure helium discharge presents experimental uncertainties quite different than for earlier measurements and allows direct measurements of light pressure shifts.

  4. Behavioral Measures of Monaural Temporal Fine Structure Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    125:3412-3422, 2009). However, spectral cues arising from detectable excitation pattern shifts or audible combination tones might supplement TFS cues in this H/I-discrimination task. The present study further assessed the importance of the role of TFS, in contrast to that of temporal envelope...... characterizing hearing impairment. Estimating the acuity of monaural TFS processing in humans however remains a challenge. One suggested measure is based on the ability of listeners to detect a pitch shift between harmonic (H) and inharmonic (I) complex tones with unresolved components (e.g. Moore et al., JASA...... and spectral resolution, for the low pitch evoked by high-frequency complex tones. The aim was to estimate the efficiency of monaural TFS cues as a function of the stimulus center frequency Fc and its ratio N to the stimulus envelope repetition rate. A pitch-matching paradigm was used, such that changes...

  5. Characterization of DPOAE fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    , and has recently been demonstrated to exist in low level equal-loudness contours. The character of the DPOAE fine structure depends on several parameters, i.e., level, frequencies, and frequency of the two primaries, but also level and character of the noise floor. The prevalence and character of the fine......The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is revealed, when measuring DPOAE with a very fine frequency resolution. It is characterized by consistent maxima and minima with notches of up to 20 dB depth. The fine structure is known also from absolute hearing thresholds...... structures are highly individual, and till now no standardized method has been suggested for a consistent categorization. In the present paper a method developed for the categorization of fine structures is presented. The method has been used in two previous studies on the prevalence of fine structures, 1...

  6. Precision Measurements: Testing the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Steve

    2004-05-01

    Often, precision measurements from diverse fields can be used to learn new facts about the universe. The usual definition of "precision" is based on improvements over previous measurements. A review of the present state of knowledge regarding the possible time variation of the fine structure constant α will be presented; "precise" data from natural phenomena, which include an apparent shift in the red-shift-scaled fine structure in the absorption spectra of quasar light, and the isotopic abundances in the fission products of a prehistoric natural reactor in Oklo, Gabon. Prospects to improve the accuracy for the constancy of α with laboratory experiments will be discussed. Our two experimental investigations currently being developed are based on optical spectroscopy of trapped ions and on radiofrequency spectroscopy of an atomic dysprosium beam. A sensitivity of dotα/α≈ 10-18/yr is anticipated. Because this accuracy exceeds that by which the second is defined, these measurements will necessarily be differential.

  7. Photoconductivity measurement of polymers by x-ray absorption fine structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Photoconductivity spectra measurement of polymers at x-ray energies around the Zn and Co K edges,shows obvious x-ray absorption fine structure oscillations.The photoconductivity spectra obtained for gapped and sandwiched electrode geometric samples,indicate that the shape of photoconductivity spectrum depends on the electrode configuration of the samples.The thickness of the conduction layer can be estimated from the photoconductivity spectrum.

  8. Quad-plane stereoscopic PIV for fine-scale structure measurements in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Y.; Tomita, K.; Shimura, M.; Fukushima, N.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2016-05-01

    The fine-scale structure in turbulence is investigated by quad-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (QPSPIV). The quad-plane consists of two each of different polarizations and wavelengths, and it provides three velocity components at four independent parallel planes. Measurements have been undertaken in the developed region of a turbulent round jet with a spatial resolution sufficient to capture the small-scale structures. The advantage of the QPSPIV is presented in terms of the spectral response in the evaluation of the out-of-plane velocity gradient. The full velocity gradient tensor is computed with a fourth-order finite difference scheme in the out-of-plane direction as well as the in-plane directions. The turbulence quantities, such as the vorticity components, the energy dissipation rate and the second and third invariants of the velocity gradient tensor, are computed according to their faithful definitions. The coherent fine-scale eddies are extracted from the present QPSPIV data. The probability density functions of the diameter and the maximum azimuthal velocity of the extracted eddies exhibit their peak at approximately 8η and 1.5u_k, respectively, where η and u_k are the Kolmogorov length and velocity. These values agree well with the data in the literature. The phase-averaged distributions of turbulence quantities around the coherent fine-scale eddy indicate an apparent elliptic feature around the axis. Furthermore, the state of the strain rate exerting the eddy is quantified from the phase-averaged distributions of eigenvalues of the strain rate tensor and the alignment of the corresponding eigenvectors against the axis. The present study gives a solid experimental support of the coherent fine-scale structures in turbulence, and the technique can be applied to various flow fields and to the higher Reynolds number condition.

  9. Bloch oscillations of ultracold atoms and measurement of the fine structure constant; Oscillations de Bloch d'atomes ultrafroids et mesure de la constante de structure fine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clade, P

    2005-10-15

    From a measurement of the recoil velocity of an atom absorbing a photon, it is possible to deduce a determination of the ratio h/m between the Planck constant and the mass of the atoms and then to deduce a value of the fine structure constant alpha. To do this measurement, we use the technique of Bloch oscillations, which allows us to transfer a large number of recoils to atoms. A velocity sensor, based on velocity selective Raman transition, enables us to measure the momentum transferred to the atoms. A measurement with a statistical uncertainty of 4.4 10{sup -9}, in conjunction with a careful study of systematic effects (5 10{sup -9}), has led us to a determination of alpha with an uncertainty of 6.7 10{sup -9}: {alpha}{sup -1}(Rb) = 137.03599878 (91). This uncertainty is similar to the uncertainty of the best determinations of alpha based on atom interferometry. (author)

  10. The coefficient of bond thermal expansion measured by extended x-ray absorption fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, P; Grisenti, R

    2014-10-28

    The bond thermal expansion is in principle different from the lattice expansion and can be measured by correlation sensitive probes such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and diffuse scattering. The temperature dependence of the coefficient α(bond)(T) of bond thermal expansion has been obtained from EXAFS for CdTe and for Cu. A coefficient α(tens)(T) of negative expansion due to tension effects has been calculated from the comparison of bond and lattice expansions. Negative lattice expansion is present in temperature intervals where α(bond) prevails over α(tens); this real-space approach is complementary but not equivalent to the Grüneisen theory. The relevance of taking into account the asymmetry of the nearest-neighbours distribution of distances in order to get reliable bond expansion values and the physical meaning of the third cumulant are thoroughly discussed.

  11. Considering distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure in measurements of the medial olivocochlear reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Mishra, Srikanta K; Williams, Tracy L

    2009-03-01

    In humans, when the medial olivocochlear (MOC) pathway is activated by noise in the opposite ear, changes in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level, i.e., the MOC reflex, can be recorded in the test ear. Recent evidence suggests that DPOAE frequency influences the direction (suppression/enhancement) of the reflex. In this study, DPOAEs were recorded at fine frequency intervals from 500 to 2500 Hz, with and without contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) in a group of 15 adults. The MOC reflex was calculated only at DPOAE frequencies corresponding to peaks in the fine structure. Additionally, inverse fast-Fourier transform was conducted to evaluate MOC effects on individual DPOAE components. Results show the following: (1) When considering peaks only, the mean MOC reflex was -2.05 dB and 97% of observations reflected suppression, (2) CAS reduced distortion characteristic frequency component levels more than overlap component levels, and (3) CAS produced an upward shift in fine structure peak frequency. Results indicate that when the MOC reflex is recorded at DPOAE frequencies corresponding to fine structure maxima (i.e., when DPOAE components are constructive and in phase), suppression is reliably observed and level enhancement, which probably reflects component mixing in the ear canal rather than strength of the MOC reflex, is eliminated.

  12. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynska, Michael R; King, Julian A; Murphy, Michael T; Bainbridge, Matthew B; Flambaum, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of $0.4 \\leq z_{abs} \\leq 2.3$ observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=\\left(0.22\\pm0.23\\right)\\times10^{-5}$, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ measurements, th...

  13. Observations of substorm fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazutin

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field measurements on the CRRES satellite were used, together with geosynchronous satellites and ground-based observations, to investigate the fine structure of a magnetospheric substorm on February 9, 1991. Using the variations in the electron fluxes, the substorm activity was divided into several intensifications lasting about 3–15 minutes each. The two main features of the data were: (1 the intensifications showed internal fine structure in the time scale of about 2 minutes or less. We call these shorter periods activations. Energetic electrons and protons at the closest geosynchronous spacecraft (1990 095 were found to have comparable activation structure. (2 The energetic (>69 keV proton injections were delayed with respect to electron injections, and actually coincided in time with the end of the intensifications and partial returns to locally more stretched field line configuration. We propose that the energetic protons could be able to control the dynamics of the system locally be quenching the ongoing intensification and possibly preparing the final large-scale poleward movement of the activity. It was also shown that these protons originated from the same intensification as the preceeding electrons. Therefore, the substorm instability responsible for the intensifications could introduce a negative feedback loop into the system, creating the observed fine structure with the intensification time scales.

    Key words. Magnetospheric Physics (Storms and substorms.

  14. A study of fine structure of diffuse aurora with ALIS-FAST measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sergienko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present results of an investigation of the fine structure of the night sector diffuse auroral zone, observed simultaneously with optical instruments (ALIS from the ground and the FAST electron spectrometer from space 16 February 1997. Both the optical and particle data show that the diffuse auroral zone consisted of two regions. The equatorward part of the diffuse aurora was occupied by a pattern of regular, parallel auroral stripes. The auroral stripes were significantly brighter than the background luminosity, had widths of approximately 5 km and moved southward with a velocity of about 100 m/s. The second region, located between the region with auroral stripes and the discrete auroral arcs to the north, was filled with weak and almost homogeneous luminosity, against which short-lived auroral rays and small patches appeared chaotically. From analysis of the electron differential fluxes corresponding to the different regions of the diffuse aurora and based on existing theories of the scattering process we conclude the following: Strong pitch angle diffusion by electron cyclotron harmonic waves (ECH of plasma sheet electrons in the energy range from a few hundred eV to 3–4 keV was responsible for the electron precipitation, that produced the background luminosity within the whole diffuse zone. The fine structure, represented by the auroral stripes, was created by precipitation of electrons above 3–4 keV as a result of pitch angle diffusion into the loss cone by whistler mode waves. A so called "internal gravity wave" (Safargaleev and Maltsev, 1986 may explain the formation of the regular spatial pattern formed by the auroral stripes in the equatorward part of the diffuse auroral zone.

  15. A study of fine structure of diffuse aurora with ALIS-FAST measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, T.; Sandahl, I.; Gustavsson, B.; Andersson, L.; Brändström, U.; . Steen, Ã.

    2008-10-01

    We present results of an investigation of the fine structure of the night sector diffuse auroral zone, observed simultaneously with optical instruments (ALIS) from the ground and the FAST electron spectrometer from space 16 February 1997. Both the optical and particle data show that the diffuse auroral zone consisted of two regions. The equatorward part of the diffuse aurora was occupied by a pattern of regular, parallel auroral stripes. The auroral stripes were significantly brighter than the background luminosity, had widths of approximately 5 km and moved southward with a velocity of about 100 m/s. The second region, located between the region with auroral stripes and the discrete auroral arcs to the north, was filled with weak and almost homogeneous luminosity, against which short-lived auroral rays and small patches appeared chaotically. From analysis of the electron differential fluxes corresponding to the different regions of the diffuse aurora and based on existing theories of the scattering process we conclude the following: Strong pitch angle diffusion by electron cyclotron harmonic waves (ECH) of plasma sheet electrons in the energy range from a few hundred eV to 3 4 keV was responsible for the electron precipitation, that produced the background luminosity within the whole diffuse zone. The fine structure, represented by the auroral stripes, was created by precipitation of electrons above 3 4 keV as a result of pitch angle diffusion into the loss cone by whistler mode waves. A so called "internal gravity wave" (Safargaleev and Maltsev, 1986) may explain the formation of the regular spatial pattern formed by the auroral stripes in the equatorward part of the diffuse auroral zone.

  16. A correlational method to concurrently measure envelope and temporal fine structure weights: effects of age, cochlear pathology, and spectral shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E

    2012-09-01

    The speech signal may be divided into spectral frequency-bands, each band containing temporal properties of the envelope and fine structure. This study measured the perceptual weights for the envelope and fine structure in each of three frequency bands for sentence materials in young normal-hearing listeners, older normal-hearing listeners, aided older hearing-impaired listeners, and spectrally matched young normal-hearing listeners. The availability of each acoustic property was independently varied through noisy signal extraction. Thus, the full speech stimulus was presented with noise used to mask six different auditory channels. Perceptual weights were determined by correlating a listener's performance with the signal-to-noise ratio of each acoustic property on a trial-by-trial basis. Results demonstrate that temporal fine structure perceptual weights remain stable across the four listener groups. However, a different weighting typography was observed across the listener groups for envelope cues. Results suggest that spectral shaping used to preserve the audibility of the speech stimulus may alter the allocation of perceptual resources. The relative perceptual weighting of envelope cues may also change with age. Concurrent testing of sentences repeated once on a previous day demonstrated that weighting strategies for all listener groups can change, suggesting an initial stabilization period or susceptibility to auditory training.

  17. Surface structure of CdSe Nanorods revealed by combined X-rayabsorption fine structure measurements and ab-initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, Deborah A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Li, Liang-shi; Williamson, Andrew; Fakra, Sirine; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-27

    We report orientation-specific, surface-sensitive structural characterization of colloidal CdSe nanorods with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional theory calculations. Our measurements of crystallographically-aligned CdSe nanorods show that they have reconstructed Cd-rich surfaces. They exhibit orientation-dependent changes in interatomic distances which are qualitatively reproduced by our calculations. These calculations reveal that the measured interatomic distance anisotropy originates from the nanorod surface.

  18. Results of many-year subsatellite measurements of current fine structure in northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Krayushkin, Evgeny; Kalashnikova, Nina

    Results of subsatellite measurements of coastal currents in the shelf zone of northeastern Black Sea are presented. The measurements have been performed every year since 2006 in June and September-October months near the Gelendzhik Bay. The main instruments used are Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and CTD probes. Ground and ship measurements were conducted simultaneously with satellite imaging in microwave (ASAR Envisat, ERS-2, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X), visible and infrared (OLI Landsat-8, ETM+ Landsat-7, TM Landsat-5, MODIS Terra/Aqua, AVHRR NOAA) ranges. The investigations performed revealed spatial, depth and temporal variability of current direction and velocity in the shelf zone. Multiple instances of counter-currents opposing to the Ring Current were registered. In our view, they are associated with a passage of small-scale anticyclonic eddies across the region of interest. The 3D structure of the eddies in the upper quasi-uniform layer was analyzed based on ADCP data. The use of high resolution (3 m) SAR data in combination with ADCP measurements at the resolution of 0.5 m allowed us to detect a number of internal wave trains. Form ADCP and thermistors records, their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m. Generation mechanisms of these internal waves are suggested. Another phenomenon of interest observed in the region of the measurements is surface manifestations of ring waves near localized natural and anthropogenic generation sources. Such ring waves are most frequently found in the anchor area for ships, whose oscillations can be the source of their generation. The work was in part supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #14-05-00520-а, and 13-07-12017-ofi_m). SAR data from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X were obtained under SOAR RADARSAT-2/TerraSAR-X Project #5074.

  19. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    A new and fully-automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra (GVPFIT). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. GVPFIT is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. Three numerical methods are unified into one artificial intelligence process: a genetic algorithm that emulates the Darwinian processes of reproduction, mutation and selection, non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (VPFIT), and Bayesian model averaging. In contrast to previous methodologies, which relied on a particular solution as being the most likely model, GVPFIT plus Bayesian model averaging derives results from a large set of models, and helps overcome systema...

  20. Atomic sulfur: Frequency measurement of the J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition at 56.3 microns by laser magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John M.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Zink, Lyndon R.

    1994-01-01

    The J = 0 left arrow 1 fine-structure transition in atomic sulfur (S I) in its ground (3)P state has been detected in the laboratory by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance. The fine-structure interval has been measured accurately as 5,322,492.9 +/- 2.8 MHz which corresponds to a wavelength of 56.325572 +/- 0.000030 micrometers.

  1. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Choudhury, Soumyadip [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Gruber, Katharina [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Cruz, Valene B. [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Fuchsbichler, Bernd [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Jacob, Timo [Universität Ulm, Institut für Elektrochemie, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU), 89069 Ulm (Germany); Koller, Stefan [VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymeric Materials ,01062 Dresden (Germany); Ionov, Leonid [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one

  2. Impact of instrumental systematic errors on fine-structure constant measurements with quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, J B

    2014-01-01

    We present a new `supercalibration' technique for measuring systematic distortions in the wavelength scales of high resolution spectrographs. By comparing spectra of `solar twin' stars or asteroids with a reference laboratory solar spectrum, distortions in the standard thorium--argon calibration can be tracked with $\\sim$10\\,m\\,s$^{-1}$ precision over the entire optical wavelength range on scales of both echelle orders ($\\sim$50--100\\,\\AA) and entire spectrographs arms ($\\sim$1000--3000\\,\\AA). Using archival spectra from the past 20 years we have probed the supercalibration history of the VLT--UVES and Keck--HIRES spectrographs. We find that systematic errors in their wavelength scales are ubiquitous and substantial, with long-range distortions varying between typically $\\pm$200\\,m\\,s$^{-1}$\\,per 1000\\,\\AA. We apply a simple model of these distortions to simulated spectra which characterize the large UVES and HIRES quasar samples which previously indicated possible evidence for cosmological variations in the ...

  3. Fine structure of histograms of alpha-activity measurements depends on direction of alpha particles flow and the Earth rotation: experiments with collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Shnoll, S E; Berulis, I I; Udaltsova, N V; Rubinstein, I A; Shnoll, Simon E.; Zenchenko, Konstantin I.; Berulis, Iosas I.; Udaltsova, Natalia V.; Rubinstein, Ilia A.

    2004-01-01

    The fine structure of histograms of measurements of 239Pu alpha-activity varies periodically, and the period of these variations is equal to sidereal day (1436 minutes). The periodicity is not observed in the experiments with collimator that restricts the alpha particles flow to be oriented to the Polar Star. Based on this study and other independent data, such as measurements conducted by the Arctic expedition, and similarity of the histograms in processes observed at different locations at the same local time, the conclusion was made, that the fine structure of statistical distributions of the observed processes depends on the celestial sphere.

  4. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-06-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one `artificial intelligence' process: a genetic algorithm (Genetic Voigt Profile FIT, gvpfit); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (vpfit); and Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. gvpfit is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al.

  5. Artificial intelligence applied to the automatic analysis of absorption spectra. Objective measurement of the fine structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Webb, John K.

    2017-01-01

    A new and automated method is presented for the analysis of high-resolution absorption spectra. Three established numerical methods are unified into one "artificial intelligence" process: a genetic algorithm (GVPFIT); non-linear least-squares with parameter constraints (VPFIT); and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA). The method has broad application but here we apply it specifically to the problem of measuring the fine structure constant at high redshift. For this we need objectivity and reproducibility. GVPFIT is also motivated by the importance of obtaining a large statistical sample of measurements of Δα/α. Interactive analyses are both time consuming and complex and automation makes obtaining a large sample feasible. In contrast to previous methodologies, we use BMA to derive results using a large set of models and show that this procedure is more robust than a human picking a single preferred model since BMA avoids the systematic uncertainties associated with model choice. Numerical simulations provide stringent tests of the whole process and we show using both real and simulated spectra that the unified automated fitting procedure out-performs a human interactive analysis. The method should be invaluable in the context of future instrumentation like ESPRESSO on the VLT and indeed future ELTs. We apply the method to the zabs = 1.8389 absorber towards the zem = 2.145 quasar J110325-264515. The derived constraint of Δα/α = 3.3 ± 2.9 × 10-6 is consistent with no variation and also consistent with the tentative spatial variation reported in Webb et al. (2011) and King et al. (2012).

  6. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  7. Fine structure of charge exchange lines observed in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, K.; Nishimura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the fine structure of charge exchange lines appears only at the plasma edge or in the recombining phase where the ion temperature is low enough. The observed spectra in Li III and C VI are consistent with the sum of fine-structure components populated by statistical weights (assuming complete l-mixing) not by direct charge exchange cross sections. Some discrepancy was observed in the intensity ratio of fine-structure components between the observation and calculation for C VI in the recombining phase. The fine-structure of charge exchange lines gives an apparent Doppler shift in plasma rotation velocity measurement using charge exchange spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Search for Possible Variation of the Fine Structure Constant

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Determination of the fine structure constant alpha and search for its possible variation are considered. We focus on a role of the fine structure constant in modern physics and discuss precision tests of quantum electrodynamics. Different methods of a search for possible variations of fundamental constants are compared and those related to optical measurements are considered in detail.

  9. Variation of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we evaluate the fine structure constant variation which should take place as the Universe is expanded and its curvature is changed adiabatically. This changing of the fine structure constant is attributed to the energy lost by physical system (consist of baryonic component and electromagnetic field) due to expansion of our Universe. Obtained ratio (d alpha)/alpha = 1. 10{-18} (per second) is only five times smaller than actually reported experimental limit on this value. For this reason this variation can probably be measured within a couple of years. To argue the correctness of our approach we calculate the Planck constant as adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field, from geometry of our Universe in the framework of the pseudo- Riemannian geometry. Finally we discuss the double clock experiment based on Al+ and Hg+ clocks carried out by T. Rosenband et al. (Science 2008). We show that in this particular case there is an error in method and this way the fine structure constant variation c...

  10. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Christian; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus

    2008-05-01

    We present a compact setup for near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge based on a laser-driven plasma source. To generate the required broad-band emission in the spectral range of the 'water window' (λ = 2.2-4.4 nm) a krypton gas puff target was used. The table-top setup consisting basically of the laser-plasma source and a flat-field spectrometer can be used for near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure experiments in transmission as well as reflection under grazing incidence conditions (ReflEXAFS). The latter method offers the advantage that thin film preparation is not necessary and that the surface sensitivity is strongly enhanced. The results obtained for thin polymer films show good agreement with synchrotron data. Furthermore, we use the ReflEXAFS method to investigate changes in the chemical composition of PMMA induced by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The spectra indicate a loss of the carbonyl functional group upon irradiation as well as crosslinking effects at high EUV radiation doses.

  11. A closer look at dynamic speckles and the use of their fine-structure for object measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Iversen, Theis F.Q.; Jakobsen, Michael Linde

    2010-01-01

    of the surface displacement. This is achieved by illuminating the object with structured light, and observing the speckle field as it passes an optical system. In this way, simultaneous measurement of displacement (e.g. 2-D) and rotation can be performed. The application of this concept with a system based...

  12. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Brinkerink, Christiaan [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chamberlin, Richard [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Freund, Robert [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gurwell, Mark A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  13. Fine-scale structure of the quasar 3C 279 Measured with 1.3 mm very long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Akiyama, Kazunori; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Algaba, Juan C; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Loinard, Laurent; MacMahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P; Marscher, Alan P; Moran, James M; Plambeck, Richard; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2013-01-01

    We report results from 5-day VLBI observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of $\\sim$1 parsec extending along the northwest-southeast direction (PA = $127^{\\circ}\\pm3^{\\circ}$), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution VLBA images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate ...

  14. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements on radio frequency magnetron sputtered HfO2 thin films deposited with different oxygen partial pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidul Haque, S; Nayak, C; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Jha, S N; Sahoo, N K

    2016-03-20

    Two sets of HfO2 thin film have been deposited by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique at various oxygen partial pressures, one set without any substrate bias and another set with a 50 W pulsed dc substrate bias. The films have been characterized by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements at the Hf L3 edge, and the structural information obtained from analysis of the EXAFS data has been used to explain the macroscopic behavior of the refractive index obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. It has been observed that the variation of refractive index with oxygen partial pressure depends on the Hf-Hf bond length for the set of films deposited without substrate bias, while for the other set of films deposited with pulsed dc substrate bias, it depends on the oxygen coordination of the nearest neighbor shell surrounding Hf sites.

  15. SeD Radical: A probe for measurement of time variation of Fine Structure Constant($\\alpha$) and Proton to Electron Mass Ratio($\\mu$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Gaurab; Mukherjee, Manas; Paul, Ankan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the spectroscopic constants derived from highly accurate potential energy surfaces, the SeD radical is identified as a spectroscopic probe for measuring spatial and temporal variation of fundamental physical constants such as the fine-structure constant (denoted as $\\alpha=\\frac{e^2}{\\hbar c}$) and the proton-to-electron mass ratio (denoted as $\\mu=\\frac{m_p}{m_e}$). The ground state of SeD ($X^2\\Pi$), due to spin-orbit coupling, splits into two fine structure multiplets $^2\\Pi_{\\frac{3}{2}}$ and $^2\\Pi_{\\frac{1}{2}}$. The potential energy surfaces of these spin-orbit components are derived from a state of the art electronic structure method, MRCI+Q inclusive of scalar relativistic effects with the spin-orbit effects accounted through the Breit-Pauli operator. The relevant spectroscopic data are evaluated using Murrel-Sorbie fit to the potential energy surfaces. The spin-orbit splitting($\\omega_f$) between the two multiplets is similar in magnitude with the harmonic frequency ($\\omega_e$) of the diat...

  16. Measurement of the 2 sup 2 S sub 1/2 -2 sup 2 P sub 3/2 fine structure interval in muonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettell, S.H.

    1990-08-01

    The (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) fine structure transition in muonium has been observed for the first time. The measured value is 9895 {sub {minus}30}{sup {plus}35}MHz. This measurement, when included with the theoretical value for the 2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} fine structure interval, gives a value for the Lamb shift (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus} 2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) independent of previous direct measurements. From the theoretical value for the fine structure interval, 10921.833(3) MHz, the value for the Lamb shift determined from this experiment is 1027{sub {minus}35}{sup {plus}30} MHz and is in agreement with the prediction of quantum electrodynamics (QED) of 1047.5(3) MHz. Previous experimental values for the Lamb shift (2{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} {minus}2{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) in muonium are 1070{sub {minus}15}{sup {plus} 12} MHz and 1042{sub {minus}23}{sup {plus}21} MHz. Combining this result with these previous results gives a new experimental value of 1058{sub {minus}12}{sup {plus}10} for the Lamb shift in muonium. Muonium, the bound state of two structureless leptons ({mu}{sup +}e{sup {minus}}), is an ideal system for testing bound state QED because of the lack of hadronic structure as exists in the hydrogen system. The measurement makes use of the techniques of atomic beam microwave spectroscopy. Muonium atoms ({mu}{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) in the 2S states are produced by the beam-foil technique at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility with a low momentum, sub-surface muon beam. A variable frequency microwave field is applied to drive the atoms from the 2S to the 2P states, with the subsequent observation of the Lyman alpha photon from the decay of the 2P state to the 1S ground state. The frequency is varied from 9.0--11.0 GHz, driving the F = 0 {yields} F = 1, F = 1, F = 1 and F = 1 {yields} F = 2 transitions.

  17. The fine structure of the ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul

    1967-01-01

    We consider in this note the excitation of ion-acoustic waves by vertical gradients of density in the ionosphere. The conclusion is reached that the fine structure of the ionosphere is probably affected by the resulting instability, as comparison with observations seems to indicate. Recently, Liu...

  18. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...

  19. Determination of the fine-structure constant {alpha} by measuring the quotient of the Planck constant and the neutron mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, E.; Nistler, W.; Weirauch, W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Using a special high-precision apparatus at ILL the quotient h/m{sub n} (h Planck constant, m{sub n} neutron mass) has been measured. The value measured for h/m{sub n} leads to {alpha}{sup -1} = 137.03601082(524) (relative uncertainty: 3.9{center_dot}10{sup -8}) It was the first time that this fundamental constant has been determined by means of neutrons. The experiment, which had been running since 1981 in a preliminary version and since 1987 in the final version, which was finished in December 1996, is described. (author).

  20. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Babusci, D; Bencivenni, G; Berlowski, M; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkeståhl, L Caldeira; Cao, B; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Curciarello, F; Czerwiński, E; D'Agostini, G; Dané, E; De Leo, V; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; Di Cicco, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; D'Uffizi, A; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Gajos, A; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskjöld, L; Johansson, T; Kamińska, D; Krzemien, W; Kupsc, A; Loffredo, S; Lukin, P A; Mandaglio, G; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Papenbrock, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; del Rio, E Perez; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Silarski, M; Sirghi, F; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wiślicki, W; Wolke, M; Jegerlehner, F

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the running of the effective QED coupling constant $\\alpha(s)$ in the time-like region $0.6<\\sqrt s< 0.975$ GeV with the KLOE detector at DA$\\Phi$NE using the Initial State Radiation process $e^+e^-\\to\\mu^+ \\mu^-\\gamma$. It represents the first measurement of the running of $\\alpha(s)$ in this energy region. Our results show a more than 5$\\sigma$ significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of $\\alpha(s)$, which is the strongest direct evidence both in time- and space-like regions achieved in a single measurement. By using the $e^+e^-\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ cross section measured by KLOE, the real and imaginary part of the shift $\\Delta\\alpha(s)$ has been extracted. By a fit of the real part of $\\Delta\\alpha(s)$ and assuming the lepton universality the branching ratio $BR(\\omega\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-) = (6.6\\pm1.4_{stat}\\pm1.7_{syst})\\cdot 10^{-5} $ has been determined.

  1. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the running of the effective QED coupling constant α(s in the time-like region 0.6measurement of the running of α(s in this energy region. Our results show a more than 5σ significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of α(s, which is the strongest direct evidence both in time- and space-like regions achieved in a single measurement. By using the e+e−→π+π− cross section measured by KLOE, the real and imaginary parts of the shift Δα(s have been extracted. From a fit of the real part of Δα(s and assuming the lepton universality the branching ratio BR(ω→μ+μ−=(6.6±1.4stat±1.7syst⋅10−5 has been determined.

  2. Fine structure of fields in 2D photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2006-01-01

    We resolve fine structure of fields in a single-row missing photonic crystal waveguide by finite-difference time-domain modelling and SNOM measurements. Both linear dispersion and slow-light regimes in proximity of the cutoff are addressed in the analysis.......We resolve fine structure of fields in a single-row missing photonic crystal waveguide by finite-difference time-domain modelling and SNOM measurements. Both linear dispersion and slow-light regimes in proximity of the cutoff are addressed in the analysis....

  3. Measurement of the running of the fine structure constant below 1 GeV with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Precision physics requires appropriate inclusion of higher order effects and the knowledge of very precise input parameters of the electroweak Standard Model. One of the basic input parameters is the effective QED coupling constant α(s) which depends on the energy scale because of charge screening by vacuum polarization. Hadronic non-perturbative effects limits the accuracy of α(s) from low energy to the Z mass scale. We present the measurement of the running of the QED coupling constant in the time-like region 0.6 < √s < 0.975 GeV with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE , using the ISR differential cross section dσ(e+e− → μ+μ− γ)/d√s. The result shows a clear contribution of the ρ−ω resonances to the photon propagator with a significance of the hadronic contribution to the running of α(s) of more than 5σ. It represents the first measurement of th...

  4. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells. Many studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced haring...... losses than pure-tone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stiumulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...... threshold microstructure also. In this study the DPOAE fine structure is obtained for symphony orchestra musicians both for left and right ears and before and after the orchestra rehearsal. The DPOAE fine structure is analyzed in order to investigate, whether it contains more information about the state...

  5. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells.Several studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced hearing...... losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...... threshold microstructure also. In this study DPOAE fine structures and hearing thresholds are obtained for symphony orchestra musicians both for left and right ears and before and after the orchestra rehearsal. DPOAE fine structures are analyzed with an automatic classification algorithm, which describes...

  6. Fine velocity structures collisional dissipation in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-04-01

    In a weakly collisional plasma, such as the solar wind, collisions are usually considered far too weak to produce any significant effect on the plasma dynamics [1]. However, the estimation of collisionality is often based on the restrictive assumption that the particle velocity distribution function (VDF) shape is close to Maxwellian [2]. On the other hand, in situ spacecraft measurements in the solar wind [3], as well as kinetic numerical experiments [4], indicate that marked non-Maxwellian features develop in the three-dimensional VDFs, (temperature anisotropies, generation of particle beams, ring-like modulations etc.) as a result of the kinetic turbulent cascade of energy towards short spatial scales. Therefore, since collisional effects are proportional to the velocity gradients of the VDF, the collisionless hypothesis may fail locally in velocity space. Here, the existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can increase locally due to the velocity space deformation of the particle velocity distribution. In particular, by means of Eulerian simulations of collisional relaxation of a spatially homogeneous force-free plasma, in which collisions among particles of the same species are modeled through the complete Landau operator, we show that the system entropy growth occurs over several time scales, inversely proportional to the steepness of the velocity gradients in the VDF. We report clear evidences that fine velocity structures are dissipated by collisions in a time much shorter than global non-Maxwellian features, like, for example, temperature anisotropies. Moreover we indicate that, if small-scale structures

  7. On a time varying fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    By employing Dirac LNH, and a further generalization by Berman (GLNH), we estimate how should vary the total number of nucleons, the energy density, Newton Gravitational constant, the cosmological constant, the magnetic permeability and electric permitivity, of the Universe,in order to account for the experimentally observed time variation of the fine structure constant. As a bonus,we find an acceptable value for the deceleration parameter of the present Universe, compatible with the Supernovae observations.

  8. Fine structure of fields in 2D photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2006-01-01

    We resolve fine structure of fields in a single-row missing photonic crystal waveguide by finite-difference time-domain modelling and SNOM measurements. Both linear dispersion and slow-light regimes in proximity of the cutoff are addressed in the analysis....

  9. The Fine Structure of Equity-Index Option Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bondarenko, Oleg; Todorov, Viktor;

    We analyze the high-frequency dynamics of S&P 500 equity-index option prices by constructing an assortment of implied volatility measures. This allows us to infer the underlying fine structure behind the innovations in the latent state variables driving the movements of the volatility surface. In...

  10. Fine structure of synapses on dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFrotscher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Golgi’s Reazione Nera led to the discovery of dendritic spines, small appendages originating from dendritic shafts. With the advent of electron microscopy (EM they were identified as sites of synaptic contact. Later it was found that changes in synaptic strength were associated with changes in the shape of dendritic spines. While live-cell imaging was advantageous in monitoring the time course of such changes in spine structure, EM is still the best method for the simultaneous visualization of all cellular components, including actual synaptic contacts, at high resolution. Immunogold labeling for EM reveals the precise localization of molecules in relation to synaptic structures. Previous EM studies of spines and synapses were performed in tissue subjected to aldehyde fixation and dehydration in ethanol, which is associated with protein denaturation and tissue shrinkage. It has remained an issue to what extent fine structural details are preserved when subjecting the tissue to these procedures. In the present review, we report recent studies on the fine structure of spines and synapses using high-pressure freezing (HPF, which avoids protein denaturation by aldehydes and results in an excellent preservation of ultrastructural detail. In these studies, HPF was used to monitor subtle fine-structural changes in spine shape associated with chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP at identified hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Changes in spine shape result from reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We report that cLTP was associated with decreased immunogold labeling for phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing protein. Phosphorylation of cofilin renders it unable to depolymerize F-actin, which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Decreased levels of p-cofilin, in turn, suggest increased actin turnover, possibly underlying the changes in spine shape associated with cLTP. The findings reviewed here establish HPF as

  11. High resolution spectrometer for extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the 6 keV to 15 keV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, U.

    2016-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission-crystal spectrometer has been developed with high crystal resolving power in the 6 keV-15 keV energy range and sufficient sensitivity to record single-shot spectra from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Titan laser and other comparable or more energetic lasers. The spectrometer capabilities were tested by recording the W L transitions from a laboratory source and the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum through a Cu foil.

  12. Fine Structure Constant: Theme With Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Muniz, C R; Tahim, M O; Vieira, H S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatial variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ due to the presence of a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source. The procedure consists of calculating the solution including the energy eigenvalues of a massive scalar field around that source, considering the weak-field regimen, which yields the gravitational analog of the atomic Bohr levels. From this result, we obtain several values for the effective $\\alpha$ by considering some scenarios of semi-classical and quantum gravities. Constraints on the parameters of the involved theories are calculated from astrophysical observations of the white dwarf emission spectra. Such constraints are compared with those ones obtained in the literature.

  13. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  14. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  15. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...... of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively...

  16. Molecular Eigensolution Symmetry Analysis and Fine Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Harter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of high-symmetry molecules contain fine and superfine level cluster structure related to J-tunneling between hills and valleys on rovibronic energy surfaces (RES. Such graphic visualizations help disentangle multi-level dynamics, selection rules, and state mixing effects including widespread violation of nuclear spin symmetry species. A review of RES analysis compares it to that of potential energy surfaces (PES used in Born-Oppenheimer approximations. Both take advantage of adiabatic coupling in order to visualize Hamiltonian eigensolutions. RES of symmetric and D2 asymmetric top rank-2-tensor Hamiltonians are compared with Oh spherical top rank-4-tensor fine-structure clusters of 6-fold and 8-fold tunneling multiplets. Then extreme 12-fold and 24-fold multiplets are analyzed by RES plots of higher rank tensor Hamiltonians. Such extreme clustering is rare in fundamental bands but prevalent in hot bands, and analysis of its superfine structure requires more efficient labeling and a more powerful group theory. This is introduced using elementary examples involving two groups of order-6 (C6 and D3~C3v, then applied to families of Oh clusters in SF6 spectra and to extreme clusters.

  17. Magnetic Tension of Sunspot Fine Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatakrishnan, P

    2010-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of sunspots depends critically on its magnetic topology and is dominated by magnetic forces. Tension force is one component of the Lorentz force which balances the gradient of magnetic pressure in force-free configurations. We employ the tension term of the Lorentz force to clarify the structure of sunspot features like penumbral filaments, umbral light bridges and outer penumbral fine structures. We compute vertical component of tension term of Lorentz force over two active regions namely NOAA AR 10933 and NOAA AR 10930 observed on 05 January 2007 and 12 December 2006 respectively. The former is a simple while latter is a complex active region with highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL). The vector magnetograms used are obtained from Hinode(SOT/SP). We find an inhomogeneous distribution of tension with both positive and negative signs in various features of the sunspots. The existence of positive tension at locations of lower field strength and higher inclination is compatible...

  18. Metallicity Diagnostics with Infrared Fine-Structure Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Tohru; Marconi, Alessandro; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Although measuring the gas metallicity in galaxies at various redshifts is crucial to constrain galaxy evolutionary scenarios, only rest-frame optical emission lines have been generally used to measure the metallicity. This has prevented us to accurately measure the metallicity of dust-obscured galaxies, and accordingly to understand the chemical evolution of dusty populations, such as ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Here we propose diagnostics of the gas metallicity based on infrared fine structure emission lines, which are nearly unaffected by dust extinction even the most obscured systems. Specifically, we focus on fine-structure lines arising mostly from HII regions, not in photo-dissociation regions, to minimize the dependence and uncertainties of the metallicity diagnostics from various physical parameters. Based on photoionization models, we show that the emission-line flux ratio of ([OIII]51.80+[OIII]88.33)/[NIII]57.21 is an excellent tracer of the gas metallicity. The individual line ratios [OIII]51...

  19. Fine coal measurement needs for improved control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, B.; O' Brien, M. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2010-07-01

    The monitoring and management of fine coal circuits in coal preparation plants is limited in current practice. As part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) Intelligent Plant Project (C11069), the relationships between the main operational and control factors for the unit operations and the circuit and the performance indicators have been identified. The unit operations examined included desliming (hydrocyclones and sieve bends), small coal cleaning (spirals and hydraulic separators), flotation, and dewatering (vacuum filters, centrifuges, and thickeners). These relationships were then used to assist in the identification of the important parameters to be measured and the preferred level of accuracy required to be useful. An important issue was the interconnection between the various unit operations and the potential impact of an upstream problem on the subsequent performance of downstream units. Analysis with the relationships showed that the flow rate of respective feed slurries and the solids content were found to be significant variables. This article will discuss this analysis and provide some case studies.

  20. The origin of the distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Pawel

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are sounds detected in the ear canal which are generated by the nonlinear processes in the inner ear (cochlea) in response to the external stimulation of two or more tones (primaries). Their generation region in the cochlea can be systematically changed by varying the primary frequencies, and they are currently being evaluated for possible clinical use in screening for hearing defects. The phase and amplitude of various orders of DPOAEs of frequencies, f/sb [dp]=f1-n(f2-f1),/ (n=1,2,/...), were measured in human subjects for two- tone stimuli of frequencies f1 and f2 (>f1). A number of experimental paradigms (fixed primary ratio f2/f1, fixed f1, fixed f2, and fixed f/sb [dp]) were used to investigate the nature of peaks and valleys (fine structure) of DPOAEs in their phase and amplitude dependence on the primary frequencies. This fine structure must be taken into account in any potential clinical applications of DPOAEs. The experimental results largely support a model in which the fine structure stems from interference at the base of the cochlea between distortion product (DP) components coming from the primary DPOAE source region (around the f2 tonotopic place) and components coming from the DP tonotopic place (via reflection of an apically moving DP wave). The spectral periodicity of the fine structures for several orders of apical DPOAEs corresponds to a tonotopic displacement of about 0.4 mm along the basilar membrane (BM) (0.4 bark). In agreement with the reaction model, this spectral spacing is also characteristic of synchronous evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectra as well as the microstructure of the hearing threshold. Approximate analytic expressions for the mechanisms which are responsible for the fine structure are used to interpret the data.

  1. The fine structure constant and numerical alchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    We comment on past and more recent efforts to derive a formula yielding the fine structure constant in terms of integers and transcendent numbers. We analyse these "exoteric" attitudes and describe the myths regarding {\\alpha}, which seems to have very ancient roots, tracing back to Cabbala and to medieval alchemic conceptions. We discuss the obsession for this constant developed by Pauli and the cultural "environment" in which such an "obsession" grew. We also derive a simple formula for {\\alpha} in terms of two numbers {\\pi} and 137 only. The formula we propose reproduces the experimental values up to the last significant digit, it has not any physical motivation and is the result of an alchemic combination of numbers. We make a comparison with other existing formulae, discuss the relevant limits of validity by comparison with the experimental values and discuss a criterion to recover a physical meaning, if existing, from their mathematical properties.

  2. The Fine Structure of the Parathyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Jerry Steven

    1958-01-01

    The fine structure of the parathyroid of the macaque is described, and is correlated with classical parathyroid cytology as seen in the light microscope. The two parenchymal cell types, the chief cells and the oxyphil cells, have been recognized in electron micrographs. The chief cells contain within their cytoplasm mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi bodies similar to those found in other endocrine tissues as well as frequent PAS-positive granules. The juxtanuclear body of the light microscopists is identified with stacks of parallel lamellar elements of the endoplasmic reticulum of the ergastoplasmic or granular type. Oxyphil cells are characterized by juxtanuclear bodies and by numerous mitochondria found throughout their cytoplasm. Puzzling lamellar whorls are described in the cytoplasm of some oxyphil cells. The endothelium of parathyroid capillaries is extremely thin in some areas and contains numerous fenestrations as well as an extensive system of vesicles. The possible significance of these structures is discussed. The connective tissue elements found in the perivascular spaces of macaque parathyroid are described. PMID:13502423

  3. Fine structures in hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Torrente, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are weak sounds that can be recorded in the external ear. They are generated by the active amplification of the outer hair cells, and are by many believed to reflect the status of the most vulnerable part of the hearing better than ordinary behavioral thresholds...... of these two components. The result is characterized by a distinct fine structure pattern, and generally doesn't directly reflect the status of the hearing at one point on the basilar membrane. The behavioral threshold, on the other hand, is more directly related to given points along the basilar membrane......, but reflects the combined status of outer and inner hair cells. Thus the combination of DPOAE measurements and hearing thresholds has the potential to  provide better basis for hearing diagnosis. In the present study, both DPOAE measurements and hearing thresholds are determined with a fine frequency...

  4. Implications of a Time-Varying Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, A

    2002-01-01

    Much work has been done after the possibility of a fine structure constant being time-varying. It has been taken as an indication of a time-varying speed of light. Here we prove that this is not the case. We prove that the speed of light may or may not vary with time, independently of the fine structure constant being constant or not. Time variations of the speed of light, if present, have to be derived by some other means and not from the fine structure constant. No implications based on the possible variations of the fine structure constant can be imposed on the speed of light.

  5. Cell fine structure and function - Past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moran, H.

    1970-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of nerve membrane fine structure, discussing cell membrane multienzyme and macromolecular energy and information transduction, protein synthesis and nucleic acids interrelations

  6. Unique Physically Anchored Cryptographic Theoretical Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant {\\alpha} Matching both the g/2 and Interferometric High-Precision Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Charles Kirkham

    2010-01-01

    The fine-structure constant {\\alpha}, the dimensionless number that represents the strength of electromagnetic coupling in the limit of sufficiently low energy interactions, is the crucial fundamental physical parameter that governs a nearly limitless range of phenomena involving the interaction of radiation with materials. Ideally, the apparatus of physical theory should be competent to provide a calculational procedure that yields a quantitatively correct value for {\\alpha} and the physical basis for its computation. This study presents the first demonstration of an observationally anchored theoretical procedure that predicts a unique value for {\\alpha} that stands in full agreement with the best (~370 ppt) high-precision experimental determinations. In a directly connected cryptographic computation, the method that gives these results also yields the magnitude of the cosmological constant {\\Omega}{\\Lambda} in conformance with the observational data and the condition of perfect flatness ({\\Omega}{\\Lambda} +...

  7. Fine-Scale Filamentary Structure in Coronal Streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Richard; Armstrong, John W.; Bird, Michael K.; Paetzold, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Doppler scintillation measurements of a coronal streamer lasting several solar rotations have been conducted by Ulysses in 1991 over a heliocentric distance range of 14-77 R(sub 0). By showing that the solar corona is filamentary, and that Doppler frequency is the radio counterpart of white-light eclipse pictures processed to enhance spatial gradients, it is demonstrated that Doppler scintillation measurements provide the high spatial resolution that has long eluded white-light coronagraph measurements. The region of enhanced scintillation, spanning an angular extent of 1.8 deg in heliographic longitude, coincides with the radially expanding streamer stalk and represents filamentary structure with scale sizes at least as small as 340 km (0.5 sec) when extrapolated to the Sun. Within the stalk of the streamer, the fine-scale structure corresponding to scale sizes in the range of 20-340 km at the Sun and associated with closed magnetic fields amounts to a few percent of the mean density, while outside the stalk, the fine-scale structure associated with open fields is an order of magnitude lower. Clustering of filamentary structure that takes place within the stalk of the streamer is suggestive of multiple current sheets. Comparison with ISEE 3 in situ plasma measurements shows that significant evolution resulting from dynamic interaction with increasing heliocentric distance takes place by the time streamers reach Earth orbit.

  8. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  9. Topological Quantization in Units of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejko, Joseph; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Station Q, UCSB /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC; Drew, H.Dennis; /Maryland U.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    Fundamental topological phenomena in condensed matter physics are associated with a quantized electromagnetic response in units of fundamental constants. Recently, it has been predicted theoretically that the time-reversal invariant topological insulator in three dimensions exhibits a topological magnetoelectric effect quantized in units of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/{h_bar}c. In this Letter, we propose an optical experiment to directly measure this topological quantization phenomenon, independent of material details. Our proposal also provides a way to measure the half-quantized Hall conductances on the two surfaces of the topological insulator independently of each other.

  10. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Antoniak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic and magnetic properties strongly depend on the structure of the material, especially on the crystal symmetry and chemical environment. In nanoparticles, the break of symmetry at the surface may yield different physical properties with respect to the corresponding bulk material. A useful tool to investigate the electronic structure, magnetic behaviour and local crystallographic structure is X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this review, recent developments in the field of extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and in the analysis methods for structural investigations of bimetallic nanoparticles are highlighted. The standard analysis based on Fourier transforms is compared to the relatively new field of wavelet transforms that have the potential to outperform traditional analysis, especially in bimetallic alloys. As an example, the lattice expansion and inhomogeneous alloying found in FePt nanoparticles is presented, and this is discussed below in terms of the influence of employed density functional theory calculations on the magnetic properties.

  11. The fine structure line deficit in S 140

    CERN Document Server

    Ossenkopf, Volker; Okada, Yoko; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; van der Tak, Floris F S; Simon, Robert; Pütz, Patrick; Güsten, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We try to understand the gas heating and cooling in the S 140 star forming region by spatially and spectrally resolving the distribution of the main cooling lines with GREAT/SOFIA. We mapped the fine structure lines of [OI] (63 {\\mu}m) and [CII] (158 {\\mu}m) and the rotational transitions of CO 13-12 and 16-15 with GREAT/SOFIA and analyzed the spatial and velocity structure to assign the emission to individual heating sources. We measure the optical depth of the [CII] line and perform radiative transfer computations for all observed transitions. By comparing the line intensities with the far-infrared continuum we can assess the total cooling budget and measure the gas heating efficiency. The main emission of fine structure lines in S 140 stems from a 8.3'' region close to the infrared source IRS 2 that is not prominent at any other wavelength. It can be explained by a photon-dominated region (PDR) structure around the embedded cluster if we assume that the [OI] line intensity is reduced by a factor seven due ...

  12. Fine-structure constant constraints on Bekenstein-type models

    CERN Document Server

    Leal, P M M; Ventura, L B

    2014-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of dimensionless fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$, are an area of much increased recent activity, following some indications of possible spacetime variations at the few parts per million level. Here we obtain updated constraints on the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo model, which is arguably the simplest model allowing for $\\alpha$ variations. Recent accurate spectroscopic measurements allow us to improve previous constraints by about an order of magnitude. We briefly comment on the dependence of the results on the data sample, as well as on the improvements expected from future facilities.

  13. Turbulence Fine Structure, Intermittency, and Large-Scale Interactions in the Stable Boundary Layer and Residual Layer: Correlative High-Resolution Measurements and Direct Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The research employed stable boundary layer measurements using the DataHawk UAV and high-resolution direct numerical...simulations ( DNS ) to examine the interactions and instabilities occurring in multi-scale flows that drive intermittent turbulence events in the stable...atmosphere. Both measurements and the DNS revealed the occurrence and persistence of sheet-and-layer structures in the temperature and velocity fields that

  14. Fine-Structured Plasma Flows in Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, O.; Velli, M.; Landi, S.

    2008-12-01

    Plasmas in prominences (filaments against the disk) exhibit a very wide spectrum of different kind of motions. Here we analyze the plasma motions inside prominences observed by Hinode/SOT during 2006-2007 with focus on two spectacular examples from 25 April 2007 in Halpha line and 30 November 2006 in CaH line and then carry out some simulations of the possible dynamics. Most filaments are composed of fine threads of similar dimensions rooted in the chromosphere/photosphere. Recent observations of counter-streaming motions together with oscillations along the threads provide strong evidence that the threads are field aligned. To more correctly interpret the nature of observed downward flows of dense and cool plasma as well as the upward dark flows of less dense plasma, we take into account the geometry of the prominence structures and the viewing angle. The dark upflows exhibit turbulent patterns such as vortex formation and shedding that are consistent with the motions predicted by instabilities of the interchange type. Sometimes an appearance of dark motions is generated by dark voids opened in the prominence sheet after initiation of nearby downflow streams, implying mass drainage in the downflows. Based on 304 A observations, there is more filament mass in prominences than is visible in either the Halpha or CaH lines. The source of the downward moving plasma may be located either higher above the visible upper edge of the prominence or on the far end of the prominence spine. The bright downward motions of the more cool and dense plasma may be partly due to the counter-streaming motion along the magnetic fields lines and also to the presence of Rayleigh-Taylor type or ballooning/interchange instabilities in the upper regions of the prominence. Transverse motions of filament threads caused by magnetic instabilities constantly provide the conditions for reconnection in the low part of the corona and the chromosphere. We suggest that the combination of flows along

  15. The direct measurement of the 3 3P0-3 3P1 fine-structure interval and the gJ-factor of atomic silicon by laser magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, K. M.; Beltran-Lopez, V.; Ley-Koo, E.; Inguscio, M.

    1984-01-01

    The J - 1 fine structure interval and the g-factor of the 3P1 state have been determined with high precision in the present laser magnetic resonance measurements of the ground 3p2 3P multiplet of atomic Si. Delta-E(3P1-3P0) = 2,311,755.6(7) MHz, and gJ(3P1) = 1.500830(70). Single-configuration calculations of gJ for 3P1 and 3P2 yield a value for the latter which, at 1.501095, is noted to differ by an unexpectedly large margin from the experimental value.

  16. Fine Structure of Solar Acoustic Oscillations Due to Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, P. R.; Dziembowski, W.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the fine structure of high order, low degree five minute period solar oscillations following from various postulated forms of spherical rotation is predicted. The first and second order effects of rotation are included.

  17. Herschel Galactic plane survey of [NII] fine structure emission

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Paul F; Langer, William D; Pineda, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    We present the first large scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([NII]) at 122 $\\mu$m and 205 $\\mu$m. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines-of-sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10$^{-8}$ - 10$^{-7}$ $W$m$^{-2}$sr$^{-1}$ level over the range -60$^{o}$ $\\leq$ $l$ $\\leq$ 60$^{o}$. The $rms$ of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [NII] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding $n(e)$ largely in the range 10 to 50 cm$^{-3}$ with an average value of 29 cm$^{-3}$ and N$^+$ colum...

  18. Theoretical Study of Relativistic Retardation Effects: the Abnormal Fine Structure of O Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hao; HAN Xiao-Ying; WANG Xiao-Lu; LI Ji

    2007-01-01

    Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock and relativistic configuration interaction methods with high-order corrections, we report our precise calculation results of the fine-structure energy levels of the ground-state configuration of OⅡ(1s22s22p3). Our calculated fine-structure splittings of 2D3/2,5/2 and 2P1/2,3/2 are abnormal. We elucidate that the transverse (Breit) interaction, i.e. relativistic retardation effect, plays an important role for the abnormal fine-structure splittings. Our calculation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  19. Photoelectric Measurement of the Fineness of Raw Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-chun FEI

    2010-01-01

    In order to precisely measure the diameters for obtaining the fineness of rolling raw silk, the physical features of raw silk are analyzed. By means of Fresnel principle, diffractions caused by different transparent raw silk filaments are analyzed and simulated. Image data of raw silk filament measured by digital CMOS camera are analyzed and processed for obtaining the precise diameters of the filament with the relative error of less than 1%. On the assumption of appropriate elliptic cross-section of the filament, the cross-section area is calculated as the fineness of the filament. Measurement experiments are carried out. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for photoelectric measuring the fineness of raw silk.

  20. Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant Driven by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, L A; Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim

    2003-01-01

    There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ may have been measurably smaller for redshifts $z>2.$ Analyses of other data ($^{149}$Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of $^{187}$Re $\\beta$-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of $\\alpha$ in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of $\\alpha$ to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with WMAP observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle.

  1. Time variation of the fine structure constant driven by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim

    2003-10-01

    There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant α may have been measurably smaller for redshifts z>2. Analyses of other data (149Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of 187Re β-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of α in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of α to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle.

  2. The Anthropic Principle and numerical coincidences involving the cosmological, gravitational and fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Eaves, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Christian Beck has proposed a set of Shannon-Khinchin axioms to derive a formula for the cosmological constant, {\\Lambda}. We discuss this result in relation to numerical coincidences involving the measured values of {\\Lambda} and the gravitational and fine structure constants, G and {\\alpha}. The empirical formulae that inter-relate the three constants suggest that the measured values of G and {\\Lambda} are consistent with the apparent anthropic fine-tuning of {\\alpha}.

  3. Varying Fine-Structure Constant and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y

    2003-01-01

    We start with a brief account of the latest analysis of the Oklo phenomenon providing the still most stringent constraint on time-variability of the fine- structure constant $\\alpha$. Comparing this with the recent result from the measurement of distant QSO's appears to indicate a non-uniform time-dependence, which we argue to be related to another recent finding of the accelerating universe. This view is implemented in terms of the scalar-tensor theory, applied specifically to the small but nonzero cosmological constant. Our detailed calculation shows that these two phenomena can be understood in terms of a common origin, a particular behavior of the scalar field, dilaton. We also sketch how this theoretical approach makes it appropriate to revisit non- Newtonian gravity featuring small violation of Weak Equivalence Principle at medium distances.

  4. Varying Fine-Structure Constant and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    We start with a brief account of the latest analysis of the Oklo phenomenon providing the still most stringent constraint on time variability of the fine-structure constant α. Comparing this with the recent result from the measurement of distant QSO's appears to indicate a non-uniform time-dependence, which we argue to be related to another recent finding of the accelerating universe. This view is implemented in terms of the scalar-tensor theory, applied specifically to the small but nonzero cosmological constant. Our detailed calculation shows that these two phenomena can be understood in terms of a common origin, a particular behavior of the scalar field, dilaton. We also sketch how this theoretical approach makes it appropriate to revisit non-Newtonian gravity featuring small violation of Weak Equivalence Principle at medium distances.

  5. Effects of cellular fine structure on scattered light pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caigen; Capjack, Clarence E

    2006-06-01

    Biological cells are complex in both morphological and biochemical structure. The effects of cellular fine structure on light scattered from cells are studied by employing a three-dimensional code named AETHER which solves the full set of Maxwell equations by using the finite-difference time-domain method. It is shown that changes in cellular fine structure can cause significant changes in the scattered light pattern over particular scattering angles. These changes potentially provide the possibility for distinguishability of cellular intrastructures. The effects that features of different intrastructure have on scattered light are discussed from the viewpoint of diagnosing cellular fine structure. Finally, we discuss scattered light patterns for lymphocyte-like cells and basophil-like cells.

  6. UAl2 : Fine structure of the f bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R.A. de; Koelling, D.D.; Weger, M.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic structure of the C15, or cubic-Laves-phase material, UAl2 has been calculated using the linearized relativistic augmented-plane-wave method. The anomalous behavior of the electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility can be explained by the fine structure of the

  7. Laser phase-detector and counter for fine displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, R. T.; Wang, C. P.

    A simple technique for the measurement of fine displacement has been developed. With use of an HeNe laser, an optical phase-detector, and counter, a displacement accuracy of 300 nm has been demonstrated over a range of 2 cm.

  8. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine

  9. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    We present the first 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence obtained from nonlinear force-free field simulations, with a detailed description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Through the use of a novel radiative transfer visualization technique for the Hα line such plasma-loaded magnetic field model produces synthetic images of the modeled prominence comparable with high-resolution observations. This allows us for the first time to use a single technique to consistently study, in both emission on the limb and absorption against the solar disk, the fine structures of prominences/filaments produced by a magnetic field model.

  10. Mid frequency shallow water fine-grained sediment attenuation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Dosso, Stan E

    2013-07-01

    Attenuation is perhaps the most difficult sediment acoustic property to measure, but arguably one of the most important for predicting passive and active sonar performance. Measurement techniques can be separated into "direct" measurements (e.g., via sediment probes, sediment cores, and laboratory studies on "ideal" sediments) which are typically at high frequencies, O(10(4)-10(5)) Hz, and "indirect" measurements where attenuation is inferred from long-range propagation or reflection data, generally O(10(2)-10(3)) Hz. A frequency gap in measurements exists in the 600-4000 Hz band and also a general acknowledgement that much of the historical measurements on fine-grained sediments have been biased due to a non-negligible silt and sand component. A shallow water measurement technique using long range reverberation is critically explored. An approximate solution derived using energy flux theory shows that the reverberation is very sensitive to depth-integrated attenuation in a fine-grained sediment layer and separable from most other unknown geoacoustic parameters. Simulation using Bayesian methods confirms the theory. Reverberation measurements across a 10 m fine-grained sediment layer yield an attenuation of 0.009 dB/m/kHz with 95% confidence bounds of 0.006-0.013 dB/m/kHz. This is among the lowest values for sediment attenuation reported in shallow water.

  11. HERSCHEL GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY OF [N ii] FINE STRUCTURE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L., E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10{sup −8}–10{sup −7} Wm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} level over the range –60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10–50 cm{sup −3} with an average value of 29 cm{sup −3} and N{sup +} column densities 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  12. Galaxy clusters, type Ia supernovae and the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L; Colaço, L R; Alcaniz, J S; Landau, S J

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, measurements of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect can be combined with observations of the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters to estimate the angular diameter distance to these structures. In this paper, we show that this technique depends on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. Therefore, if $\\alpha$ is a time-dependent quantity, e.g., $\\alpha=\\alpha_0 \\phi(z)$, where $\\phi$ is a function of redshift, we argue that current data do not provide the real angular diameter distance, $D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$, to the cluster but instead $D_A^{data}(z) = \\phi(z)^2 D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$. We use this result to derive constraints on a possible variation of $\\alpha$ for a class of dilaton runaway models considering a sample of 25 measurements of $D_A^{data}(z)$ in redshift range $0.023 < z < 0.784$ and estimates of $D_{\\rm{A}}(z)$ from current type Ia supernovae observations. We find no significant indication of variation of $\\alpha$ with the present data.

  13. Theory of the fine structure of auroral kilometric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent data from ISEE 1 show auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with finely separated bands in frequency. The observation that the AKR fine structure frequency separation is about equal to the ion cyclotron frequency at the AKR source is strong evidence for the interaction of AKR and electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves in the source, as proposed by Grabbe et al. (1980) to explain the origin of AKR. It is pointed out that no other wave of frequency close to the band separation is known to exist in the auroral source region. The fine structure observed in the source region AKR is the first evidence for EIC waves in the lower source region (3000 - 5000 km attitude), as required in the theory of Grabbe et al.

  14. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortunat Młodzianowski; Krystyna Idzikowska

    2014-01-01

    The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of bar...

  15. FINE STRUCTURE OF RAT INTRAFUSAL MUSCLE FIBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, William K.

    1972-01-01

    An ultrastructural study has been undertaken on the equatorial (sensory) region of the rat muscle spindle. Two kinds of intrafusal muscle fibers, a nuclear bag fiber and a nuclear chain fiber, have been identified in this region on the basis of fiber diameter, nuclear disposition, and M-band appearance. The large-diameter nuclear bag fiber contains an aggregation of tightly packed vesicular nuclei, while the small-diameter nuclear chain fiber contains a single row of elongated, well-separated nuclei. Both muscle fibers contain an attenuated peripheral cylinder of myofilaments surrounding a central core of sarcoplasm. Elements of the sarcotubular system, dilatations of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the presence of other sarcoplasmic organelles and inclusions are considerably more abundant in the nuclear chain fiber than in the nuclear bag fiber. Leptomeric organelles and membrane-bounded sarcoplasmic granules are present in both intrafusal fiber types and may be situated between the myofibrils or in intimate association with the sarcolemma. The functional significance of some of these structural findings is discussed. PMID:4257999

  16. Binding energy and fine structure of the He- ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Lin; ZHU; Jing-jing; GOU; Bing-cong

    2007-01-01

    The variational method using a multiconfiguration wavefunction is carried out on the core-excited state 1s2s2p 4P0 for helium negative ion, including mass polarization and relativistic corrections. Binding energy and fine structure are reported. The results are compared with other theoretical and experimental date in the literature.

  17. Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's Atmosphere: An Experiment in Physical and Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of atmospheric oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure physical chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…

  18. Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's Atmosphere: An Experiment in Physical and Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of atmospheric oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure physical chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…

  19. Law of Localised Fine Structure with application in mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Łącki, Mateusz Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brand new methodology to deal with isotopic fine structure calculations. By using the Poisson approximation in an entirely novel way, we introduce mathematical elegance into the discussion on the trade-off between resolution and tractability. Our considerations unify the concepts of fine-structure, equatransneutronic configurations, and aggregate isotopic structure in a natural and simple way. We show how to boost the theoretical resolution in a seemingly costless way by several orders of magnitude with respect to the already very efficient algorithms operating on isotopic aggregates. We also develop an effective new way to obtain the important peaks in the most disaggregated isotopic structure localised in a precise region in the mass domain.

  20. Capturing a photoexcited molecular structure through time-domain x-ray absorption fine structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. X.; Jaeger, W. J. H.; Jennings, G.; Gosztola, D. J.; Munkholm, A.; Hessler, J. P.

    2001-04-13

    The determination of the structure of transient molecules, such as photoexcited states, in disordered media (such as in solution) usually requires methods with high temporal resolution. The transient molecular structure of a reaction intermediate produced by photoexcitation of NiTPP-L{sub 2} (NiTPP, nickeltetraphenylporphyrin; L, piperidine) in solution was determined by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) data obtained on a 14-nanosecond time scale from a third-generation synchrotron source. The XAFS measurements confirm that photoexcitation leads to the rapid removal of both axial ligands to produce a transient square-planar intermediate, NiTPP, with a lifetime of 28 nanoseconds. The transient structure of the photodissociated intermediate is nearly identical to that of the ground state NiTPP, suggesting that the intermediate adopts the same structure as the ground state in a noncoordinating solvent before it recombines with two ligands to form the more stable octahedrally coordinated NiTPP-L{sub 2}.

  1. Investigation of fine and complex vortex circulation structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The formation and evolution of fine and complicated vortex circulation structures were investigated using a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic barotropic model simulation.We find that the highly localized asymmetric and complex configuration of energy transfer flux between large-and small-scale components is caused by the nonlinear interaction between a large-scale vortex with an initial axi-symmetric flow and four beta meso-scale vortices.The complex structure is characterized by a fine pattern,which contains seven closed systems with spatial scales of less than 100 km,embedded in a positive flux wave train and a negative wave train,respectively.The average wind speed decreased with time in the positive flux region,but was nearly unchanged in the negative flux region.This pattern reveals the evolutionary asymmetry and localization of wind speed of the major vortex.The track of the major vortex center has a trend toward the center of the negative flux center,indicating that there is a certain relation between the complex structure of the energy transfer flux and the motion of the major vortex center.These results imply that the formation and evolution of the fine and complex structure should be attributed to the nonlinear interaction between the vortices at different spatial scales.

  2. Fine structure constant variation or space-time anisotropy?

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations on quasar absorption spectra supply evidences for variation of fine structure constant $\\alpha$. In this paper, we propose another interpretation of the observational data on quasar absorption spectra: a scenario with space-time inhomogeneity and anisotropy but uniform fine structure constant. Maybe the space-time is characterized by Finsler geometry instead of Riemann one. Finsler geometry admits less symmetries than Riemann geometry does. We investigate the Finslerian geodesic equations in Randers space-time (a special Finsler space-time). It is found that the cosmological redshift in this space-time is deviated from the one in general relativity. The modification term to redshift could be generally revealed as a monopole plus dipole function about space-time locations and directions. We suggest that this modification corresponds to the observed spatial monopole and Australian Dipole in quasar absorption spectra.

  3. Possible Cosmological Implications of Time Varying Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We make use of Dirac LNH and results for a time varying fine structure constant in order to derive possible laws of variation for speed of light, the number of nucleons in the Universe, energy density and gravitational constant. By comparing with experimental bounds on G variation, we find that the deceleration paramenter of the present Universe is negative. This is coherent with recent Supernovae observations.

  4. Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.

  5. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine-structure: An insight into the ear asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhamini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE as a measure of hearing sensitivity is common in clinical practice. However, use of a more informative DPOAE fine-structure has been limited due to non-reliability of DPOAE fine-structure. Aim: The current study was aimed at testing the interaural differences between the DPOAE fine-structure across three age groups. Settings and Design: Acoustically treated room with a calibrated dual channel audiometer (Orbiter 922 along with TDH-39 headphones and B-71 bone vibrator. GSI Tympstar was used for tympanometry and acoustic reflex measurements while ′ILO V6′ OAE analyzer was used for recording of DPOAE and DPOAE fine-structure. Material and Methods : A total of 98 subjects with normal peripheral hearing sensitivity were tested for DPOAE fine-structure. The three age groups consisted of young (8-18 years; n = 50, middle aged (30-40 years; n = 30, and elderly (50-60 years; n = 18. DPOAE fine-structure was studied at 8 points per octave on a total of 25 frequencies from 1000 to 8000 Hz. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the amplitudes at frequencies between 2000 and 3000 Hz. This was evident irrespective of the age groups. There was also a decrease in DPOAE amplitude in elderly group. Conclusions: Interaural asymmetry can be attributed as a reason to these findings and it occurred mostly in the speech perception frequencies. Reduced amplitude of DPAOE in the elderly group can be attributed to presbycusis.

  6. Fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption in semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monozon, B. S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Wannier-Mott excitons in a semiconductor layered superlattice (SL) are investigated analytically for the case that the period of the superlattice is much smaller than the 2D exciton Bohr radius. Additionally we assume the presence of a longitudinal external static electric field directed parallel to the SL axis. The exciton states and the optical absorption coefficient are derived in the tight-binding and adiabatic approximations. Strong and weak electric fields providing spatially localized and extended electron and hole states, respectively, are studied. The dependencies of the exciton states and the exciton absorption spectrum on the SL parameters and the electric field strength are presented in an explicit form. We focus on the fine structure of the ground quasi-2D exciton level formed by the series of closely spaced energy levels adjacent from the high frequencies. These levels are related to the adiabatically slow relative exciton longitudinal motion governed by the potential formed by the in-plane exciton state. It is shown that the external electric fields compress the fine structure energy levels, decrease the intensities of the corresponding optical peaks and increase the exciton binding energy. A possible experimental study of the fine structure of the exciton electroabsorption is discussed.

  7. Measurements of The Neutrino Flux Using Fine-Grained Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinchun; Mishra, Sanjib; Petti, Roberto; Duyang, Hongyue; LBNE Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The reference design of the near detector for the LBNE/F experiment is a high-resolution Fine-Grained Tracker (FGT) capable of precisely measuring all four species of neutrinos: νμ, νe, νμ and νe. The goals of the FGT is to constrain the systematic errors, below the corresponding statistical error in the far detector, for all oscillation studies; and to conduct a panoply of precision measurements and searches in neutrino physics. We present sensitivity studies - critical to constraining the systematics in oscillation searches - of measurements of the absolute and relative neutrino flux using the various techniques: 1) neutrino electron NC (CC) scattering, 2) νμ proton QE scattering, 3) Coherent ρ production for absolute flux and 4) Low- ν method for relative flux.

  8. Fine structures of type III radio bursts observed by LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina; Marque, Christophe; Fallows, Richard; Mann, Gottfried; Vocks, Christian

    2017-04-01

    On August 25, 2014, NOAA AR 2146 produced the M2.0 class flare (peaked at 15:11 UT). The flare was associated with a coronal dimming, a EUV wave, a halo CME and a radio event observed by LOFAR (the LOw-Frequency Array). The radio event consisted of a type II, type III and type IV radio emissions. In this study, we focus on LOFAR observations of the type III bursts, generally considered to be radio signatures of fast electron beams propagating along open or quasi open field lines. The group of type III bursts was, as usually, observed during the impulsive phase of the flare. At first hand, type III bursts show no peculiarity, but the high frequency/time resolution LOFAR observations reveal that only few of these type III bursts have a smooth emission profile. The majority of bursts is strongly fragmented. Some show a structuring similar to type IIIb bursts, but on a smaller frequency scale, and others show a non-organized patchy structure which gives indication on the possibly related turbulence processes. Although fine structures of type III bursts were already reported, the wealth of fine structures, and the fragmentation of the radio emission observed in this August 25 event is unprecedented. We show that these LOFAR observations bring completely new insight and pose a new challenge for the physics of the acceleration of electron beams and associated emission processes.

  9. Optical measurement of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility for diamagnetic fine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kohki; Mogi, Iwao; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an apparatus that allows the observation of the transient rotational motion of fine particles under a high magnetic field in order to determine anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. The anisotropic susceptibilities of spherical nanoparticles of bismuth and commercially available carbon nanofibers were determined. The estimated Δχ = 3.9 × 10-5 of spherical bismuth nanoparticles with a diameter of 370 nm was fairly consistent with the value determined previously by the magnetic field dependence of diffraction peak intensity in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, but was slightly smaller than the value for the bulk crystal. In contrast, the transient behavior of carbon nanofibers did not obey the theoretical motion of a single crystal. The wide distribution of fiber lengths, the irregularity of the structure in the fiber, and the connections between the fibers are suggested for the anomalous behavior.

  10. Derivation of the fine structure constant using fractional dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfain, E

    2003-01-01

    Both classical and quantum electrodynamics assume that random fluctuations are absent from the steady-state evolution of the underlying physical system. Our work goes beyond this approximation and accounts for the continuous exposure to stochastic fluctuations. It is known that the asymptotic limit of quantum field dynamics, dominated by large and persistent perturbations, may be described as an anomalous diffusion process. We use fractional calculus as an appropriate tool to handle this highly non-trivial regime. It is shown that the fine structure constant can be recovered from the fractional evolution equation of the density matrix under standard normalization conditions.

  11. Thermal stability analysis of the fine structure of solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Pascal; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Schmieder, Brigitte; Raadu, Mickael A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear thermal stability of a 2D periodic structure (alternatively hot and cold) in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. The energy equation includes wave heating (assumed proportional to density), radiative cooling and both conduction parallel and orthogonal to magnetic lines. The equilibrium is perturbed at constant gas pressure. With parallel conduction only, it is found to be unstable when the length scale 1// is greater than 45 Mn. In that case, orthogonal conduction becomes important and stabilizes the structure when the length scale is smaller than 5 km. On the other hand, when the length scale is greater than 5 km, the thermal equilibrium is unstable, and the corresponding time scale is about 10,000 s: this result may be compared to observations showing that the lifetime of the fine structure of solar prominences is about one hour; consequently, our computations suggest that the size of the unresolved threads could be of the order of 10 km only.

  12. Fine structure of plastids during androgenesis in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of plastids was studied in the course of androgenesis in in the pollen of Hordeum vulgare L. It was found that these organelles occur in all stages of androgenesis. Their structure was simple and was frequently manifested on the cross section only by the presence of the envelope and matrix of different degree of density. Single thylakoids, nucleoid-like regions and starch grains were, however, also noted. The structure of plastids in embryoids formed from microspores of barley was compared with embryos developed from fertilized egg cell, and we did not found any fundamental differences between them. However, only plastid ribosomes were difficult to identify on ultrathin sections in embryoids and in the embryos.

  13. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  14. QED Based Calculation of the Fine Structure Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestone, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for what causes electrostatics, and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of λ, are assumed to interact with isolated electrons with a cross section of πλ2. This interaction is assumed to generate time-reversed virtual photons that are capable of seeking out and interacting with other electrons. This exchange of virtual photons between particles is assumed to generate and define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects the model presented here gives a fine structure constant of ~1/137 and an anomalous magnetic moment of the electron of ~0.00116. These calculations support the possibility that near-field corrections are the key to understanding the numerical value of the dimensionless fine structure constant.

  15. Black Holes and Quantum Theory: The Fine Structure Constant Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamical theory of space is further confirmed by showing that the effective “black hole” masses M BH in 19 spherical star systems, from globular clusters to galaxies, with masses M , satisfy the prediction that M BH = α 2 M , where α is the fine structure constant. As well the necessary and unique generalisations of the Schr ̈ odinger and Dirac equations permit the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, showing that gravity is a quantum effect of quantum matter interacting with the dynamical space. As well the necessary generalisation of Maxwell’s equations displays the observed light bending effects. Finally it is shown from the generalised Dirac equation where the spacetime mathematical formalism, and the accompanying geodesic prescription for matter trajectories, comes from. The new theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the “dark matter” effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

  16. Solar Radio Bursts with Spectral Fine Structures in Preflares

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Jing; Tan, Chengming; Simões, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    A good observation of preflare activities is important for us to understand the origin and triggering mechanism of solar flares, and to predict the occurrence of solar flares. This work presents the characteristics of microwave spectral fine structures as preflare activities of four solar flares observed by Ond\\v{r}ejov radio spectrograph in the frequency range of 0.8--2.0 GHz. We found that these microwave bursts which occurred 1--4 minutes before the onset of flares have spectral fine structures with relatively weak intensities and very short timescales. They include microwave quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) with very short period of 0.1-0.3 s and dot bursts with millisecond timescales and narrow frequency bandwidths. Accompanying these microwave bursts, there are filament motions, plasma ejection or loop brightening on the EUV imaging observations and non-thermal hard X-ray emission enhancements observed by RHESSI. These facts may reveal certain independent non-thermal energy releasing processes and partic...

  17. Varying fine structure "constant" and charged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, Jacob D

    2009-01-01

    Tension between varying fine-structure "constant'' alpha and charged black hole properties has been invoked in the past to place constraints on cosmological variability of alpha. However, the properties used are those of the standard Reissner-Nordstrom black holes; this ignores modifications of black hole structure that must result from alpha variability. To elucidate this issue we have derived, in 4-D general relativity, and using isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical variability of alpha which does not fix its overall scale. This solution coincides with a known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying alpha charged black holes are adherence to the "no hair'' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in a separate sector of the relevant metric. This last hints at the possib...

  18. [Morphogenesis and the fine structure of Stibiobacter senarmontii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, T A; Lialikova, N N

    1980-01-01

    The morphogenesis and fine structure of Stibiobacter senarmontii were studied during its cultivation in the autotrophic conditions of growth in a mineral medium as well as in a medium containing yeast extract. The morphology of the organism was shown to be variable. A young culture was represented mainly by rods with three flagella. Coccoid, club-shaped and branching forms were observed during aging of the culture. The cells multiplied by irregular division and by breaking along the partition of the parent cell. The latter process yielded cell aggregates looking like rings and hieroglyphs. Electronograms revealed a complex membrane apparatus, polyribosomes, large electron-transparent inclusions, and unknown electron-dense inclusions in the nuclear zone. The cell wall looked on cross-sections as a three-layer structure. The assignment of St. senarmontii to Gram-positive bacteria is discussed. The morphogenesis of this organism suggests that it is related to the coryneform group of bacteria.

  19. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  20. TEM and HREM study on the fine structure and the interfacial structure of bainite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤照; 敖青; 顾英妮; 姜江; 孙东升; 戴吉岩; 彭红樱

    1996-01-01

    The fine structure of bainite,the morphology and distribution of carbide in steels and the morphology of bainite in Cu-Zn-Al alloys have been investigated with TEM.The interfacial structure ledges and interfacial crystal lattice images of Cu-Zn-Al alloys have also been investigated with HREM.The addition of alloying microelements can fine the structure of bainitic ferrite markedly.The bainitic ferrite is composed of subunits or subchunks.The carbides differ in morphologies and are distributed in between laths,inside the plates and on the boundaries of subunits.There are abundant fine structures in bainitic ferrite.In the primary bainite of Cu-Zn-Al alloy there are interfacial structure ledges,the height of which is about 3 -40 nm,equal to 15-200 atomic layers.The phase transformation mechanism of bainite is discussed.

  1. Constraints on field theoretical models for variation of the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.

    2005-02-01

    Recent theoretical ideas and observational claims suggest that the fine structure constant α may be variable. We examine a spectrum of models in which α is a function of a scalar field. Specifically, we consider three scenarios: oscillating α, monotonic time variation of α, and time-independent α that is spatially varying. We examine the constraints imposed upon these theories by cosmological observations, particle detector experiments, and “fifth force” experiments. These constraints are very strong on models involving oscillation but cannot compete with bounds from the Oklo subnuclear reactor on models with monotonic timelike variation of α. One particular model with spatial variation is consistent with all current experimental and observational measurements, including those from two seemingly conflicting measurements of the fine structure constant using the many multiplet method on absorption lines.

  2. Fine-structure-resolved laser-photodetachment electron spectroscopy of In{sup {minus}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.W.; Carpenter, D.L.; Covington, A.M.; Thompson, J.S. [Department of Physics and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557-0058 (United States); Kvale, T.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, 43606-3390 (United States); Seely, D.G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, Michigan, 49224 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The electron affinity of indium has been measured using the laser-photodetachment electron spectroscopy technique. Fine-structure-resolved photoelectron kinetic energy spectra of In{sup {minus}} were analyzed and the electron affinity of In({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) was determined to be 0.404{plus_minus}0.009 eV. The fine-structure splittings in the ground state of In{sup {minus}}({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) were determined to be 0.076{plus_minus}0.009 eV (J=0{r_arrow}J=1) and 0.175{plus_minus}0.009 eV (J=0{r_arrow}J=2). This measurement is compared to several recent calculations of the electron affinity of indium. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Temporal integration near threshold fine structure - The role of cochlear processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Mauermann, Manfred; Verhey, Jesko L.

    structure, but lack a decrease of thresholds with increased pulse duration. The model was extended by including a temporal integrator which introduces a low-pass behavior of the data with different slopes of the predicted threshold curves, producing good agreement with the data. On the basis of the model......The hearing thresholds of normal hearing listeners often show quasi-periodic variations when measured with a high frequency resolution. This hearing threshold fine structure is related to other frequency specific variations in the perception of sound such as loudness and amplitude modulated tones...... at low intensities. The detection threshold of a pulsed tone also depends not only on the pulse duration, but also on the position of its frequency within threshold fine structure. The present study investigates if psychoacoustical data on detection of a pulsed tone can be explained with a nonlinear...

  4. Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, J K; Flambaum, V V; Dzuba, V A; Barrow, John D; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X; Wolfe, A M

    2001-01-01

    We summarise the results of a search for time variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, using absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. Three large optical datasets and two 21cm/mm absorption systems provide four independent samples, spanning approximately 23% to 87% of the age of the universe. Each sample yields a negative Delta(alpha)/alpha (smaller alpha in the past) and the whole optical sample shows a 4-sigma deviation: Delta(alpha)/alpha = -0.72 +/- 0.18 x 10^{-5} over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. A comprehensive search for systematic effects reveals none which can explain our results. The only potentially significant systematic effects push Delta(alpha)/alpha towards positive values, i.e. our results would become more significant were we to correct for them.

  5. Nonlinear Electrodynamics Analysis Of The Fine Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbelek, Jean Paul

    2010-10-01

    It has been claimed that during the late time history of our universe, the fine structure constant, α, has been increasing [1],[2]. However, other teams has claimed a discordant result [3],[4]. Also, the current precision of laboratory tests is not sufficient to either comfort or reject any of these astronomical observations. Here we suggest that a nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) interaction of photons with the weak local background magnetic fields of a gas cloud absorber can reconcile the null result of refs.[3] and [4] with the negative variation found by refs. [2] and [1] and also to find a bridge with the positive variation found later by Levshakov et al.. [5]-[7]. Moreover, NLED photon propagation in a vacuum permeated by a background magnetic field is actually in full agreement with constraints from Oklo natural reactor data.

  6. Varying Fine Structure Constant and Black Hole Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, S; Das, Saurya; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2003-01-01

    Recent astrophysical observations suggest that the fine structure constant $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar c$ may be slowly increasing with time. This may be due to an increase of $e$ or a decrease of $c$, or both. In this article, we argue from model independent considerations that this variation should be considered adiabatic. Then, we examine in detail the consequences of such an adiabatic variation in the context of a specific model of quantized charged black holes. We find that the second law of black hole thermodynamics is obeyed, regardless of the origin of the variation, and that interesting constraints arise on the charge and mass of black holes. Finally, we estimate the work done on a black hole of mass $M$ due to the $\\alpha$ variation.

  7. Atomic Clocks and Variations of the FIne Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new test for possible variations of the fine structure constant alpha by comparisons of rates between clocks based on hyperfine transitions in alkali atoms with different atomic number Z. H-maser, Cs, and Hg(+) clocks have a different dependence on alpha via relativistic contributions of order (Z-alpha)(sup 2). Recent H-maser vs Hg(+) clock comparison data improve laboratory limits on a time variation by 100-fold to give dot-alpha less than or equal to 3.7 x 10(exp -14)/yr. Future laser cooled clocks (Be(+), Rb, Cs, Hg(+), etc.), when compared, will yield the most sensitive of all tests for dot-alpha/alpha.

  8. A heterogeneity test for fine-scale genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smouse, Peter E; Peakall, Rod; Gonzales, Eva

    2008-07-01

    For organisms with limited vagility and/or occupying patchy habitats, we often encounter nonrandom patterns of genetic affinity over relatively small spatial scales, labelled fine-scale genetic structure. Both the extent and decay rate of that pattern can be expected to depend on numerous interesting demographic, ecological, historical, and mating system factors, and it would be useful to be able to compare different situations. There is, however, no heterogeneity test currently available for fine-scale genetic structure that would provide us with any guidance on whether the differences we encounter are statistically credible. Here, we develop a general nonparametric heterogeneity test, elaborating on standard autocorrelation methods for pairs of individuals. We first develop a 'pooled within-population' correlogram, where the distance classes (lags) can be defined as functions of distance. Using that pooled correlogram as our null-hypothesis reference frame, we then develop a heterogeneity test of the autocorrelations among different populations, lag-by-lag. From these single-lag tests, we construct an analogous test of heterogeneity for multilag correlograms. We illustrate with a pair of biological examples, one involving the Australian bush rat, the other involving toadshade trillium. The Australian bush rat has limited vagility, and sometimes occupies patchy habitat. We show that the autocorrelation pattern diverges somewhat between continuous and patchy habitat types. For toadshade trillium, clonal replication in Piedmont populations substantially increases autocorrelation for short lags, but clonal replication is less pronounced in mountain populations. Removal of clonal replicates reduces the autocorrelation for short lags and reverses the sign of the difference between mountain and Piedmont correlograms.

  9. New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan De Martino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ∼2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum and from galaxy clusters, respectively.

  10. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  11. Influence of Calcium Sulfate State and Fineness of Cement on Hydration of Portland Cements Using Electrical Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiaosheng; LI Zongjin; XIAO Lianzhen; THONG Wangfai

    2006-01-01

    The influence of calcium sulfate state and fineness of cement on hydration of Portland cement was studied using electrical resistivity measurement. The bulk resistivity curve of the paste from the abnormal cement mainly with hemihydrate had a characteristic abnormal peak and rapid increase in early period. The resistivity measurement technique can be used to discriminate abnormal setting. For normal cement with gypsum, the increase in fineness of the Portland cement decreases the minimum resistivity due to a higher ionic concentration and increases the 24 hour resistivity due to a reduction in macroscopic pore size. Thesetting time, compressive strength, pore structure of pastes made from different cements were carried out to compare the influence of water to cement ratio, calcium sulfate state and fineness. It is found that the electrical and mechanical properties are strongly affected by the initial porosity, the presence of hemihydrate or gypsum, and the fineness of cement.

  12. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vielzeuf, P.E., E-mail: pvielzeuf@ifae.es [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Martinelli, M., E-mail: martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Calabrese, E., E-mail: erminia.calabrese@astro.ox.ac.uk [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pandolfi, S., E-mail: stefania@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-04-09

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  13. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Martinelli, M; Calabrese, E; Pandolfi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent $\\alpha$ measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying $\\alpha$. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive $\\alpha$ measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  14. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  15. Fine structure behaviour of VVER-1000 RPV materials under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, B. A.; Kuleshova, E. A.; Shtrombakh, Ya. I.; Erak, D. Yu.; Chernobaeva, A. A.; Zabusov, O. O.

    2009-06-01

    Changes in the fine structure and mechanical properties of the base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM) of VVER-1000 pressure vessels during accumulation of neutron dose in the range of fluences ˜(3.2-15) × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV) at 290 °C are studied using methods of transmission electron microscopy, fractographic analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. A correlation was found between the changes of mechanical properties and the micro- and nano-structures of the studied steels. Accumulation of neutron dose considerably raises the strength characteristics and transition temperature of VVER-1000 pressure vessel steels. The rate of changes in the mechanical properties of the weld metal is significantly higher than that of the base metal. The slower growth of strength characteristics and transition temperature shift of the base metal under irradiation as compared with the weld metal is due to the slower growth of the density of radiation defects and radiation-induced precipitates. The level of intergranular embrittlement under irradiation in the weld metal is not higher then in the base metal in spite of the higher content of nickel.

  16. New way for accuracy measurement of fine-pitch gears in batch production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huakun; Fu, Ying; Feng, Gang; Ye, Yong; Huang, Wenliang

    2011-05-01

    Fine-pitch gears with module ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 are widely used in the fields of dial indicators, aeronautic gauges and instruments, timers and watches and so on; but because of their small size and weak rigidity and small aount of inertia, so far there are few methods in practice being able to meet the requirements of their reliable, precise and efficient accuracy measurements, especially in batch production. Based on the gear integrated error measuring technology and the gear single flank rolling tester, a differential type of gear single flank point rolling scan measuring technique and a prototype of the gear differential single flank rolling tester have been developed to explore a new way to solve the problem. By using a special made master gear, the tester can perform not only the measurement of the gear tangential composite deviations but also the measurement of the gear elementary deviations, including profile deviations and pitch deviations, and also integrated deviatons of fine-pitch gears in batch production with high efficiency and accuracy. The conception of "Two spindles be driven in synchronization, and one differential measurement be in closed loop" and the design structure of "spindle on spindle" adopted by the prototype are introduced in the paper. Some practical measurement results in factory and a few discussions are also presented.

  17. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  18. [Fine Structures Of Trichomonas Tenax And Trichomonas Hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Min; Cho, Kee Mok

    1973-04-01

    Trichomonas tenax(T. tenax) and Trichomonas hominis (T. hominis) were collected, cultured and sampled for comparative microscopical studies using electron microscope. 1. Both flagellates were oval in shape and surrounded by a distinct outer membrane. Five recurrent flagella and one anterior flagellum had, each, 9 paris of peripheral and 1 pair of central fibrils, Undulating membrane was curved over the recurrent flagella, and bended in the middle at right angles with cell surface. Cytostome, engulfing bacteria, was observed in T. hominis. 2. In the cytoplasm, there were fine dense glycogen particles, and vacuoles containing ingested materials. Dense pigment rods were also observed in both flagellates, but the rods were not distributed around the vacuoles in T. hominis. 3. In T. tenax axostyle appeared as a cup-shaped structure comprising a single row of 41 fibrils, each about 120 a in diameter. It enclosed glycogen particles, and the open side was faced to the nucleus. 4. Endoplasmic reticulum was observed around the nucleus, but it was less developed in T. hominis. 5. Nucleus was ovoid having double nuclear membrane, which was clearly defined in T. hominis. 6. Blepharoplast, parabasal body, Golgi appartus and mitochondrion was not observed in both flagellates.

  19. Bumblebee Homing: The Fine Structure of Head Turning Movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Changes in flight direction in flying insects are largely due to roll, yaw and pitch rotations of their body. Head orientation is stabilized for most of the time by counter rotation. Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and departing from a food source located between three landmarks in an indoor flight-arena. The flight paths consist of almost straight flight segments that are interspersed with rapid turns. These short and fast yaw turns ("saccades" are usually accompanied by even faster head yaw turns that change gaze direction. Since a large part of image rotation is thereby reduced to brief instants of time, this behavioural pattern facilitates depth perception from visual motion parallax during the intersaccadic intervals. The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head saccades is very stereotypical. We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its main characteristics resembles the so-called "saccadic main sequence" in humans. The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves.

  20. Fine structure in the cluster decay of radium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K P [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail: kpsanthosh@eth.net

    2010-01-15

    Half-life times for {sup 14}C cluster emission from various radium isotopes are computed taking interacting potential as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potentials. The half-life time values are compared with experimental data and with the values reported by Poenaru et al using the analytical super-asymmetric fission model (ASAFM). The lowest half-life time for {sup 222}Ra stresses the role of the doubly magic {sup 208}Pb daughter in the exotic decay process. It is found that neutron excess in the parent nucleus slows down the exotic decay process. The high hindrance factor (HF) of the {sup 14}C branch to the ground state (9/2{sup +}) and the low HF to the first excited state (11/2{sup +}) of the {sup 209}Pb daughter are in good agreement with the experimental result. The fine structure from {sup 223}Ra gives direct evidence of the presence of a spherical component in the deformed parent nucleus.

  1. Benzene at 1 GHz. Magnetic field-induced fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, L. M.; Poon, C.-D.; Samulski, E. T.; Photinos, D. J.; Jokisaari, J.; Vaara, J.; Emsley, J. W.; Mamone, S.; Lelli, M.

    2015-09-01

    The deuterium NMR spectrum of benzene-d6 in a high field spectrometer (1 GHz protons) exhibits a magnetic field-induced deuterium quadrupolar splitting Δν. The magnitude of Δν observed for the central resonance is smaller than that observed for the 13C satellite doublets Δν‧. This difference, Δ(Δν) = Δν‧ - Δν, is due to unresolved fine structure contributions to the respective resonances. We determine the origins of and simulate this difference, and report pulse sequences that exploit the connectivity of the peaks in the 13C and 2H spectra to determine the relative signs of the indirect coupling, JCD, and Δν. The positive sign found for Δν is consonant with the magnetic field biasing of an isolated benzene molecule-the magnetic energy of the aromatic ring is lowest for configurations where the C6 axis is normal to the field. In the neat liquid the magnitude of Δν is decreased by the pair correlations in this prototypical molecular liquid.

  2. Hymenolepis nana: the fine structure of the embryonic envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, I; Threadgold, L T

    1981-06-01

    The fine structure of the envelopes surrounding hatched and unhatched oncospheres of Hymenolepis nana has been investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), together with light microscope histochemical observations of JB-4 embedded material. The oncosphere is surrounded by 3 layers--the capsule, the outer envelope and the inner envelope, the latter giving rise to the embryophore and the 'oncospheral membrane'. An additional layer--the polar filament layer--lies between the 'oncospheral membrane' and the oncosphere. Shell material is deposited on the capsule as a thin layer. It is secreted by the outer envelope, which degenerates once shell formation is complete. The uterus may also contribute to shell formation. The embryophore forms a thin incomplete and peripheral layer within the inner envelope. In the basal region of this envelope, partial development of an 'oncospheral membrane' takes place, but it does not become detached as a separate layer. The polar filaments, which are characteristic of the oncosphere of H. nana, are derived from the epithelial covering of the oncosphere itself, which delaminates to form a separate polar filament layer. The filaments arise from knob-like projections at opposite poles of this layer. The design of the embryonic envelopes in H. nana show a number of modifications from the basic cyclophyllidean pattern, and these can be related to the demands of its 'direct' life-cycle.

  3. The Fine Structure Lines of Hydrogen in HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dennison, B; Minter, A H; Dennison, Brian; Minter, Anthony H.

    2005-01-01

    The 2s_{1/2} state of hydrogen is metastable and overpopulated in HII regions. In addition, the 2p states may be pumped by ambient Lyman-alpha radiation. Fine structure transitions between these states may be observable in HII regions at 1.1 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{1/2}) and/or 9.9 GHz (2s_{1/2}-2p_{3/2}), although the details of absorption versus emission are determined by the relative populations of the 2s and 2p states. The n=2 level populations are solved with a parameterization that allows for Lyman-alpha pumping of the 2p states. The density of Lyman-alpha photons is set by their creation rate, easily determined from the recombination rate, and their removal rate. Here we suggest that the dominant removal mechanism of Lyman-alpha radiation in HII regions is absorption by dust. This circumvents the need to solve the Lyman-alpha transfer problem, and provides an upper limit to the rate at which the 2p states are populated by Lyman-alpha photons. In virtually all cases of interest, the 2p states are predominantl...

  4. Fine-structure constant: Is it really a constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1982-03-01

    It is often claimed that the fine-structure "constant" α is shown to be strictly constant in time by a variety of astronomical and geophysical results. These constrain its fractional rate of change α˙α to at least some orders of magnitude below the Hubble rate H0. We argue that the conclusion is not as straightforward as claimed since there are good physical reasons to expect α˙α<

  5. Fine structure of Pn velocity beneath Sichuan-Yunnan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金莉; 宋晓东; 汪素云

    2003-01-01

    We use 23298 Pn arrival-time data from Chinese national and provincial earthquake bulletins to invert fine structure of Pn velocity and anisotropy at the top of the mantle beneath the Sichuan-Yunnan and its adjacent region. The results suggest that the Pn velocity in this region shows significant lateral variation; the Pn velocity varies from 7.7 to 8.3 km/s. The Pn-velocity variation correlates well with the tectonic activity and heat flow of the region. Low Pn velocity is observed in southwest Yunnan , Tengchong volcano area, and the Panxi tectonic area. These areas have very active seismicity and tectonic activity with high surface heat flow. On the other hand, high Pn velocity is observed in some stable regions, such as the central region of the Yangtze Platform; the most pronounced high velocity area is located in the Sichuan Basin, south of Chengdu. Pn anisotropy shows a complex pattern of regional deformation. The Pn fast direction shows a prominent clockwise rotation pattern from east of the Tibetan block to the Sichuan-Yunnan diamond block to southwest Yunnan, which may be related to southeastward escape of the Tibetan Plateau material due to the collision of the Indian Plate to the Eurasia Plate. Thus there appears to be strong correlation between the crustal deformation and the upper mantle structure in the region. The delay times of events and stations show that the crust thickness decreases from the Tibetan Plateau to eastern China, which is consistent with the results from deep seismic sounding.

  6. Fine-Scale Structure of the Moho From Receiver Functions: Effects of a Deforming Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandt, G.; Gilbert, H.; Ozacar, A.; Owens, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    Andrija Mohorovicic, a Croatian seismologist, is credited with the first estimation in 1906 of crustal thickness using the critically refracted phase Pn. The crust-mantle boundary has become commonly known as the Moho and its depth, structure, formation, and evolution remains an important research topic in seismology, petrology, and tectonics. Other seismic phases sensitive to Moho depth and structure are the converted phases Ps and Sp, and the associated 2p1s and 1p2s reverberation phases that are isolated in receiver function waveforms. With sufficient station coverage, multiple receiver functions can be migrated and stacked into cross-sections of the crust. Crustal cross-sections from tectonically active regions reveal dramatic variations in amplitude and frequency content of Moho phases that we associate with fine-scale structure, and possibly anisotropy at the crust-mantle boundary. The Moho amplitude or "brightness" is a measure of the crust-mantle impedance contrast, thickness and structure within the crust-mantle boundary, and effects of scattering from 3D structure. Processes directly related to these Moho structures include crustal thickening, crustal extension, crustal flow, delamination or convective removal, and eclogitization. Therefore, the fine-scale seismological structure of the Moho is an important constraint in regional tectonic reconstructions. Examples of receiver function crustal images and their tectonic implications from the western US, South American Andes, and the Tibetan plateau will be reviewed.

  7. A Fine-Tooth Comb to Measure the Accelerating Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomical instruments needed to answer crucial questions, such as the search for Earth-like planets or the way the Universe expands, have come a step closer with the first demonstration at the telescope of a new calibration system for precise spectrographs. The method uses a Nobel Prize-winning technology called a 'laser frequency comb', and is published in this week's issue of Science. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 26a/08 A Laser Comb for Astronomy "It looks as if we are on the way to fulfil one of astronomers' dreams," says team member Theodor Hänsch, director at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Germany. Hänsch, together with John Hall, was awarded the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for work including the frequency comb technique. Astronomers use instruments called spectrographs to spread the light from celestial objects into its component colours, or frequencies, in the same way water droplets create a rainbow from sunlight. They can then measure the velocities of stars, galaxies and quasars, search for planets around other stars, or study the expansion of the Universe. A spectrograph must be accurately calibrated so that the frequencies of light can be correctly measured. This is similar to how we need accurate rulers to measure lengths correctly. In the present case, a laser provides a sort of ruler, for measuring colours rather than distances, with an extremely accurate and fine grid. New, extremely precise spectrographs will be needed in experiments planned for the future European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which is being designed by ESO, the European Southern Observatory. These new spectrographs will need to be calibrated with even more accurate 'rulers'. In fact, they must be accurate to about one part in 30 billions - a feat equivalent to measuring the circumference of the Earth to about a millimetre! "We'll need something beyond what current technology can offer, and that's where the laser frequency comb comes in. It is

  8. METHODS OF RECEIVING OF FINE-GRAINED STRUCTURE OF CASTINGS AT CRYSTALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tolochko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for fine-grained structure of ingots during crystallization depending on the used foundry technologies. It is shown that by using modern scientific and technological advances may improve the traditional and the development of new casting processes, providing production of cast parts with over fine-grained structure and enhanced properties.

  9. Agreeing Probability Measures for Comparative Probability Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIt is proved that fine and tight comparative probability structures (where the set of events is assumed to be an algebra, not necessarily a σ-algebra) have agreeing probability measures. Although this was often claimed in the literature, all proofs the author encountered are not valid

  10. Does over-exposure modify the fine structure of distortion product otoacoustic emissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    It is investigated, whether the pattern of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure (quasi-periodic variations across frequency) is altered by an acoustical over-exposure. DPOAE fine structures are determined in 16 normal-hearing humans using a high frequency-resolution and ......It is investigated, whether the pattern of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure (quasi-periodic variations across frequency) is altered by an acoustical over-exposure. DPOAE fine structures are determined in 16 normal-hearing humans using a high frequency...... within 20 minutes. The DPOAE fine structure pattern is analyzed by an automatic classification algorithm, which determines ripple center frequency, ripple spacing, ripple height and ripple prevalence. For some individuals, an alteration of some of the parameters could be observed after the exposure, i...

  11. Fine structure of high-power microwave-induced resistance oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Zudov, M. A.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Baldwin, K. Â. W.; Pfeiffer, L. Â. N.; West, K. Â. W.

    2017-01-01

    We report on observation of a fine structure of microwave-induced resistance oscillations in an ultraclean two-dimensional electron gas. This fine structure is manifested by multiple secondary sharp extrema, residing beside the primary ones, which emerge at high radiation power. Theoretical considerations reveal that this fine structure originates from multiphoton-assisted scattering off short-range impurities. Unique properties of the fine structure allow us to access all experimental parameters, including microwave power, and to separate different contributions to photoresistance. Furthermore, we show that the fine structure offers a convenient means to quantitatively assess the correlation properties of the disorder potential in high-quality systems, allowing separation of short- and long-range disorder contributions to the electron mobility.

  12. Time Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant in a Two-Field Quintessence Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, M C; Santos, N M C

    2004-01-01

    We examine the variation of the fine structure constant in the context of a two-field quintessence model. We find that, for solutions that lead to a transient late period of accelerated expansion, it is possible to fit the data arising from quasar spectra and comply with the bounds on the variation of $\\alpha$ from the Oklo reactor, meteorite analysis, atomic clock measurements, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. That is more difficult if we consider solutions corresponding to a late period of permanent accelerated expansion.

  13. Time evolution of the fine structure constant in a two-field quintessence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, M. C.; Bertolami, O.; Santos, N. M.

    2004-11-01

    We examine the variation of the fine structure constant in the context of a two-field quintessence model. We find that, for solutions that lead to a transient late period of accelerated expansion, it is possible to fit the data arising from quasar spectra and comply with the bounds on the variation of α from the Oklo reactor, meteorite analysis, atomic clock measurements, cosmic microwave background radiation, and big bang nucleosynthesis. That is more difficult if we consider solutions corresponding to a late period of permanent accelerated expansion.

  14. Constraining spatial variations of the fine-structure constant in symmetron models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, A. M. M.; Martinelli, M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a methodology to test models with spatial variations of the fine-structure constant α, based on the calculation of the angular power spectrum of these measurements. This methodology enables comparisons of observations and theoretical models through their predictions on the statistics of the α variation. Here we apply it to the case of symmetron models. We find no indications of deviations from the standard behavior, with current data providing an upper limit to the strength of the symmetron coupling to gravity (log ⁡β2 constrain the model when also the symmetry breaking scale factor aSSB is free to vary.

  15. A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg -1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg -1) and fine particle mass (PM 1) (2.7 g kg -1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9-9 g kg -1 TVOC, 28-68 g kg -1 CO and 0.6-1.6 g kg -1 PM 1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH 12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg -1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH 12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg -1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

  16. Fine structure in the ionospheric D-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, E. V.; Grandal, B.; Fla, T.; Brekke, A.

    1981-07-01

    The 'partial reflection' method developed by Gardner and Pawsey (1953) turned out to be a useful tool for studies of the ionospheric D-region. A comparison is conducted of the observations of weak radio echoes from the ionospheric D-region, with model computations of radio wave scattering. The model computations are based on volume scattering from irregular ionospheric structures measured in situ in a sounding rocket. The experimental data were obtained from a rocket-borne electrostatic ion-current probe combined with simultaneous recordings of partial reflections. It is found that the intensity and height variation of partial reflections measured during the rocket flight are consistent with volume scattering from the ionospheric irregularities measured by the electrostatic probe in the rocket. The power spectra of ion density fluctuations derived from the rocket data indicate that these fluctuations are caused by turbulence in the neutral air. It is, therefore, concluded that such turbulence is an important source of partial reflections.

  17. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  18. Low-energy fine-structure resonances in photoionization of O ii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Montenegro, Maximiliano; Eissner, Werner; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2010-12-01

    Resonant features in low-energy photoionization cross sections are reported in coupled-channel calculations for O ii including relativistic fine structure. The calculations reveal extensive near-threshold resonant structures in the small energy region between the fine structure levels of the ground state 2p2(3P0,1,2) of the residual ion O iii. Although the resonances have not yet been observed, they are similar to other experimentally observed features. They are expected to significantly enhance the very-low-temperature dielectronic recombination rates, potentially leading to the resolution of an outstanding nebular abundances anomaly. Higher energy partial and total photoionization cross sections of the ground configuration levels 2p3(4S3/2o,2D3/2,5/2o,2P1/2,3/2o) are found to be in agreement with experimental measurements on synchrotron-based photon sources [1-3], thereby identifying the excited O iii levels present in the ion beams. These are also the first results from a recently developed version of Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) codes, with inclusion of two-body magnetic interaction terms. The improved relativistic treatment could be important for other astrophysical applications and for more precise benchmarking of experimental measurements.

  19. Impact energy analysis of quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel specimens after weld thermal cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dunđer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents impact energy results of thermal cycle simulated specimens of quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel S960QL. These results are obtained by examining notched Charpy specimens. Upon performed metallographic analysis and measured hardness, total impact energy is separated into ductile and brittle components.

  20. Fine structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in (136)Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, D; Fritzsche, M; Hasper, J; Lindenberg, K; Müller, S; Ponomarev, V Yu; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A

    2008-06-13

    The photoresponse of the semimagic N=82 nucleus (136)Xe was measured up to the neutron separation energy S(n) using the (gamma, gamma') reaction. A concentration of strong dipole excitations is observed well below S(n) showing a fragmented resonancelike structure. Microscopic calculations in the quasiparticle phonon model including complex configurations of up to three phonons agree well with the experimental data in the total integrated strength, in the shape and the fragmentation of the resonance, which allows us to draw conclusions on the damping mechanism of the pygmy dipole resonance.

  1. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of even configuration system of atomic terbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Elantkowska, M.; Ruczkowski, J.; Furmann, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this work a parametric study of the fine structure (fs) and the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented, based in considerable part on the new experimental results. Measurements on 134 spectral lines were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge lamp; on this basis, the hyperfine structure constants A and B were determined for 52 even-parity levels belonging to the configurations 4f85d6s2, 4f85d26s or 4f96s6p; in all the cases those levels were involved in the transitions investigated as the lower levels. For 40 levels the hfs was examined for the first time, and for the remaining 12 levels the new measurements supplement our earlier results. As a by-product, also preliminary values of the hfs constants for 84 odd-parity levels were determined (the investigations of the odd-parity levels system in the terbium atom are still in progress). This huge amount of new experimental data, supplemented by our earlier published results, were considered for the fine and hyperfine structure analysis. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was performed, taking into account second-order of perturbation theory, including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Predicted values of the level energies, as well as of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, are quoted in cases when no experimental values are available. By combining our experimental data with our own semi-empirical procedure it was possible to identify correctly the lower and upper level of the line 544.1440 nm measured by Childs with the use of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique (Childs, J Opt Soc Am B 9;1992:191-6).

  2. OSQAR Status Report: Progress in Ultra-fine Birefringence Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P

    2009-01-01

    Progress achieved in birefringence measurements within the OSQAR collaboration is reported. This constitutes an important and encouraging step toward the first measurement at CERN of the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence predicted by the QED.

  3. Fine structure of sprites and proposed global observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mende, S.B; Frey, H.U.; Rairden, R.l.

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand sprite processes we, have to explain the phenomena from spatial scales of a few meters to the scale of thunderstorm cells. The intricate small-scale vertical structuring of sprites or the so called beads are particularly difficult to understand. From a two-station triangula......In order to understand sprite processes we, have to explain the phenomena from spatial scales of a few meters to the scale of thunderstorm cells. The intricate small-scale vertical structuring of sprites or the so called beads are particularly difficult to understand. From a two-station...... structures of columniform sprites (C sprites) consisted of slant directed, nearly vertically aligned columns of intense pinpoint like beads. The distance of the sprites from the observer was measured and the altitude and vertical spacing of the beads were estimated. The distribution of beads showed...... that the most frequently observed bead spacing is between 0.6 and I km. The vertical and horizontal size of the bright luminous beads was about 80 m or less. The bead spacing showed a trend to increase with altitude and the e folding distance or attitude "scale-height" of bead spacing was found to be 20...

  4. Fine and Superfine Structure of the Decameter-Hectometer Type II Burst on 7 June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Panchenko, M.; Poedts, S.; Mykhaylov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of a type II burst with a herringbone structure observed both with ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) and space-borne spectrometers (STEREO-A and B) are discussed. The burst was recorded on 7 June 2011 in the frequency band 3 - 33 MHz. It was characterized by extremely rich fine structure. Statistical analysis of more than 300 herringbone sub-bursts constituting the burst was performed separately for the positively (reverse) and negatively (forward) drifting sub-bursts. The sense and the degree of circular polarization of the herringbone sub-bursts were measured in a wide frequency band (16 - 32 MHz). A second-order fine frequency structure of the herringbone sub-bursts was observed and studied for the first time. Using STEREO/COR1 and SOHO/LASCO-C2 images, we determined the direction and radial speed of the coronal mass ejection responsible for the studied type II burst. The possible location of the type II burst source on the flank of the shock was found.

  5. Fine structure of the oesophageal and gastric glands of the red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maculata Dumeril were studied uSing the electron microscope. The cells of the oesophageal glands contained abundant secretory granules, rough endoplasmic .... The normal human gastric epithelia. A fine structural study. Lab. Invest.

  6. Estimate on the deceleration parameter in a Universe with variable fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We determine a cosmological model that include a positive acceleration of the Universe and a time decreasing fine structure constant. The present day deceleration parameter is estimated by us, according to our model and the available experimental data .

  7. Structural studies of molecular and metallic overlayers using angle- resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) was used to study molecular and metallic overlayers on metal surfaces through analysis of p2mg(2[times]1)CO/Ni(110) and the p(2[times]2)K/Ni(111) adsorption. For the dense p2mg(2[times]1)CO/Ni(110) surface layer, photoemission intensities from C 1s level were measured in three directions at photoelectron kinetic energies 60-400 eV. Using multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) modeling, it was found that CO molecules are adsorbed on short-bridge sites, with adjacent CO along the [110] direction displaced alternatively in opposite directions towards the [001] azimuths to form a zigzag chain geometry. The tilt angle is 16[plus minus]2[degree] from the surface normal for the direction linking the C atom and the center of the Ni bridge. The carbon C-Ni interatomic distance was determined to be 1.94[plus minus]0.02[Angstrom]. The first- to second-layer spacing of Ni is 1.27[plus minus]0.04[Angstrom], up from 1.10[Angstrom] for the clean Ni(110) surface, but close to the 1.25[Angstrom] Ni interlayer spacing in the bulk. The C-O bond length and tilt angle were varied within small ranges (1.10--1.20[Angstrom] and 15--23[degrees]) in our MSSW simulations. Best agreement between experiment and simulations was achieved at 1.16[Angstrom] and 19[degrees]. This yields an O-O distance of 2.95[Angstrom] for the two nearest CO molecules, (van der Waals' radius [approximately] 1.5 [Angstrom] for oxygen). Two different partial-wave phase-shifts were used in MSSW, and structural results from both are in very good agreement. For the p(2[times]2)K/Ni(111) overlayer, ARPEFS [chi](k) curves from K 1s level measured along [111] and [771] at 130K showed that the K atoms are preferentially adsorbed on the atop sites, in agreement with a LEED study of the same system.

  8. Structural studies of molecular and metallic overlayers using angle- resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) was used to study molecular and metallic overlayers on metal surfaces through analysis of p2mg(2{times}1)CO/Ni(110) and the p(2{times}2)K/Ni(111) adsorption. For the dense p2mg(2{times}1)CO/Ni(110) surface layer, photoemission intensities from C 1s level were measured in three directions at photoelectron kinetic energies 60-400 eV. Using multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) modeling, it was found that CO molecules are adsorbed on short-bridge sites, with adjacent CO along the [110] direction displaced alternatively in opposite directions towards the [001] azimuths to form a zigzag chain geometry. The tilt angle is 16{plus_minus}2{degree} from the surface normal for the direction linking the C atom and the center of the Ni bridge. The carbon C-Ni interatomic distance was determined to be 1.94{plus_minus}0.02{Angstrom}. The first- to second-layer spacing of Ni is 1.27{plus_minus}0.04{Angstrom}, up from 1.10{Angstrom} for the clean Ni(110) surface, but close to the 1.25{Angstrom} Ni interlayer spacing in the bulk. The C-O bond length and tilt angle were varied within small ranges (1.10--1.20{Angstrom} and 15--23{degrees}) in our MSSW simulations. Best agreement between experiment and simulations was achieved at 1.16{Angstrom} and 19{degrees}. This yields an O-O distance of 2.95{Angstrom} for the two nearest CO molecules, (van der Waals` radius {approximately} 1.5 {Angstrom} for oxygen). Two different partial-wave phase-shifts were used in MSSW, and structural results from both are in very good agreement. For the p(2{times}2)K/Ni(111) overlayer, ARPEFS {chi}(k) curves from K 1s level measured along [111] and [771] at 130K showed that the K atoms are preferentially adsorbed on the atop sites, in agreement with a LEED study of the same system.

  9. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  10. Solution spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, M.R.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Song, I. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-06-12

    A purpose-built spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ fluorescence XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements of bulk solution species during constant-potential electrolysis is described. The cell performance was demonstrated by the collection of europium L{sub 3}-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) throughout the course of electrolysis of an aqueous solution of EuCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The europium L{sub 3}-edge resonances reported here for the Eu{sup III} and Eu{sup II} ions demonstrate that their 2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 5d electronic transition probabilities are not the same.

  11. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  12. The Fine-Structure of the Net-Circular Polarization in a Sunspot Penumbra

    CERN Document Server

    Tritschler, A; Schlichenmaier, R; Hagenaar, H J

    2007-01-01

    We present novel evidence for a fine structure observed in the net-circular polarization (NCP) of a sunspot penumbra based on spectropolarimetric measurements utilizing the Zeeman sensitive FeI 630.2 nm line. For the first time we detect a filamentary organized fine structure of the NCP on spatial scales that are similar to the inhomogeneities found in the penumbral flow field. We also observe an additional property of the visible NCP, a zero-crossing of the NCP in the outer parts of the center-side penumbra, which has not been recognized before. In order to interprete the observations we solve the radiative transfer equations for polarized light in a model penumbra with embedded magnetic flux tubes. We demonstrate that the observed zero-crossing of the NCP can be explained by an increased magnetic field strength inside magnetic flux tubes in the outer penumbra combined with a decreased magnetic field strength in the background field. Our results strongly support the concept of the uncombed penumbra.

  13. Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    de Martino, I; Ebeling, H; Kocevski, D

    2016-01-01

    We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background at the location of each galaxy cluster. When fitting three different phenomenological parameterizations allowing for monopole and dipole amplitudes in the value of the fine structure constant we improve the results of earlier analysis involving clusters and CMB power spectrum, and we also found that the best-fit direction of a hypothetical dipole is compatible with the direction of other known anomalies. Although the constraining power of our current datasets do not allow us to test the indications of a dipole obtained though high-resolution optical/UV spectroscopy, our results do highlight that clusters of galaxies will be a very powerful tool to pr...

  14. Sensitivity to temporal fine structure and hearing-aid outcomes in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira ePerez Vallejos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effect of sensitivity to temporal fine structure on subjective measures of hearing aid outcome.Design: Prior to receiving hearing aids, participants completed a test to assess sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS, the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP, and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing (SSQ-A. Follow-up appointments, comprised the GHABP, the SSQ-B , and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aid Outcomes (IOI-HA.Study sample: 75 adults were recruited from direct referral clinics. Results: Two thirds of participants were found to have good sensitivity to TFS; listeners with good sensitivity to TFS rated their hearing abilities higher at pre-fitting (SSQ-A than those with poor sensitivity to TFS. At follow-up, participants with good sensitivity to TFS showed a small improvement on SSQ-B over listeners with poor sensitivity to TFS. Conclusions: The clinical identification of a patient’s ability to process TFS information at an early stage in the treatment pathway could prove useful in managing expectations about hearing aid outcomes.

  15. Single shot near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantouvalou, I., E-mail: ioanna.mantouvalou@tu-berlin.de; Witte, K.; Martyanov, W.; Jonas, A.; Grötzsch, D.; Kanngießer, B. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Streeck, C. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Löchel, H.; Rudolph, I.; Erko, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Stiel, H. [Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-16

    With the help of adapted off-axis reflection zone plates, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra at the C and N K-absorption edge have been recorded using a single 1.2 ns long soft X-ray pulse. The transmission experiments were performed with a laser-produced plasma source in the laboratory rendering time resolved measurements feasible independent on large scale facilities. A resolving power of E/ΔE ∼ 950 at the respective edges could be demonstrated. A comparison of single shot spectra with those collected with longer measuring time proves that all features of the used reference samples (silicon nitrate and polyimide) can be resolved in 1.2 ns. Hence, investigations of radiation sensitive biological specimen become possible due to the high efficiency of the optical elements enabling low dose experiments.

  16. New determination of the fine structure constant and test of the quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchendira, Rym; Cladé, Pierre; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Nez, François; Biraben, François

    2011-02-25

    We report a new measurement of the ratio h/m(Rb) between the Planck constant and the mass of (87)Rb atom. A new value of the fine structure constant is deduced, α(-1)=137.035999037(91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.6×10(-10). Using this determination, we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly a(e)=0.00115965218113(84), which is in agreement with the experimental measurement of Gabrielse [a(e)=0.00115965218073(28)]. The comparison of these values provides the most stringent test of the QED. Moreover, the precision is large enough to verify for the first time the muonic and hadronic contributions to this anomaly.

  17. Constraints on a possible variation of the fine structure constant from galaxy cluster data

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L; Alcaniz, J S; G., I E Sanchez; Busti, V C

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method to probe a possible time evolution of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements of the gas mass fraction ($f_{gas}$) in galaxy clusters. Taking into account a direct relation between variations of $\\alpha$ and violations of the distance-duality relation, we discuss constraints on $\\alpha$ for a class of dilaton runaway models. Although not yet competitive with bounds from high-$z$ quasar absorption systems, our constraints, considering a sample of 29 measurements of $f_{gas}$, in the redshift interval $0.14 < z < 0.89$, provide an independent estimate of $\\alpha$ variation at low and intermediate redshifts. Furthermore, current and planned surveys will provide a larger amount of data and thus allow to improve the limits on $\\alpha$ variation obtained in the present analysis.

  18. Relations between frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure processing, and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    and binaural TFS-processing deficits in the HI listeners, no relation was found between TFS processing and frequency selectivity. The effect of noise on TFS processing was not larger for the HI listeners than for the NH listeners. Finally, TFS-processing performance was correlated with speech reception......Frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure (TFS) processing, and speech reception were assessed for six normal-hearing (NH) listeners, ten sensorineurally hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with similar high-frequency losses, and two listeners with an obscure dysfunction (OD). TFS processing...... was investigated at low frequencies in regions of normal hearing, through measurements of binaural masked detection, tone lateralization, and monaural frequency modulation (FM) detection. Lateralization and FM detection thresholds were measured in quiet and in background noise. Speech reception thresholds were...

  19. Constraints on a possible variation of the fine structure constant from galaxy cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Landau, S. J.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Sánchez G., I. E.; Busti, V. C.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new method to probe a possible time evolution of the fine structure constant α from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements of the gas mass fraction (fgas) in galaxy clusters. Taking into account a direct relation between variations of α and violations of the distance-duality relation, we discuss constraints on α for a class of dilaton runaway models. Although not yet competitive with bounds from high-z quasar absorption systems, our constraints, considering a sample of 29 measurements of fgas, in the redshift interval 0.14 intermediate redshifts. Furthermore, current and planned surveys will provide a larger amount of data and thus allow to improve the limits on α variation obtained in the present analysis.

  20. Fine structure of the malpighian tubule in Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1976-07-01

    The malpighian tubule in Aedes aegypti adults is formed by 2 cell types: the principal cell which forms the great bulk of the tubule, and the stellate cell interspersed singly along the tubule. Both cell types possess ultrastructural features characteristic of cells engaged in ion balance and osmoregulation. These include extensive basal infolding and the differentiation of an apical brush border of microvilli. The central area of the cytoplasm of the principal cell is highly vacuolated while in the stellate cell it is finely granular lacking vacuoles. The microvilli in the principal cells enclose elongated, dense mitochondria whereas the stellate cell microvilli lack mitochondria. Excretory granules of an as yet unknown chemical nature accumulate in the principal cell cytoplasm after a blood meal.

  1. Measurements of fluctuating gas temperatures using compensated fine wire thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, M. N. R.; Pita, G. P.

    1985-09-01

    Thermocouples with three different wire diameters (15, 40 and 50 microns) were used in association with an analog compensation circuit connected to a data acquisition system. Measurements of the time constant were performed using two different heating techniques; Joule effect and external heating by laser beam. The thermocouples were used to quantify the fluctuating temperature field in a hot air jet and in a premixed propane flame. In the reacting case the catalytic effect was evaluated by comparing coated and uncoated wires. Conclusions were also obtained regarding frequency spectra, temperature probability distribution function and time constant.

  2. Relativistic rise measurements with very fine sampling intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.D.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Teramoto, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The motivation of this work was to determine whether the technique of charged particle identification via the relativistic rise in the ionization loss can be significantly improved by virtue of very small sampling intervals. A fast-sampling ADC and a longitudinal drift geometry were used to provide a large number of samples from a single drift chamber gap, achieving sampling intervals roughly 10 times smaller than any previous study. A single layer drift chamber was used, and tracks of 1 meter length were simulated by combining together samples from many identified particles in this detector. These data were used to study the resolving power for particle identification as a function of sample size, averaging technique, and the number of discrimination levels (ADC bits) used for pulse height measurements.

  3. Fine- and hyperfine-structure effects in molecular photoionization: I. General theory and direct photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model for predicting fine- and hyperfine intensities in the direct photoionization of molecules based on the separability of electron and nuclear spin states from vibrational-electronic states. Using spherical tensor algebra, we derive highly symmetrized forms of the squared photoionization dipole matrix elements from which which we derive the salient selection and propensity rules for fine- and hyperfine resolved photoionizing transitions. Our theoretical results are validated by the analysis of the fine-structure resolved photoelectron spectrum of O$_2$ (reported by H. Palm and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1385 (1998)) and are used for predicting hyperfine populations of molecular ions produced by photoionization.

  4. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  5. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  6. Fine Structure ENA Sources Beyond the Termination Shock: Observational Constraints and Detection Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demajistre, R.; Janzen, P. H.; Allegrini, F.; Dayeh, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.

    2015-12-01

    High spatial resolution maps from the IBEX mission (McComas et al, Science, 2009) suggest the presence of "fine structure" in the signal from beyond the termination shock. That is, areas of enhanced ENA emission that span less than a degree in the IBEX sky map. If confirmed, this would suggest very concentrated areas of emission from sources with scales of a few AU embedded in the outer heliosphere (or proportionally larger if they are located beyond the heliopause). This, in turn, would require the presence of unanticipated structures (plasma or neutral) beyond the termination shock for which the physics is poorly defined. It is therefore crucial to confirm the presence of these structures through careful analysis, or to establish the detection limits if the data taken to date is not sufficient for such a confirmation. In this work, we use 5 years worth of IBEX data to examine the statistical significance of these enhancements. We examine correlations in time, ENA energy and coincidence type for evidence of these small-scale spatial structures. Then, using the known spatial response of the IBEX instrument, establish the conditions under which such structure, if present, would be detectable. This detection threshold analysis is fully applicable future measurements, such as those planned for IMAP.

  7. Theory of the Lamb shift and Fine Structure in $\\boldsymbol{(\\mu{}^{4}\\mathrm{He})^{+}}$

    CERN Document Server

    Diepold, Marc; Franke, Beatrice; Antognini, Aldo; Kottmann, Franz; Pohl, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    An up to date review of the theoretical contributions to the $2S\\rightarrow{}2P$ Lamb shift and the fine structure of the $2P$-state in the $(\\mu^4\\mathrm{He})^+$ ion is given. This summary will serve as the basis for the extraction of the alpha particle charge radius from the muonic helium Lamb shift measurements at the Paul Scherrer Institute Switzerland. Individual theoretical contributions needed for a charge radius extraction were compared and compiled into a consistent summary using the already established framework we used for muonic hydrogen and deuterium. The influence of the alpha particle charge distribution on the elastic two-photon exchange is studied to rule out possible model dependencies of the energy levels on the electric form factor of the nucleus.

  8. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry, E-mail: minjoo.lee@yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Simmonds, Paul J. [Departments of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L. [California NanoSystems Institute and Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Schneider, Christian; Unsleber, Sebastian; Vo, Minh; Kamp, Martin [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-22

    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSS with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.

  9. Engineering quantum dots for electrical control of the fine structure splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, M. A.; Bennett, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    We have studied the variation in fine-structure splitting (FSS) under application of vertical electric field in a range of quantum dots grown by different methods. In each sample, we confirm that this energy splitting changes linearly over the field range we can access. We conclude that this linear tuning is a general feature of self-assembled quantum dots, observed under different growth conditions, emission wavelengths, and in different material systems. Statistical measurements of characteristic parameters such as emission energy, Stark shift, and FSS tuning are presented which may provide a guide for future attempts to increase the yield of quantum dots that can be tuned to a minimal value of FSS with vertical electric field.

  10. Constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant by the 5-year WMAP data

    CERN Document Server

    Nakashima, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha \\equiv (\\alpha_{\\mathrm{rec}} - \\alpha_{\\mathrm{now}})/\\alpha_{\\mathrm{now}}$, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-0.0009$ does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ are $-0.028 < \\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha < 0.026$ with HST prior and $-0.050 < \\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha < 0.042$ without HST prior.

  11. Fine-structure processing, frequency selectivity and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Hearing-impaired people often experience great difficulty with speech communication when background noise is present, even if reduced audibility has been compensated for. Other impairment factors must be involved. In order to minimize confounding effects, the subjects participating in this study...... consisted of groups with homogeneous, symmetric audiograms. The perceptual listening experiments assessed the intelligibility of full-spectrum as well as low-pass filtered speech in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers, the individual's frequency selectivity and the integrity of temporal...... modulation were obtained. In addition, these binaural and monaural thresholds were measured in a stationary background noise in order to assess the persistence of the fine-structure processing to interfering noise. Apart from elevated speech reception thresholds, the hearing impaired listeners showed poorer...

  12. Paschen-Back effect involving atomic fine and hyperfine structure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, K.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M.; Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-10-01

    The linear polarization in spectral lines produced by coherent scattering is significantly modified by the quantum interference between the atomic states in the presence of a magnetic field. When magnetic fields produce a splitting which is of the order of or greater than the fine or hyperfine structure splittings, we enter the Paschen-Back effect (PBE) regime, in which the magnetic field dependence of the Zeeman splittings and transition amplitudes becomes non-linear. In general, PBE occurs for sufficiently strong fields when the fine structure states are involved and for weak fields in the case of hyperfine structure states. In this work, we apply the recently developed theory of PBE in the atomic fine and hyperfine structure states including the effects of partial frequency redistribution to the case of Li i 6708 Å doublet. We explore the signatures of PBE in a single scattering event and their applicability to the solar magnetic field diagnostics.

  13. Fine structure in a strong magnetic field: Paschen-Back effect reconsidered in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyu; Gu, Sihong; Li, Baiwen

    1996-05-01

    Using a kind of potential model wave function for alkali metal atoms, we nonperturbatively study the effect of fine structure on the Rydberg spectra of Cs atom in a strong magnetic field. Our numerical results reveal spectral structure dramatically different from the well-established Paschen-Back effect, and we argue that the fine structure of the Rydberg Cs atom cannot be neglected even in a magnetic field as strong as several teslas. We also give an error estimate of our results and a word on possible experimental verification.

  14. On the Visibility of Prominence Fine Structures at Radio Millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Berlicki, A.; Bárta, M.; Karlický, M.; Rudawy, P.

    2015-07-01

    Prominence temperatures have so far mainly been determined by analyzing spectral line shapes, which is difficult when the spectral lines are optically thick. The radio spectra in the millimeter range offer a unique possibility to measure the kinetic temperature. However, studies in the past used data with insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the prominence fine structures. The aim of this article is to predict the visibility of prominence fine structures in the submillimeter/millimeter (SMM) domain, to estimate their brightness temperatures at various wavelengths, and to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of future high-resolution radio observations of solar prominences with ALMA ( Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array). Our novel approach is the conversion of H coronagraphic images into microwave spectral images. We show that the spatial variations of the prominence brightness both in the H line and in the SMM domain predominantly depend on the line-of-sight emission measure of the cool plasma, which we derive from the integrated intensities of the observed H line. This relation also offers a new possibility to determine the SMM optical thickness from simultaneous H observations with high resolution. We also describe how we determine the prominence kinetic temperature from SMM spectral images. Finally, we apply the ALMA image-processing software Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) to our simulated images to assess what ALMA would detect at a resolution level that is similar to the coronagraphic H images used in this study. Our results can thus help in preparations of first ALMA prominence observations in the frame of science and technical verification tests.

  15. Experimental fine-structure branching ratios for Na-rare-gas optical collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havey, M.D.; Delahanty, F.T.; Vahala, L.L.; Copeland, G.E.

    1986-10-01

    Experimental ratios for branching into the fine-structure levels of the Na 3p multiplet, as a consequence of an optical collision with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, or Xe, are reported. The process studied is Na(3s /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/)+scrR+nh..nu -->..Na(3p /sup 2/P/sub j/)+scrR+(n-1)h..nu.., where scrR represents a rare-gas atom and where the laser frequency ..nu.. is tuned in the wings of the Na resonance transitions. The branching ratios are defined as I(D1)/I(D2) where I(D1) and I(D2) are measured intensities of the atomic Na D1 and D2 lines. The ratios are determined for detunings ranging from about 650 cm/sup -1/ in the blue wing to 170 cm/sup -1/ in the red wing of the Na 3p multiplet. The branching is found to be strongly detuning dependent in the vicinity of the NaAr, NaKr, and NaXe near-red-wing satellites. The blue-wing branching ratios show a detuning-dependent approach to a recoil, or sudden statistical, limit of 0.5, irrespective of the rare gas. Fine-structure changing cross sections have also been measured for resonant excitation of the Na 3p /sup 2/P/sub j/ state; the results are consistent with cross sections obtained from wing excitation.

  16. Excitonic fine structure of elongated InAs/InP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, M.

    2013-10-01

    The bright exciton splitting in nanosystems and its origins are of primary importance for quantum-dot-based entangled-photon-pair generation. In this paper, I investigate excitonic energies and fine structure for million-atom InAs/InP quantum dots using many-body theory in conjunction with the empirical tight-binding method. Whereas the phenomenological theories relate the fine-structure splitting to quantum-dot-shape asymmetry, using an atomistic approach I demonstrate that for certain elongated quantum-dot shapes the bright exciton splitting can be significantly reduced. I demonstrate that strain effects play an essential role as the main contribution to the bright exciton splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots and observe highly reduced fine-structure splitting for high-symmetry quantum dots without wetting layer. I report the “intrinsic” fine-structure splitting, due to the underlying crystal lattice, to be generally significantly larger than the values predicted by the empirical pseudopotential calculations. Finally, I study excitonic properties of alloyed InAsP quantum dots and demonstrate that alloying effects can significantly reduce fine-structure splitting even in significantly elongated quantum dots.

  17. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Joseph; Cantarero, Gabriela; Elhilali, Mounya; Limb, Charles J

    2011-10-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users demonstrate severe limitations in perceiving musical timbre, a psychoacoustic feature of sound responsible for 'tone color' and one's ability to identify a musical instrument. The reasons for this limitation remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the relative contributions of temporal envelope and fine structure for timbre judgments, in light of the fact that speech processing strategies employed by CI systems typically employ envelope extraction algorithms. We synthesized "instrumental chimeras" that systematically combined variable amounts of envelope and fine structure in 25% increments from two different source instruments with either sustained or percussive envelopes. CI users and normal hearing (NH) subjects were presented with 150 chimeras and asked to determine which instrument the chimera more closely resembled in a single-interval two-alternative forced choice task. By combining instruments with similar and dissimilar envelopes, we controlled the valence of envelope for timbre identification and compensated for envelope reconstruction from fine structure information. Our results show that NH subjects utilize envelope and fine structure interchangeably, whereas CI subjects demonstrate overwhelming reliance on temporal envelope. When chimeras were created from dissimilar envelope instrument pairs, NH subjects utilized a combination of envelope (p = 0.008) and fine structure information (p = 0.009) to make timbre judgments. In contrast, CI users utilized envelope information almost exclusively to make timbre judgments (p timbre judgments (p musical timbre in CI users.

  18. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure as an early hearing loss predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a promising method to monitor early noise-induced hearing losses. When distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are obtained with a high-frequency resolution, a ripple structure across frequency can be seen, called DPOAE fine structure. In this study DPOA...

  19. The fine-grained phase-space structure of cold dark matter haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.; Helmi, Amina; Springel, Volker

    2008-01-01

    We present a new and completely general technique for calculating the fine-grained phase-pace structure of dark matter (DM) throughout the Galactic halo. Our goal is to understand this structure on the scales relevant for direct and indirect detection experiments. Our method is based on evaluating t

  20. Properties and Modeling of Unresolved Fine Structure Loops Observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, David H; Warren, Harry P

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have discovered a new class of numerous low-lying dynamic loop structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. In this letter, we combine IRIS measurements of the properties of a sample of 108 UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations using the HYDRAD hydrodynamic model to examine whether the UFS are now truly spatially resolved in the sense of being individual structures rather than composed of multiple magnetic threads. We find that a simulation of an impulsively heated single strand can reproduce most of the observed properties suggesting that the UFS may be resolved, and the distribution of UFS widths implies that they are structured on a spatial scale of 133km on average. Spatial scales of a few hundred km appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal st...

  1. Landscape relatedness: detecting contemporary fine-scale spatial structure in wild populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...... population. Further analysis suggests that inbreeding has occurred in at least one of these areas. Conclusions LandRel enabled us to identify previously unknown fine-scale structuring in the population. These results will help direct future research efforts, conservation action and aid in the management...

  2. A simulation for gravity fine structure recovery from high-low GRAVSAT SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R. H.; Lancaster, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Covariance error analysis techniques were applied to investigate estimation strategies for the high-low SST mission for accurate local recovery of gravitational fine structure, considering the aliasing effects of unsolved for parameters. Surface density blocks of 5 deg x 5 deg and 2 1/2 deg x 2 1/2 deg resolution were utilized to represent the high order geopotential with the drag-free GRAVSAT configured in a nearly circular polar orbit at 250 km. altitude. GEOPAUSE and geosynchronous satellites were considered as high relay spacecraft. It is demonstrated that knowledge of gravitational fine structure can be significantly improved at 5 deg x 5 deg resolution using SST data from a high-low configuration with reasonably accurate orbits for the low GRAVSAT. The gravity fine structure recoverability of the high-low SST mission is compared with the low-low configuration and shown to be superior.

  3. Fine structure of Plasmodium gallinaceum in embryonic and neonate chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W B; McGhee, R B; Singh, S D

    1976-02-01

    The erythrocytic stages of Plasmdoium gallinaceum in chicken embryos injected with parasited blood either from a syringe-passaged infection in chickens or from a chicken infected with sporozoites were characterized by abnormal structure. Particularly evident were large, unstained vacuoles within the cytoplasm; these occurred with greatest frequency in schizonts. The presence of myelin bodies within these vacuoles was revealed by transmission electron microscopy; abnormal cytokinesis and aberrant merozoites provided additional evidence of the parasite's inability to develop naturally within the milieu of the embryonic erythrocytes. Fifty-five passages were necessary to restore normal structure of the parasites in embryos, while only 5 passages were required for such restoration in neonate chicks. The probable adaptation of the parasite to the proportions of hemoglobin of the adult chicken may be responsible for the abnormal growth in the immature host.

  4. Measuring of Settling Velocity of Fine Sediment Using a Recirculated Settling Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Claus; Larsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a new experimental method for the measurement of the settling velocity of fine sediments. The method includes determination of the influence of turbulence and concentration. The paper also illustrates the method by giving results of the settling velocity of kaolinite for varyi...

  5. Measurement of Settling Velocity of Fine Sediment using a Recirculated Settling Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a new experimental method for the measurement of the settling velocity of fine sediments. The method includes determination of the influence of turbulence and concentration. The paper also illustrates the method by giving results of the settling velocity of kaolinite for varyi...

  6. Measurement of Settling Velocity of Fine Sediment using a Recirculated Settling Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, C.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a new experimental method for the measurement of the settling velocity of fine sediments. The method includes determination of the influence of turbulence and concentration. The paper also illustrates the method by giving results of the settling velocity of kaolinite for varying...

  7. The possibilities for measurement and characterization of diesel engine fine particles: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper considers possible instrumentation for diesel engine fine particles exhaust emission evaluation. The modern diesel engines have extremely low particles emission almost at the level of measurement error of existing gravimetric measurement method. Since coarse particles are eliminated by new engine technologies, fine particles, with very negative effects on human health, dominate in the emission of current diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary not only to measure mass of emitted particles but also to investigate other important particle characteristics as: particles number, particle size, particle number and mass distribution, particle active surface, particle composition etc. Therefore, existing measurement technologies used in aerosol science can be used also to study diesel engine particles properties. This most common instrumentation in aerosol technique is shortly reviewed in the paper with special attention on candidate instruments included in EU program on portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS.

  8. A five dimensional model of varying effective gravitational and fine structure constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbelek, J. P.; Lachièze-Rey, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the reported time variation of the fine structure constant alpha is due to a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. We predict such a coupling from a very simple effective theory of physical interactions, under the form of an improved version of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that it precisely leads to a variation of the effective fine structure constant with cosmic conditions, and thus with cosmic time. The comparison with the recent data from distant quasars absorption line spectra gives a good agreement; moreover, this may reconcile the claimed results on alpha with the upper limit from the Oklo naturel Uranium fission reactor.

  9. Fine structure and oscillations of a quiescent prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N.; Duchlev, P.; Rompolt, B.; Rudawy, P.

    Series of H_alpha spectra and slit-jaw H_alpha filtergrams of a quiescent prominence (QP) taken at Pic du Midi Observatory on 7 November 1977 are studied. The image processing of the H_alpha filtergrams reveals an internal structure of the prominence consisting of several arches. Series of high-resolution H_alpha spectra obtained with the slit located on selected parts of one of the prominence arches chosen for Doppler shift analysis. The prominence arch show cyclic displacement along the line-of-sight (L.O.S.) direction implying Alfven string-mode oscillations.

  10. Fine structure of defects in radial nematic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaddem; Gartland

    2000-11-01

    We investigate the structure of defects in nematic liquid crystals confined in spherical droplets and subject to radial strong anchoring. Equilibrium configurations of the order-parameter tensor field in a Landau-de Gennes free energy are numerically modeled using a finite-element package. Within the class of axially symmetric fields, we find three distinct solutions: the familiar radial hedgehog, the small ring (or loop) disclination predicted by Penzenstadler and Trebin, and a solution that consists of a short disclination line segment along the rotational symmetry axis terminating in isotropic end points. Phase and bifurcation diagrams are constructed to illustrate how the three competing configurations are related. They confirm that the transition from the hedgehog to the ring structure is first order. The third configuration is metastable (in our symmetry class) and forms an alternate solution branch bifurcating off the radial hedgehog branch at the temperature below which the hedgehog ceases to be metastable. Dependence on temperature, droplet size, and elastic constants is investigated, and comparisons with other studies are made.

  11. The fine structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga cyst wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Lupetti, Pietro; De Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C; da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are present in diverse environments, from freshwater to soil, and also in humans, causing serious brain and corneal infections. Their life cycle presents two stages: the dividing trophozoite and the quiescent cyst. The structures of these life stages have been studied for many years, and structural data have been used for taxonomy. The ultrastructural work on Acanthamoeba cysts was carried out previously by routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a process that requires the use of chemical fixation, a procedure that can cause serious artifacts in the ultrastructure of the studied material. In order to prevent fixation artifacts, we processed Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts by ultrarapid freezing, followed by freeze-fracturing and deep-etching, in order to obtain a 3D visualization of the arrangements of the cyst wall. The exocyst presented an irregular surface, with vesicles located within or near this layer. The endocyst, instead, showed a biphasic arrangement with a more compact district in its innermost part, and a more loosened outer layer. For this reason, it was difficult to distinguish the filaments present in the intercyst space from those forming the endocyst. Surprisingly, the intercyst space was thinner when compared with samples processed by conventional TEM, evidencing the possible damage consequent to the use of chemical fixation.

  12. Synthesis, fine structural characterization, and CO2 adsorption capacity of metal organic frameworks-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Abhijit Krishna; Lin, Kuen-Song

    2014-04-01

    Two metal organic frameworks of MOF-74 group (zinc and copper-based) were successfully synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for CO2 adsorption. The both samples such as MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) were characterized with FE-SEM for morphology and particle size, XRD patterns for phase structure, FTIR for organic functional groups, nitrogen adsorption for pore textural properties, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for fine structural parameters and oxidation states of central metal atoms. CO2 adsorption isotherms of MOF-74 samples were measured in a volumetric adsorption unit at 273 K and pressure up to 1.1 bar. The MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) adsorbents have the pore widths of 8.58 and 8.04 angstroms with the BET specific surface areas of 1,474 and 1,345 m2 g(-1), respectively. CO2 adsorption capacities of MOF-74(Zn) and MOF-74(Cu) were 4.10 and 3.38 mmol x g(-1), respectively measured at 273 K and 1.1 bar. The oxidation state of central atoms in MOF-74(Zn) was Zn(II) confirmed by XANES spectra while MOF-74(Cu) was composed of Cu(I) and Cu(II) central atoms. The bond distances of Zn--O and Cu--O were 1.98 and 1.94 angstroms, respectively.

  13. Fine structure of flare ribbons and evolution of electric currents

    CERN Document Server

    Sharykin, I N

    2014-01-01

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains the flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of C2.1 flare of August 15, 2013, observed with New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), GOES and FERMI spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of the flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe red-blue asymmetry of H alpha flare ribbons with a width as small as 100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be r...

  14. Fine structure of sprites and proposed global observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mende, S.B; Frey, H.U.; Rairden, R.l.

    2002-01-01

    that the most frequently observed bead spacing is between 0.6 and I km. The vertical and horizontal size of the bright luminous beads was about 80 m or less. The bead spacing showed a trend to increase with altitude and the e folding distance or attitude "scale-height" of bead spacing was found to be 20......In order to understand sprite processes we, have to explain the phenomena from spatial scales of a few meters to the scale of thunderstorm cells. The intricate small-scale vertical structuring of sprites or the so called beads are particularly difficult to understand. From a two...... and in another case 25 km. In order to make systematic observations of the large-scale sprite morphology a satellite based instrument the Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) instrument is planned to fly on the Taiwanese satellite, ROCSAT 2. The instrument will consist of an imager and two...

  15. Improved community structure detection using a modified fine tuning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yudong; Josic, Kresimir; Bassler, Kevin E

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of a complex network can be determined by finding the partitioning of its nodes that maximizes modularity. Many of the proposed algorithms for doing this work by recursively bisecting the network. We show that this unduely constrains their results, leading to a bias in the size of the communities they find and limiting their effectivness. To solve this problem, we propose adding a step to the existing algorithms that does not increase the order of their computational complexity. We show that, if this step is combined with a commonly used method, the identified constraint and resulting bias are removed, and its ability to find the optimal partitioning is improved. The effectiveness of this combined algorithm is also demonstrated by using it on real-world example networks. For a number of these examples, it achieves the best results of any known algorithm.

  16. Combination of BLOCH oscillations with a Ramsey-Bordé interferometer: new determination of the fine structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Malo; de Mirandes, Estefania; Cladé, Pierre; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François

    2008-12-01

    We report a new experimental scheme which combines atom interferometry with Bloch oscillations to provide a new measurement of the ratio h/mRb. By using Bloch oscillations, we impart to the atoms up to 1600 recoil momenta and thus we improve the accuracy on the recoil velocity measurement. The deduced value of h/mRb leads to a new determination of the fine structure constant alpha(-1) =137.03599945 (62) with a relative uncertainty of 4.6 x 10(-9). The comparison of this result with the value deduced from the measurement of the electron anomaly provides the most stringent test of QED.

  17. Application of Hot-wire Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fine Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxi WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic substrate is preferred in high density packaging due to its high electrical resistivity and moderate expansion coefficient. The thermal conductivity is a key parameter for packaging substrates. There are two common methods to measure the thermal conductivity, which are the hot-wire method and the laser-flash method. Usually, the thermal conductivities of porcelain is low and meet the measurement range of hot-wire method, and the measured value by hot-wire method has little difference with that by laser-flash method. In recent years, with the requirement of high-powered LED lighting, some kinds of ceramic substrates with good thermal conductivity have been developed and their thermal conductivity always measured by the means of laser flash method, which needs expensive instrument. In this paper, in order to detect the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic with convenience and low cost, the feasibility of replacing the laser flash method with hot wire method to measure thermal conductivity of ceramic composites was studied. The experiment results showed that the thermal conductivity value of fine ceramics measured by the hot-wire method is severely lower than that by the laser-flash method. However, there is a positive relationship between them. It is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic workpiece instantly by hot-wire method via a correction formula.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12543

  18. Flare processes evolution and polarization changes of fine structures of solar radio emission in the April 11, 2013 event

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, Gennady; Tan, Baolin; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Chengming; Fu, Qijun; Karlicky, Marian; Fomichev, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of positions and sizes of radio sources in the observations of solar radio spectral fine structures in an M6.5 flare on April 11, 2013 were observed simultaneously by several radio instruments at four different observatories: Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers at Huairou (SBRS/Huairou), Ondrejov Radio spectrograph in the Czech Republic (ORSC/Ondrejov), Badary Broadband Microwave spectropolarimeter (BMS/Irkutsk), and spectrograph/IZMIRAN (Moscow, Troitsk). The fine structures include microwave zebra patterns (ZP), fast pulsations, and fibers. They were observed during the flare brightening located at the tops of a loop arcade. The dynamics of the polarization was associated with the motion of the flare exciter, which was observed in EUV images at 171A and 131A (SDO/AIA). Combining magnetograms observed by the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) with the homologous assumption of EUV flare brightening and ZP bursts, we deduced that the observed ZPs correspond to the ordinary radio...

  19. An extended anomalous fine structure of X-ray quasi-Bragg diffuse scattering from multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray quasi-Bragg diffuse scattering anomalous fine structure technique was probed near the absorption Ni K-edge to study the interfacial structure of the Ni/C multilayer deposited by the laser ablation. Like other combinations of the EXAFS and diffraction techniques, this method has a spatial selectivity and was shown qualitatively to provide atomic structural information from the mixed interfacial layers. The possibilities and advantages of this technique are discussed.

  20. Fine Structure of the Upsilon 2p States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Dale Michael John

    1990-01-01

    The Columbia-Stony Brook (CUSB) collaboration has measured the photon spectrum resulting from the decays Upsilon (3S)togamma + hadrons using the CUSB-II BGO calorimeter. The spectrum contains the signal from the electromagnetic transitions Upsilon (3S)togammachi _{b,J=0,1,2} (2P). From this signal the masses of the chi_{b}(2P) states were determined to be 10268.0 +/- 0.8, 10255.4 +/- 0.8, and 10233.9 +/- 1.2 MeV for the J = 2, 1, and 0 states respectively. The ratio of the mass splittings, (M_{chi _{b2}} - M_{chi_{b1}} )/(M_{chi_{b1 }} - M_ {chi_{b0}}) imply that the long range confining piece of the inter-quark potential transforms as a Lorentz scalar.

  1. The Fine Structure of Dyadically Badly Approximable Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We consider badly approximable numbers in the case of dyadic diophantine approximation. For the unit circle $\\mathbb{S}$ and the smallest distance to an integer $\\|\\cdot\\|$ we give elementary proofs that the set $F(c) = \\{x \\in \\mathbb{S}: \\|2^nx\\| \\geq c, n\\geq 0\\}$ is a fractal set whose Hausdorff dimension depends continuously on $c$, is constant on intervals which form a set of Lebesgue measure 1 and is self-similar. Hence it has a fractal graph. Moreover, the dimension of $F(c)$ is zero if and only if $c\\geq 1-2\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the Thue-Morse constant. We completely characterise the intervals where the dimension remains unchanged. As a consequence we can completely describe the graph of $ c\\mapsto \\dim_H \\{x\\in[0,1]: \\|x-\\frac{m}{2^n}\\|< \\frac{c}{2^n} \\textnormal{finitely often}\\}$.

  2. Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Zhang, Yuhua; Guthery, Stephen L; Thara, Rangaswamy; Mowry, Bryan J; Bulayeva, Kazima; Weiss, Robert B; Jorde, Lynn B

    2009-05-01

    We report an analysis of more than 240,000 loci genotyped using the Affymetrix SNP microarray in 554 individuals from 27 worldwide populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe. To provide a more extensive and complete sampling of human genetic variation, we have included caste and tribal samples from two states in South India, Daghestanis from eastern Europe, and the Iban from Malaysia. Consistent with observations made by Charles Darwin, our results highlight shared variation among human populations and demonstrate that much genetic variation is geographically continuous. At the same time, principal components analyses reveal discernible genetic differentiation among almost all identified populations in our sample, and in most cases, individuals can be clearly assigned to defined populations on the basis of SNP genotypes. All individuals are accurately classified into continental groups using a model-based clustering algorithm, but between closely related populations, genetic and self-classifications conflict for some individuals. The 250K data permitted high-level resolution of genetic variation among Indian caste and tribal populations and between highland and lowland Daghestani populations. In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. Our results emphasize the correlation of genetic and geographic distances and highlight other elements, including social factors that have contributed to population structure.

  3. The fine structure of endothelium of large arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUCK, R C

    1958-03-25

    Endothelium of large arteries from several species was studied in thin sections with the electron microscope. Before sacrifice, some animals received an intravenous injection of colloidal thorium dioxide which was visualized in the sections. Surface replicas were prepared by carbon evaporation on either frozen-dried endothelium or on endothelium dried by sublimation of naphthalene with which the tissue had been impregnated. Cell boundaries, stained with silver, were observed in sections and also from the surface by stripping off the inner part of the endothelium. In addition to the usual cytoplasmic organelles, the endothelial cells showed certain characteristic features, namely, large invaginated pockets communicating with the arterial lumen, numerous much smaller vesicular structures immediately under the plasma membrane and apparently also communicating with the lumen, and inclusions, into which injected thorium particles were incorporated. Intercellular boundaries appeared as regular double membranes in thin sections, and they were outlined by a double row of silver granules after silver staining. No evidence was obtained of permeation of intracellular spaces by colloidal thorium.

  4. Fine analysis of the calibration curve for a HPGe spectrometer in gamma ray energy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Yhi Gang; Wei Long; Chang Tian Ba

    1999-01-01

    A computational method is suggested to analyze gamma ray peak position data of a series of closely shifted spectra of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir measured by a HPGe spectrometer and an iteration program, Recovery-98 has been designed to find the fine curve of the spectrometer nonlinearity for energy calibration. The program is applied to check a previous experiment (measuring the gamma energies of sup 8 sup 5 Sr, etc.), and the revised result has been reported. (author)

  5. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  6. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  7. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L{sub 2,3}- and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi{sub 2} sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi{sub 2}. Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed.

  8. Ab initio self-consistent x-ray absorption fine structure analysis for metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2006-12-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure is a powerful tool for probing the structures of metals in proteins in both crystalline and noncrystalline environments. Until recently, a fundamental problem in biological XAFS has been that ad hoc assumptions must be made concerning the vibrational properties of the amino acid residues that are coordinated to the metal to fit the data. Here, an automatic procedure for accurate structural determination of active sites of metalloproteins is presented. It is based on direct multiple-scattering simulation of experimental X-ray absorption fine structure spectra combining electron multiple scattering calculations with density functional theory calculations of vibrational modes of amino acid residues and the genetic algorithm differential evolution to determine a global minimum in the space of fitting parameters. Structure determination of the metalloprotein active site is obtained through a self-consistent iterative procedure with only minimal initial information.

  9. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the differenc...

  10. Comment on ``Interpretation of the fine structure in the 14C radioactive decay of 223'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J. F.; Brillard, L.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-12-01

    Priority of our interpretation of the fine structure in the 14C radioactive decay of 223Ra is asserted. It seems that the deformation parameter values, used in the framework of ARM to interpret properties of both 223Ra ground and excited states, partly allow for the qualitative interpretation of the experimental hindrance factors to the 209Pb states.

  11. Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig;

    1986-01-01

    are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  12. MULTIPLET FINE-STRUCTURE IN THE PHOTOEMISSION OF THE GADOLINIUM AND TERBIUM 5P LEVELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; WANG, XD; HARMON, BN; LI, DQ; DOWBEN, PA

    1993-01-01

    Fine structure is observed in the photoemission of the gadolinium and terbium 5p levels. The 5p levels are split into multiplets due to spin-orbit splitting and to Coulomb and exchange interactions with the f shell. The calculated theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental resul

  13. Temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in InGaN quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Puchtler, Tim J.; Zhu, Tongtong; Jarman, John C.; Kocher, Claudius C.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of temperature-dependent fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots using a non-polar (11-20) a-plane InGaN system, up to the on-chip Peltier cooling threshold of 200 K. At 5 K, a statistical average splitting of 443 ± 132 μeV has been found based on 81 quantum dots. The degree of fine structure splitting stays relatively constant for temperatures less than 100 K and only increases above that temperature. At 200 K, we find that the fine structure splitting ranges between 2 and 12 meV, which is an order of magnitude higher than that at low temperatures. Our investigations also show that phonon interactions at high temperatures might have a correlation with the degree of exchange interactions. The large fine structure splitting at 200 K makes it easier to isolate the individual components of the polarized emission spectrally, increasing the effective degree of polarization for potential on-chip applications of polarized single-photon sources.

  14. The plasma processes of some solar radio burst and their fine structures on the time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Z.-J.; Lu, Q.-K.; Fu, Q.-J.; Yan, Y.

    2003-04-01

    We present three special solar radio bursts or fine structures on the frequency band of 1.00-7.60Ghz. Firstly, we study the type III burst pair, which was recorded by spectrometer 1.00-2.00GHz at National Astronomical Observatory of China on Jan. 05, 1994. A plausible model might be thought that this event could be the observational evidence of two electron beams traveling bi-directions simultanuously due to the acceleration of magnetic reconnection in the corona. Secondly, a fine structure of microwave type IV bursts is microwave type M-burst on May 03 1999. Partial N-burst, which is a fine structure of solar III-V bursts recorded on August 251999 by both separated spectrometers 4.50-7.50 GHz at Purple Mountain observatory and 5.20-7.60GHz at NAO respectively, is the third phenomenon studied here. As the N-burst documented before, the last two fine structures are thought to the new observational evidences of electron beam reflected by magnetic mirror in the corona.

  15. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies of the atomic structure of nanoparticles in different metallic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S H; Roy, M; Gurman, S J; Binns, C

    2009-05-06

    It has been appreciated for some time that the novel properties of particles in the size range 1-10 nm are potentially exploitable in a range of applications. In order to ultimately produce commercial devices containing nanosized particles, it is necessary to develop controllable means of incorporating them into macroscopic samples. One way of doing this is to embed the nanoparticles in a matrix of a different material, by co-deposition for example, to form a nanocomposite film. The atomic structure of the embedded particles can be strongly influenced by the matrix. Since some of the key properties of materials, including magnetism, strongly depend on atomic structure, the ability to determine atomic structure in embedded nanoparticles is very important. This review focuses on nanoparticles, in particular magnetic nanoparticles, embedded in different metal matrices. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) provides an excellent means of probing atomic structure in nanocomposite materials, and an overview of this technique is given. Its application in probing catalytic metal clusters is described briefly, before giving an account of the use of EXAFS in determining atomic structure in magnetic nanocomposite films. In particular, we focus on cluster-assembled films comprised of Fe and Co nanosized particles embedded in various metal matrices, and show how the crystal structure of the particles can be changed by appropriate choice of the matrix material. The work discussed here demonstrates that combining the results of structural and magnetic measurements, as well as theoretical calculations, can play a significant part in tailoring the properties of new magnetic cluster-assembled materials.

  16. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature — from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or α-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force — we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by α-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54◦ North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82◦ North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  17. Changes in the Fine Structure of Stochastic Distributions as a Consequence of Space-Time Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey of the fine structure stochastic distributions in measurements obtained by me over 50 years. It is shown: (1 The forms of the histograms obtained at each geographic point (at each given moment of time are similar with high probability, even if we register phenomena of completely different nature --- from biochemical reactions to the noise in a gravitational antenna, or alpha-decay. (2 The forms of the histograms change with time. The iterations of the same form have the periods of the stellar day (1.436 min, the solar day (1.440 min, the calendar year (365 solar days, and the sidereal year (365 solar days plus 6 hours and 9 min. (3 At the same instants of the local time, at different geographic points, the forms of the histograms are the same, with high probability. (4 The forms of the histograms depend on the locations of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the horizon. (5 All the facts are proof of the dependance of the form of the histograms on the location of the measured objects with respect to stars, the Sun, and the Moon. (6 At the instants of New Moon and the maxima of solar eclipses there are specific forms of the histograms. (7 It is probable that the observed correlations are not connected to flow power changes (the changes of the gravity force --- we did not find the appropriate periods in changes in histogram form. (8 A sharp anisotropy of space was discovered, registered by alpha-decay detectors armed with collimators. Observations at 54 North (the collimator was pointed at the Pole Star showed no day-long periods, as was also the case for observations at 82 North, near the Pole. Histograms obtained by observations with an Easterly-directed collimator were determined every 718 minutes (half stellar day and with observations using a Westerly-directed collimator. (9 Collimators rotating counter-clockwise, in parallel with the celestial equator, gave the probability of changes in histograms as the number of the

  18. Fine structure of Langmuir waves observed upstream of the bow shock at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bolton, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Highly structured Langmuir waves, also known as electron plasma oscillations, have been observed in the foreshock of Venus using the plasma wave experiment on the Galileo spacecraft during the gravity assist flyby on February 10, 1990. The Galileo wideband sampling system provides digital electric field waveform measurements at sampling rates up to 201,600 samples per second, much higher than any previous instrument of this type. The main Langmuir wave emission band occurs near the local electron plasma frequency, which was approximately 43 kHz. The Langmuir waves are observed to shift above and below the plasma frequency, sometimes by as much as 20 kHz. The shifts in frequency are closely correlated with the downstream distance from the tangent field line, implying that the shifts are controlled by the electron beam velocity. Considerable fine structure is also evident, with timescales as short as 0.15 ms, corresponding to spatial scales of a few tens of Debye lengths. The frequency spectrum often consists of beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 7 kHz, and in a few cases, isolated wave packets. The peak electric field strengths are approximately 1 mV/m. These field strengths are too small for strongly nonlinear processes to be important. The beat-type waveforms are suggestive of a parametric decay process.

  19. Mineralogical properties and internal structures of individual fine particles of Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Park, Mi Yeon; Kandler, Konrad; Nousiainen, Timo; Kemppinen, Osku

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust interacts with incoming/outgoing radiation, gases, other aerosols, and clouds. The assessment of its optical and chemical impacts requires knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of bulk dust and single particles. Despite the existence of a large body of data from field measurements and laboratory analyses, the internal properties of single dust particles have not been defined precisely. Here, we report on the mineralogical organization and internal structures of individual fine ( common particle type was clay-rich agglomerate, dominated by illite-smectite series clay minerals with subordinate kaolinite. Submicron grains of iron (hydr)oxides (goethite and hematite) were commonly dispersed through the clay-rich particles. The median total volume of the iron (hydr)oxide grains included in the dust particles was estimated to be about 1.5 % vol. The average iron content of clay minerals, assuming 14 wt % H2O, was determined to be 5.0 wt %. Coarse mineral cores, several micrometers in size, were coated with thin layers of clay-rich agglomerate. Overall, the dust particles were roughly ellipsoidal, with an average axial ratio of 1.4 : 1.0 : 0.5. The mineralogical and structural properties of single Saharan dust particles provide a basis for the modeling of dust radiative properties. Major iron-bearing minerals, such as illite-smectite series clay minerals and iron (hydr)oxides, were commonly submicron- to nano-sized, possibly enhancing their biogeochemical availability to remote marine ecosystems lacking micronutrients.

  20. Laser Spectroscopy of the Fine-Structure Splitting in the 2 PJ 3 Levels of He 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Chen, J.-J.; Jiang, W.; Pachucki, K.; Hu, S.-M.

    2017-02-01

    The fine-structure splitting in the 2 PJ 3 (J =0 , 1, 2) levels of He 4 is of great interest for tests of quantum electrodynamics and for the determination of the fine-structure constant α . The 2 P0 3 -2 P2 3 and 2 P1 3 -2 P2 3 intervals are measured by laser spectroscopy of the PJ 3 -2 S1 3 transitions at 1083 nm in an atomic beam, and are determined to be 31 908 130.98 ±0.13 kHz and 2 291 177.56 ±0.19 kHz , respectively. Compared with calculations, which include terms up to α5Ry , the deviation for the α -sensitive interval 2 P0 3 -2 P2 3 is only 0.22 kHz. It opens the window for further improvement of theoretical predictions and an independent determination of the fine-structure constant α with a precision of 2 ×10-9 .

  1. On the origin of fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra of the β-sialon:Eu2+ green phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsei Takahashi, Ken-ichi Yoshimura, Masamichi Harada, Yoshitaka Tomomura, Takashi Takeda, Rong-Jun Xie and Naoto Hirosaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoluminescence (PL and PL excitation (PLE spectra of Si6−zAlzOzN8−z (β-sialon:Eu2+ phosphors with small z values (z=0.025–0.24 were studied at room temperature and 6 K. The PL and PLE spectra exhibit fine structure with the PL lines being as sharp as 45–55 nm even at room temperature; this fine structure was enhanced by decreasing the z value. These results can be used for expanding the color gamut of liquid crystal displays, particularly in the blue–green region. From low-temperature measurements, the fine PLE structure was ascribed to discrete energy levels of 7FJ states. The 4f65d excited states of Eu2+ are considered to be localized near the 4f orbital. This is because the bonding of Eu2+ with surrounding atoms is ionic rather than covalent. Lattice phonon absorptions were also observed in the PLE spectrum, revealing that the optically active Eu2+ ions are located in the β-sialon crystal. The PL spectrum of the sample with the smallest z value (0.025 consists of a sharp zero-phonon line and lattice phonon replicas, which results in a sharp and asymmetric spectral shape.

  2. Determination of the fine structure constant based on BLOCH oscillations of ultracold atoms in a vertical optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladé, Pierre; de Mirandes, Estefania; Cadoret, Malo; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François

    2006-01-27

    We report an accurate measurement of the recoil velocity of 87Rb atoms based on Bloch oscillations in a vertical accelerated optical lattice. We transfer about 900 recoil momenta with an efficiency of 99.97% per recoil. A set of 72 measurements of the recoil velocity, each one with a relative uncertainty of about 33 ppb in 20 min integration time, leads to a determination of the fine structure constant with a statistical relative uncertainty of 4.4 ppb. The detailed analysis of the different systematic errors yields to a relative uncertainty of 6.7 ppb. The deduced value of alpha-1 is 137.035 998 78(91).

  3. Preferred Compression Speed for Speech and Music and Its Relationship to Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęk, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel amplitude compression is widely used in hearing aids. The preferred compression speed varies across individuals. Moore (2008) suggested that reduced sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) may be associated with preference for slow compression. This idea was tested using a simulated hearing aid. It was also assessed whether preferences for compression speed depend on the type of stimulus: speech or music. Twenty-two hearing-impaired subjects were tested, and the stimulated hearing aid was fitted individually using the CAM2A method. On each trial, a given segment of speech or music was presented twice. One segment was processed with fast compression and the other with slow compression, and the order was balanced across trials. The subject indicated which segment was preferred and by how much. On average, slow compression was preferred over fast compression, more so for music, but there were distinct individual differences, which were highly correlated for speech and music. Sensitivity to TFS was assessed using the difference limen for frequency at 2000 Hz and by two measures of sensitivity to interaural phase at low frequencies. The results for the difference limens for frequency, but not the measures of sensitivity to interaural phase, supported the suggestion that preference for compression speed is affected by sensitivity to TFS. PMID:27604778

  4. Topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly: Fine structure of Chern numbers and Van Hove singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumis, Gerardo G., E-mail: naumis@fisica.unam.mx [Departamento de Física–Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, ESIA-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-04-29

    The Hofstadter butterfly is a quantum fractal with a highly complex nested set of gaps, where each gap represents a quantum Hall state whose quantized conductivity is characterized by topological invariants known as the Chern numbers. Here we obtain simple rules to determine the Chern numbers at all scales in the butterfly fractal and lay out a very detailed topological map of the butterfly by using a method used to describe quasicrystals: the cut and projection method. Our study reveals the existence of a set of critical points that separates orderly patterns of both positive and negative Cherns that appear as a fine structure in the butterfly. This fine structure can be understood as a small tilting of the projection subspace in the cut and projection method and by using a Chern meeting formula. Finally, we prove that the critical points are identified with the Van Hove singularities that exist at every band center in the butterfly landscape. - Highlights: • Use a higher dimensional approach to build a topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly. • There is a fine structure of Chern numbers around each rational flux. • Van Hove singularities are limiting points for topological sequences of the fine flux.

  5. HRTS observations of the fine structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    Arc-second UV observations of the Sun by the NRL High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) have led to the discovery of dynamic fine structures such as 400 km/s coronal jets and chromospheric jets (spicules) and have provided new information about the structure and dynamics of the transition zone. These observations are reviewed and their relevance to the origin of the solar wind is discussed.

  6. Determining the velocity fine structure by a laser anemometer with fixed orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, P.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2011-02-15

    We have studied the velocity structure functions and spectra which can be determined by a CW-laser anemometer and a (pulsed) lidar anemometer. We have found useful theoretical expressions for both types of anemometers and compared their filtering of the along-beam turbulent velocity. The purpose has been to establish a basis for remote determining of turbulence fine-structure in terms of the rate of dissipation of specific kinetic energy in the atmospheric boundary layer. (Author)

  7. Astronomical constraints on the cosmic evolution of the fine structure constant and possible quantum dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carilli, CL; Menten, KM; Stocke, JT; Perlman, E; Vermeulen, R; Briggs, F; de Bruyn, AG; Conway, J; Moore, CP

    2000-01-01

    We present measurements of absorption by the 21 cm hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen toward radio sources at substantial look-back times. These data are used in combination with observations of rotational transitions of common interstellar molecules to set limits on the evolution of the fine

  8. Scattering pulse of label free fine structure cells to determine the size scale of scattering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Zhenxi; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Kaixing; Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    Scattering pulse is sensitive to the morphology and components of each single label-free cell. The most direct detection result, label free cell's scattering pulse is studied in this paper as a novel trait to recognize large malignant cells from small normal cells. A set of intrinsic scattering pulse calculation method is figured out, which combines both hydraulic focusing theory and small particle's scattering principle. Based on the scattering detection angle ranges of widely used flow cytometry, the scattering pulses formed by cell scattering energy in forward scattering angle 2°-5° and side scattering angle 80°-110° are discussed. Combining the analysis of cell's illuminating light energy, the peak, area, and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of label free cells' scattering pulses for fine structure cells with diameter 1-20 μm are studied to extract the interrelations of scattering pulse's features and cell's morphology. The theoretical and experimental results show that cell's diameter and FWHM of its scattering pulse agree with approximate linear distribution; the peak and area of scattering pulse do not always increase with cell's diameter becoming larger, but when cell's diameter is less than about 16 μm the monotone increasing relation of scattering pulse peak or area with cell's diameter can be obtained. This relationship between the features of scattering pulse and cell's size is potentially a useful but very simple criterion to distinguishing malignant and normal cells by their sizes and morphologies in label free cells clinical examinations.

  9. Benthic biofilm structure controls the deposition-resuspension dynamics of fine clay particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. R.; Roche, K. R.; Drummond, J. D.; Boano, F.; Packman, A. I.; Battin, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In fluvial ecosystems the alternation of deposition and resuspension of particles represents an important pathway for the downstream translocation of microbes and organic matter. Such particles can originate from algae and microbes, the spontaneous auto-aggregation of organic macromolecules (e.g., "river sown"), terrestrial detritus (traditionally classified as "particulate organic matter"), and erosive mineral and organo-mineral particles. The transport and retention of particles in headwater streams is associated with biofilms, which are surface-attached microbial communities. Whilst biofilm-particle interactions have been studied in bulk, a mechanistic understanding of these processes is lacking. Parallel macroscale/microscale observations are required to unravel the complex feedbacks between biofilm structure, coverage and the dynamics of deposition and resuspension. We used recirculating flume mesocosms to test how changes in biofilm structure affected the deposition and resuspension of clay-sized (< 10 μm) particles. Biofilms were grown in replicate 3-m-long recirculating flumes over variable lengths of time (0, 14, 21, 28, and 35) days. Fixed doses of fluorescent clay-sized particles were introduced to each flume and their deposition was traced over 30 minutes. A flood event was then simulated via a step increase in flowrate to quantify particle resuspension. 3D Optical Coherence Tomography was used to determine roughness, areal coverage and height of biofilms in each flume. From these measurements we characterised particle deposition and resuspension rates, using continuous time random walk modelling techniques, which we then tested as responses to changes in biofilm coverage and structure under both base-flow and flood-flow scenarios. Our results suggest that biofilm structural complexity is a primary control upon the retention and downstream transport of fine particles in stream mesocosms.

  10. ODTX Measurements and Simulations on Ultra Fine TATB and PBX-9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Wemhoff, A

    2007-07-06

    We measure the time to explosion of 12.7 mm diameter spheres of ultra fine TATB and PBX-9502 (95 wt% TATB, 5 wt% Kel-F 800) at 85.0, 92.5, and 98.0 percent of theoretical maximum density (TMD) in confined and unconfined configurations and at several elevated temperatures with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus. Time to explosion data provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the calibration of kinetic parameters. The measurements show that PBX-9502 is more thermally stable than ultra fine TATB, that unconfined samples are slightly more thermally stable than confined ones, and that lower density samples are more thermally stable than higher density ones. 'Go/no go' data at the lowest temperatures yield an experimental measurement of the critical temperature, which is the temperature at which an explosive can be heated indefinitely without undergoing self-heating and concomitant rapid and violent decomposition. Critical temperatures ranges for 12.7 mm diameter spheres of 98% TMD ultra fine TATB and PBX-9502 are 213-230 C and 234-239 C, respectively. Experimental data are modeled with ALE3D and kinetic parameters are determined. These kinetic parameters, when coupled with thermal property data, provide good prediction of the time to explosion.

  11. Les structures fines de l'\\'{e}lectromagn\\'{e}tisme classique et de la relativit\\'{e} restreinte (The fine structures of Classical Electromagnetism and Special Relativity)

    CERN Document Server

    Pierseaux, Y; Pierseaux, Yves; Rousseaux, Germain

    2006-01-01

    One of us (Y.P.) has shown the existence of a longitudinal component in the propagation of light waves on the basis of the kinematics underlying Poincar\\'{e}'s ellipse. We show how this statement agrees with the electromagnetic theory. We recall that the second of us supports the existence of a "fine structure" of Electromagnetism that is, the co-existence of two theories, one based on the fields (Heaviside-Hertz) and the other on the potentials (Riemann-Lorenz). The existence of two different kinematics (the "fine structure" of Special Relativity : Einstein or Poincar\\'{e}) corresponds to these two formulations of Classical Electromagnetism. With this goal in mind, we prove the relativistic covariance of the Helmholtz decomposition of the vector potential. This one translates into a generalized compensation for all directions of propagation, on the basis of the tangent to Poincar\\'{e}'s ellipse, between the scalar potential and the longitudinal component of the vector potential. The adoption by Poincar\\'{e} ...

  12. Fine Structure Zonal Flow Excitation by Beta-induced Alfven Eigenmode

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear excitation of low frequency zonal structure (LFZS) by beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that electrostatic zonal flow (ZF), rather than zonal current, is preferentially excited by finite amplitude BAE. In addition to the well-known meso-scale radial envelope structure, ZF is also found to exhibit fine radial structure due to the localization of BAE with respect to mode rational surfaces. Specifically, the zonal electric field has an even mode structure at the rational surface where radial envelope peaks.

  13. Exciton fine structure splitting in InP quantum dots in GaInP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, C; Seifert, W; Pryor, C; Samuelson, L; Pistol, M-E

    2007-07-25

    We have investigated the electronic structure of excitons in InP quantum dots in GaInP. The exciton is theoretically expected to have four states. Two of the states are allowed to optically decay to the ground (vacuum) state in the dipole approximation. We see these two lines in photoluminescence (PL) experiments and find that the splitting between the lines (the fine structure splitting) is 150(± 30) µeV. The lines were perpendicularly polarized. We verified that the lines arise from neutral excitons by using correlation spectroscopy. The theoretical calculations show that the polarization of the emission lines are along and perpendicular to the major axis of elongated dots. The fine structure splitting depends on the degree of elongation of the dots and is close to zero for dots of cylindrical symmetry, despite the influence of the piezoelectric polarization, which is included in the calculation.

  14. The fine structure of Garnia gonadati and its association with the host cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, J A; Silva, E O; Lainson, R; de Souza, W

    2000-12-01

    Most of the studies on the fine structure of protozoa of the Apicomplexa group have been carried out with members of the ToxoPlasma, Eimeria, and Plasmodium genera. In the present study we analyzed the fine structure of Garnia gonadoti parasitizing the red blood cells of the Amazonian reptile Gonatodes humeralis (Reptilia; Lacertilia). Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that G. gonadoti presented all structures characteristic of the group, including the apicoplast. However, four special features were observed: (1) absence of the hemozoin (malarial) pigment; (2) a group of microtubules associated with the mitochondrion; (3) a vacuole containing electron-dense material, which resembled the acidocalcisome described in trypanosomatids; and (4) a special array of the host-cell endoplasmic reticulum around the parasitophorous vacuole.

  15. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-28

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  16. A surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of tellurium adsorbed onto Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, S. R.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Wilks, S. P.; Dunstan, P. R.; Dunscombe, C. J.; Williams, R. H.

    1996-09-01

    The adsorption of tellurium on Si(100) has been studied using surface extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (SEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW). This particular system is of interest due to its potential applicability in the surfactant aided growth of CdHgTeCdTeSi(100) based infra-red detectors. The Te/Si(100) structure was generated by depositing a thick layer (˜ 100 Å) of CdTe onto a clean Si (2 × 1) double domain surface, and annealing the sample to 350°C. This resulted is a ˜ 1 ML Te terminated surface where the (2 × 1) reconstruction was lost in favour of a (1 × 1) symmetry. X-ray absorption of the Te L 3 edge ( E = 4341 eV), with a photon energy range of 4440-4700 eV, was probed using a total yield detection scheme. The SEXAFS results indicated that the Te atoms sat in 2-fold bridge sites directly above a fourth layer Si atom. The corresponding bond length was measured to be 2.52 ± 0.05 Å. The XSW measurements of the (400) reflection gave a coherent position of 1.63 ± 0.03 Å and a coherent fraction of 0.65. This is consistent with the breaking of the SiSi dimers and thus could be an example of the phenomena of adsorbate-induced dereconstruction of the surface. These results are compared with those of Bennet et al. who examined a similar system using soft X-ray photoemission (SXPS) and the STM study of Yoshikawa et al.

  17. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-04-13

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  18. Detectability of temporal changes in fine structures near the inner core boundary beneath the eastern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-che

    2016-04-01

    The inner core boundary (ICB), where melting and solidification of the core occur, plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the Earth's interior. To probe temporal changes near the ICB beneath the eastern hemisphere, I analyze differential times of PKiKP (dt(PKiKP)), double differential times of PKiKP-PKPdf, and PKiKP coda waves from repeating earthquakes in the Southwest Pacific subduction zones. Most PKiKP differential times are within ±30 ms, comparable to inherent travel time uncertainties due to inter-event separations, and suggest no systematic changes as a function of calendar time. Double differential times measured between PKiKP codas and PKiKP main phases show promising temporal changes, with absolute values of time shifts of >50 ms for some observations. However, there are discrepancies among results from different seismographs in the same calendar time window. Negligible changes in PKiKP times, combined with changes in PKiKP coda wave times on 5 year timescales, favor a smooth inner core boundary with fine-scale structures present in the upper inner core. Differential times of PKiKP can be interpreted in the context of either melting based on translational convection, or growth based on thermochemical mantle-inner core coupling. Small dt(PKiKP) values with inherent uncertainties do not have sufficient resolution to distinguish the resultant longitudinal (melting) and latitudinal (growth) dependencies predicted on the basis of the two models on 5 year timescales.

  19. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  20. The Oklo bound on the time variation of the fine-structure constant revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Damour, Thibault; Dyson, Freeman

    1996-01-01

    It has been pointed out by Shlyakhter that data from the natural fission reactors which operated about two billion years ago at Oklo (Gabon) had the potential of providing an extremely tight bound on the variability of the fine-structure constant alpha. We revisit the derivation of such a bound by: (i) reanalyzing a large selection of published rare-earth data from Oklo, (ii) critically taking into account the very large uncertainty of the temperature at which the reactors operated, and (iii) connecting in a new way (using isotope shift measurements) the Oklo-derived constraint on a possible shift of thermal neutron-capture resonances with a bound on the time variation of alpha. Our final (95% C.L.) results are: -0.9 \\times 10^{-7} <(alpha^{Oklo} - alpha^{now})/alpha <1.2\\times 10^{-7} and -6.7 \\times 10^{-17} {yr}^{-1} < {\\dot alpha}^{averaged}/alpha <5.0\\times10^{-17} {yr}^{-1}.

  1. Complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting in GaN/AlN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, Gerald; Winkelnkemper, Momme; Schliwa, Andrei; Hoffmann, Axel; Bimberg, Dieter [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Kindel, Christian [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kako, Satoshi [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Takeshi; Oishi, Hiroaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the excitonic fine structure in quantum dots (QDs) is indispensable for their use in quantum cryptography devices. While the fine structure in As-based QDs has been studied extensively, there is a lack of such investigations for N-based QDs, which might operate at room temperature. We present the first complete study of excitonic fine-structure splitting (FSS) in GaN/AlN QDs. Our experimental studies reveal a huge FSS of up to 7 meV with a strong dependence on the emission energy inverse to that in As-based QDs. Our theoretical studies, performed with a configuration-interaction method based on realistic 8-band-k.p Hartree-Fock states, confirm the experimental results and identify the origin of FSS as lattice strain induced. Based on our results it is possible to induce a strain gradient (by micro mechanic techniques or structuring methods), which will reduce the FSS to zero for the emission of entangled photon pairs.

  2. Automatic detection and extraction of ultra-fine bright structure observed with new vacuum solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-02-01

    Solar magnetic structures exhibit a wealth of different spatial and temporal scales. Presently, solar magnetic element is believed to be the ultra-fine magnetic structure in the lower solar atmospheric layer, and the diffraction limit of the largest-aperture solar telescope (New Vacuum Solar Telescope; NVST) of China is close to the spatial scale of magnetic element. This implies that modern solar observations have entered the era of high resolution better than 0.2 arc-second. Since the year of 2011, the NVST have successfully established and obtained huge observational data. Moreover, the ultra-fine magnetic structure rooted in the dark inter-graunlar lanes can be easily resolved. Studies on the observational characteristics and physical mechanism of magnetic bright points is one of the most important aspects in the field of solar physics, so it is very important to determine the statistical and physical parameters of magnetic bright points with the feature extraction techniques and numerical analysis approaches. For identifying such ultra-fine magnetic structure, an automatically and effectively detection algorithm, employed the Laplacian transform and the morphological dilation technique, is proposed and examined. Then, the statistical parameters such as the typical diameter, the area distribution, the eccentricity, and the intensity contrast are obtained. And finally, the scientific meaning for investigating the physical parameters of magnetic bright points are discussed, especially for understanding the physical processes of solar magnetic energy transferred from the photosphere to the corona.

  3. Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

  4. Topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly: Fine structure of Chern numbers and Van Hove singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-04-01

    The Hofstadter butterfly is a quantum fractal with a highly complex nested set of gaps, where each gap represents a quantum Hall state whose quantized conductivity is characterized by topological invariants known as the Chern numbers. Here we obtain simple rules to determine the Chern numbers at all scales in the butterfly fractal and lay out a very detailed topological map of the butterfly by using a method used to describe quasicrystals: the cut and projection method. Our study reveals the existence of a set of critical points that separates orderly patterns of both positive and negative Cherns that appear as a fine structure in the butterfly. This fine structure can be understood as a small tilting of the projection subspace in the cut and projection method and by using a Chern meeting formula. Finally, we prove that the critical points are identified with the Van Hove singularities that exist at every band center in the butterfly landscape.

  5. A five dimensional model of varying effective gravitational and fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Mbelek, J P

    2003-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the reported time variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ is due to a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. We consider the coupling predicted by a very simple {\\sl effective} theory of physical interactions, under the form of an improved version of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that it is precisely expressed by a variation of the effective fine structure constant with cosmic conditions, and thus with cosmic time. We compare the predicted variation with the recent data from distant quasars absorption line spectra: we find a good agreement, which moreover reconcile the claimed results on $\\alpha$ with the upper limit from the Oklo naturel Uranium fission reactor.

  6. How Strongly does Dating Meteorites Constrain the Time-Dependence of the Fine-Structure Constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira

    We review our argument on the nature of the so-called meteorite constraint on the possible time-dependence of the fine-structure constant, emphasizing that dating meteorites at the present time is different in principle from searching directly for the traces in the past, as in the Oklo phenomenon and the QSO absorption lines. In the related literature, we still find some arguments not necessarily consistent with this difference to be taken properly into account. It does not immediately follow that any model-dependent approaches are useless in practice, though we cannot help suspecting that dating meteorites is no match for the Oklo and the QSO in probing the time-variability of the fine-structure constant, at this moment. Some of the relevance to the QSO data particularly in terms of the scalar field will be discussed.

  7. Origin of fine structure of the giant dipole resonance in sd-shell nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fearick, R W; Matsubara, H; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Richter, A; Roth, R; Tamii, A

    2014-01-01

    A set of high resolution zero-degree inelastic proton scattering data on 24Mg, 28Si, 32S, and 40Ca provides new insight into the long-standing puzzle of the origin of fragmentation of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in sd-shell nuclei. Understanding is provided by state-of-the-art theoretical Random Phase Approximation (RPA) calculatios for deformed nuclei using for the first time a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction derived from the Argonne V18 potential with the unitary correlation operator method and supplemented by a phenomenological three-nucleon contact interaction. A wavelet analysis allows to extract significant scales both in the data and calculations characterizing the fine structure of the GDR. The fair agreement supports that the fine structure arises from ground-state deformation driven by alpha clustering.

  8. Fine structural analysis of the stinger in venom apparatus of the scorpion Euscorpius mingrelicus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphology, histology and fine structure of the stinger, a part of the venom apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae were studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The stinger, located at the end section of the telson, is sickle-shaped. The venom is ejected through a pair of venom pores on its subterminal portion. Both venom ducts extend along the stinger without contact with each other since they are separated by connective tissue cells. The stinger cuticle is composed of two layers. Additionally, there are many pore canals and some hemolymph vessels in the cuticle. This work constitutes the first histological and fine structure study on Euscorpius mingrelicus stinger.

  9. How strongly does dating meteorites constrain the time-dependence of the fine-structure constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y; Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    We review our argument on the nature of the so-called meteorite constraint on the possible time-dependence of the fine-structure constant, emphasizing that dating meteorites at the present time is different in principle from searching directly for the traces in the past, as in the Oklo phenomenon and the QSO absorption lines. In the related literature, we still find some arguments not necessarily consistent with this difference to be taken properly into account. This does not imply that any of the model-dependent approaches are useless in practice, though we cannot help guessing that dating meteorites is no match for the Oklo and the QSO in probing time-dependence of the fine-structure constant, at this moment. Some of the relevance to the QSO data particularly in terms of the scalar field will be discussed.

  10. Fine refinement of solid state structure of racemic form of phospho-tyrosine employing NMR Crystallography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Piotr; Pawlak, Tomasz; Oszajca, Marcin; Lasocha, Wieslaw; Potrzebowski, Marek J

    2015-02-01

    We present step by step facets important in NMR Crystallography strategy employing O-phospho-dl-tyrosine as model sample. The significance of three major techniques being components of this approach: solid state NMR (SS NMR), X-ray diffraction of powdered sample (PXRD) and theoretical calculations (Gauge Invariant Projector Augmented Wave; GIPAW) is discussed. Each experimental technique provides different set of structural constraints. From the PXRD measurement the size of the unit cell, space group and roughly refined molecular structure are established. SS NMR provides information about content of crystallographic asymmetric unit, local geometry, molecular motion in the crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding pattern. GIPAW calculations are employed for validation of quality of elucidation and fine refinement of structure. Crystal and molecular structure of O-phospho-dl-tyrosine solved by NMR Crystallography is deposited at Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center under number CCDC 1005924.

  11. Energies, fine structures and transition wavelengths of the core-excited states in Be * ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fine structures of doubly excited resonances of lithium-like beryllium are calculated using the saddle-point and saddle-point complex-rotation methods. A restricted variational method is used to obtain a more accurate value for the nonrelativistic energy. Relativistic and mass polarization corrections to the resonance energy are included. Transition wavelengths are also calculated and compared with other theories and experimental results.

  12. Fine Structure of Hydrogen Bond in Cholic Acid Revealed by 2DIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on cryogenic FT-IR spectroscopic studies of hydrogen bonds in cholic acid, two-dimensional FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to enhance our understanding of the hydrogen bonds of cholic acid. Fine spectral structures were revealed by asynchronous 2D FT-IR spectra. The co-relationship among various bands was discussed according to the synchronous 2D FT-IR spectrum.

  13. Is there correlation between fine structure and dark energy cosmic dipoles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Antonio; Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2012-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis (including redshift tomography) of the cosmic dipoles in the Keck+VLT quasar absorber and in the Union2 SnIa samples. We show that the fine structure constant cosmic dipole obtained through the Keck+VLT quasar absorber sample at 4.1σ level is anomalously aligned with the corresponding dark energy dipole obtained through the Union2 sample at 2σ level. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is 11.3°±11.8°. We use Monte Carlo simulations to find the probability of obtaining the observed dipole magnitudes with the observed alignment, in the context of an isotropic cosmological model with no correlation between dark energy and fine structure constant α. We find that this probability is less than one part in 106. We propose a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) which naturally predicts a spherical inhomogeneous distribution for both dark energy density and fine structure constant values. The model is based on the existence of a recently formed giant global monopole with Hubble scale core which also couples nonminimally to electromagnetism. Aligned dipole anisotropies would naturally emerge for an off-center observer for both the fine structure constant and for dark energy density. This model smoothly reduces to ΛCDM for proper limits of its parameters. Two predictions of this model are (a) a correlation between the existence of strong cosmic electromagnetic fields and the value of α and (b) the existence of a dark flow on Hubble scales due to the repulsive gravity of the global defect core (“Great Repulser”) aligned with the dark energy and α dipoles. The direction of the dark flow is predicted to be towards the spatial region of lower accelerating expansion. Existing data about the dark flow are consistent with this prediction.

  14. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  15. Fine Structure Constant, Domain Walls, and Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tedesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the corrections to the fine structure constant from the generalized uncertainty principle in the spacetime of a domain wall. We also calculate the corrections to the standard formula to the energy of the electron in the hydrogen atom to the ground state, in the case of spacetime of a domain wall and generalized uncertainty principle. The results generalize the cases known in literature.

  16. Re/Os Constraint on the Time Variability of the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira

    2003-12-01

    We argue that the accuracy by which the isochron parameters of the decay 187Re→187Os are determined by dating iron meteorites may constrain the possible time dependence of the decay rate and hence of the fine-structure constant α, not directly but only in a model-dependent manner. From this point of view, some of the attempts to analyze the Oklo constraint and the results of the quasistellar-object absorption lines are reexamined.

  17. Re/Os constraint on the time-variability of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y; Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira

    2003-01-01

    We argue that the accuracy by which the isochron parameters of the decay $^{187}{\\rm Re}\\to ^{187}{\\rm Os}$ are determined by dating iron meteorites may not directly constrain the possible time-dependence of the decay rate and hence of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$. From this point of view, some of the attempts to analyze the Oklo constraint and the results of the QSO absorption lines are re-examined.

  18. Time variation of the fine structure constant in the early universe and the Bekenstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Mosquera, Mercedes E; Landau, Susana J; Vucetich, Hector

    2007-01-01

    We use observational primordial abundances of $\\De$, $\\Het$, $\\He$ and $\\Li$, recent data from the Cosmic Microwave Background and the 2dFGRS power spectrum, to put limits on the variation of the fine structure constant in the early universe. Furthermore, we use these constraints together with other astronomical and geophysical bounds from the late universe to test Bekenstein's model for the variation of $\\alpha$. The model is not able to fit all observational and experimental data.

  19. Cosmological implications in electrodynamics due to variations of the fine structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Ledesma, J L

    2002-01-01

    Astronomical observations are strongly suggesting that the fine structure constant varies cosmologically. We present an analysis on the consequences that this variations might induce on the electromagnetic field as a whole. We show that under this circumstances the electrodynamics in vacuum of the universe are described by two fields, the ``standard'' Maxwell's field and a new scalar field. We provide a generalized Lorentz force which can be used to test our results experimentally.

  20. Speciated Fine Particle Deposition to a Forest Canopy Measured by Eddy-Correlation Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. O.; Gonzales, D. A.; Delia, A. E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Smith, K. A.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Dry deposition serves as an important mechanism for the removal particles from the atmosphere and for the addition of material to ecosystems. Here we report on measurements of aerosol particle deposition using eddy-correlation mass spectrometry data collected during the PROPHET 2001 study which was conducted at the University of Michigan Biological Station in a north Michigan forest. Aerosol composition was measured with fast time response using the recently-developed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) (Jayne et~al.,~2000). In the AMS, particles were focused using an aerodynamic lens. The aerosol was then expanded into a vacuum where aerodynamic particle size is determined by particle time-of-flight. The particles were then directed to an oven where semi-volatile components were flash vaporized. Vaporized components were ionized by electron impaction and detected using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Thus the response of characteristic ions from fine aerosol particles (particle diameter, Dp, = 0.04-1.5 μm) were measured with a frequency of 10 Hz. A sonic anemometer was also deployed to measure wind velocity with a frequency of 10 Hz. Fluxes of aerosol species were then calculated using the well-known eddy-correlation method as the covariance of the vertical wind speed and the species concentration. These results demonstrate the new eddy-correlation mass spectrometry technique for measuring directly speciated fine particle deposition rates.

  1. Evaluation of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements intraoperatively and by sonographically guided fine-needle puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J;

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the needle method for pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements. Clinical evaluation was performed in 24 patients with chronic pancreatitis, comparing repeated pressure measurements via sonographically guided fine-needle puncture and intraoperative...... pressure measurements by direct puncture of pancreatic tissue and duct. In patients with chronic pancreatitis we found small week-to-week variations in sonographically guided percutaneous pressure measurements and good agreement between preoperative percutaneous pressure measurements and intraoperative...... external pressure levels. The basic calibration of the method evaluated by means of this pressure chamber study showed sufficient precision and accuracy of the needle technique for clinical and investigative purposes. In conclusion, our results suggest that pancreatic tissue fluid pressure can be reliably...

  2. Fine-scale Structures of Flux Ropes Tracked by Erupting Material

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ting

    2013-01-01

    We present the Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes respectively tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 04. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to "peel off" the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are respectively composed of 85$\\pm$12 and 102$\\pm$15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1$\\arcsec$.6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in the opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of the fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6$\\times10^{18}$ Mx to 8.6$\\times10^{19}$ Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller...

  3. Helium induced fine structure in the electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentlehner, D.; Slenczka, A., E-mail: alkwin.slenczka@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Electronic spectra of organic molecules doped into superfluid helium nanodroplets show characteristic features induced by the helium environment. Besides a solvent induced shift of the electronic transition frequency, in many cases, a spectral fine structure can be resolved for electronic and vibronic transitions which goes beyond the expected feature of a zero phonon line accompanied by a phonon wing as known from matrix isolation spectroscopy. The spectral shape of the zero phonon line and the helium induced phonon wing depends strongly on the dopant species. Phonon wings, for example, are reported ranging from single or multiple sharp transitions to broad (Δν > 100 cm{sup −1}) diffuse signals. Despite the large number of example spectra in the literature, a quantitative understanding of the helium induced fine structure of the zero phonon line and the phonon wing is missing. Our approach is a systematic investigation of related molecular compounds, which may help to shed light on this key feature of microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. This paper is part of a comparative study of the helium induced fine structure observed in electronic spectra of anthracene derivatives with particular emphasis on a spectrally sharp multiplet splitting at the electronic origin. In addition to previously discussed species, 9-cyanoanthracene and 9-chloroanthracene will be presented in this study for the first time.

  4. Strong limit on the spatial and temporal variations of the fine-structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T. D.

    2016-10-01

    Observed spectra of quasars provide a powerful tool to test the possible spatial and temporal variations of the fine-structure constant α = e 2/ћc over the history of the Universe. It is demonstrated that high sensitivity to the variation of α can be obtained from a comparison of the spectra of quasars and laboratories. We reported a new constraint on the variation of the fine-structure constant based on the analysis of the optical spectra of the fine-structure transitions in [NeIII], [NeV], [OIII], [OI] and [SII] multiplets from 14 Seyfert 1.5 galaxies. The weighted mean value of the α-variation derived from our analysis over the redshift range 0.035 < z < 0.281 Δα/α= (4.50 +/- 5.53) \\times 10-5. This result presents strong limit improvements on the constraint on Δα/α compared to the published in the literature

  5. Recovery of distortion product otoacoustic emissions after a 2-kHz monaural sound-exposure in humans: effects on fine structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the vulnerability of the fine structures of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) after acoustic overexposure may improve the knowledge about DPOAE generation, cochlear damage, and lead to more efficient diagnostic tools. It is studied whether the DPOAE fine...... structures of 16 normal-hearing human subjects are systematically affected after a moderate monaural sound-exposure of 10 min to a 2-kHz tone normalized to an exposure level LEX,8h of 80 dBA. DPOAEs were measured before and in the following 70 min after the exposure. The experimental protocol allowed...

  6. An algorithm for retrieving fine and coarse aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET-type photopolarimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zeng, J.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Liu, X.; Dubovik, O.; Li, Z.; Li, L.; Holben, B. N.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    A new retrieval algorithm has been developed to retrieve both fine and coarse modal aerosol properties from multi-spectral and multi-angular solar polarimetric radiation fields such as those measured by the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) but with additional channels of polarization observations (hereafter AEROENT-type measurements). Most AERONET sites lack the capability to measure light polarization, though a few measure polarization only at 870 nm. From both theory and real cases, we show that adding multi-spectral polarization data can allow a mode-resolved inversion of aerosol microphysical parameters. In brief, the retrieval algorithm incorporates AERONET-type measurements in conjunction with advanced vector radiative transfer model specifically designed for studying the inversion problems in aerosol remote sensing. It retrieves aerosol parameters associated to a bi-lognormal particle size distribution (PSD) including aerosol volume concentrations, effective radius and variance, and complex indices of aerosol refraction. Our algorithm differs from the current AERONET inversion algorithm in two major aspects. First, it retrieves effective radius and variance and total volume by assuming a bi-modal lognormal PSD, while AERONET one retrieves aerosol volumes of 22 size bins. Second, our algorithm retrieves spectral refractive indices for both fine and coarse modes. Mode-resolved refractive indices can improve the estimate of single scattering albedo (SSA) for each mode, which also benefits the evaluation for satellite products and chemistry transport models. While bi-lognormal PSD can well represent aerosol size spectrum in most cases, future research efforts will include implementation for tri-modal aerosol mixtures in situations of cloud-formation or volcanic aerosols. Applying the algorithm to a suite of real cases over Beijing_RADI site, we found that our retrievals are overall consistent with AERONET inversion products, but can offer mode

  7. Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2013-02-01

    Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. Evaluation of pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements intraoperatively and by sonographically guided fine-needle puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J;

    1990-01-01

    pressure measurements via direct puncture. Furthermore, no significant difference was seen between pancreatic duct and tissue fluid pressure. The technical evaluation was performed by repeated pressure measurements in human pancreatic autopsy specimens and living rats in a pressure chamber at various...... external pressure levels. The basic calibration of the method evaluated by means of this pressure chamber study showed sufficient precision and accuracy of the needle technique for clinical and investigative purposes. In conclusion, our results suggest that pancreatic tissue fluid pressure can be reliably......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the needle method for pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements. Clinical evaluation was performed in 24 patients with chronic pancreatitis, comparing repeated pressure measurements via sonographically guided fine-needle puncture and intraoperative...

  9. Velocity measurement technique for high-speed targets based on digital fine spectral line tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Shuliang; Yuan Qi

    2006-01-01

    Target velocity and acceleration are two of the most important features for identification of warheads and decoys in ballistic missile defense phased array radar systems. Velocity compensation is also the necessary step for one-dimensional range profile imaging. According to the high-velocity characteristics of ballistic objects and the low data rate of phased array radars with multiple target tracking, a fine spectral line digital velocity tracking frame is presented and a new method is developed to extract velocity error and resolve the velocity ambiguity in the measurement loop. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  10. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to b

  11. Emission wavelength tuning of fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritake, Y.; Kanamori, Y.; Hane, K.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrated fine emission wavelength tuning of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance. An asymmetric-double-bar (ADB), which was composed of only two bars with slightly different bar lengths, was used to obtain Fano resonance in the optical region. By changing the short bar length of ADB structures with high dimensional accuracy in the order of 10 nm, resonant wavelengths of Fano resonance were controlled from 1296 to 1416 nm. Fluorescence of QDs embedded in a polymer layer on ADB metamaterials were modified due to coupling to Fano resonance and fine tuning from 1350 to 1376 nm was observed. Wavelength tuning of modified fluorescence was reproduced by analysis using absorption peaks of Fano resonance. Tuning range of modified fluorescence became narrow, which was interpreted by a simple Gaussian model and resulted from comparable FWHM in QD fluorescence and Fano resonant peaks. The results will help the design and fabrication of metamaterial devices with fluorophores such as light sources and biomarkers.

  12. Emission wavelength tuning of fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritake, Y; Kanamori, Y; Hane, K

    2016-09-13

    We demonstrated fine emission wavelength tuning of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance. An asymmetric-double-bar (ADB), which was composed of only two bars with slightly different bar lengths, was used to obtain Fano resonance in the optical region. By changing the short bar length of ADB structures with high dimensional accuracy in the order of 10 nm, resonant wavelengths of Fano resonance were controlled from 1296 to 1416 nm. Fluorescence of QDs embedded in a polymer layer on ADB metamaterials were modified due to coupling to Fano resonance and fine tuning from 1350 to 1376 nm was observed. Wavelength tuning of modified fluorescence was reproduced by analysis using absorption peaks of Fano resonance. Tuning range of modified fluorescence became narrow, which was interpreted by a simple Gaussian model and resulted from comparable FWHM in QD fluorescence and Fano resonant peaks. The results will help the design and fabrication of metamaterial devices with fluorophores such as light sources and biomarkers.

  13. Tailoring the exciton fine structure of cadmium selenide nanocrystals with shape anisotropy and magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinito, Chiara; Fernée, Mark J; Goupalov, Serguei V; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim

    2014-11-25

    We use nominally spheroidal CdSe nanocrystals with a zinc blende crystal structure to study how shape perturbations lift the energy degeneracies of the band-edge exciton. Nanocrystals with a low degree of symmetry exhibit splitting of both upper and lower bright state degeneracies due to valence band mixing combined with the isotropic exchange interaction, allowing active control of the level splitting with a magnetic field. Asymmetry-induced splitting of the bright states is used to reveal the entire 8-state band-edge fine structure, enabling complete comparison with band-edge exciton models.

  14. What could the value of the cosmological constant tell us about the future variation of the fine structure constant?

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by reported claims of the measurements of a variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ we consider a theory where the electric charge, and consequently $\\alpha$, is not a constant but depends on the Ricci scalar $R$. %We then show how this can be considered a particular case of the Bekenstein theory in which there is no need to %introduce an additional kinetic term for the scalar field associated to the electric charge, since the Einstein's% %equations are sufficient to determine the geometry and, consequently the Ricci scalar. We then study the cosmological implications of this theory, considering in particular the effects of dark energy and of a cosmological constant on the evolution of $\\alpha$. Some low-red shift expressions for the variation of $\\alpha(z)$ are derived, showing the effects of the equation of state of dark energy on $\\alpha$ and observing how future measurements of the variation of the fine structure constant could be used to determine indirectly the equation of state of d...

  15. E 1 transitions from the. Upsilon. prime prime state and the fine structure of the. chi. sub b prime states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, M.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Heintz, U.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Schamberger, R.D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (USA)); Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q.W. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (USA))

    1991-06-17

    Using the CUSB-II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have made precision measurements of the electric dipole transition rates from {Upsilon}{prime}{prime} to {chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}}, which are in excellent agreement with theory. The fine-structure splitting is found to be {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}2}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}})=13.5{plus minus}0.4{plus minus}0.5 MeV and {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}0}{sup {prime}})=23.3{plus minus}0.7{plus minus}0.7 MeV, leading to a ratio {ital R}=0.584{plus minus}0.024{plus minus}0.02. The fine structure measures the relative contributions of the spin-orbit interaction {ital a}=9.5{plus minus}0.2{plus minus}0.1 MeV and tensor interaction {ital b}=2.3{plus minus}0.1{plus minus}0.1 MeV. We also find that the long-range confining potential transforms as a Lorentz scalar.

  16. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  17. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the local environment of zinc in dentine treated with zinc compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Tsutomu; Hirano, Junko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Honma, Tetsuo

    2005-04-01

    It has been reported that zinc oxide (ZnO) inhibits dentine demineralization. By using the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique, our aims in this study were to provide information about the local environment of zinc atoms in dentine that had been treated with zinc compounds. We measured the Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of dentine specimens treated with zinc chloride or ZnO. In XAFS analyses, the spectra of dentine specimens treated with ZnO (D-ZO) or with zinc chloride (D-ZC) were similar and obviously different from the reference ZnO spectrum. This suggests that most of the zinc atoms detected in D-ZO are not derived from particles of ZnO. The spectra of D-ZO and D-ZC were similar to the spectrum of the synthetic, zinc-containing hydroxyapatite, but were not similar to that of zinc in ZnCl2-treated collagen. The results of this study suggest that most of the zinc atoms detected were attached to hydroxyapatite and not to collagen.

  18. Fine structure in the {alpha}-decay of odd-even nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P., E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India); Joseph, Jayesh George; Priyanka, B. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India)

    2012-03-01

    Systematic study on {alpha}-decay fine structure is presented for the first time in the case of odd-even nuclei in the range 83 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 101. The model used for the study is the recently proposed Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN), which employs deformed Coulomb potential, deformed two term proximity potential and centrifugal potential. The computed partial half-lives, total half-lives and branching ratios are compared with experimental data and are in good agreement. The standard deviation of partial half-life is 1.08 and that for branching ratio is 1.21. Our formalism is also successful in predicting angular momentum hindered and structure hindered transitions. The present study reveals that CPPMDN is successful in explaining alpha-decay from ground and isomeric state; and alpha fine structure of even-even, even-odd and odd-even nuclei. Our study relights that the differences in the parent and daughter surfaces or the changes in the deformation parameters as well as the shell structure of the parent and daughter nuclei, influences the alpha decay probability.

  19. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  20. INFLUENCE OF FINE-DISPERSED BORON CARBIDE ON THE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON-BORON ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  1. Fine-grained permutation entropy as a measure of natural complexity for time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Feng; Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper [2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 174102], Bandt and Pompe propose permutation entropy (PE)as a natural complexity measure for arbitrary time series which may be stationary or nonstationary, deterministic or stochastic. Their method is based on a comparison of neighbouring values. This paper further develops PE, and proposes the concept of fine-grained PE (FGPE) defined by the order pattern and magnitude of the difference between neighbouring values. This measure excludes the case where vectors with a distinct appearance are mistakenly mapped onto the same permutation type, and consequently FGPE becomes more sensitive to the dynamical change of time series than does PE, according to our simulation and experimental results.

  2. Boron carbide: Consistency of components, lattice parameters, fine structure and chemical composition makes the complex structure reasonable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheit, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    The complex, highly distorted structure of boron carbide is composed of B12 and B11C icosahedra and CBC, CBB and B□B linear elements, whose concentration depends on the chemical composition each. These concentrations are shown to be consistent with lattice parameters, fine structure data and chemical composition. The respective impacts on lattice parameters are estimated and discussed. Considering the contributions of the different structural components to the energy of the overall structure makes the structure and its variation within the homogeneity range reasonable; in particular that of B4.3C representing the carbon-rich limit of the homogeneity range. Replacing in B4.3C virtually the B□B components by CBC yields the hypothetical moderately distorted B4.0C (structure formula (B11C)CBC). The reduction of lattice parameters related is compatible with recently reported uncommonly prepared single crystals, whose compositions deviate from B4.3C.

  3. COLLISIONAL EXCITATION OF THE [C II] FINE STRUCTURE TRANSITION IN INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Velusamy, T., E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We analyze the collisional excitation of the 158 {mu}m (1900.5 GHz) fine structure transition of ionized carbon in terms of line intensities produced by simple cloud models. The single C{sup +} fine structure transition is a very important coolant of the atomic interstellar medium (ISM) and of photon-dominated regions in which carbon is partially or completely in ionized form. The [C II] line is widely used as a tracer of star formation in the Milky Way and other galaxies. Excitation of the [C II] fine structure transition can be via collisions with hydrogen molecules, atoms, and electrons. Analysis of [C II] observations is complicated by the fact that it is difficult to determine the optical depth of the line. We discuss the excitation of the [C II] line, deriving analytic results for several limiting cases and carry out numerical solutions using a large velocity gradient model for a more inclusive analysis. For antenna temperatures up to 1/3 of the brightness temperature of the gas kinetic temperature, the antenna temperature is linearly proportional to the column density of C{sup +} irrespective of the optical depth of the transition. This is appropriately referred to as the effectively optically thin approximation. We review the critical densities for excitation of the [C II] line by various collision partners, briefly analyze C{sup +} absorption, and conclude with a discussion of C{sup +} cooling and how the considerations for line intensities affect the behavior of this important coolant of the ISM.

  4. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING. II. PROMINENCE EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-20

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  5. Fine Structure in the Mm-Wavelength Spectra of the Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Faltan observaciones solares espectrosc6picas en la longitud de onda milimetrica. Hay sugerencias de que se puede superponer una fi na estructura en frecuencia a la componente-S de la regi6n solar activa, asi como a la componente del brote en las longitudes de onda milimetri- cas. Se ha desarrollado un receptor de alta sensibilidad de pasos de frecuencia que opera en el intervalo de 23-18 GHz con una resoluci6n de 1 GHz y resoluci6n de tiempo variable entre 1.2 y 96 sec, usando la an- tena de Itapetinga de 13.7-m para estudiar la estructura fina en frecuencia y tiempo. Discutimos el espectro en longitud de onda-mm en re- giones activas y su evoluci6n en el tiempo. El estudio de Ia evoluci6n en el tiempo de la regi6n activa en AR 5569 observada el 29 de junio de 1989, sugiere la existencia de estructuras finas como funci6n deltiempo. ABSTRACT. There is a lack of mm-wavelength spectroscopic solar observations. There are suggestions that a fine structure in frequency may be superimposed on the S-component of solar active region as well as on the burst component at inm-wavelengths. To study fine structure in frequency and time, a high sensitivity step frequency receiver operating in the frequency range 23-18 GHz with frequency resolution of 1 GHz and variable time resolution 1.2 to 96 sec, using 13.7 m diameter Itapetinga radome covered antenna, has been developed. Here, we discuss mm-wavelength spectra of active regions and their time evolution. Study of time evolution of an active region AR 5569 observed on 29th June, 1989 suggests existence of fine structures as a function of time. ( Ck : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-RADIO RADIATION

  6. A Note on Transfinite M Theory and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2001-01-01

    In this short note, using notions from $p$-Adic QFT and $p$-branes, we derive the transfinite M $theoretical$ corrections $(\\alpha_M)^{-1} = 100 + 61 \\phi$ to El Naschie's inverse fine structure constant value $(\\alpha_{HS})^{-1}= 100 + 60\\phi$ which was based on a transfinite Heterotic string theory ormalism . $\\phi$ is the Golden Mean $0.6180339...$. Our results are consistent with recent Astrophysical observations of he Boomerang and Maxima experiments, with previous results based on the four dimensional gravitational conformal anomaly calculations and with an enhanced hierarchy of the number of lines on Del Pezzo surfaces.

  7. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure investigation of nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    As-delivered austenitic stainless steel and nitrogen stabilized expanded austenite, both fully nitrided and denitrided (in H2), were investigated with Cr, Fe and Ni extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The data shows pronounced short-range ordering of Cr and N. For the denitrided specimen...... the N atoms remaining in the solid state after H2-reduction are trapped by Cr atoms. Quantitative interpretation in terms of the local distortions around Cr atoms and their N coordination number reveals that no Cr–N clusters or CrN platelets are present....

  8. X-ray reflection anomalous fine structure analysis of the stability of permalloy/copper multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, G.M.; Mai, Z.H.; Hase, T.P.A. E-mail: t.p.a.hase@dur.ac.uk; Fulthorpe, B.D.; Tanner, B.K.; Marrows, C.H.; Hickey, B.J

    2001-05-01

    We report the application of reflection anomalous fine structure analysis to the study of the changes in the layer density and local environment in sputtered permalloy/copper multilayers. By fitting the smoothly varying component of the plot of multilayer Bragg peak intensity versus incident X-ray energy, we find a strained permalloy layer at the permalloy/copper but not the copper/permalloy interface. The density difference between copper and strained permalloy layers increases on annealing at 275 deg. C and from the oscillatory component of the spectrum, we show that it is the nearest-neighbour distance around the Ni atoms which decreases.

  9. Prospect of China's Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS) at Zhongshan station in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shun-lin; HAN De-sheng; HU Hong-qiao; HUANG De-hong; ZHANG Bei-chen; YANG Hui-gen

    2008-01-01

    A new auroral imaging system is reported which is planned to be deployed at Zhongshan Station in Antarctica in the end of 2009. The system will focus on study of optical auroras in small scales and be called China' s Auroral Fine-structure Imaging System (CAFIS). The project of CAFIS is carried out by support of 'the tenth five-year plan for capacity building' of China. CAFIS will be a powerful groundbased platform for aurora observational experiments. Composing and advantages of CAFIS are introduced in this brief report. Some potential study topics involved CAFIS are also considered.

  10. Tuning Photoluminescence Energy and Fine Structure Splitting in Single Quantum Dots by Uniaxial Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Xiu-Ming; SUN Bao-Quan; WANG Bao-Rui; MA Shan-Shan; ZHOU Rong; HUANG She-Song; NI Hai-Qiao; NIU Zhi-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report a photoluminescence (PL) energy red-shift of single quantum dots(QDs)by applying an in-plane compressive uniaxial stress along the[110]direction at a liquid nitrogen temperature.Uniaxial stress has an effect not only on the confinement potential in the growth direction which results in the PL shift,but also on the cylindrical symmetry of QDs which can be reflected by the change of the full width at half maximum of PL peak.This implies that uniaxial stress has an important role in tuning PL energy and fine structure splitting of QDs.

  11. The fine structure levels for ground states of negative ions of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Özdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure levels for negative ions (anions of nitrogen and phosphorus have been investigated using multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian (MCHF+BP. Nitrogen and phosphorus have half-filled outer shell in ground state 1s22s22p3 4S and 1s22s22p33s23p3 4S, respectively. It has been stated in most works that the negative ion of nitrogen is instable whereas the negative ion of phosphorus is stable. The results obtained have been compared with other works.

  12. Enhanced laboratory sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant using highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant α. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest α sensitivities seen in atomic systems.

  13. Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant in the Spacetime of a Cosmic Domain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Tedesco, L.

    The gravitational field produced by a domain wall acts as a medium with spacetime-dependent permittivity ɛ. Therefore, the fine structure constant α=e2/4πɛ will be a time-dependent function at fixed position. The most stringent constraint on the time-variation of α comes from the natural reactor Oklo and gives |˙ α /α | < few × 10-17 yr-1. This limit constrains the tension of a cosmic domain wall to be less than σ ≲ 10-2 MeV3, and then represents the most severe limit on the energy density of a cosmic wall stretching our Universe.

  14. Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant in the Spacetime of a Domain Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, L; Tedesco, L

    2005-01-01

    The gravitational field produced by a domain wall acts as a medium with spacetime-dependent permittivity \\epsilon. Therefore, the fine structure constant \\alpha = e^2/4 \\pi \\epsilon will be a time-dependent function at fixed position. The most stringent constraint on the time-variation of \\alpha comes from the natural reactor Oklo and gives |\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha| < few 10^{-17} yr^{-1}. This limit constrains the tension of a cosmic domain wall to be less than \\sigma \\lesssim 10^{-2} MeV^3, and then represents the most severe limit on the energy density of a cosmic wall stretching our Universe.

  15. Morphology, fine structure, biochemistry, and function of the spermatic ducts in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2003-10-01

    The spermatic ducts and the testicular efferent ducts were investigated in different marine teleost fish species (Diplodus sargus, Mullus barbatus, Thalassoma pavo, Trachinus draco, Uranuscopus scaber, Sparisoma cretense, Synodon saurus). From the morphological, histological, fine structural and biochemical investigations it appeared that the testicular main ducts and spermatic ducts of the investigated marine fish have the following functions: storage of spermatozoa, monosacharide synthesis for nutrition of spermatozoa, synthesis of steroid glucuronides, synthesis of seminal plasma proteins, formation of a ionic gradient in the seminal fluid and phagocytotic activity. Species-specific differences were only found in the morphology of the gonads and in the histology of the spermatic duct epithelium.

  16. Anisotropic Beam Model for the Spectral Observations of Radio Burst Fine Structures on 1998 April 15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fine structure consisting of three almost equidistant frequency bands was observed in the high frequency part of a solar burst on 1998 April 15 by the spectrometer of Beijing Astronomical Observatory in the range 2.6-3.8 GHz. A model for this event based on beam-anisotropic instability in the solar corona is presented. Longitudinal plasma waves are excited at cyclotron resonance and then transformed into radio emission at their second harmonic. The model is in accordance with the observations if we suppose a magnetic field strength in the region of emission generation of about 200 G.

  17. The fine structure of muscle attachments in a spider (Latrodectus mactans, Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D S; Järlfors, U; Russell, F E

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of a spider myo-apodeme junction is described, and discussed in terms of other arthropod muscle attachments. This is contrasted with the situation in the venom gland, equipped with muscle fibers that control expulsion of the secreted material. The latter involves a cell-free collagenous matrix, lying between the muscle cells and the sheath of the gland. As in other arthropods, skeletal fibers are attached to the apodeme cuticle via specialized epidermal cells, containing oriented microtubules. Interdigitations between these cells and muscle, basally, and cuticle, apically, are described. Extracellular tonofibrillae described elsewhere are inconspicuous in the apodeme cuticle.

  18. Calculation of the fine structure of the level in Rydberg state of lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The level shift and level formula of lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core (including the contribution of dipole moment, quadrupole moment and octupole moment);meanwhile, the effect of relativity theory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling (LS coupling), and high order correction of the effective potential are considered. The some fine structures (N=5~12,L=4~9,J=L±1/2) and the corresponding level intervals in Rydberg states can be calculated by the above-mentioned level formula and compared with correlated experimental data.

  19. Oklo Constraint on the Time-Variability of the Fine-Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y

    2003-01-01

    The Oklo phenomenon, natural fission reactors which had taken place in Gabon about 2 billion years ago, porvides one of the most stringent constraints on the possible time-variability of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$. We first review briefly what it is and how reliable it is in constraining $\\alpha$. We then compare the result with a more recent result on the nonzero change of $\\alpha$ obtained from the observation of the QSO absoorption lines. We suggest a possible way to make these results consistent with each other in terms of the behavior of a scalar field which is expected to be responsible for the accelaration of the universe.

  20. Oklo Constraint on the Time-Variabilityof the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    The Oklo phenomenon, natural fission reactors which had taken place in Gabon about 2 billion years ago, provides one of the most stringent constraints on the possible time-variability of the fine-structure constant . We first review briefly what it is and how reliable it is in constraining . We then compare the result with a more recent result on the nonzero change of obtained from the observation of the QSO absorption lines. We suggest a possible way to make these results consistent with each other in terms of the behavior of a scalar field which is expected to be responsible for the acceleration of the universe.

  1. The Effect of Fine Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study investigating the effect of the number of fine non-metallic inclusions (up to 2 µm in size on the fatigue strength of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  2. Variation of the fine-structure constant from the de Sitter invariant special relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Xia; XIAO Neng-Chao; YAN Mu-Lin

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the variation of the fine-structure constant,α.There are obvious discrepancies among the results of α-variation from recent Quasi-stellar observation experiments and from the Oklo uranium mine analysis.We use dS Sitter invariant Special Relativity (SRc,R) and Dirac large number hypothesis to discuss this puzzle,and present a possible solution to the disagreement.By means of the observational data and the discussions presented in this paper,we estimate the radius of the Universe in SRc,R which is about ~2(√5)×1011l.y.

  3. Ground-based and spaceborn observations of the type II burst with developed fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorovskyy, V.; Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2012-09-01

    The combination of two huge ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2 and URAN-2) operated in decameter wavelengths with three spatially separated spacecrafts (SOHO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B) equipped with white light coronagraphs, UV telescopes and decameter-hectometer band radio telescopes created a unique opportunity to investigate the high energy solar transients, such as CMEs and their manifestations in radio bands - type II bursts. In this paper we made detailed analysis of the powerful and complex event occurred on 7 June 2011 consisted of Halo-CME and type II burst with rich fine structure.

  4. Effect of heat treatment on the fine structure and properties of a niobium-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaboldo, O. P.; Vitorskii, Ya. M.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Volkova, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of conditions of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of an LN-1 alloy (Nb-10W-5Mo-1.5Zr-0.15C), which is used to produce high-temperature springs, has been studied. The temperature conditions of annealing of the alloy have been chosen, under which the fairly high ductility needed for the subsequent deformation of the alloy is achieved. Structural examinations have revealed the formation of fine niobium-zirconium carbides in the matrix in the course of the thermomechanical strengthening of the alloy, which involves preannealing.

  5. Simultaneous fine and coarse diffeomorphic registration: application to atrophy measurement in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Laurent; Vialard, François-Xavier; Wolz, Robin; Holm, Darryl D; Rueckert, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fine and coarse approach for the multiscale registration of 3D medical images using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM). This approach has particularly interesting properties since it estimates large, smooth and invertible optimal deformations having a rich descriptive power for the quantification of temporal changes in the images. First, we show the importance of the smoothing kernel and its influence on the final solution. We then propose a new strategy for the spatial regularization of the deformations, which uses simultaneously fine and coarse smoothing kernels. We have evaluated the approach on both 2D synthetic images as well as on 3D MR longitudinal images out of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Results highlight the regularizing properties of our approach for the registration of complex shapes. More importantly, the results also demonstrate its ability to measure shape variations at several scales simultaneously while keeping the desirable properties of LDDMM. This opens new perspectives for clinical applications.

  6. Investigation of internal structure of fine granules by microtomography using synchrotron X-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shuji; Kajihara, Ryusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Fujinami, Yukari; Suzuki, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-03-10

    Computed tomography (CT) using synchrotron X-ray radiation was evaluated as a non-destructive structural analysis method for fine granules. Two kinds of granules have been investigated: a bromhexine hydrochloride (BHX)-layered Celphere CP-102 granule coated with pH-sensitive polymer Kollicoat Smartseal 30-D, and a wax-matrix granule constructed from acetaminophen (APAP), dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, and aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) manufactured by melt granulation. The diameters of both granules were 200-300 μm. CT analysis of CP-102 granule could visualize the laminar structures of BHX and Kollicoat layers, and also visualize the high talc-content regions in the Kollicoat layer that could not be detected by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, CT analysis using X-ray energies above the absorption edge of Br specifically enhanced the contrast in the BHX layer. As for granules manufactured by melt granulation, CT analysis revealed that they had a small inner void space due to a uniform distribution of APAP and other excipients. The distribution of AMCE revealed by CT analysis was also found to involve in the differences of drug dissolution from the granules as described previously. These observations demonstrate that CT analysis using synchrotron X-ray radiation is a powerful method for the detailed internal structure analysis of fine granules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine structure in the {\\alpha}-decay of odd-even nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Priyanka, B

    2012-01-01

    Systematic study on {\\alpha}-decay fine structure is presented for the first time in the case of odd-even nuclei in the range 83 \\leq Z \\leq 101. The model used for the study is the recently proposed Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN), which employs deformed Coulomb potential, deformed two term proximity potential and centrifugal potential. The computed partial half lives, total half lives and branching ratios are compared with experimental data and are in good agreement. The standard deviation of partial half-life is 1.08 and that for branching ratio is 1.21. Our formalism is also successful in predicting angular momentum hindered and structure hindered transitions. The present study reveals that CPPMDN is a unified theory which is successful in explaining alpha decay from ground and isomeric state; and alpha fine structure of even-even, even-odd and odd-even nuclei. Our study relights that the differences in the parent and daughter surfaces or the changes in the deformation p...

  8. Microwave burst with fine spectral structures in a solar flare on 2011 August 9

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Liu, Yuying; 10.1051/eas/1255035

    2012-01-01

    On August 9, 2011, there was an X6.9 flare event occurred near the west limb of solar disk. From the observation obtained by the spectrometer of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer in Huairou (SBRS/Huairou) around the flare, we find that this powerful flare has only a short-duration microwave burst of about only 5 minutes, and during the short-duration microwave burst, there are several kinds of fine structures on the spectrogram. These fine structures include very short-period pulsations, millisecond spike bursts, and type III bursts. The most interesting is that almost all of the pulses of very short-period pulsation (VSP) are structured by clusters of millisecond timescales of spike bursts or type III bursts. And there exists three different kinds of frequency drift rates in the VSP: the frequency drift rates with absolute value of about 55 - 130 MHz s^{-1} in the pulse groups, the frequency drift rates with absolute value of about 2.91 - 16.9 GHz s^{-1} on each individual pulse, and the frequen...

  9. Fine-scale population structure of blue whale wintering aggregations in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Urrutia, Paula; Sanvito, Simona; Victoria-Cota, Nelva; Enríquez-Paredes, Luis; Gendron, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Population differentiation in environments without well-defined geographical barriers represents a challenge for wildlife management. Based on a comprehensive database of individual sighting records (1988-2009) of blue whales from the winter/calving Gulf of California, we assessed the fine-scale genetic and spatial structure of the population using individual-based approaches. Skin samples of 187 individuals were analyzed for nine microsatellite loci. A single population with no divergence among years and months and no isolation by distance (Rxy = 0.1-0.001, p>0.05) were found. We ran two bayesian clustering methods using Structure and Geneland softwares in two different ways: 1) a general analysis including all individuals in which a single cluster was identified with both softwares; 2) a specific analysis of females only in which two main clusters (Loreto Bay and northern areas, and San Jose-La Paz Bay area) were revealed by Geneland program. This study provides information indicating that blue whales wintering in the Gulf of California are part of a single population unit and showed a fine-scale structure among females, possibly associated with their high site fidelity, particularly when attending calves. It is likely that the loss of genetic variation is minimized by male mediated gene flow, which may reduce the genetic drift effect. Opportunities for kin selection may also influence calf survival and, in consequence, have a positive impact on population demography in this small and endangered population.

  10. Fine-scale population structure of blue whale wintering aggregations in the Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Costa-Urrutia

    Full Text Available Population differentiation in environments without well-defined geographical barriers represents a challenge for wildlife management. Based on a comprehensive database of individual sighting records (1988-2009 of blue whales from the winter/calving Gulf of California, we assessed the fine-scale genetic and spatial structure of the population using individual-based approaches. Skin samples of 187 individuals were analyzed for nine microsatellite loci. A single population with no divergence among years and months and no isolation by distance (Rxy = 0.1-0.001, p>0.05 were found. We ran two bayesian clustering methods using Structure and Geneland softwares in two different ways: 1 a general analysis including all individuals in which a single cluster was identified with both softwares; 2 a specific analysis of females only in which two main clusters (Loreto Bay and northern areas, and San Jose-La Paz Bay area were revealed by Geneland program. This study provides information indicating that blue whales wintering in the Gulf of California are part of a single population unit and showed a fine-scale structure among females, possibly associated with their high site fidelity, particularly when attending calves. It is likely that the loss of genetic variation is minimized by male mediated gene flow, which may reduce the genetic drift effect. Opportunities for kin selection may also influence calf survival and, in consequence, have a positive impact on population demography in this small and endangered population.

  11. Analysis of the fine structure of Sn$^{11+...14+}$ ions by optical spectroscopy in an electron beam ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Windberger, A; Borschevsky, A; Ryabtsev, A; Dobrodey, S; Bekker, H; Eliav, E; Kaldor, U; Ubachs, W; Hoekstra, R; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Versolato, O O

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally re-evaluate the fine structure of Sn$^{11+...14+}$ ions. These ions are essential in bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) plasma-light sources for next-generation nanolithography, but their complex electronic structure is an open challenge for both theory and experiment. We combine optical spectroscopy of magnetic dipole $M1$ transitions, in a wavelength range covering 260\\,nm to 780\\,nm, with charge-state selective ionization in an electron beam ion trap. Our measurements confirm the predictive power of \\emph{ab initio} calculations based on Fock space coupled cluster theory. We validate our line identification using semi-empirical Cowan calculations with adjustable wavefunction parameters. Available Ritz combinations further strengthen our analysis. Comparison with previous work suggests that line identifications in the EUV need to be revisited.

  12. Relativistic energy, fine structure and hyperfine structure of the low-lying excited states for Be-like system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Meng; Gou Bing-Cong

    2005-01-01

    Variational calculations are carried out with a multiconfiguration-interaction wavefunction on the 1s22p2p 1De and 1s22p3p 3pe states to obtain the energies including the mass polarization and relativistic corrections for the beryllium isoelectronic sequence (Z=4-10). The oscillator strengths, transition rates and wavelengths are also calculated. Our results are compared with other theoretical and experimental data in the literatures. The fine structure and hyperfine structure of 1s22p3p 3pe state are also explored.

  13. High-speed high-resolution fine wire diameter measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Marcelo F.; Doiron, Theodore D.

    1993-10-01

    A fine wire diameter measurement system, for on-line monitoring, has been proposed by using a Machine Vision System and a visible diode laser. The system uses the Fraunhofer diffraction principle. The diffraction pattern, generated by a small wire exposed to a collimated laser beam, is acquired by a CCD industrial camera that is connected to a processing board inside a PC computer. Two different methods of measuring the diameters, static and dynamic, have been proposed in order to get high precision and high measurement rate. Wires with diameter from 10 to 350 micrometers have been measured by this system with 0.06% resolution. The accuracy is less than +/- 0.5% over a range of 90 - 350 micrometers diameter. For thinner wires, the measurement system should be calibrated to eliminate the systematic errors. The estimate random errors are +/- 0.25%. The instrument can measure the wire diameter at a 1000 Hz rate and allows it to move laterally in a 1 mm square window, maintaining the above accuracy. The system is compact and there are no moving parts.

  14. He I vector magnetic field maps of a sunspot and its superpenumbral fine-structure

    CERN Document Server

    Schad, T A; Lin, H; Tritschler, A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced inversions of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the He I triplet at 1083 nm are used to generate unique maps of the chromospheric magnetic field vector across a sunspot and its superpenumbral canopy. The observations were acquired by the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on 29 January 2012. Multiple atmospheric models are employed in the inversions, as superpenumbral Stokes profiles are dominated by atomic-level polarization while sunspot profiles are Zeeman-dominated but also exhibit signatures perhaps induced by symmetry breaking effects of the radiation field incident on the chromospheric material. We derive the equilibrium magnetic structure of a sunspot in the chromosphere, and further show that the superpenumbral magnetic field does not appear finely structured, unlike the observed intensity structure. This suggests fibrils are not concentrations of magnetic flux but rather distinguished by individualized thermalization. We also dire...

  15. Gaussian Beam Tunneling through a Gyrotropic-Nihility Finely-Stratified Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tuz, Vladimir R

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional Gaussian beam transmission through a ferrite-semiconductor finely-stratified structure being under an action of an external static magnetic field in the Faraday geometry is considered. The beam field is represented by an angular continuous spectrum of plane waves. In the long-wavelength limit, the studied structure is described as a gyroelectromagnetic medium defined by the effective permittivity and effective permeability tensors. The investigations are carried out in the frequency band where the real parts of the on-diagonal elements of both effective permittivity and effective permeability tensors are close to zero while the off-diagonal ones are non-zero. In this frequency band the studied structure is referred to a gyrotropic-nihility medium. It is found out that a Gaussian beam keeps its parameters unchanged (beam width and shape) when passing through the layer of such a medium except of a portion of the absorbed energy.

  16. Hemicellulose fine structure is affected differently during ripening of tomato lines with contrasted texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, Marc; Quemener, Bernard; Causse, Mathilde; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-11-01

    The impact of genetic and fruit ripening on hemicelluloses fine structure was studied in twelve near isogenic lines of tomato fruits harboring firmness QTL. The sugar composition and the MALDI-TOF MS oligosaccharides profile after glucanase hydrolysis of the cell walls were determined from all green and red fruits pericarp tissue. MS profiles showed two major series of oligomers attributed to xyloglucan (XG) and glucomannan (GM) with minor peaks for xylan and ions attributed to galacto-oligomers. The oligosaccharides MS intensity varied significantly with the fruit genetic and ripening status. Correlations between MS intensity indicated structural regulations of both XG and GM structures with genetics and ripening. These results point to a region on the tomato chromosome 9 controlling cell wall galactose metabolism.

  17. The fine-grained phase-space structure of Cold Dark Matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Helmi, Amina; Springel, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We present a new and completely general technique for calculating the fine-grained phase-space structure of dark matter throughout the Galactic halo. Our goal is to understand this structure on the scales relevant for direct and indirect detection experiments. Our method is based on evaluating the geodesic deviation equation along the trajectories of individual DM particles. It requires no assumptions about the symmetry or stationarity of the halo formation process. In this paper we study general static potentials which exhibit more complex behaviour than the separable potentials studied previously. For ellipsoidal logarithmic potentials with a core, phase mixing is sensitive to the resonance structure, as indicated by the number of independent orbital frequencies. Regions of chaotic mixing can be identified by the very rapid decrease in the real space density of the associated dark matter streams. We also study the evolution of stream density in ellipsoidal NFW halos with radially varying isopotential shape,...

  18. `Fingerprint' Fine Structure in the Solar Decametric Radio Spectrum Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, E. Y.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    We study a unique fine structure in the dynamic spectrum of the solar radio emission discovered by the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in the frequency band of 20 - 30 MHz. The structure was observed against the background of a broadband type IV radio burst and consisted of parallel drifting narrow bands of enhanced emission and absorption on the background emission. The observed structure differs from the widely known zebra pattern at meter and decimeter wavelengths by the opposite directions of the frequency drift within a single stripe at a given time. We show that the observed properties can be understood in the framework of the radiation mechanism by virtue of the double plasma resonance effect in a nonuniform coronal magnetic trap. We propose a source model providing the observed frequency drift of the stripes.

  19. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in predominantly selfing plants with limited seed dispersal: A rule or exception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow at a fine scale is still poorly understood despite its recognized importance for plant population demographic and genetic processes. We tested the hypothesis that intensity of gene flow will be lower and strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS will be higher in more peripheral populations because of lower population density. The study was performed on the predominantly selfing Avena sterilis and included: (1 direct measurement of dispersal in a controlled environment; and (2 analyses of SGS in three natural populations, sampled in linear transects at fixed increasing inter-plant distances. We found that in A. sterilis major seed dispersal is by gravity in close (less than 2 m vicinity of the mother plant, with a minor additional effect of wind. Analysis of SGS with six nuclear SSRs revealed a significant autocorrelation for the distance class of 1 m only in the most peripheral desert population, while in the two core populations with Mediterranean conditions, no genetic structure was found. Our results support the hypothesis that intensity of SGS increases from the species core to periphery as a result of decreased within-population gene flow related to low plant density. Our findings also show that predominant self-pollination and highly localized seed dispersal lead to SGS at a very fine scale, but only if plant density is not too high.

  20. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lu

    Full Text Available Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs, a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic

  1. Fine Structure of Tibetan Kefir Grains and Their Yeast Distribution, Diversity, and Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  2. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in Co{sub 0.013}NbSe{sub 2}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Castellan, J.-P.; Rosenkranz, S.; Osborn, R.; Rosenmann, D.; Iavarone, M.; Materials Science Division

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the local environment of the Co atom in single crystalline Co{sub x}NbSe{sub 2}, x = 0.013, via Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurements at the Co K-edge (7.7 keV) at various temperatures. Co intercalation quickly suppresses superconductivity and the charge-density wave (CDW) present in pure NbSe{sub 2}. In order to study the effect of impurities on superconducting and CDW states one has to verify the random distribution of the intercalated atoms in contrast to possible clustering which could lead to additional, e.g. magnetic, interactions in the case of Co intercalation. Our measurements show that the Co atoms are indeed randomly distributed in Co{sub 0.013}NbSe{sub 2}.

  3. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy in Co{sub 0.013}NbSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F; Castellan, J-P; Rosenkranz, S; Osborn, R; Rosenmann, D; Iavarone, M, E-mail: fweber@anl.go [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2010-01-15

    We present a study of the local environment of the Co atom in single crystalline Co{sub x}NbSe{sub 2}, x = 0.013, via Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurements at the Co K-edge (7.7 keV) at various temperatures. Co intercalation quickly suppresses superconductivity and the charge-density wave (CDW) present in pure NbSe{sub 2}. In order to study the effect of impurities on superconducting and CDW states one has to verify the random distribution of the intercalated atoms in contrast to possible clustering which could lead to additional, e.g. magnetic, interactions in the case of Co intercalation. Our measurements show that the Co atoms are indeed randomly distributed in Co{sub 0.013}NbSe{sub 2}.

  4. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  5. Study on the coordination structure of pt sorbed on bacterial cells using x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Tanaka

    Full Text Available Biosorption has been intensively investigated as a promising technology for the recovery of precious metals from solution. However, the detailed mechanism responsible for the biosorption of Pt on a biomass is not fully understood because of a lack of spectroscopic studies. We applied X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to elucidate the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. We examined the sorption of Pt(II and Pt(IV species on bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella putrefaciens in NaCl solutions. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS of Pt-sorbed bacteria suggested that Pt(IV was reduced to Pt(II on the cell's surface, even in the absence of an organic material as an exogenous electron donor. EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Pt sorbed on bacterial cells has a fourfold coordination of chlorine ions, similar to PtCl42-, which indicated that sorption on the protonated amine groups of the bacterial cells. This work clearly demonstrated the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. The findings of this study will contribute to the understanding of Pt biosorption on biomass, and facilitate the development of recovery methods for rare metals using biosorbent materials.

  6. Clean air. Measures against fine dust and nitrogen oxide; Luftreinhalteplanung. Massnahmen gegen Feinstaub und Stickstoffoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment (Hof, Federal Republic of Germany) on 23rd October, 2012, the following lectures were held: (1) Future development of emissions and immission in Germany (Johanna Appelhans); (2) Air pollution control in urban areas - Example Stuttgart (Ulrich Reuter); (3) Green zones in Munich and Augsburg - Results from the efficiency analysis 2012 (Manfred Ertl); (4) Photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide - Pilot experiment Fulda (Marita Mang); (5) Emission behaviour of Euro V/5 and VI/6 vehicles in real operation (Stefan Hausberger); (6) Reduction of particles and NO{sub x} by means of Euro VI commercial vehicles (Stefan Kamm); (7) Possibilities of retrofitting at vehicles for the reduction of emissions of fine dust and nitrous oxides (Michael Himmen); (8) Measures for reduction of emissions at construction machinery (Hinrich Helms); (9) ChimCat/circledR - Catalytic reduction of emissions (Martin Pley); (10) Improvement of the immission behaviour at the Airport Munich (Hermann Blomeyer).

  7. Retinular fine structure in compound eyes of diurnal and nocturnal sphingid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, E

    1982-01-01

    Retinular fine structure has been compared in the superposition compound eyes of three sphingid moths, one nocturnal, Cechenena, and two diurnal, Cephonodes and Macroglossum. Cechenena and Cephonodes have tiered retinas with three kinds of retinular cells: two distal, six regular and one basal. The distal retinular cells in Cechenena are special in having a complex partially intracellular rhabdomere not present in Cephonodes. Macroglossum lacks the distal retinular cell. In Cephonodes a unique rhabdom type, formed by the six regular retinular cells in the middle region of the retinula, is divided into three separate longitudinal plates arranged closely parallel to one another. Their constituent microvilli are consequently all nearly unidirectional. The ratio of rhabdom volume to retinular cell volume in the two diurnal sphingids is 10-27%; this is about the same as that (25%) of skipper butterflies, but significantly smaller than in the nocturnal Cechenena (60%). In the diurnal sphingids retinular cell membranes show elongate meandering profiles with septate junctions between adjacent retinular cells. From the comparative fine structure of their eyes the diurnal sphingids and the skippers would appear to be phylogenetically closely related.

  8. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Nunes, Nelson J

    2015-01-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, alpha. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of alpha by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of alpha. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical r...

  9. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Mifsud, Jurgen; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2015-12-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, α. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of α by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of α. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical results, we find that the introduction of a non-minimal electromagnetic coupling enhances the cosmological variation in α. Better constrained data is expected to be reported by ALMA and with the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs such as PEPSI, ESPRESSO, and ELT-HIRES. Furthermore, an expected increase in the sensitivity of molecular and nuclear clocks will put a more stringent constraint on the theory.

  10. On the fine structure of the sunspot penumbrae. II. The nature of the Evershed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Solanki, S K; Collados, M

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the fine structure of the sunspot penumbra by means of a model that allows for a flux tube in horizontal pressure balance with the magnetic background atmosphere in which it is embedded. We apply this model to spectropolarimetric observations of two neutral iron lines at 1.56 $\\mu$m and invert several radial cuts in the penumbra of the same sunspot at two different heliocentric angles. In the inner part of the penumbra we find hot flux tubes that are somewhat inclined to the horizontal. They become gradually more horizontal and cooler with increasing radial distance. This is accompanied by an increase in the velocity of the plasma and a decrease of the gas pressure difference between flux tube and the background component. At large radial distances the flow speed exceeds the critical speed and evidence is found for the formation of a shock front. These results are in good agreement with simulations of the penumbral fine structure and provide strong support for the siphon flow as the physical me...

  11. Oscillatory behavior of chromospheric fine structures in a network and a semi-active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Al, N

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we study the periodicities of oscillations in dark fine structures using observations of a network and a semi-active region close to the solar disk center. We simultaneously obtained spatially high resolution time series of white light images and narrow band images in the H$\\alpha$ line using the 2D G\\"ottingen spectrometer, which were based on two Fabry-Perot interferometers and mounted in the VTT/Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. During the observations, the H$\\alpha$ line was scanned at 18 wavelength positions with steps of 125 m\\AA. We computed series of Doppler and intensity images by subtraction and addition of the H$\\alpha$ $\\pm$ 0.3 \\AA\\ and $\\pm$ 0.7 \\AA\\ pairs, sampling the upper chromosphere and the upper photosphere, respectively. Then we obtained power, coherence and phase difference spectra by performing a wavelet analysis to the Doppler fluctuations. Here, we present comparative results of oscillatory properties of dark fine structures seen in a network and a semi-active reg...

  12. Fine structure of uterus and non-functioning paruterine organ in Orthoskrjabinia junlanae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-06-01

    Some cyclophyllidean cestodes provide protection for their eggs in the external environment by providing them with additional protective layers around the egg membranes. In attempting to examine such adaptations, the microanatomy and fine structure of the uterus of pregravid and gravid proglottids of the cyclophyllidean cestode Orthoskrjabinia junlanae, a parasite of mammals that inhabit a terrestrial but moist environment, were studied. In the initial stages of uterine development, developing embryos locate freely in the lumen of a saccate uterus that later partitions into chambers. Each chamber that forms encloses several embryos. The chambers are surrounded by muscle cells that synthesize extracellular matrix actively. The paruterine organs consist of stacks of flattened long outgrowths of muscular cells, interspersed with small lipid droplets. In the gravid proglottids, the size of paruterine organ increases and consists of flattened basal and small rounded apical parts separated by constrictions. The fine structure of the organ wall remains the same: sparse nuclei and stacks of flattened cytoplasmic outgrowths but internal invaginations or lumen in the paruterine organ are absent. Completely developed eggs remain localized in the uterus. Based on the comparative morpho-functional analysis of uterine and paruterine organs and uterine capsules in cestodes, we conclude that these non-functioning paruterine organ in O. junlanae is an example of an atavism. We postulate that the life cycle of the parasite, which infects mammals living in wet habitats, where threats of desiccation of parasite ova is reduced, has favoured a reversion to a more ancestral form of uterine development.

  13. Neon Fine-Structure Line Emission By X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glassgold, A E; Igea, J; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Najita, Joan R.; Igea, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Using a thermal-chemical model for the generic T-Tauri disk of D'Alessio et al. (1999), we estimate the strength of the fine-structure emission lines of NeII and NeIII at 12.81 and 15.55 microns that arise from the warm atmosphere of the disk exposed to hard stellar X-rays. The Ne ions are produced by the absorption of keV X-rays from the K shell of neutral Ne, followed by the Auger ejection of several additional electrons. The recombination cascade of the Ne ions is slow because of weak charge transfer with atomic hydrogen in the case of Ne2+ and by essentially no charge transfer for Ne+. For a distance of 140pc, the 12.81 micron line of Ne II has a flux of 1e-14 erg/cm2s, which should be observable with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and suitable ground based instrumentation. The detection of these fine-structure lines would clearly demonstrate the effects of X-rays on the physical and chemical properties of the disks of young stellar objects and provide a diagnostic of the warm gas in protoplanetary dis...

  14. Fine-scale population genetic structure in a fission-fusion society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Maldonado, Jésus E; Hollister-Smith, Julie A; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J; Fleischer, Robert C; Alberts, Susan C

    2008-06-01

    Nonrandom patterns of mating and dispersal create fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations - especially of social mammals - with important evolutionary and conservation genetic consequences. Such structure is well-characterized for typical mammalian societies; that is, societies where social group composition is stable, dispersal is male-biased, and males form permanent breeding associations in just one or a few social groups over the course of their lives. However, genetic structure is not well understood for social mammals that differ from this pattern, including elephants. In elephant societies, social groups fission and fuse, and males never form permanent breeding associations with female groups. Here, we combine 33 years of behavioural observations with genetic information for 545 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), to investigate how mating and dispersal behaviours structure genetic variation between social groups and across age classes. We found that, like most social mammals, female matrilocality in elephants creates co-ancestry within core social groups and significant genetic differentiation between groups (Phi(ST) = 0.058). However, unlike typical social mammals, male elephants do not bias reproduction towards a limited subset of social groups, and instead breed randomly across the population. As a result, reproductively dominant males mediate gene flow between core groups, which creates cohorts of similar-aged paternal relatives across the population. Because poaching tends to eliminate the oldest elephants from populations, illegal hunting and poaching are likely to erode fine-scale genetic structure. We discuss our results and their evolutionary and conservation genetic implications in the context of other social mammals.

  15. Fine structure in the cosmic ray spectrum: Further analysis and the next step

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2011-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fine structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum: new facets of present observations and their interpretation and the next step. It is argued that less than about 10% of the intensity of the helium `peak' at the knee at $\\simeq 5PeV$ is due to just a few sources (SNR) other than the single source. The apparent concavity in the rigidity spectra of protons and helium nuclei which have maximum curvature at about 200 GV is confirmed by a joint analysis of the PAMELA, CREAM and ATIC experiments. The spectra of heavier nuclei also show remarkable structure in the form of `ankles' at several hundred GeV/nucleon. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The search for `pulsar peaks' has not yet proved successful.

  16. Systematics of fine structure in the α decay of deformed odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Ni, Dongdong

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the a-decay fine structure in 32 deformed odd-mass nuclei from Z = 93 to Z = 102. The α-decay half-lives are systematically calculated within the multichannel cluster model (MCCM), which turns out to well reproduce the experimental data and show the neutron deformed shell structure. The branching ratios for various daughter states are investigated in the MCCM and in the WKB barrier penetration approach, respectively. It is found that the MCCM results agree well with the experimental data, while the WKB results have relatively large deviations from the experimental data for the α transitions to the high-lying members of the rotational band.

  17. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF STALKED BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE FAMILY CAULOBACTERACEAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOVEPOINDEXTER, J L; COHEN-BAZIRE, G

    1964-12-01

    The fine structure of a series of stalked bacteria belonging to the genera Caulobacter and Asticcacaulis has been examined in thin sections. The cell wall has the multilayered structure typical of many Gram-negative bacteria, and continues without interruption throughout the length of the stalk. The core of the stalk, continuous with the cytoplasmic region of the cell, is enclosed in an extension of the cell membrane, and contains a system of internal membranes: it is devoid of ribosomes and nucleoplasm. A membranous organelle occupies the juncture of stalk and cell, separating the ribosomal region from the core of the stalk. Typical mesosomes also occur in the cell, being particularly frequent at the plane of division. The secreted holdfast is located at the tip of the stalk in Caulobacter, and at the pole of the cell adjacent to the stalk in Asticcacaulis.

  18. Fine structure in the cosmic ray spectrum: Further analysis and the next step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fine structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum: new facets of present observations and their interpretation and the next step. It is argued that less than about 10% of the intensity of the helium 'peak' at the knee at ≈5 PeV is due to just a few sources (SNR) other than the single source. The apparent concavity in the rigidity spectra of protons and helium nuclei which have maximum curvature at about 200 GV is confirmed by a joint analysis of the PAMELA, CREAM and ATIC experiments. The spectra of heavier nuclei also show remarkable structure in the form of 'ankles' at several hundred GeV/nucleon. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The search for 'pulsar peaks' has not yet proved successful.

  19. Significant demographic and fine-scale genetic structure in expanding and senescing populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Nason, John D; Chung, Myong Gi

    2011-12-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) in plants is influenced by variation in spatial and temporal demographic processes. To determine how demographic structure and FSGS change with stages of population succession, we studied replicate expanding and senescing populations of the Asian terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii. We used spatial autocorrelation methods (O-ring and kinship statistics) to quantify spatial demographic structure and FSGS in two expanding and two senescing populations, also measuring genetic diversity and inbreeding in each. All populations exhibited significant aggregation of individuals and FSGS at short spatial scales. In expanding populations, this finding was associated with high recruitment rates, suggesting restricted seed dispersal. In senescing populations, recruitment was minimal, suggesting alternative mechanisms of aggregation, perhaps including spatial associations with mycorrhizal fungi. All populations had significant evidence of genetic bottlenecks, and inbreeding levels were consistently high. Our results indicate that different successional stages can generate similar patterns of spatial demographic and genetic structure, but as a consequence of different processes. These results contrast with the only other study of senescence effects on population genetic structure in an herbaceous perennial, which found little to no FSGS in senescing populations. With the exception of populations subject to mass collection by orchid sellers, significant FSGS is characteristic of the 16 terrestrial orchid species examined to date. From a conservation perspective, this result suggests that inference of orchid population history will benefit from analyses of both FSGS and demographic structure in combination with other ecological field data.

  20. What is a Caucasian 'fine' hair? Comparing instrumental measurements, self-perceptions and assessments from hair experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabbache, S; Galliano, A; Littaye, P; Leportier, M; Pouradier, F; Gillot, E; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine the various factors contributing to what Caucasian women describe as 'fine hair'. Three complementary approaches were used, namely self-evaluation by the volunteer, assessment by a sensorial expert and instrumental measurements, in order to determine some of the possible parameters taken into account by Caucasian women when they describe the notion of fine hair. One hundred fifty one women of Caucasian origin participated in the study. They varied in age, and varied in that some considered themselves as having fine hair, and others not. The instrumental measurements carried out included hair diameter measurements, hair density measurements, hair breakage force, hair flexibility and scalp sebum levels. From six parameters defined initially, four parameters were found to be in common with the three approaches: hair abundance (density), hair thickness, hair resistance and the volume of the hair on the head. The commonly used term 'body' was only common to self and expert evaluation, whereas the influence of curliness was only common to expert evaluation and instrumental measurements. This study has shown close agreement between sensorial and instrumental findings, and also illustrates how the women participating can subtly and adequately describe their own hair. It is important to note that the words 'fine hair' describes a lot more than just physically thin hair fibres. Ageing is an additional factor that clearly impacts certain parameters associated with 'fine hair' among the volunteers. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Breed locally, disperse globally: fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Pierson

    Full Text Available An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic structuring or how this changes over time in ephemeral patches. We predicted that species that specialize on ephemeral habitats will delay dispersal to exploit natal habitat patches while resources are plentiful and thus display fine-scale structure. To investigate this idea, we evaluated the effect of frequent colonization of ephemeral habitats on the fine-scale genetic structure of a fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus and found a pattern of fine-scale genetic structure. We then tested for differences in spatial structure between sexes and detected a pattern consistent with male-biased dispersal. We also detected a temporal increase in relatedness among individuals within newly burned forest patches. Our results indicate that specialist species that outlive their ephemeral patches can accrue significant fine-scale spatial structure that does not necessarily affect spatial structure at larger scales. This highlights the importance of both spatial and temporal scale considerations in both sampling and data interpretation of molecular genetic results.

  2. Breed locally, disperse globally: fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Allendorf, Fred W; Drapeau, Pierre; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic structuring or how this changes over time in ephemeral patches. We predicted that species that specialize on ephemeral habitats will delay dispersal to exploit natal habitat patches while resources are plentiful and thus display fine-scale structure. To investigate this idea, we evaluated the effect of frequent colonization of ephemeral habitats on the fine-scale genetic structure of a fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) and found a pattern of fine-scale genetic structure. We then tested for differences in spatial structure between sexes and detected a pattern consistent with male-biased dispersal. We also detected a temporal increase in relatedness among individuals within newly burned forest patches. Our results indicate that specialist species that outlive their ephemeral patches can accrue significant fine-scale spatial structure that does not necessarily affect spatial structure at larger scales. This highlights the importance of both spatial and temporal scale considerations in both sampling and data interpretation of molecular genetic results.

  3. Forest age correlates with fine-scale spatial structure of Matsutake mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Anthony; Keeley, Sterling; Garbelotto, Matteo

    2009-05-01

    Examining the fine-scale spatial structure of fungal populations can tell us much about how individual species reproduce and disperse throughout natural landscapes. Here we study the fine-scale genetic structure of Tricholoma matsutake, a prized edible and medicinal mushroom, by systematic sampling of mycorrhizas within fairy rings in 50-y-old and old-growth forests in two villages. Using single nucleotide polymorphism DNA markers we show that mycorrhizas in both forest age classes in both villages showed high levels of genotypic diversity, consistent with a reproductive life history predominated by outcrossing via basidiospore dispersal. Both the percentage of polymorphic loci within fairy rings, as well as genotype diversity were higher in old-growth compared to 50-y-old forests. Fifty-year-old forests showed significant spatial autocorrelation between pairs of mycorrhizas up to 42m, and a pattern consistent isolation-by-distance structure. Spatial patterns in old-growth forests were random. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis indicates that 11% of molecular variance in 50-y-old forests is partitioned between villages, whereas no significant variance is partitioned between villages in old-growth forests. We conclude that populations of T. matsutake in 50-y-old forests are the result of a founder effect maintained by local inoculation sources. This pattern attenuates as forests age and accumulate inocula from more distance sources. We speculate on how genetic mosaicism within T. matsutake fairy rings may structure populations within a chronosequence. Finally, we discuss how population spatial dynamics and dispersal strategy in T. matsutake contrast with other ectomycorrhizal species.

  4. Fine spectral structures in Jovian decametric radio emission observed by ground-based radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.

    2014-04-01

    Jupiter with the largest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system emits intense coherent non-thermal radio emission in a wide frequency range. This emission is a result of a complicated interaction between the dynamic Jovian magnetosphere and energetic particles supplying the free energy from planetary rotation and the interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. Decametric radio emission (DAM) is the strongest component of Jovian radiation observed in a frequency range from few MHz up to 40 MHz. This emission is generated via cyclotron maser mechanism in sources located along Jovian magnetic field lines. Depending on the time scales the Jovian DAMexhibits different complex spectral structures. We present the observations of the Jovian decametric radio emission using the large ground-based radio telescope URAN- 2 (Poltava, Ukraine) operated in the decametric frequency range. This telescope is one of the largest low frequency telescopes in Europe equipped with high performance digital radio spectrometers. The antenna array of URAN-2 consists of 512 crossed dipoles with an effective area of 28 000m2 and beam pattern size of 3.5 x 7 deg. (at 25 MHz). The instrument enables continuous observations of the Jovian radio during long period of times. Jovian DAM was observed continuously since Sep. 2012 (depending on Jupiter visibility) with relatively high time-frequency resolution (4 kHz - 100ms) in the broad frequency range (8-32MHz). We have detected a big amount of the fine spectral structures in the dynamic spectra of DAM such as trains of S-bursts, quasi-continuous narrowband emission, narrow-band splitting events and zebra stripe-like patterns. We analyzed mainly the fine structures associated with non-Io controlled DAM. We discuss how the observed narrowband structures which most probably are related to the propagation of the decametric radiation in the Jupiter's ionosphere can be used to study the plasma parameters in the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  5. Fine structure analysis of biocompatible ceramic materials based hydroxyapatite and metallic biomaterials 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghelina, F.V.; Ungureanu, D.N.; Bratu, V. [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Popescu, I.N., E-mail: pinicoleta24@yahoo.com [Faculty of Materials Engineering and Mechanics, Valahia University of Targoviste, 18-24 Unirii Bd., 130082 (Romania); Rusanescu, C.O. [Politehnica University, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this paper was to obtain and characterize (surface morphology and fine structure) two types of materials: Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} hydroxyapatite powder (HAp) as biocompatible ceramic materials and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels as metallic biomaterials, which are the components of the metal–ceramic composites used for medical implants in reconstructive surgery and prosthetic treatment. The HAp was synthesized by coprecipitation method, heat treated at 200 °C, 800 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stainless steel 316L type was made by casting, annealing and machined with a low speed (100 mm/s) in order to obtain a smooth surface and after that has been studied from residual stresses point of view in three polishing regimes conditions: at low speed polishing (150 rpm), at high speed polishing (1500 rpm) and high speed-vibration contact polishing (1500 rpm) using wide angle X-ray diffractions (WAXD). The chemical compositions of AISI 316 steel samples were measured using a Foundry Master Spectrometer equipped with CCD detector for spectral lines and the sparking spots of AISI 316L samples were analyzed using SEM. By XRD the phases of HAp powders have been identified and also the degree of crystallinity and average size of crystallites, and with SEM, we studied the morphology of the HAp. It has been found from XRD analysis that we obtained HAp with a high degree of crystallinity at 800 °C and 1200 °C, no presence of impurity and from SEM analysis we noticed the influence of heat treatment on the ceramic particles morphology. From the study of residual stress profiles of 316L samples were observed that it differs substantially for different machining regimes and from the SEM analysis of sparking spots we revealed the rough surfaces of stainless steel rods necessary for a better adhesion of HAp on it.

  6. Microsatellite analyses reveal fine-scale genetic structure in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredsted, T; Pertoldi, C; Schierup, M H; Kappeler, P M

    2005-07-01

    Information on genetic structure can be used to complement direct inferences on social systems and behaviour. We studied the genetic structure of the solitary grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a small, nocturnal primate endemic to western Madagascar, with the aim of getting further insight on its breeding structure. Tissue samples from 167 grey mouse lemurs in an area covering 12.3 km2 in Kirindy Forest were obtained from trapping. The capture data indicated a noncontinuous distribution of individuals in the study area. Using 10 microsatellite markers, significant genetic differentiation in the study area was demonstrated and dispersal was found to be significantly male biased. Furthermore, we observed an overall excess of homozygotes in the total population (F(IT) = 0.131), which we interpret as caused by fine-scale structure with breeding occurring in small units. Evidence for a clumped distribution of identical homozygotes was found, supporting the notion that dispersal distance for breeding was shorter than that for foraging, i.e. the breeding neighbourhood size is smaller than the foraging neighbourhood size. In conclusion, we found a more complex population structure than what has been previously reported in studies performed on smaller spatial scales. The noncontinuous distribution of individuals and the effects of social variables on the genetic structure have implications for the interpretation of social organization and the planning of conservation activities that may apply to other solitary and endangered mammals as well.

  7. Contact angle of water on iron ore fines: Measurement and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang X.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contact angle (θRCA for seven iron ore fines was measured by using Washburn Osmotic Pressure method under laboratory conditions. By choosing cyclohexane as the reference that can perfectly wet iron ore particles, the relative contact angles were measured and varied from 57° to 73°. With the volume % of goethite (φG as the variable, a new model for relative contact angle was developed. The expected relative contact angle for pure goethite is about 56°, while that for goethite free samples is about 77°. Physical properties, such as surface morphology (SMI and pore volume (Vpore can influence the relative contact angle. The φG can be expressed as a function of SMI and VPore. Thus, we inferred that the relative contact angle is a function of φG for the iron ores used. The measured relative contact angles were found to be in good agreement (Radj 2 >0.97 with the calculated ones based on the research from Iveson, et al. (2004. Comparing with the model developed by Iveson et al.(2004, the new model for contact angle proposed in this paper is similar, but more detailed with two meaningful physical parameters. The modification of physicochemical properties on iron ores would be another topic in the further study on granulation.

  8. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Ju; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most curr...

  9. Precise Study of Fine Structure in $^{14}$C Emission from $^{223}$Ra

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We request 10 shifts in two sessions of beam time at ISOLDE for the production of a $^{223}$Ra source. This source will be used with the superconducting spectrometer SOLENO at Orsay for a precise measurement (good statistics and energy resolution) of the fine stucture in the energy spectrum of $^{14}$C nuclei emitted by $^{223}$Ra, discovered at Orsay in July 1989. The measurement will be devoted to carry out the hindrance factors of the transitions to 15$\\!^-\\!$/2$\\,$ (1.423 MeV) and 5$\\!^+\\!$/2$\\,$ (1.567 MeV) excited states of $^{209}$Pb, which present a particular interest for obtaining spectroscopic information and testing nuclear models.

  10. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Ilaria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Cariani, Alessia; Atanassova, Miroslava; Bekkevold, Dorte; Carvalho, Gary R; Espiñeira, Montserrat; Fiorentino, Fabio; Garofalo, Germana; Geffen, Audrey J; Hansen, Jakob H; Helyar, Sarah J; Nielsen, Einar E; Ogden, Rob; Patarnello, Tomaso; Stagioni, Marco; Tinti, Fausto; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Shallow population structure is generally reported for most marine fish and explained as a consequence of high dispersal, connectivity and large population size. Targeted gene analyses and more recently genome-wide studies have challenged such view, suggesting that adaptive divergence might occur even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess large- and fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (F(CT) = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins, outlier loci revealed a dramatic divergence between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations (F(CT) range 0.275-0.705) and fine-scale significant population structure. Outlier loci separated North Sea and Northern Portugal populations from all other Atlantic samples and revealed a strong differentiation among Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean geographical samples. Significant correlation of allele frequencies at outlier loci with seawater surface temperature and salinity supported the hypothesis that populations might be adapted to local conditions. Such evidence highlights the importance of integrating information from neutral and adaptive evolutionary patterns towards a better assessment of genetic diversity. Accordingly, the generated outlier SNP data could be used for tackling illegal practices in hake fishing and commercialization as well as to develop explicit spatial models for defining management units and stock boundaries.

  11. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and

  12. Tenth-Order QED Contribution to the Electron g-2 and an Improved Value of the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Kinoshita, Toichiro; Nio, Makiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the complete QED contribution to the electron g-2 up to the tenth order. With the help of the automatic code generator, we have evaluated all 12672 diagrams of the tenth-order diagrams and obtained a_e^{(10)} = 9.16 (58) in units of (\\alpha/\\pi)^5. We have also improved the eighth-order contribution obtaining a_e^{(8)} = -1.9097 (20) in units of (\\alpha/\\pi)^4, which includes the mass-dependent contributions. These results together with the measurement of a_e lead to the improved value of the fine-structure constant \\alpha^{-1} = 137.035 999 166 (34) [0.25 ppb].

  13. Constraining possible variations of the fine structure constant in strong gravitational fields with the K$\\alpha$ iron line

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Extensions of general relativity and theories aiming at unifying gravity with the forces of the Standard Model are usually characterized by new degrees of freedom and violations of the Einstein Equivalence Principle. The search for time and/or space variations of fundamental parameters like the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ tests the assumption of Local Position Invariance. In this letter, I show that the analysis of the K$\\alpha$ iron line observed in the X-ray spectrum of black holes can probe $\\alpha$ in gravitational potentials relative to Earth of $\\Delta \\phi \\approx 0.1$. From the measurements of the black hole in Cygnus X-1 reported in the literature, one obtains $|\\Delta \\alpha / \\alpha| \\lesssim 0.01$.

  14. Precision test of many-body QED in the Be$^{+} 2p$ fine structure doublet using short-lived isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Absolute transition frequencies of the $2s\\; ^2{\\rm S}_{1/2} \\rightarrow 2p\\;^2\\mathrm{P}_{1/2,3/2}$ transitions in Be$^+$ were measured for the isotopes $^{7,9-12}$Be. The fine structure splitting of the $2p$ state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of \\textit{ab initio} calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of $m \\alpha^6$ and $m \\alpha^7 \\ln \\alpha$. Accuracy has been improved in both the theory and experiment by 2 orders of magnitude, and good agreement is observed. This represents one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics for many-electron systems, being insensitive to nuclear uncertainties.

  15. The influence of age and high-frequency hearing loss on sensitivity to temporal fine structure at low frequencies (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Glasberg, Brian R; Stoev, Martin; Füllgrabe, Christian; Hopkins, Kathryn

    2012-02-01

    Sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) at low frequencies may be adversely affected by hearing loss at high frequencies even when absolute thresholds at low frequencies are within the normal range. However, in several studies suggesting this, the effects of hearing loss and age were confounded. Here, interaural phase discrimination (IPD) thresholds for pure tones at 500 and 750 Hz were measured for 39 subjects with ages from 61 to 83 yr. All subjects had near-normal audiometric thresholds at low frequencies, but thresholds varied across subjects at high frequencies. IPD thresholds were correlated with age. IPD thresholds for the test frequency of 750 Hz were weakly correlated with absolute thresholds at high frequencies, but these correlations became non-significant when the effect of age was partialed out. The results do not confirm that sensitivity to TFS at low frequencies is influenced by hearing loss at high frequencies, independently of age.

  16. Zinc cysteine active sites of metalloproteins: A density functional theory and x-ray absorption fine structure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Farooqi, Mohammed Junaid; Garza, Emily Sofia; Bunker, Grant

    2008-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are complementary tools for the biophysical study of active sites in metalloproteins. DFT is used to compute XAFS multiple scattering Debye Waller factors, which are then employed in genetic algorithm-based fitting process to obtain a global fit to the XAFS in the space of fitting parameters. Zn-Cys sites, which serve important functions as transcriptional switches in Zn finger proteins and matrix metalloproteinases, previously have proven intractable by this method; here these limitations are removed. In this work we evaluate optimal DFT nonlocal functionals and basis sets for determining optimal geometries and vibrational densities of states of mixed ligation Zn(His)4-n(Cys)n sites. Theoretical results are compared to experimental XAFS measurements and Raman spectra from the literature and tabulated for use.

  17. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; /SLAC; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  18. The fine-structure constant a new observational limit on its cosmological variation and some theoretical consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchik, A V; Varshalovich, D A

    1999-01-01

    Endeavours of the unification of the four fundamental interactions have resulted in a development of theories having cosmological solutions in which low-energy limits of fundamental physical constants vary with time. The validity of such theoretical models should be checked by comparison of the theoretical predictions with observational and experimental bounds on possible time-dependences of the fundamental constants. Based on high-resolution measurements of quasar spectra, we obtain the following direct limits on the average rate of the cosmological time variation of the fine-structure constant limit, and |\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha| < 3.1 \\times 10^{-14} yr^{-1} is the most conservative limit. Analogous estimates published previously, as well as other contemporary tests for possible variations of \\alpha (those based on the "Oklo phenomenon", on the primordial nucleosynthesis models, and others) are discussed and compared with the present upper limit. We argue that the present result is the most conservative one...

  19. Zinc cysteine active sites of metalloproteins: a density functional theory and x-ray absorption fine structure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Farooqi, Mohammed Junaid; Garza, Emily Sofia; Bunker, Grant

    2008-03-21

    Density functional theory (DFT) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are complementary tools for the biophysical study of active sites in metalloproteins. DFT is used to compute XAFS multiple scattering Debye Waller factors, which are then employed in genetic algorithm-based fitting process to obtain a global fit to the XAFS in the space of fitting parameters. Zn-Cys sites, which serve important functions as transcriptional switches in Zn finger proteins and matrix metalloproteinases, previously have proven intractable by this method; here these limitations are removed. In this work we evaluate optimal DFT nonlocal functionals and basis sets for determining optimal geometries and vibrational densities of states of mixed ligation Zn(His)(4-n)(Cys)(n) sites. Theoretical results are compared to experimental XAFS measurements and Raman spectra from the literature and tabulated for use.

  20. Field measurement of critical shear stress for erosion and deposition of fine muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Strom, K. B.; Field Study

    2010-12-01

    The movement of muddy sediment from one region to another is linked to the fate and transport of pollutants that can be attached to this sediment. Important in understanding this movement is the need to know the critical conditions for erosion and deposition of the fine muddy sediment. For non-cohesion sediment, such as sands and gravels, reasonable estimates for the critical conditions can often be made theoretically without in situ measurements of the critical fluid condition or sediment transport rate. However, the shear stress needed for the incipient motion of the mud (cohesive sediments) is inherently difficult to calculate theoretically or in research flumes due to the influence of (1) flow history; (2) local sediment composition; (3) biological activity within the bed; (4) water content of the bed; and (5) salinity of the water column. The complexity of the combination of these factors makes the field measurement necessary. A field experiment was conducted under tidal flow in the region surrounding the Houston Ship Channel (near Houston, TX) to determine these conditions. Observations were made using single point, simultaneous, in situ measurement of turbulent flow and suspended sediment concentration within bottom boundary layer. Measurements were primarily made with a 6 MHz Nortek Vector velocimeter (ADV). The ADV was programmed to record 3-minute turbulent velocity with 32 Hz frequency every 10 minute. The suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was measured using the calibration of acoustic backscatter recorded by ADV against sample derived SSC. Different methods such as turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), TKEw and direct covariance method (COV) are compared together. TKE showed much more reasonable estimation on bed shear stress. Combination of time varying SSC, distance from the bed to the sampling volume recorded by ADV and calculation of shear stress made the determination of critical conditions for erosion and deposition possible.

  1. Fine-structural changes in the midgut of old Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Erxleben, F.; Miquel, J.; Philpott, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Senescent fine-structural changes in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are investigated. A large number of midgut mitochondria in old flies exhibit nodular cristae and a tubular system located perpendicular to the normal cristae orientation. Anterior intestinal cells show a senescent accumulation of age pigment, either with a surrounding two-unit membrane or without any membrane. The predominant localization of enlarged mitochondria and pigment in the luminal gut region may be related to the polarized metabolism of the intestinal cells. Findings concur with previous observations of dense-body accumulations and support the theory that mitochondria are involved in the aging of fixed post-mitotic cells. Demonstrated by statistical analyses is that mitochondrial size increase is related to mitochondrial variation increase.

  2. The tardigrade cuticle. I. Fine structure and the distribution of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J C

    1988-01-01

    Fine structure and lipid distribution are studied in cuticles of five tardigrade species using TEM and SEM. Double osmication using partitioning methods reveals a substantial lipid component in the intracuticle and in irregular granular regions within the procuticle. These results are substantiated by the loss of osmiophily following lipid extraction with chloroform and methanol. Other lipid components are revealed by osmication following unmasking of lipo-protein complexes with thymol. These occur in the outer epicuticle and in the trilaminar layer lying between the epi- and intracuticles. Anhydrous fixation of dehydrated tardigrades (tuns) reveals dense, superficial masses of osmiophilic material, apparently concentrated lumps of the surface mucopolysaccharide ('flocculent coat'). However, cryo-SEMs of tuns reveal similar dense aggregations which apparently exude from pores (not visible) and are removed by chloroform. These results suggest extruded lipids since the flocculent coat is unaffected by chloroform; likely functions of such lipids are discussed.

  3. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of MDI and TDI polyurethane polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, S.G.; Smith, A.P.; Ade, H.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research; Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical USA, Midland, MI (United States); Lidy, W. [Dow Chemical USA, Freeport, TX (United States)

    1999-06-03

    The sensitivity of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to differences in key chemical components of polyurethane polymers is presented. Carbon is NEXAFS spectra of polyurethane polymers made from 4,4{prime}-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) isocyanate monomers illustrate that there is an unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint for distinguishing between MDI-based and TDI-based polyurethane polymers. NEXAFS spectra of MDI and TDI polyurea and polyurethane models show that the urea and carbamate (urethane) linkages in these polymers can be distinguished. The NEXAFS spectroscopy of the polyether component of these polymers is discussed, and the differences between the spectra of MDI and TDI polyurethanes synthesized with polyether polyols of different molecular composition and different molecular weight are presented. These polymer spectra reported herein provide appropriate model spectra to represent the pure components for quantitative microanalysis.

  4. Fine structures in Fe3Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhang Yonglan; X Holly

    2002-12-01

    The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and -Fe (Al) solid solution. There was no brittle phase containing higher aluminum content, such as FeAl3 (59.18% Al) and Fe2Al7 (62.93% Al). The tiny cracks and embrittlement, formerly caused by these brittle phases in the conventional aluminum-coated steel, were effectively eliminated. There was no microscopic defect (such as tiny cracks, pores or loose layer) in the coating. This is favourable to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion of the aluminized steel.

  5. The fine structure splitting of the level of lithium in Rydberg states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先权; 胡文江; 孔春阳

    2002-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of the four-body problem for a lithium atom is expanded in series. The level shift and levelformula of a lithium atom in Rydberg states are achieved by means of the calculation of polarization of the atomic core(including the contribution of dipole, quadrupole and octupole components). We also consider the effect of relativitytheory, the orbital angular momentum L and the spin angular momentum S coupling scheme (LS coupling) and high-order correction of the effective potential to the level shift. The fine structure splitting (N=5-12, L=4-9, J=L±l/2)and level intervals in B ydberg states have been calculated by the above-mentioned formula and compared with recentexperimental data.

  6. Damping Properties vs. Structure Fineness of the High-zinc Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Krajewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the presentation of relation between the degree of structure fineness and ultrasonic wave dampingcoefficient for the high-zinc aluminium alloys represented in this study by the sand mould cast alloy Al - 20 wt% Zn (AlZn20. Thestudied alloy was refined with a modifying (Al,Zn-Ti3 ternary master alloy, introducing Ti in the amount of 400 pm into metal. Based on the analysis of the initial and modified alloy macrostructure images and ultrasonic testing, it was found that the addition of (Al,Zn-Ti3 master alloy, alongside a significant fragmentation of grains, does not reduce the coefficient of ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 1 MHz.

  7. Study on Fine Structure of Gas Atomized LaNi5-based Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai JING; Hong GUO; Shuguang ZHANG; Zili MA; Shaoming ZHANG

    2003-01-01

    The fine structure of hydrogen storage alloy powders MINi4.3-xCoxMn0.4Al0.3(x=0.75, 0.45, 0.10; MI: La-rich mischmetal) prepared by rapidly solidifying gas atomization was investigated using a Rietveld analysis method. Two setsof CaCu5-type crystal constants were observed in the studied alloys and one set was larger than the other. Withdecreasing powder radius the solidification rate of powder increased, and so did the percentage of a particle partwith larger crystal constants. The reason why there were two sets of crystal constants might be the difference ofsolidification rate between the outside and inside of a particle.

  8. Possible evidence for a variable fine structure constant from QSO absorption lines systematic errors

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of quasar absorption spectra with laboratory spectra allow us to probe possible variations in the fundamental constants over cosmological time-scales. In a companion paper we present an analysis of Keck/HIRES spectra and report possible evidence suggesting that the fine structure constant, alpha, may have been smaller in the past: da/a = (-0.72 +/- 0.18) * 10^{-5} over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. In this paper we describe a comprehensive investigation into possible systematic effects. Most of these do not significantly influence our results. When we correct for those which do produce a significant systematic effect in the data, the deviation of da/a from zero becomes more significant. We are lead increasingly to the interpretation that alpha was slightly smaller in the past.

  9. Fine structure of inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra for MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu; Mikhlin, Yu L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the reflection electron energy loss spectra and the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra for Mn was carried out. It is shown that inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages in the study of the interaction of electrons with the substance as compared to the electron energy loss spectra. The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra fine structure was analysed by fitting the experimental spectra using the 3 parameters Lorentzian-type formula of Tougaard. This method was used for the quantitative analysis of the contributions of various loss processes in the inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra, determination of the loss peaks energies and origin.

  10. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant ~1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the "dark-matter" effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  11. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: GN — Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant α. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that α is the fine structure constant ≈ 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of α. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the “dark-matter” effect in spiral galaxies, shows the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that the non-relativistic Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning, and that this flaw was inherited by the relativistic General Relativity theory of gravity.

  12. Representations of U(2∞ and the Value of the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Klink

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated in which all of the interactions are in the four-momentum operator and Lorentz transformations are kinematic. Interactions are introduced through vertices, which are bilinear in fermion and antifermion creation and annihilation operators, and linear in boson creation and annihilation operators. The fermion-antifermion operators generate a unitary Lie algebra, whose representations are fixed by a first order Casimir operator (corresponding to baryon number or charge. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the four-momentum operator are analyzed and exact solutions in the strong coupling limit are sketched. A simple model shows how the fine structure constant might be determined for the QED vertex.

  13. Optimal Design for Nonperiodic Fine Grating Structure Controlled by Proximity Correction with Electron-Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masato; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Kikuta, Hisao

    2007-02-01

    We describe a method for designing nonperiodic fine grating structures such as a small F-number diffractive cylindrical lens, to be fabricated by direct-writing electron-beam lithography. The design is based on a resist development simulator for estimating a proximity effect of electron dose and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for simulating an electromagnetic field. The surface profile and electron dose distribution are simultaneously optimized to obtain the high diffraction efficiency. For the design of a diffractive lens of 50 μm width and 25 μm focal length, the calculated diffraction efficiency is 49% for 650-nm-wavelength light, which is slightly lower than that of a diffractive lens profile optimized by electromagnetic analysis without restrictions on fabrication limits.

  14. Half-lives and fine structure for the α decay of deformed even-even nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The α-decay properties of well-deformed even-even nuclei are systematically calculated within the multichannel cluster model (MCCM). Instead of working in the WKB framework, the quasibound solution to the coupled Schro¨dinger equation is presented with outgoing wave boundary conditions, and the coupling potential is taken into full account in terms of the general quantum theories. The calculated α-decay half-lives are found to agree well with the experimental data with a mean factor of less than 2. The fine structure observed in α decay is also well reproduced by the four-channel microscopic calculation. Very strikingly, the MCCM can give relatively precise descriptions of the branching ratio to excited 4+ states, which is often overestimated in the usual WKB calculations. We expect it to be a significant development of theoretical models toward quantitative descriptions of α transitions to high-spin daughter states.

  15. Half-lives and fine structure for the α decay of deformed even-even nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, DongDong; Ren, ZhongZhou

    2011-08-01

    The α-decay properties of well-deformed even-even nuclei are systematically calculated within the multichannel cluster model (MCCM). Instead of working in the WKB framework, the quasibound solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation is presented with outgoing wave boundary conditions, and the coupling potential is taken into full account in terms of the general quantum theories. The calculated α-decay half-lives are found to agree well with the experimental data with a mean factor of less than 2. The fine structure observed in α decay is also well reproduced by the four-channel microscopic calculation. Very strikingly, the MCCM can give relatively precise descriptions of the branching ratio to excited 4+ states, which is often overestimated in the usual WKB calculations. We expect it to be a significant development of theoretical models toward quantitative descriptions of α transitions to high-spin daughter states.

  16. Theoretical description of fine structure in the α decay of heavy odd-odd nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2013-02-01

    The newly developed multichannel cluster model (MCCM), based on the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation with outgoing wave boundary conditions, is extended to study the α-decay fine structure in heavy odd-odd nuclei. Calculations are performed for the α transitions to favored rotational bands where the unpaired nucleons remain unchanged. The simple WKB barrier penetration formula is also used to evaluate the branching ratios for various daughter states. It is found that the WKB formula seems to overestimate the branching ratios for the second and third members of the favored rotational band, while the MCCM gives a precise description of them without any adjustable parameters. Moreover, the experimental total α-decay half-lives are well reproduced within the MCCM.

  17. High resolution telescope and spectrograph observations of solar fine structure in the 1600 A region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. W.; Brueckner, G. E.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.

    1983-01-01

    High spatial resolution spectroheliograms of the 1600 A region obtained during the HRTS rocket flight of 1978 February 13 are presented. The morphology, fine structure, and temporal behavior of emission bright points (BPs) in active and quiet regions are illustrated. In quiet regions, network elements persist as morphological units, although individual BPs may vary in intensity while usually lasting the flight duration. In cell centers, the BPs are highly variable on a 1 minute time scale. BPs in plages remain more constant in brightness over the observing sequence. BPs cover less than 4 percent of the quiet surface. The lifetime and degree of packing of BPs vary with the local strength of the magnetic field.

  18. Dust-cloud structures behind a shock wave moving over a deposited layer of fine particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Boyi; XIONG Yi; CHEN Qian; A.N. OSIPTSOV

    2005-01-01

    The present paper investigates dispersed-phase flow structures of a dust cloud induced by a normal shock wave moving at a constant speed over a flat surface deposited with fine particles. In the shock-fitted coordinates, the general equations of dusty-gas boundary layer flows are formulated within the framework of a multi-fluid model and parametric numerical studies of the carrier- and dispersedphase flow fields are performed. The problem associated with crossing particle trajectories and the formation of local particle accumulation regions are solved by using the full Lagrangian method for the dispersed phase. The basic features of the near-wall two-phase flow under consideration including the role of Saffman force in the particle entrainment and the development of discontinuities or singularities in the particle density profiles are discussed. The effects associated with account of the non-uniformity of particle size and the finiteness of the particle Knudsen numbers are studied in detail.

  19. Impact of heavy hole-light hole coupling on the exciton fine structure in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsishvili, E.

    2017-03-01

    We present analytical results which describe the properties of the exciton ground state in a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD). Calculations are performed within the Luttinger-Kohn and Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian theory. We show in an explicit form that an interplay of the exchange interaction and the heavy hole-light hole coupling, which is due to the in-plane asymmetries of the dot shape and the strain distribution, plays an essential role. For both the bright and dark exciton, this combined effect leads to a dependence of the fine structure splitting and polarizations on the main anisotropy axis direction relative to the dot orientation. Basing on the obtained analytical expressions, we discuss some special cases in details.

  20. 3-Space In-Flow Theory of Gravity: Boreholes, Blackholes and the Fine Structure Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, R T

    2006-01-01

    A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G - Newton's constant, and a dimensionless constant - alpha. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that alpha is the fine structure constant 1/137. Here we analyse the Greenland Ice Shelf and Nevada Test Site borehole g anomalies, and confirm with increased precision this value of alpha. This and other successful tests of this theory of gravity, including the supermassive black holes in globular clusters and galaxies, and the `dark-matter' effect in spiral galaxies, demonstrates the validity of this theory of gravity. This success implies that Newtonian gravity was fundamentally flawed from the beginning.

  1. Variation of the fine-structure constant from the de Sitter invariant special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Xiao, Neng-Chao; Yan, Mu-Lin

    2008-08-01

    We discuss the variation of the fine-structure constant, α. There are obvious discrepancies among the results of α-variation from recent Quasi-stellar observation experiments and from the Oklo uranium mine analysis. We use dS Sitter invariant Special Relativity (Script SScript Rc,R) and Dirac large number hypothesis to discuss this puzzle, and present a possible solution to the disagreement. By means of the observational data and the discussions presented in this paper, we estimate the radius of the Universe in Script SScript Rc,R which is about ~2√5×1011l.y. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (90403021) and PhD Program Funds of Education Ministry of China (20020358040)

  2. Damping Properties vs. Structure Fineness of the High-zinc Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewskia W.K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the presentation of relation between the degree of structure fineness and ultrasonic wave damping coefficient for the high-zinc aluminium alloys represented in this study by the sand mould cast alloy Al - 20 wt% Zn (AlZn20. The studied alloy was refined with a modifying (Al,Zn-Ti3 ternary master alloy, introducing Ti in the amount of 400 pm into metal. Based on the analysis of the initial and modified alloy macrostructure images and ultrasonic testing, it was found that the addition of (Al,Zn-Ti3 master alloy, alongside a significant fragmentation of grains, does not reduce the coefficient of ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 1 MHz.

  3. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four...... symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...... sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas...

  4. The variation of the fine structure constant: an update of statistical analysis with recent data

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Simeone, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    We analyze different astronomical data of the variation in the fine structure constant obtained with KECK and VLT to check their consistency. We test consistency using the Student test and confidence intervals. We split the data sets in smaller intervals and group them by i) redshift and ii) angular position. Another statistical analysis is proposed considering phenomenological models for the variation in \\alpha\\ . Results show consistency for reduced intervals for each pair of data sets considered and suggest that the variation in \\alpha\\ is important at higher redshifts.Even though the "dipole model" proposed by Webb et al. seems to be the most accurate phenomenological model, the statistical analyses indicates that the variation in \\alpha\\ might be depending both on redshift and angular position.

  5. The variation of the fine structure constant: testing the dipole model with thermonuclear supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Negrelli, Carolina; Berro, Enrique García

    2014-01-01

    The large-number hypothesis conjectures that fundamental constants may vary. Accordingly, the spacetime variation of fundamental constants has been an active subject of research for decades. Recently, using data obtained with large telescopes a phenomenological model in which the fine structure constant might vary spatially has been proposed. We test whether this hypothetical spatial variation of {\\alpha}, which follows a dipole law, is compatible with the data of distant thermonuclear supernovae. Unlike previous works, in our calculations we consider not only the variation of the luminosity distance when a varying {\\alpha} is adopted, but we also take into account the variation of the peak luminosity of Type Ia supernovae resulting from a variation of {\\alpha}. This is done using an empirical relation for the peak bolometric magnitude of thermonuclear supernovae that correctly reproduces the results of detailed numerical simulations. We find that there is no significant difference between the several phenome...

  6. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of plutonium complexes with bacillus sphaericus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J.; Booth, C.H.; Caulder, D.L.; Bucher, J.J.; Shuh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California at Berkeley, Dept. of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Knowledge of the plutonium complexes formed with bacterial cells is critical for predicting the influence of microbial interactions on the migration behavior of actinides in the environment. This investigation describes the interaction of plutonium(VI) with cells of the aerobic soil bacteria, Bacillus sphaericus. The studies include the quantification of carboxylate and phosphate functional groups on the cell walls by potentiometric titration and the determination of the plutonium speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Extended-XAFS (EXAFS) was used to determine the identity of the Pu(VI) interfacial complex with the bacteria, and the Pu(VI) was found primarily bound to phosphate groups on the cell surface. No carboxylate complexation was detected. (orig.)

  7. The Young Modulus of Black Strings and the Fine Structure of Blackfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A

    2011-01-01

    We explore corrections in the blackfold approach, which is a worldvolume theory capturing the dynamics of thin black branes. The corrections probe the fine structure of the branes, going beyond the approximation in which they are infinitely thin, and account for the dipole moment of worldvolume stress-energy as well as the internal spin degrees of freedom. We show that the dipole correction is induced elastically by bending a black brane. We argue that the long-wavelength transport coefficient capturing this response is a relativistic generalization of the Young modulus of elastic materials and we compute it analytically. Using this we draw predictions for black rings in dimensions greater than six. Furthermore, we employ our corrected blackfold equations to various multi-spinning black hole configurations in the blackfold limit, finding perfect agreement with known analytic solutions.

  8. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Fabbri, J; Lee, J I; Schreiner, P; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J; Carlson, B; Vance, A L; Yang, W; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T; Melosh, N

    2007-11-27

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface-modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 eV and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different amounts of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond clusters.

  9. Fine structures and dynamics in auroral initial brightening at substorm onsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sakaguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We show four auroral initial brightening events at substorm onsets focusing on fine structures and their longitudinal dynamics, which were observed by all-sky TV cameras (30-Hz sampling on January 2008, in Canada. For two initial brightenings started in the field of views of the cameras, we found that they started at longitudinal segments with a size of less than ~30–60 km. One brightening expanded with wavy structures and the other expanded as a straight arc. Although the two events had different structures, both brightening auroras expanded with an average speed of ~20 km/s in the first 10 s, and ~10 km/s in the following 10 s. The other two events show that brightening auroras developed with periodic structures, with longitudinal wavelengths of ~100–200 km. Assuming that the brightening auroras are mapped to the physical processes occurring in the plasma sheet, we found that the scale size (30–60 km and the expanding speed (20 km/s of brightening auroras correspond to the order of ion gyro radii (~500–1400 km and Alfvén speed or fast ion-flow speed (~400 km/s, respectively, in the plasma sheet.

  10. Fine strand-like structure in the solar corona from MHD transverse oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Antolin, P; Van Doorsselaere, T

    2014-01-01

    Current analytical and numerical modelling suggest the existence of ubiquitous thin current sheets in the corona that could explain the observed heating requirements. On the other hand, new high resolution observations of the corona indicate that its magnetic field may tend to organise itself in fine strand-like structures of few hundred kilometres widths. The link between small structure in models and the observed widths of strand-like structure several orders of magnitude larger is still not clear. A popular theoretical scenario is the nanoflare model, in which each strand is the product of an ensemble of heating events. Here, we suggest an alternative mechanism for strand generation. Through forward modelling of 3D MHD simulations we show that small amplitude transverse MHD waves can lead in a few periods time to strand-like structure in loops in EUV intensity images. Our model is based on previous numerical work showing that transverse MHD oscillations can lead to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that defor...

  11. Fine structure of the copulatory apparatus of the tapeworm Tetrabothrius erostris (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, Janetta V; Jones, Malcolm K; Kuklin, Vadim V

    2015-05-01

    The organization and fine structure of the complex copulatory apparatus of Tetrabothrius erostris (Tetrabothriidea) is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. A diversity of microstructures was found on the surface of genital ducts. The apical surfaces of male gonadoducts possess tubular and blade-like microtriches that have specific structure in each section of the duct. The apical part of the tubular microtriches contains numerous constrictions in the proximal section of the sperm duct; blade-like microtriches of cirrus possess longitudinal striation in the apical part, and their basal part is reinforced with electron-dense strands. Two types of microtriches occur on the surface of cirrus, and their presence may be considered as systematic features. Prostate glands containing granules of medium electron density (up to 130 nm diameter) are localized in the cirrus sac. The genital atrium contains numerous non-ciliated receptors. Paramyosin-like fibers (up to 200 nm) were found in the muscle fibers surrounding the male atrium canal. Microtriches on the surface of the distal region of the male atrial canal are covered by a glycocalyx. Electron-dense, membrane-like structures (up to 40 nm) lie under the apical membrane of the genital atrium and vagina. These structures do not form a continuous layer; its edges turn down and sink into the apical invaginations of epithelium. Hypotheses on the possible ways of copulation in T. erostris based on the observed ultrastructure are discussed.

  12. New algorithm improves fine structure of the barley consensus SNP map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endelman Jeffrey B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to integrate information from multiple linkage maps is a long-standing problem in genetics. One way to visualize the complex ordinal relationships is with a directed graph, where each vertex in the graph is a bin of markers. When there are no ordering conflicts between the linkage maps, the result is a directed acyclic graph, or DAG, which can then be linearized to produce a consensus map. Results New algorithms for the simplification and linearization of consensus graphs have been implemented as a package for the R computing environment called DAGGER. The simplified consensus graphs produced by DAGGER exactly capture the ordinal relationships present in a series of linkage maps. Using either linear or quadratic programming, DAGGER generates a consensus map with minimum error relative to the linkage maps while remaining ordinally consistent with them. Both linearization methods produce consensus maps that are compressed relative to the mean of the linkage maps. After rescaling, however, the consensus maps had higher accuracy (and higher marker density than the individual linkage maps in genetic simulations. When applied to four barley linkage maps genotyped at nearly 3000 SNP markers, DAGGER produced a consensus map with improved fine structure compared to the existing barley consensus SNP map. The root-mean-squared error between the linkage maps and the DAGGER map was 0.82 cM per marker interval compared to 2.28 cM for the existing consensus map. Examination of the barley hardness locus at the 5HS telomere, for which there is a physical map, confirmed that the DAGGER output was more accurate for fine structure analysis. Conclusions The R package DAGGER is an effective, freely available resource for integrating the information from a set of consistent linkage maps.

  13. Spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on full relativistic theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghe Zhu; Yongjian Tang

    2011-01-01

    @@ We focus on the full relativistic quantum mechanical calculations from boron to fluorine atoms with electronic configuration of 1s22s22pn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), where 1s22s2 is the closed shell and 2pn is the open shell. Their active electrons in the open shell occupy all the six spinors as far as possible.Therefore, we suggest a new rule called "maximum probability" for the full symmetry group relativistic theory. Furthermore, the spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on the full relativistic theory and their intervals of L-S splitting are all reasonable. It is impossible to calculate the L-S splitting through non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The relativistic effect of atomic mass is increased significantly by about 12 folds from boron atom to fluorine atom.%We focus on the full relativistic quantum mechanical calculations from boron to fluorine atoms with electronic configuration of 1s22s22pn (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), where 1s22s2 is the closed shell and 2pn is the open shell. Their active electrons in the open shell occupy all the six spinors as far as possible.Therefore, we suggest a new rule called "maximum probability" for the full symmetry group relativistic theory. Furthermore, the spectral fine structure of the atomic ground states based on the full relativistic theory and their intervals of L-S splitting are all reasonable. It is impossible to calculate the L-S splitting through non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The relativistic effect of atomic mass is increased significantly by about 12 folds from boron atom to fluorine atom.

  14. [Fine structural study of keratinization of the filiform papillae in the tongue in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placková, A; Skach, M

    1975-01-01

    The fine structure of the keratinization of the papilla filiformis of the human tongue was described for the first time; Two biopsies of normal tongue tissue were fixed in 2,5% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde, postfixed in 1% osmiumtetroxyde, embedded in Durcopan und contrasted ultrathin sections were examined by electron microscopes JEM 7A and 100B. The findings show a highly configurated epithel-connective tissue border with basal lamina and irregular hemidesmosomes. The epithelial structure of the interpapillary area is identical with the fine structure of the human buccal mucosa, which was classified as non-keratinized or incompletely keratinized. Accordingly, a stratum granulosum is missing. After loss of nucleus and organelles, surface cells become flattened, parallel to the surface of the tongue and have a fine fibrillar cytoplasm. The papilla filiformis is formed by cell growth along the secondary connective tissue papillae and consequently tube-like epithelial structures appear. In the papillary area basal and stratum spinosum cells show epidermal structural features. A difference from epidermal and other oral epithelial cells becomes apparent for the first time in the stratum granulosum by the appearance of a great number of round, small, electron-dense KHG, surrounded by ribosomes. The KHG are not associated with tonofilaments. In the area of the walls of the tubes 1...3 mum large, electron-dense structures are formed by fusion of several KHG. With further differentiation these large KHG disintegrate into bulky or granular masses, filling the cell cytoplasm and thus mask the tonofilaments. The cells at the borders of the tubes show a great structural variability. After the disintegration of nucleus and organelles, the cytoplasm is formed by randomly oriented filaments of different packing or by fiber-bundles. Yet the interfibrilla embedding substance, typical of orthokeratinization is mostly lackingmin some cells of the tubeborders, masses of

  15. Photoluminescence and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies on cadmium telluride material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxin

    The direct-band-gap semiconductor CdTe is an important material for fabricating high efficiency, polycrystalline thin-film solar cells in a heterojunction configuration. The outstanding physical properties of this material such as its good band-gap match to the solar spectrum, ease of fabrication of stoichiometric films, and easy grain boundary passivation make it an important candidate for large area, thin-film solar cells. However, there are several poorly understood processing steps that are commonly utilized in cell fabrication. One of these is a CdCl2 treatment near 400°C in the presence of oxygen, which can improve the cell efficiency a factor of two or more. Another factor is the role of copper in cell performance. In high performance CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells, copper is usually included in the fabrication of low-resistance back contacts to obtain heavy p-type doping of the absorber CdTe at the contact. However, most of the copper is not electrically active. For example, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) on typical CdTe cells has shown Cu concentrations of 1019 atoms/cm3 and even higher, although capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements indicate typical ionized acceptor levels on the order of 1014/cm 3. Thus, there is great interest in the location and role of this inactive copper in CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. In this thesis, I will describe results obtained on magnetron-sputtered CdTe films that were diffused with copper following the procedure used for creating a cell back contact. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurements identified the chemical environment of the majority of the copper and show major differences depending on whether the CdTe film has been treated with chloride prior to the Cu diffusion. The EXAFS data indicate that the Cu chemistry is strongly affected by the chloride treatments---predominantly Cu2Te when Cu was diffused into the as-deposited CdTe film, but a Cu2O environment when Cu was diffused after

  16. Effect of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the fine structure of amylopectin from normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the fine structure of the amylopectin fraction of starch synthesized by normal barley (NBS) and waxy barley (WBS), the latter completely devoid of amylose biosynthesis, was determined following the cultivation under normal diurnal or constant light...... growing conditions. The amylopectin fine structures were analysed by characterizing its unit chain length profiles after enzymatic debranching as well as its φ,β-limit dextrins and its clusters and building blocks after their partial and complete hydrolysis with α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens...... under constant light. Our data demonstrate that the diurnal light regime influences the fine structure of the amylopectin component both in amylose and non-amylose starch granules....

  17. Active region fine structure observed at 0.08 arcsec resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, R; Hoch, S; Soltau, D; Berkefeld, T; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Denker, C; Balthasar, H; Hofmann, A; Strassmeier, K G; Staude, J; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Solanki, S K; Collados, M; Sigwarth, M; Volkmer, R; Waldmann, T; Kneer, F; Nicklas, H; Sobotka, M

    2016-01-01

    The various mechanisms of magneto-convective energy transport determines the structure of sunspots and active regions. We characterise the appearance of light bridges and other fine structure details and elaborate on their magneto-convective nature. We present speckle-reconstructed images taken with the broad band imager at the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope in the 486nm and 589nm bands. We estimate the spatial resolution from the noise characteristics of the image bursts and obtain 0.08" at 589nm. We describe structure details in individual best images as well as the temporal evolution of selected features. We find branched dark lanes extending along thin (~1") light bridges in sunspots at various heliocentric angles. In thick (~2") light bridges the branches are disconnected from the central lane and have a `Y' shape with a bright grain toward the umbra. The images reveal that light bridges exist on varying intensity levels and that their small-scale features evolve on time scales of minutes. Faint light bridges sh...

  18. Fine fragmentation distribution from structural reactive material casings under explosive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Zhang, Fan; Kim, Kibong

    2015-06-01

    Structural reactive material (SRM) can be used for explosive casings to provide additional blast energy. SRM fragments can react either promptly or after impact with nearby structure. Better understanding of fine fragment distributions from SRM casings is important for optimization of initiation and reaction of the SRM fragments. Key to this is knowledge of the initial fragmentation character before it has been altered by early reaction or by subsequent impact with surrounding structure. The study must be conducted beyond critical charge diameter to minimize effects of the expansion wave on fragment sizes. The collection and analysis of fragment distribution down to 40 micron size from thick SRM casings are therefore investigated in a 1.18 m diameter, 2.1 m3 closed cylindrical chamber filled with artificially-made pure snow packed to density 0.35 g/cm3. The snow quenches early reaction of SRM fragments and soft-catches the fragments before impact with the chamber walls. A 100 g cylindrical C-4 explosive charge is used, packed in a 3.3 cm inner diameter SRM casing, with length-to-diameter ratio of L/d = 2, and casing-to-explosive mass ratio of M/C = 1.75. Three types of SRM are investigated, including a baseline of Aluminum 6061 for comparison. The cased charge is suspended in an argon filled cavity, 20 cm in diameter and 40 cm long, within the snow filed chamber.

  19. Fine structure and functional comments of mouthparts in Platypus cylindrus (Col., Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhoucine, Latifa; Bouhraoua, Rachid T; Prats, Eva; Pulade-Villar, Juli

    2013-02-01

    Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood of the tree. The fine structural aspects of the mouthpart using the field emission scanning electron microscopy are analyzed about 23 adults collected in galleries of infested cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in a littoral forest of northwest Algeria. These adults are preserved in alcohol 70%, cleaned and coated with gold. The mouthparts of this beetle consist commonly of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and the labium but with adapted structure to excavate galleries in the hardwood. In this role is also involved the first pair of legs. The function that present the different structures related to the construction of the tunnels is discussed. Both of maxillary and labial palpi direct the food to the mouth and hold it while the mandibles chew the food. The distal ends of these palpi are flattened and have shovel-like setae. Females have larger maxillary palpi than males and this is related to the particular biology of each sex.

  20. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic determination of plutonium speciation at the Rocky Flats environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conradson, Steven D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy was used to probe the speciation of the ppm level Pu in thirteen soil and concrete samples from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in support of the site remediation effort that has been successfully completed since these measurements. In addition to X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectra, two of the samples yielded Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra that could be analyzed by curve-fits. Most of these spectra exhibited features consistent with PU(IV), and more specificaJly, PuO{sub 2+x}-type speciation. Two were ambiguous, possibly indicating that Pu that was originally present in a different form was transforming into PuO{sub 2+x}, and one was interpreted as demonstrating the presence of an unusual Pu(VI) compound, consistent with its source being spills from a PUREX purification line onto a concrete floor and the resultant extreme conditions. These experimental results therefore validated models that predicted that insoluble PuO{sub 2+x} would be the most stable form of Pu in equilibrium with air and water even when the source terms were most likely Pu metal with organic compounds or a Pu fire. A corollary of these models' predictions and other in situ observations is therefore that the minimal transport of Pu that occurred on the site was via the resuspension and mobilization of colloidal particles. Under these conditions, the small amounts of diffusely distributed Pu that were left on the site after its remediation pose only a negligible hazard.

  1. Observation of the fine structure for rovibronic spectral lines in visible part of emission spectra of $D_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, B P; Zhukov, A S

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the fine structure of rovibronic spectral lines in visible part of emission spectra of $D_2$ molecule has been observed. Observed splitting in visible doublets is about 0.2 cm$^{-1}$ in good accordance with previous observations in the infrared part of the spectrum ($a^3\\Sigma_g^+ \\to c^3\\Pi_u$ electronic transition) by means of FTIR and laser spectroscopy. Relative intensities of the fine structure components are in agreement with our calculations of adiabatic line strengths for Hund's case "b" coupling scheme.

  2. Interesting Features of n2D Rydberg Series Fine-Structure Splittings along the Sodium-Like Isoelectronic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Lu; LIU Ling-Tao; GAO Xiang; SHEN Chun; LI Jia-Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Using a simplified multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (SMCDF) scheme based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) theory, we study the systematic variations of the fine-structure splittings of n2 D3/2,5/2 Rydberg series along the sodium-like isoelectronic sequence, i.e.the fine-structure orderings vary with increasing atomic number Z.The competition between the spin-orbit interactions and the exchange interactions due to relativistic effects of the nd orbital wavefunctions well explain such variations.Furthermore, the effect of Breit interactions which plays the secondary role is studied.

  3. Theoretical Study of Interesting Fine-Structure Splittings for 23P0,1,2 States along Helium Isoelectronic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Bo; CHEN Shao-Hao; GAO Xiang; LI Jia-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Using the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method including the Breit interactions and QED corrections, we calculate the fine-structure energy levels of the 23P,0,1,2 states along the helium isoelectronic sequence with atomic number up to Z=36, where LS-coupling is appropriate. Our calculation results agree with the experimental results within about 1%. We elucidate the mechanism of the interesting fine-structure splittings for the 23P,0,1,2 states along the helium isoelectronic sequence, I. E. The competitions between the spin-orbit interactions and the Breit interactions which represent the relativistic retardation effect of electromagnetic interactions.

  4. Model for the fine structure of zero field steps in long Josephson tunnel junctions and its comparison with experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, Paola; Monaco, R.; Ustinov, A. V.

    1996-01-01

    The single fluxon dynamics in the resonant regime has been investigated on high-quality low-loss Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb window Josephson tunnel junctions. A new model accounting for the fine structure of zero field steps in linear junctions is proposed. Depending on the fluxon velocity and on the junction...... simulations, and experiments. The presence of the idle region has been proved to play a determinant role for the occurrence of the fine structure. ©1996 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Cluster model calculation of N near K-edge energy-loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A cluster model is used to calculate electron energy-loss fine structures in crystal. The multiple-scattering self-consistent-field method is employed in the calculation. Our theoretical results of N near K-edge energy loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Future possible experiments in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) are discussed and proposed because our theoretical work can provide clear assignments for transmitted electrons with different energy losses.

  6. Correlative Structural Biology: How to Investigate the Fine Details of Viral Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Wright

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Commentary on Byeon, I.J.; Meng, X.; Jung, J.; Zhao, G.; Yang, R.; Ahn, J.; Shi, J.; Concel, J.; Aiken, C.; Zhang, P.; Gronenborn, A.M. Structural convergence between Cryo-EM and NMR reveals intersubunit interactions critical for HIV-1 capsid function. Cell 2009, 139, 780-790.

  7. Unresolved Fine-scale Structure in Solar Coronal Loop-tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, E.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Wedemeyer, S.; Antolin, P.

    2014-12-01

    New and advanced space-based observing facilities continue to lower the resolution limit and detect solar coronal loops in greater detail. We continue to discover even finer substructures within coronal loop cross-sections, in order to understand the nature of the solar corona. Here, we push this lower limit further to search for the finest coronal loop substructures, through taking advantage of the resolving power of the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope/CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter (CRISP), together with co-observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA). High-resolution imaging of the chromospheric Hα 656.28 nm spectral line core and wings can, under certain circumstances, allow one to deduce the topology of the local magnetic environment of the solar atmosphere where its observed. Here, we study post-flare coronal loops, which become filled with evaporated chromosphere that rapidly condenses into chromospheric clumps of plasma (detectable in Hα) known as a coronal rain, to investigate their fine-scale structure. We identify, through analysis of three data sets, large-scale catastrophic cooling in coronal loop-tops and the existence of multi-thermal, multi-stranded substructures. Many cool strands even extend fully intact from loop-top to footpoint. We discover that coronal loop fine-scale strands can appear bunched with as many as eight parallel strands within an AIA coronal loop cross-section. The strand number density versus cross-sectional width distribution, as detected by CRISP within AIA-defined coronal loops, most likely peaks at well below 100 km, and currently, 69% of the substructure strands are statistically unresolved in AIA coronal loops.

  8. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  9. Diagnosis of Parathyroid Adenoma Detected during Thyroid Ultrasound: The Role of Parathormone Measurement in Fine-Needle Aspiration Washout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    With the widespread use of thyroid ultrasound, the detection rate of parathyroid incidentalomas as well as thyroid nodules has been on the increase. The differentiation between thyroid nodules and parathyroid nodules is occasionally difficult due to considerable overlap in terms of the sonographic findings. A case of parathyroid adenoma diagnosed with a measured parathyroid hormone level after fine needle aspiration washout is presented

  10. Structure and properties of advanced fine grained steels produced using novel thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    Fine grained advanced steels exhibit favourable mechanical properties for applications requiring high strength, ductility and impact toughness. These properties result from a microstructure containing a fine distribution of several phases including ferrite, austenite, martensite and bainite. The bainite phase is in the form of fine lamellas of ferrite and carbon-enriched austenite which due to proper control of the chemical composition is lacking the nanometre scaled carbides associated with ...

  11. Determining Orientational Structure of Diamondoid Thiols Attached to Silver Using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; Lee, J I; Fabbri, J D; Wang, D; Nielsen, M; Randel, J C; Schreiner, P R; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J P; Carlson, R K; Terminello, L J; Melosh, N A; van Buuren, T

    2008-10-07

    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is a powerful tool for determination of molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers and other surface-attached molecules. A general framework for using NEXAFS to simultaneously determine molecular tilt and twist of rigid molecules attached to surfaces is presented. This framework is applied to self-assembled monolayers of higher diamondoid, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures. Diamondoid monolayers chemisorbed on metal substrates are known to exhibit interesting electronic and surface properties. This work compares molecular orientation in monolayers prepared on silver substrates using two different thiol positional isomers of [121]tetramantane, and thiols derived from two different pentamantane structural isomers, [1212]pentamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. The observed differences in monolayer structure demonstrate the utility and limitations of NEXAFS spectroscopy and the framework. The results also demonstrate the ability to control diamondoid assembly, in particular the molecular orientational structure, providing a flexible platform for the modification of surface properties with this exciting new class of nanodiamond materials.

  12. Rotational and Fine Structure of Pseudo-Jahn Molecules with C_1 Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjun

    2016-06-01

    It has been found in our previous works that rotational and fine-structure analysis of spectra involving nearly degenerate electronic states may aid in interpretation and analysis of the vibronic structure, specifically in the case of pseudo-Jahn-Teller (pJT) molecules with C_s symmetry. The spectral analysis of pJT derivatives (isopropoxy and cyclohexoxy of a prototypical JT molecule (the methoxy radical) allowed for quantitative determination of various contributions to the energy separation between the nearly degenerate electronic states, including the relativistic spin-orbit (SO) effect, the electrostatic interaction, and their zero-point energy difference. These states are coupled by SO and Coriolis interactions, which can also be determined accurately in rotational and fine structure analysis. Most recently, the spectroscopic model for rotational analysis of pJT molecules has been extended for analysis of molecules with C_1 symmetry, i.e., no symmetry. This model includes the six independently determinable components of the spin-rotation (SR) tensor and the three components of the SO and Coriolis interactions. It has been employed to simulate and fit high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of jet-cooled alkoxy radicals with C_1 symmetry, including the 2-hexoxy and the 2-pentoxy radicals, as well as previously recorded LIF spectrum of the trans-conformer (defined by its OCCC dihedral angle) of the 2-butoxy radical. Although the LIF spectra can be reproduced by using either the SR constants or SO and Coriolis constants, the latter simulation offers results that are physically more meaningful whereas the SR constants have to be regarded as effective constants. Furthermore, we will review the SO and Coriolis constants of alkoxy radicals that have been investigated, starting from the well-studied methoxy radical (CH_3O). J. Liu, D. Melnik, and T. A. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 094308 (2013) J. Liu and T. A. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 118, 11871

  13. Investigation of fine-structure dips in fission-fragment mass distribution: An asymmetric two centre shell model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2017-04-01

    The fission fragment mass distribution followed by neutron emission is studied for the 208Pb (18O , f) reaction using the asymmetric two centre shell model. The measured mass distribution spectrum reveals new kind of systematics on shell structure and leads to an improved understanding of structure effects in nuclear fission. A detailed investigation of shell effects both in potential and cranking mass parameter has been carried out for explaining the observed fine structure dips (i.e., less probable distributions) corresponding to shell closure (Z = 50 and/or N = 82) of fission fragments and their complementary partners. The available energy states for the decay process are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation and found that first-five eigenstates are sufficient in reproducing the observed mass distribution spectrum. An outcome of the asymmetric two centre shell model also completely favours the observed claim that ;the total number of emitted neutrons between correlated pairs of fission fragments should not exceed 6;. A complete observed spectrum is obtained by adding the mass distribution yields of all 6-neutron emission channels. This suggests a possible importance of extending these calculations to get new insight into an understanding of the dynamical behaviour of fragment formation in the fission process.

  14. Determining the Velocity Fine Structure by a Laser Anemometer in VAD operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Torben

    The theoretical basis for determining the dissipation ε, by measuring the velocity structure function with a CW-laser anemometer has been derived in the case of calm wind conditions. If there is a well defined mean wind speed the structure function can be obtained by having the laser beam pointing...

  15. Fine scale mapping of the structure and composition of the Elkhorn Slough (California, USA) tidal plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew M.; Ryan, John P.; Rienecker, Erich V.

    2017-01-01

    Fine scale mapping of the structure and composition of a tidal ebb plume from a highly modified coastal lagoon (Elkhorn Slough, California, USA) was conducted by combining in situ, observational data sets from surface underway mapping, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) profiles, drifter tracking and the analysis of plume structure indices. The results reveal a 6-m-deep, jet-like, sediment laden plume extending one km offshore at low tide, which becomes entrained in the prevailing nearshore circulation. The plume that exits the slough is significantly different from the water that enters the slough. The rapidly evolving discharge plume is associated with elevated and highly correlated (r = 0.93) concentrations of dissolved organic matter and nitrate. While dissolved constituents remain in the shallow plume and are transported northward with the prevailing current, sediment may settle quickly through the water column and can be transported southwestward with the littoral currents. This study illustrates the applications of AUVs, when coupled with additional datasets, for generating higher resolution observational snapshots of dynamic and ephemeral tidal plumes. The results provide unique perspective on small-scale dynamics of an estuarine plume and its influence on coastal ecology.

  16. Electronic fine structure in the nickel carbide superconductor Th2NiC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Y.; Pickett, W. E.

    2013-07-01

    The recently reported nickel carbide superconductor body centered tetragonal I4/mmm Th2NiC2 with Tc=8.5 K increasing to 11.2 K upon alloying Th with Sc is found to have very fine structure in its electronic spectrum, according to density functional based first-principles calculations. The filled Ni 3d band complex is hybridized with C 2p and Th character to and through the Fermi level (EF), and a sharply structured density of states arises only when spin-orbit coupling is included, which splits a zone-center degeneracy, leaving a very flat band edge lying at the Fermi level. The flat part of the band corresponds to an effective mass mz*→∞ with large and negative mx*=my*. Although the region over which the effective mass characterization applies is less than 1% of the zone volume, it supplies on the order of half the states at (or just above) the Fermi level. The observed increase of Tc by hole doping is accounted for if the reference as-synthesized sample is minutely hole doped, which decreases the Fermi level density of states and will provide some stabilization. In this scenario, electron doping will increase the Fermi level density of states and the superconducting critical temperature. Vibrational properties are presented, and enough coupling to the C-Ni-C stretch mode at 70 meV is obtained to imply that superconductivity is electron-phonon mediated.

  17. Sorption mechanisms of zinc to calcium silicate hydrate: X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, F; Scheidegger, A M; Johnson, C A; Dähn, R; Wieland, E

    2001-04-01

    In this study, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has been used to further elucidate the binding mechanisms of Zn(II) to calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the quantitatively most important cement mineral. Such knowledge is essential for the assessment of the longterm behavior of cement-stabilized waste materials. XAFS spectra of the Zn(II) equilibrated with C-S-H(I) for up to 28 days are best modeled by tetrahedral coordination of Zn(II) by four O atoms in the first atomic shell. Beyond the first coordination shell, data analysis of more highly concentrated samples suggests the presence of two distinct Zn distances and possibly the presence of an Si shell. On the basis of the comparison with a set of reference compounds, this coordination environment can be reasonably related to the structure of hemimorphite, a naturally occurring zinc silicate, and/or the presence of gamma-Zn(OH)2. At the lowest Zn uptake, the above fitting approach failed and data could be described best with a Zn-Si and a Zn-Ca shell. Previous work has been able to show that Zn(II) diffuses into the C-S-H(I) particles and does not form discrete precipitates, so the findings appear to confirm the incorporation of Zn(II) in the interlayer of C-S-H(I).

  18. Retinal pigment epithelial fine structure in the red-tailed hawk (Buto jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R

    1992-03-01

    As part of a comparative morphological study, the fine structure of the retinal epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been studied by electron microscopy in the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In this species the RPE consists of a single layer of low cuboidal cells which display numerous basal (scleral) infoldings and extensive apical (vitreal) processes which interdigitate with photoreceptor outer segments. These epithelial cells are joined laterally by a series of basally located tight junctions. Internally SER is the most abundant cell organelle while only small amounts of RER are present. Polysomes are however abundant as are mitochondria. The RPE cell nucleus is large and vesicular. Melanosomes are mainly located in the apical processes of the RPE cells in light-adaptation. Myeloid bodies are large and numerous in light-adaptation and often show ribosomes on their outer border. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) shows the typical pentalaminate structure noted in most vertebrates but with only a poorly defined central elastic layer. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris is very thin facing the RPE but is only moderately fenestrated. The choriocapillaris in this species is unusual however in that many of the fenestrae show a double-layered diaphragm.

  19. Growth scheme for quantum dots with low fine structure splitting at telecom wavelengths (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tina; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots based on InAs/InP hold the promise to deliver entangled photons with wavelength suitable for the standard telecom window around 1550 nm, which makes them predestined to be used in future quantum networks applications based on existing fiber optics infrastructure. A prerequisite for the generation of such entangled photons is a small fine structure splitting (FSS) in the quantum dot excitonic eigenstates, as well as the ability to integrate the dot into photonic structures to enhance and direct its emission. Using optical spectroscopy, we show that a growth strategy based on droplet epitaxy can simultaneously address both issues. Contrary to the standard Stranski-Krastanow technique, droplet epitaxy dots do not rely on material strains during growth, which results in a drastic improvement in dot symmetry. As a consequence, the average exciton FSS is reduced by more than a factor 4, which in fact makes all the difference between easily finding a dot with the required FSS and not finding one at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that droplet epitaxy dots can be grown on the necessary surface (001) for high quality optical microcavities, which increases dot emission count rates by more than a factor of five. Together, these properties make droplet epitaxy quantum dots readily suitable for the generation of entangled photons at telecom wavelengths.

  20. Molecular characterization of brominated persistent pollutants using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Skyllberg, Ulf [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeaa (Sweden); Persson, Per [Umeaa University, Department of Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy spectra were collected for three brominated persistent pollutants: 6-bromo-2,4,5-trichlorophenol (BrTriClP), pentabromophenol (PentaBrP) and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). The substances were selected to be symmetrical (BrTriClP and TBBA) or asymmetrical (PentaBrP) with respect to the atomic Br positions and to differ in the number of bromine and other halide atoms, as well as their relative positions. The asymmetrical PentaBrP was modelled with special detail as not all bromine atoms have identical coordination environments. The studied substances displayed unique EXAFS spectra, which could be used to determine the molecular structure in fair detail. We conclude that EXAFS spectroscopy is a suitable technique for molecular characterization of the comparatively complex molecules within the class of compounds of brominated organic persistent pollutants. A detailed understanding of the EXAFS spectra of the pure compounds opens up possibilities to study the interactions with soil and sediment matrices by means of EXAFS spectroscopy. (orig.)

  1. Fine-Scale Human Population Structure in Southern Africa Reflects Ecogeographic Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Caitlin; Kim, Minju; Martin, Alicia R; Bobo, Dean; Gignoux, Christopher R; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G; Henn, Brenna M

    2016-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have established that the KhoeSan populations of southern Africa are distinct from all other African populations and have remained largely isolated during human prehistory until ∼2000 years ago. Dozens of different KhoeSan groups exist, belonging to three different language families, but very little is known about their population history. We examine new genome-wide polymorphism data and whole mitochondrial genomes for >100 South Africans from the ≠Khomani San and Nama populations of the Northern Cape, analyzed in conjunction with 19 additional southern African populations. Our analyses reveal fine-scale population structure in and around the Kalahari Desert. Surprisingly, this structure does not always correspond to linguistic or subsistence categories as previously suggested, but rather reflects the role of geographic barriers and the ecology of the greater Kalahari Basin. Regardless of subsistence strategy, the indigenous Khoe-speaking Nama pastoralists and the N|u-speaking ≠Khomani (formerly hunter-gatherers) share ancestry with other Khoe-speaking forager populations that form a rim around the Kalahari Desert. We reconstruct earlier migration patterns and estimate that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago. We conclude that local adoption of pastoralism, at least by the Nama, appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa.

  2. Fine Structure of Glycosaminoglycans from Fresh and Decellularized Porcine Cardiac Valves and Pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cigliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac valves are dynamic structures, exhibiting a highly specialized architecture consisting of cells and extracellular matrix with a relevant proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan content, collagen and elastic fibers. Biological valve substitutes are obtained from xenogenic cardiac and pericardial tissues. To overcome the limits of such non viable substitutes, tissue engineering approaches emerged to create cell repopulated decellularized scaffolds. This study was performed to determine the glycosaminoglycans content, distribution, and disaccharides composition in porcine aortic and pulmonary valves and in pericardium before and after a detergent-based decellularization procedure. The fine structural characteristics of galactosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate were examined by FACE. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of decellularized pericardium and its propensity to be repopulated by in vitro seeded fibroblasts were investigated. Results show that galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronan are differently distributed between pericardium and valves and within heart valves themselves before and after decellularization. The distribution of glycosaminoglycans is also dependent from the vascular district and topographic localization. The decellularization protocol adopted resulted in a relevant but not selective depletion of galactosaminoglycans. As a whole, data suggest that both decellularized porcine heart valves and bovine pericardium represent promising materials bearing the potential for future development of tissue engineered heart valve scaffolds.

  3. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis.

  4. Observations and modeling of the fine structure of loops in the transition region and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David

    2017-08-01

    The physical dimensions of loops hold important clues to the coronal heating process. Theoretical arguments universally indicate that coronal heating should operate on very small spatial scales and loops should be unresolvable by current instrumentation. There are a number of observational results, however, that suggest that coronal loops are organized on spatial scales of several hundred km. For example, recent observations from IRIS have discovered a new class of low-lying dynamic loops structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. Here we show that the properties of the UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) are consistent with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations of an impulsively heated single strand, suggesting that they are resolved, and that the distribution of UFS widths implies that like coronal loops they are also structured on a spatial scale of a few hundred km. Spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal structures, but it is unclear whether the true distribution of loop widths is normalized around this scale, or whether it extends to much smaller scales - perhaps by a power-law - below the resolution of current instruments. We have extended our previous modeling of the cross-field intensity profiles of coronal loops observed by EIS and AIA, to investigate what the modeled profiles would look like at Hi-C resolution, what they would look like if loops are composed only of temperatures and densities, and the intensity profiles from the power-law simulations are dominated by emission from the largest strands.

  5. Segmentation and Enhancement of Latent Fingerprints: A Coarse to Fine Ridge Structure Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Liu, Eryun; Jain, Anil K

    2014-09-01

    Latent fingerprint matching has played a critical role in identifying suspects and criminals. However, compared to rolled and plain fingerprint matching, latent identification accuracy is significantly lower due to complex background noise, poor ridge quality and overlapping structured noise in latent images. Accordingly, manual markup of various features (e.g., region of interest, singular points and minutiae) is typically necessary to extract reliable features from latents. To reduce this markup cost and to improve the consistency in feature markup, fully automatic and highly accurate ("lights-out" capability) latent matching algorithms are needed. In this paper, a dictionary-based approach is proposed for automatic latent segmentation and enhancement towards the goal of achieving "lights-out" latent identification systems. Given a latent fingerprint image, a total variation (TV) decomposition model with L1 fidelity regularization is used to remove piecewise-smooth background noise. The texture component image obtained from the decomposition of latent image is divided into overlapping patches. Ridge structure dictionary, which is learnt from a set of high quality ridge patches, is then used to restore ridge structure in these latent patches. The ridge quality of a patch, which is used for latent segmentation, is defined as the structural similarity between the patch and its reconstruction. Orientation and frequency fields, which are used for latent enhancement, are then extracted from the reconstructed patch. To balance robustness and accuracy, a coarse to fine strategy is proposed. Experimental results on two latent fingerprint databases (i.e., NIST SD27 and WVU DB) show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art segmentation and enhancement algorithms and boosts the performance of a state-of-the-art commercial latent matcher.

  6. STRUCTURE STUDIES OF PLATINOTHIONEINS BY USING EXTENDED X—RAY ASSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE SPECTROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BenggangXiang; TiandouHu; 等

    1999-01-01

    The metal binding sites in the two Pt containing metallothioneins (Pt-MT and Pt14MT) were examined by means of Pt(II) L3-edge extended X-ray absorption rine structure(EXAFS) spectroscopy.Comparisons between the phase and amplitude functions derived from the isolated shells to those of Pt…Pt.Pt-S and Pt-N model components showed that each platinum in Pt7MT was coordinated by four sulfur atoms at a distance of 2.31±0.01 A.Analysis of the outer shell data of platinum atom in Pt7MT indicated backscattering platinum atom at approximate 4.29A.Strkingly different structural parameters had been obtained for the Pt14MT species.fitting of the first shell revealed that each platinum was coordinated by two sulfurs at the distance of 2.3-±0.02A and two nitrogens at 2.02±0.02A.The results of the work provided the detailed information concerning the local environments of the coordinated Pt(II) in these two platinothioneins.

  7. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    CERN Document Server

    Kotuš, Srđan M; Carswell, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift $z=1$, HE 0515$-$4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption-line system at $z_{abs}=1.1508$, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$). A variation of just $\\sim$3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N $\\approx250$ pix$^{-1}$). This provides the most precise measurement of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from a single absorption system to date, $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=-1.42\\pm0.55_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.65_{\\rm sys}$ ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of $\\sim$150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelengt...

  8. Fine mapping of susceptibility genes by Lewontin's linkage disequilibrium measure with application to Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To formulate an equation for fine mapping of disease loci under complex conditions and determine the marker-disease distance in a specific case using this equation. Methods Lewontin's linkage disequilibrium (LD) measure D' was used to formulate an equation for mapping disease genes in the presence of phenocopies, locus heterogeneity, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, incomplete penetrance, uncertain liability and threshold, incomplete initial LD, natural selection, recurrent mutation, high disease allele frequency and unknown mode of inheritance. This equation was then used to determine the distance between a marker (ε4 within the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) loci using published data.Results An equation was formulated for mapping disease genes under the above conditions. If these conditions are present but ignored, then recombination fraction θ between marker and disease loci will be either overestimated or estimated with little bias. Therefore, an upper limit of θ can be obtained. AD has been found to be associated with the marker allele ε4 in Africans, Asians, and Caucasians. This suggests that the AD-ε4 allelic LD predates the divergence of peoples occurring 100·!000 years ago. With the age of AD-ε4 allelic LD so estimated, the maximal distance was calculated to be 23.2 kb (mean 5.8 kb).Conclusions (1) A method is developed for LD mapping of susceptibility genes. (2) A mutation within the APOE gene itself, among others, is responsible for the susceptibility to AD, which is supported by recent evidence from studies using transgenic mice.

  9. Periodicity extraction in the anuran auditory nerve. II: Phase and temporal fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A M; Reese, G; Ferragamo, M

    1993-06-01

    Discharge patterns of single eighth nerve fibers in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, were analyzed in response to signals consisting of multiple harmonics of a common, low-amplitude fundamental frequency. The signals were chosen to reflect the frequency and amplitude spectrum of the bullfrog's species-specific advertisement call. The phase spectrum of the signals was manipulated to produce envelopes that varied in their shapes from impulselike (sharp) to noiselike (flattened). Peripheral responses to these signals were analyzed by computing the autocorrelation functions of the spike trains and their power spectra, as well as by constructing period histograms over the time intervals of the low-frequency harmonics. In response to a phase aligned signal with an impulsive envelope, most fibers, regardless of their characteristic frequencies or place of origin within the inner ear, synchronize to the fundamental frequency of the signal. The temporal patterns of fiber discharge to these stimuli are not typically captured by that stimulus harmonic closet to the fiber characteristic frequency, as would be expected from a spectral coding mechanism for periodicity extraction, but instead directly reflect the periodicity of the stimulus envelope. Changing the phase relations between the individual harmonics constituting the signal produces changes in temporal discharge patterns of some fibers by shifting predominant synchronization away from the fundamental frequency to the low-frequency spectral peak in the complex stimuli. The proportion of fibers whose firing is captured by the fundamental frequency decreases as the waveform envelope becomes less impulselike. Fiber characteristic frequency is not highly correlated with the harmonic number to which synchronization is strongest. The higher-harmonic spectral fine structure of the signals is not reflected in fiber temporal response, regardless of the shape of the stimulus envelope, even for those harmonics within the range of

  10. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffetto, F; Ropartz, D; Zhang, X J; Gilbert, H J; Guillon, F; Ralet, M-C

    2014-10-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1-4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights

  11. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addisalem, A.B.; Duminil, J.; Wouters, D.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The fine-scale genetic structure and how it varies between generations depends on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and other fundamental aspects of species’ biology, such as the mating system. Such knowledge is crucial for the design of genetic conservation strategies. This is particularly

  12. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Addisalem; Duminil, J.; Wouters, D.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The fine-scale genetic structure and how it varies between generations depends on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and other fundamental aspects of species’ biology, such as the mating system. Such knowledge is crucial for the design of genetic conservation strategies. This is particularly rel

  13. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  14. A New Catalogue of Fine Structures Superimposed on Solar Microwave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Jun Fu; Yi-Hua Yan; Yu-Ying Liu; Min Wang; Shu-Juan Wang

    2004-01-01

    The 2.6-3.8 GHz, 4.5-7.5 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz and 0.7-1.5 GHz component spectrometers of Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) started routine observations, respectively, in late August 1996, August 1999, August 1999, and June 2000. They just managed to catch the coming 23rd solar active maximum. Consequently, a large amount of microwave burst data with high temporal and high spectral resolution and high sensitivity were obtained. A variety of fine structures (FS)superimposed on microwave bursts have been found. Some of them are known, such as microwave type Ⅲ bursts, microwave spike emission, but these were observed with more detail; some are new. Reported for the first time here are microwave type U bursts with similar spectral morphology to those in decimetric and metric wavelengths, and with outstanding characteristics such as very short durations(tens to hundreds ms), narrow bandwidths, higher frequency drift rates and higher degrees of polarization. Type N and type M bursts were also observed. Detailed zebra pattern and fiber bursts at the high frequency were found. Drifting pulsation structure (DPS) phenomena closely associated with CME are considered to manifest the initial phase of the CME, and quasi-periodic pulsation with periods of tens ms have been recorded. Microwave "patches", unlike those reported previously, were observed with very short durations (about 300 ms), very high flux densities (up to 1000 sfu), very high polarization (about 100% RCP), extremely narrow bandwidths(about 5%), and very high spectral indexes. These cannot be interpreted with the gyrosynchrotron process. A superfine structure in the form of microwave FS (ZPS,type U), consisting of microwave millisecond spike emission (MMS), was also found.

  15. Quantitative analysis of total reflection X-ray fluorescence from finely layered structures using XeRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhiliang [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Kerr, Daniel [Program in the Biophysical Sciences, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Hwang, Hyeondo Luke [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Henderson, J. Michael [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Suwatthee, Tiffany [The College, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Slaw, Benjamin R. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Cao, Kathleen D. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lin, Binhua [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Bu, Wei [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lee, Ka Yee C. [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    2017-03-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a widely applicable experimental technique for studying chemical element distributions across finely layered structures at extremely high sensitivity. To promote and facilitate scientific discovery using TXRF, we developed a MATLAB-based software package with a graphical user interface, named XeRay, for quick, accurate, and intuitive data analysis. XeRay lets the user model any layered system, each layer with its independent chemical composition and thickness, and enables fine-tuned data fitting. The accuracy of XeRay has been tested in the analysis of TXRF data from both air/liquid interface and liquid/liquid interfacial studies and has been compared to literature results. In an air/liquid interface study, Ca2+ sequestration was measured at a Langmuir monolayer of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid (SOPA) on a buffer solution of 1 mM CaCl2 at pH 7.5. Data analysis with XeRay reveals that each 1 nm2 of interfacial area contains 2.38 ± 0.06 Ca2+ ions, which corresponds to a 1:1 ratio between SOPA headgroups and Ca2+ ions, consistent with several earlier reports. For the liquid/liquid interface study of Sr2+ enrichment at the dodecane/surfactant/water interface, analysis using XeRay gives a surface enrichment of Sr2+ at 68+6-568-5+6 Å2 per ion, consistent with the result published for the same dataset.

  16. Rapid online measurement method for radius of curvature of fine grinding optics based on tool setting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Gu, Yongqiang; Miao, Erlong

    2016-10-01

    The radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the most important parameters of sphere optic components. In optic fine grinding process, radius of curvature accuracy requires up to 0.1%. We propose a method based on high precision CNC grinding machine, develop ROC online measurement method for fine grinding optics. This rapid method only takes few measurement points based on spiral route path, attaining enough accuracy and reduce the time cost, furthermore, can greatly reduce the repeated installation error. Analyzing the uncertainty sources that affect to the ROC measurement results, calculates the combined standard uncertainty 32.8 micron. Completed comparison experiments with CMM, the standard deviation of the experiment result are about 18 micron that approaches to CMM results.

  17. High-precision limit on variation in the fine-structure constant from a single quasar absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotuš, S. M.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    The brightest southern quasar above redshift z = 1, HE 0515-4414, with its strong intervening metal absorption line system at zabs = 1.1508, provides a unique opportunity to precisely measure or limit relative variations in the fine-structure constant (Δα/α). A variation of just ˜3 parts per million (ppm) would produce detectable velocity shifts between its many strong metal transitions. Using new and archival observations from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), we obtain an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum (peaking at S/N ≈ 250 pix-1). This provides the most precise measurement of Δα/α from a single absorption system to date, Δα/α = -1.42 ± 0.55stat ± 0.65sys ppm, comparable with the precision from previous, large samples of ˜150 absorbers. The largest systematic error in all (but one) previous similar measurements, including the large samples, was long-range distortions in the wavelength calibration. These would add an ˜2 ppm systematic error to our measurement and up to ˜10 ppm to other measurements using Mg and Fe transitions. However, we corrected the UVES spectra using well-calibrated spectra of the same quasar from the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, leaving a residual 0.59 ppm systematic uncertainty, the largest contribution to our total systematic error. A similar approach, using short observations on future well-calibrated spectrographs to correct existing high S/N spectra, would efficiently enable a large sample of reliable Δα/α measurements. The high-S/N UVES spectrum also provides insights into analysis difficulties, detector artefacts and systematic errors likely to arise from 25-40-m telescopes.

  18. Fine structure of the entanglement entropy in the O(2) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan; Xie, Z. Y.; Meurice, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We compare two calculations of the particle density in the superfluid phase of the O(2) model with a chemical potential μ in 1+1 dimensions. The first relies on exact blocking formulas from the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) formulation of the transfer matrix. The second is a worm algorithm. We show that the particle number distributions obtained with the two methods agree well. We use the TRG method to calculate the thermal entropy and the entanglement entropy. We describe the particle density, the two entropies and the topology of the world lines as we increase μ to go across the superfluid phase between the first two Mott insulating phases. For a sufficiently large temporal size, this process reveals an interesting fine structure: the average particle number and the winding number of most of the world lines in the Euclidean time direction increase by one unit at a time. At each step, the thermal entropy develops a peak and the entanglement entropy increases until we reach half-filling and then decreases in a way that approximately mirrors the ascent. This suggests an approximate fermionic picture.

  19. ;Long-hissler; fine structure within auroral hiss: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Howard F.; LaBelle, James; Spasojević, Maria

    2017-04-01

    One of the most prominent fine-structures of auroral hiss is the ;long-hissler;, defined here as a dispersed feature embedded within broadband auroral hiss emissions in the frequency range 1-40 kHz and lasting longer than 0.3 s. While theory is limited, there is evidence that hisslers can be used in remote sensing of density characteristics at altitudes of thousands of km. By applying an automatic threshold algorithm to VLF data collected at South Pole 2230-0130 UT daily during June-August 2014, 22 h of auroral hiss are identified on 49 of 93 days analyzed, for an occurrence rate of 9.7% during the applicable MLT interval. From manual inspection of these intervals, 414 groups (trains) of long hisslers are identified on 34 of the 49 days on which hiss occurred. Median lower (upper) frequency bounds of these features are 8 (22) kHz, median frequency-time slope is -10 kHz/s, and median hissler repetition time within a train (hissler period) is 1.2 s. Hissler period and frequency-time slope are inversely related. Data from previous studies are reviewed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenomenon. Contrary to some previous studies, subsequent long hissler features are found to commonly overlap in time, and no evidence is found for an inverse relationship between hissler train duration and geomagnetic activity.

  20. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirka, S.E., E-mail: zirka@email.dp.ua [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Moroz, Y.I. [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chwastek, K. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. AK 17, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Zurek, S. [Megger Instruments Ltd., Archcliffe Road, Dover, Kent, CT17 9EN (United Kingdom); Harrison, R.G. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed.

  1. All-Optical dc Nanotesla Magnetometry Using Silicon Vacancy Fine Structure in Isotopically Purified Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We uncover the fine structure of a silicon vacancy in isotopically purified silicon carbide (4H-^{28}SiC and reveal not yet considered terms in the spin Hamiltonian, originated from the trigonal pyramidal symmetry of this spin-3/2 color center. These terms give rise to additional spin transitions, which would be otherwise forbidden, and lead to a level anticrossing in an external magnetic field. We observe a sharp variation of the photoluminescence intensity in the vicinity of this level anticrossing, which can be used for a purely all-optical sensing of the magnetic field. We achieve dc magnetic field sensitivity better than 100  nT/sqrt[Hz] within a volume of 3×10^{-7}mm^{3} at room temperature and demonstrate that this contactless method is robust at high temperatures up to at least 500 K. As our approach does not require application of radio-frequency fields, it is scalable to much larger volumes. For an optimized light-trapping waveguide of 3  mm^{3}, the projection noise limit is below 100  fT/sqrt[Hz].

  2. Radio Fiber Fine Structure During the Solar Flare on July 14,2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓春; 王蜀娟

    2004-01-01

    On July 14, 2000, a type IV solar radio burst was observed at 10:43-11:00 UT with the 1-2 GHz digital spectrometer of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Many fiber fine structures superposed on the type IV burst were detected in the same interval. A theoretical interpretation for the fibers is performed based upon a model of magnetic-mirror loop configuration in the solar corona. In this model, the source of the fiber emission is considered as the ducting of whistler solitons within the magnetic-mirror loop. A quantitative estimation using the observed data indicats that the magnetic field strength of the radio source is about 1.451×10-2≤B0≤2.734×10-2 T, and that a fiber is composed of 4×1015 solitons occupying a volume of about 1.2×108 km3. For the duct through which the whistler solitons passed within the magnetic-mirror loop, its diameter and the length are worked out, namely, d≈120 km and Δr≈104 km, respectively.

  3. Propagation of whistler waves driven by fine structured ion beams in the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskaya, T.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In a previous paper, which examined the propagation of low-frequency whistler waves generated by ion beams in the Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL), it was found that whistler waves driven in the PSBL are focused toward the central plasma sheet due to the global magnetotail inhomogeneities; this finding may help explain the observations of magnetic noise bursts in the tail (Burinskaya et al., 1993). In this paper the same phenomenon is examined, but this time a much more realistic model is used for the ion beam in the PSBL. While the PSBL has been modeled as a solid, homogeneous ion beams with a width of one Earth radius, observations and theoretical considerations have shown that PSBL ion beams actually have a decreasing velocity profile toward the plasma sheet and that the density of the beams within the PSBL can vary locally. We consider again the propagation and generation of electromagnetic waves but in the presence of fine structured ion beams in the PSBL. Our results show that whistler waves, generated quasi-parallel to the background magnetic field, can be trapped locally within small spatial regions where the ion beam density is enhanced compared to the density of the adjacent PSBL region. Wave spectra and nonlinear saturation mechanisms are discussed.

  4. FDMX: extended X-ray absorption fine structure calculations using the finite difference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jay D; Chantler, Christopher T; Joly, Yves

    2016-03-01

    A new theoretical approach and computational package, FDMX, for general calculations of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) over an extended energy range within a full-potential model is presented. The final-state photoelectron wavefunction is calculated over an energy-dependent spatial mesh, allowing for a complete representation of all scattering paths. The electronic potentials and corresponding wavefunctions are subject to constraints based on physicality and self-consistency, allowing for accurate absorption cross sections in the near-edge region, while higher-energy results are enabled by the implementation of effective Debye-Waller damping and new implementations of second-order lifetime broadening. These include inelastic photoelectron scattering and, for the first time, plasmon excitation coupling. This is the first full-potential package available that can calculate accurate XAFS spectra across a complete energy range within a single framework and without fitted parameters. Example spectra are provided for elemental Sn, rutile TiO2 and the FeO6 octahedron.

  5. Fine-grained parallelism accelerating for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots based on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Jin, Guoqing

    2014-06-01

    PKNOTS is a most famous benchmark program and has been widely used to predict RNA secondary structure including pseudoknots. It adopts the standard four-dimensional (4D) dynamic programming (DP) method and is the basis of many variants and improved algorithms. Unfortunately, the O(N(6)) computing requirements and complicated data dependency greatly limits the usefulness of PKNOTS package with the explosion in gene database size. In this paper, we present a fine-grained parallel PKNOTS package and prototype system for accelerating RNA folding application based on FPGA chip. We adopted a series of storage optimization strategies to resolve the "Memory Wall" problem. We aggressively exploit parallel computing strategies to improve computational efficiency. We also propose several methods that collectively reduce the storage requirements for FPGA on-chip memory. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first FPGA implementation for accelerating 4D DP problem for RNA folding application including pseudoknots. The experimental results show a factor of more than 50x average speedup over the PKNOTS-1.08 software running on a PC platform with Intel Core2 Q9400 Quad CPU for input RNA sequences. However, the power consumption of our FPGA accelerator is only about 50% of the general-purpose micro-processors.

  6. Possible evidence for a variable fine structure constant from QSO absorption lines motivations, analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Dzuba, V A; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X; Barrow, John D; Wolfe, A M

    2001-01-01

    An experimental search for variation in the fundamental coupling constants is strongly motivated by modern high-energy physics theories. Comparison of quasar absorption line spectra with laboratory spectra provides a sensitive probe for variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, over cosmological time-scales. We have previously developed and applied a new method providing an order of magnitude gain in precision over previous optical astrophysical constraints. Here we extend that work by including new quasar spectra of damped Lyman-alpha absorption systems. We also re-analyse our previous lower redshift data and confirm our initial results. The constraints on alpha come from simultaneous fitting of absorption lines of subsets of the following species: Mg I, Mg II, Al II, Al III, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, Ni II and Zn II. We present a detailed description of our methods and results based on an analysis of 49 quasar absorption systems (towards 28 QSOs) covering the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. There is...

  7. Formation of galaxies in {\\Lambda}CDM cosmologies. I. The fine structure of disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doménech-Moral, Mariola; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Serna, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the global and fine structure of four middle-mass disc galaxies obtained from simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. These objects have photometric D/T ratios in good agreement with those observed for late-type spirals, as well as kinematic properties in agreement with the observational Tully-Fisher relation. We identify the different dynamical components at z=0 on the basis of both orbital parameters and the binding energy of stars in the galaxy. In this way, we recognize a slowly rotating centrally concentrated spheroid, and two disc components supported by rotation: a thin disc with stars in nearly circular orbits, and a thick disc with orbital parameters transitional between the thin disc and the spheroid. The spheroidal component is composed mainly by old, metal-poor and {\\alpha}-enhanced stars. The distribution of metals in this component shows, however, a clear bimodality with a low-metallicity peak, which could be related to a classical bulge, and a high-metallicity ...

  8. Non-linear electrodynamics and the variation of the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbelek, Jean Paul; Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2008-09-01

    It has been claimed that during the late-time history of our Universe, the fine structure constant of electromagnetism, α, has been increasing. The conclusion is achieved after looking at the separation between lines of ions like CIV, MgII, SiII, FeII, among others in the absorption spectra of very distant quasars, and comparing them with their counterparts obtained in the laboratory. However, in the meantime, other teams have claimed either a null result or a decreasing α with respect to the cosmic time. Also, the current precision of laboratory tests does not allow one to either comfort or reject any of these astronomical observations. Here, we suggest that as photons are the sidereal messengers, a non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) description of the interaction of photons with the weak local background magnetic fields of a gas cloud absorber around the emitting quasar can reconcile the Chand et al. and Levshakov et al. findings with the negative variation found by Murphy et al. and Webb et al., and also to find a bridge with the positive variation argued more recently by Levshakov et al. We also show that NLED photon propagation in a vacuum permeated by a background magnetic field presents a full agreement with constraints from Oklo natural reactor data. Finally, we show that NLED may render a null result only in a narrow range of the local background magnetic field which should be the case of both the claims by Chand et al. and by Srianand et al.

  9. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, C.; Ryder, T. B.; Fleischer, R. C.

    2012-04-01

    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission—and perhaps even progressive refinement—of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of genetic and/or cultural isolation of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  10. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  11. The Potamophylax nigricornis group (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: resolution of phylogenetic species by fine structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Applying the phylogenetic species concept and the sexual selection theory we have reviewed some natal aspects of incipient species and their accelerated evolution. How can we recognise early stages of divergence? Which selection pressures are at work during speciation? Which pathways accelerate the speed of speciation? Which kinds of trait variabilities makes difficult to find initial split criteria? Elaborating the principles of Fine Structure Analysis (FSA and the morphological Initial Split Criteria (ISP it was discovered that the European spring dwelling caddisfly Potamophylax nigricornis doesn’tbelong to a single species. It represents an entire species group with seventeen peripatric species evolving on the southernperipheries of the distributional area. Four new species subgroups have been erected: Potamophylax nigricornis new species subgroup, P. elegantulus new species subgroup, P. horgos new species subgroup, P. simas new species subgroup. Eleven new species have been described: Potamophylax apados sp. nov., P. fules sp. nov., P. fureses sp. nov., P. hasas sp. novov., P. horgos sp. nov., P. kethas sp. nov., P. lemezes sp. nov., P. peremes sp. nov., P. simas sp. nov., P. tuskes sp. nov., P. ureges sp. nov. One Potamophylax sp. nov. has been differentiated and three new species status have been documented:Potamophylax elegantulus (Klapálek stat. n., P. mista (Navás stat. nov., P. testaceus (Zetterstedt stat. nov.

  12. Strain-tuning of the excitonic fine structure splitting in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plumhof, Johannes D.; Ding, Fei; Herklotz, Andreas; Doerr, Kathrin; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Krapek, Vlastimil; Klenovsky, Petr [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Joens, Klaus D.; Hafenbrak, Robert; Michler, Peter [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For the creation of polarization entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) it is important to decrease the fine structure splitting (FSS) of the neutral exciton to energies comparable to the emission linewidth. We employ a piezoelectric actuator (PMN-PT) to manipulate the excitonic emission of GaAs/AlGaAs as well as InGaAs/GaAs QDs embedded in {approx}200 nm thick (Al)GaAs membranes. By attaching the membranes on the PMN-PT we can apply anisotropic strain to the nanostructures. Polarization resolved {mu}-photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to estimate the excitonic FSS as well as the orientation of the linear polarization of the emitted light. The strain makes it possible to manipulate the FSS in a range of 70 {mu} eV. We also observe rotations of up to 70 of the linear polarization of the light emitted by neutral excitons. These effects can be explained as an strain-induced anticrossing of the bright excitonic states.

  13. Constraining the Variation in Fine-Structure Constant Using SDSS DR8 QSO Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmani, H; Srianand, R

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust constrain on the possible variation of fine-structure constant, alpha = e^2/(hbar*c), obtained using O III 4959,5007, nebular emission lines from QSOs. We find Delta-alpha/alpha=-(2.1 +/- 1.6) x 10^(-5) based on a well selected sample of 2347 QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 with 0.02 < z < 0.74. Our result is consistent with a non-varying alpha at a level of 2 x 10^(-5) over approximately 7 Gyr. This is the largest sample of extragalactic objects yet used to constrain the variation of alpha. While this constraint is not as stringent as those determined using many-multiplet method it is free from various systematic effects. A factor of ~ 4 improvement in Delta-alpha/alpha achieved here compared to the previous study (Bahcall et al. 2004) is just consistent with what is expected based on a factor of 14 times bigger sample used here. This suggests that errors are mainly dominated by the statistical uncertainty. We also find the ratio of transition probabilities correspo...

  14. Upper Chromospheric Magnetic Field of a Sunspot Penumbra: Observations of Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, J; Solanki, S K; Feller, A; Collados, M; Suárez, D Orozco; Schlichenmaier, R; Franz, M; Balthasar, H; Denker, C; Berkefeld, T; Hofmann, A; Kiess, C; Nicklas, H; Yabar, A Pastor; Rezaei, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    The fine-structure of magnetic field of a sunspot penumbra in the upper chromosphere is to be explored and compared to that in the photosphere. High spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope using the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). The observed spectral domain includes the upper chromospheric He I triplet at 1083.0 nm and the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm spectral lines. The upper chromospheric magnetic field is obtained by inverting the He I triplet assuming a Milne-Eddington type model atmosphere. A height dependent inversion was applied to the Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm lines to obtain the photospheric magnetic field. We find that the inclination of the magnetic field shows variations in the azimuthal direction both in the photosphere, but also in the upper chromosphere. The chromospheric variations remarkably well coincide with the variations in the inclination of the photospheric field and resemble the well-known sp...

  15. Fine structure of the landers fault zone: segmentation and the rupture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Aki, K; Vidale, J E; Lee, W H; Marone, C J

    1994-07-15

    Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

  16. Fine structure of Delia platura (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Ke; Yang, Yan-Zhi; Liu, Mei-Qin; Zhang, Dong

    2014-08-01

    Delia platura (Meigen) is a phytophagous fly that can cause significant crop losses. To obtain a better understanding of the external morphology of this species, adult D. platura is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Organs or structures that are important for taxonomy, such as the compound eyes, spiracles, pulvilli, wings, and genitalia are highlighted to complement previous description based on light microscope. Mesothoracic and metathoracic spiracles of D. platura that provide efficiency in preventing entrance of fine materials or dust into the tracheal system are morphologically different. In addition, the elongate-oval pulvillus is densely covered with tenent setae with spoon-like tip, which can increase the number of contact points for attachment to a surface. Four types of sensilla are observed on the male genitalia of D. platura including: trichoid sensilla, chaetic sensilla, three subtypes of campaniform sensilla, and basiconic sensilla. Long bristles and microtrichiae are observed on the female genitalia of D. platura. The possible function of sensilla located in the genitalia of D. platura is discussed. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:619-630, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Accelerating universe and the time-dependent fine-structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    2010-11-01

    I start with assuming a gravitational scalar field as the dark-energy supposed to be responsible for the accelerating universe. Also from the point of view of unification, a scalar field implies a time-variability of certain “constants” in Nature. In this context I once derived a relation for the time-variability of the fine-structure constant α: Δα/α =ζ Ƶ(α/π) Δσ, where ζ and Ƶ are the constants of the order one, while σ on the right-hand side is the scalar field in action in the accelerating universe. I use the reduced Planckian units with c=ℏ =MP(=(8π G)-1/2)=1. I then compared the dynamics of the accelerating universe, on one hand, and Δα/α derived from the analyses of QSO absorption lines, Oklo phenomenon, also different atomic clocks in the laboratories, on the other hand. I am here going to discuss the theoretical background of the relation, based on the scalar-tensor theory invented first by Jordan in 1955.

  18. Cosmological variation of the fine structure constant from an ultralight scalar field: The effects of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carl L.

    2003-08-01

    Cosmological variation of the fine structure constant α due to the evolution of a spatially homogeneous ultralight scalar field (m˜H0) during the matter and Λ dominated eras is analyzed. Agreement of Δα/α with the value suggested by recent observations of quasar absorption lines is obtained by adjusting a single parameter, the coupling of the scalar field to matter. Asymptotically α(t) in this model goes to a constant value α¯≈α0 in the early radiation and the late Λ dominated eras. The coupling of the scalar field to (nonrelativistic) matter drives α slightly away from α¯ in the epochs when the density of matter is important. Simultaneous agreement with the more restrictive bounds on the variation |Δα/α| from the Oklo natural fission reactor and from meteorite samples can be achieved if the mass of the scalar field is on the order of 0.5 0.6 HΛ, where HΛ=Ω1/2ΛH0. Depending on the scalar field mass, α may be slightly smaller or larger than α0 at the times of big bang nucleosynthesis, the emission of the cosmic microwave background, the formation of early solar system meteorites, and the Oklo reactor. The effects on the evolution of α due to nonzero mass for the scalar field are emphasized. An order of magnitude improvement in the laboratory technique could lead to a detection of (α˙/α)0.

  19. Time variation of the fine structure constant α from realistic models of Oklo reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, C. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Lamoreaux, S. K.

    2006-11-01

    The topic of whether the fundamental constants of nature vary with time has been a subject of great interest since Dirac originally proposed the possibility that GN˜1/tuniverse. Recent observations of absorption spectra lines from distant quasars appeared to indicate a possible increase in the fine structure constant α over ten billion years. Contrarily, analyses of the time evolution of α from Oklo natural nuclear reactor data have yielded inconsistent results, some indicating a decrease over two billion years while others indicated no change. We have used known Oklo reactor epithermal spectral indices as criteria for selecting realistic reactor models. Reactors RZ2 and RZ10 were modeled with MCNP and the resulting neutron spectra were used to calculate the change in the ^149Sm capture cross section as a function of a possible shift in the energy of the 97.3-meV resonance. Our study resolves the contradictory situation with previous Oklo α-results. Our suggested 2 σ bound on a possible time variation of α over two billion years is stringent: -0.11 <=δαα <=0.24, in units of 10-7, but model dependent in that it assumes only α has varied over time.

  20. Bound on the variation in the fine structure constant implied by Oklo data

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdan, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical models of dark energy can imply that the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ varies over cosmological time scales. Data on shifts in resonance energies $E_r$ from the Oklo natural fission reactor have been used to place restrictive bounds on the change in $\\alpha$ over the last 1.8 billion years. We review the uncertainties in these analyses, focussing on corrections to the standard estimate of $k_\\alpha\\!=\\!\\alpha\\,dE_r/d\\alpha$ due to Damour and Dyson. Guided, in part, by the best practice for assessing systematic errors in theoretical estimates spelt out by Dobaczewski et al. [in J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 41, 074001 (2014)], we compute these corrections in a variety of models tuned to reproduce existing nuclear data. Although the net correction is uncertain to within a factor of 2 or 3, it constitutes at most no more than 25% of the Damour-Dyson estimate of $k_\\alpha$. Making similar allowances for the uncertainties in the modeling of the operation of the Oklo reactors, we conclude that the rela...

  1. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure investigation of annealed carbon expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Somers, Marcel A. J.;

    2012-01-01

    Carbon expanded austenite synthesized through carburizing of austenitic stainless steel powder at 380°C was annealed at 470°C and investigated with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and synchrotron powder diffraction (SPD). SPD showed that the samples consisted of carbon expanded...... austenite and Hägg carbide, Ξ-M5C2. EXAFS showed that the Cr atoms were mainly present in environments similar to the carbides Hägg Ξ-M5C2 and M23C6. The environments of the Fe and Ni atoms were concluded to be largely metallic austenite. Light optical micrograph of stainless steel AISI 316 gas......-carburized in a temperature regime around 470°C. The surface zone is converted into carbon expanded austenite; the high interstitial content of carbon dissolved in the surface results in highly favorable materials properties. In the present article the local atomic environment of (annealed) carbon expanded austenite...

  2. Universal Growth Scheme for Quantum Dots with Low Fine-Structure Splitting at Various Emission Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Müller, Tina; Bennett, Anthony J.; Lee, James P.; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Goff, Lucy E.; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient sources of individual pairs of entangled photons are required for quantum networks to operate using fiber-optic infrastructure. Entangled light can be generated by quantum dots (QDs) with naturally small fine-structure splitting (FSS) between exciton eigenstates. Moreover, QDs can be engineered to emit at standard telecom wavelengths. To achieve sufficient signal intensity for applications, QDs have been incorporated into one-dimensional optical microcavities. However, combining these properties in a single device has so far proved elusive. Here, we introduce a growth strategy to realize QDs with small FSS in the conventional telecom band, and within an optical cavity. Our approach employs ``droplet-epitaxy'' of InAs quantum dots on (001) substrates. We show the scheme improves the symmetry of the dots by 72%. Furthermore, our technique is universal, and produces low FSS QDs by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs emitting at ˜900 nm , and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on InP emitting at ˜1550 nm , with mean FSS 4 × smaller than for Stranski-Krastanow QDs.

  3. All-Optical dc Nanotesla Magnetometry Using Silicon Vacancy Fine Structure in Isotopically Purified Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simin, D.; Soltamov, V. A.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Anisimov, A. N.; Babunts, R. A.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Mokhov, E. N.; Trupke, M.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Sperlich, A.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; Astakhov, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    We uncover the fine structure of a silicon vacancy in isotopically purified silicon carbide (4H-28SiC) and reveal not yet considered terms in the spin Hamiltonian, originated from the trigonal pyramidal symmetry of this spin-3 /2 color center. These terms give rise to additional spin transitions, which would be otherwise forbidden, and lead to a level anticrossing in an external magnetic field. We observe a sharp variation of the photoluminescence intensity in the vicinity of this level anticrossing, which can be used for a purely all-optical sensing of the magnetic field. We achieve dc magnetic field sensitivity better than 100 nT /√{Hz } within a volume of 3 ×10-7m m3 at room temperature and demonstrate that this contactless method is robust at high temperatures up to at least 500 K. As our approach does not require application of radio-frequency fields, it is scalable to much larger volumes. For an optimized light-trapping waveguide of 3 mm3 , the projection noise limit is below 100 fT /√{Hz } .

  4. Helical motions of fine-structure prominence threads observed by Hinode and IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Takenori J; Tsuneta, Saku

    2016-01-01

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the \\emph{Hinode} and/or \\emph{IRIS} satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55~km~s$^{-1}$ seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space--time trajectories with a typical period of $\\sim$390~s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90--270~km~s$^{-1}$. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with any eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found...

  5. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, C; Ryder, T B; Fleischer, R C

    2012-04-01

    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission-and perhaps even progressive refinement-of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  6. Variation of the fine structure constant and the electron mass at early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Scóccola, Claudia G

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the study of the variation of the electron mass $m_e$, and the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, at different cosmic times. We analyze the details of the recombination physics, including helium recombination, in order to find the dependences of the physical quantities on the fundamental constants. Using up-to-date CMB data, and the final 2dFGRS power spectrum, we set limits to the possible variation of the constants at recombination. We analyze the variation of $\\alpha$ and $m_e$ independently, and the case in which both variations are allowed, fitting also a set of cosmological parameters. We find a fenomenological relationship between the variation of $\\alpha$ and the variation of $m_e$, between decoupling and present time. We analyze the Barrow-Magueijo fenomenological model, which propose a variation in the electron mass induced by changes in a space-time scalar field. We present improved solutions and we estimate the model parameters using bounds on the variation of the electr...

  7. Excitonic fine structure and binding energies of excitonic complexes in single InAs quantum dashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiński, P.; Zieliński, M.; Świderski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Somers, A.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Höfling, S.; Sek, G.

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental electronic and optical properties of elongated InAs nanostructures embedded in quaternary InGaAlAs barrier are investigated by means of high-resolution optical spectroscopy and many-body atomistic tight-binding theory. These wire-like shaped, self-assembled nanostructures are known as quantum dashes and are typically formed during the molecular beam epitaxial growth on InP substrates. In this paper, we study properties of excitonic complexes confined in quantum dashes emitting in a broad spectral range from below 1.2 to 1.55 μm. We find peculiar trends for the biexciton and negative trion binding energies, with pronounced trion binding in smaller size quantum dashes. These experimental findings are then compared and qualitatively explained by atomistic theory. The theoretical analysis shows a fundamental role of correlation effects for the absolute values of excitonic binding energies. Eventually, we determine the bright exciton fine structure splitting (FSS), where both the experiment and theory predict a broad distribution of the splitting varying from below 50 to almost 180 μeV. We identify several key factors determining the FSS values in such nanostructures, including quantum dash size variation and composition fluctuations.

  8. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    Various II-VI semiconducting nanomaterials such as ZnO-ZnS nanoribbons (NRs), CdSxSe1-x nanostructures, ZnS:Mn NRs, ZnS:Mn,Eu nanoprsims (NPs), ZnO:Mn nanopowders, and ZnO:Co nanopowders were synthesized for study. These materials were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, element dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electronic and optical properties of these nanomaterials were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) techniques, using tuneable soft X-rays from a synchrotron light source. The complementary nature ofthe XAFS and XEOL techniques give site, element and chemical specific measurements which allow a better understanding of the interplay and role of each element in the system. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of ZnS powder in a limited oxygen environment resulted in side-by-side biaxial ZnO-ZnS NR heterostructures. The resulting NRs contained distinct wurtzite ZnS and wurtzite ZnO components with widths of 10--100 nm and 20 --500 nm, respectively and a uniform interface region of 5-15 nm. XAFS and XEOL measurements revealed the luminescence of ZnO-ZnS NRs is from the ZnO component. The luminescence of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures is shown to be dependent on the S to Se ratio, with the band-gap emission being tunable between that of pure CdS and CdSe. Excitation of the CdSxSe 1-x nanostructures by X-ray in XEOL has revealed new de-excitation channels which show a defect emission band not seen by laser excitation. CVD of Mn2+ doped ZnS results in nanostructures with luminescence dominated by the yellow Mn2+ emission due to energy transfer from the ZnS host to the Mn dopant sites. The addition of EuCl3 to the reactants in the CVD process results in a change in morphology from NR to NP. Zn1-xMnxO and Zn1-xCOxO nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel methods at dopant concentrations

  9. Measuring the Variations of the Apparent Settling Velocity for Fine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This note establishes the fact that the settling velocity for fine flocculent particles in flowing aquatic systems vary considerably and the settling velocity should therefore be understood as a variable which varies temporally and spatially in the flow field. In the mathematical formulation...

  10. Precise limits on cosmological variability of the fine-structure constant with zinc and chromium quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Michael T; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The strongest transitions of Zn and CrII are the most sensitive to relative variations in the fine-structure constant ($\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$) among the transitions commonly observed in quasar absorption spectra. They also lie within just 40 \\AA\\ of each other (rest frame), so they are resistant to the main systematic error affecting most previous measurements of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$: long-range distortions of the wavelength calibration. While Zn and CrII absorption is normally very weak in quasar spectra, we obtained high signal-to-noise, high-resolution echelle spectra from the Keck and Very Large Telescopes of 9 rare systems where it is strong enough to constrain $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ from these species alone. These provide 12 independent measurements (3 quasars were observed with both telescopes) at redshifts 1.0--2.4, 11 of which pass stringent reliability criteria. These 11 are all consistent with $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=0$ within their individual uncertainties of 3.5--13 parts per million (ppm), with a we...

  11. Symmetry Breaking and Fine Structure Splitting in Zincblende Quantum Dots: Atomistic Simulations of Long-Range Strain and Piezoelectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shaikh; Usman, Muhammad; Heitzinger, Clemens; Rahman, Rajib; Schliwa, Andrei; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2007-04-01

    Electrons and holes captured in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are subject to symmetry breaking that cannot be represented in with continuum material representations. Atomistic calculations reveal symmetry lowering due to effects of strain and piezo-electric fields. These effects are fundamentally based on the crystal topology in the quantum dots. This work studies these two competing effects and demonstrates the fine structure splitting that has been demonstrated experimentally can be attributed to the underlying atomistic structure of the quantum dots.

  12. Retrieval of Aerosol Fine-Mode Fraction from Intensity and Polarization Measurements by PARASOL over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fine-mode fraction (FMF of aerosol optical depth (AOD is a key optical parameter that represents the proportion of fine particles relative to total aerosols in the atmosphere. However, in comparison to ground-based measurements, the FMF is still difficult to retrieve from satellite observations, as attempted by a Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS algorithm. In this paper, we introduce the retrieval of FMF based on Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL data. This method takes advantage of the coincident multi-angle intensity and polarization measurements from a single satellite platform. In our method, we use intensity measurements to retrieve the total AOD and polarization measurements to retrieve the fine-mode AOD. The FMF is then calculated as the ratio of the retrieved fine-mode AOD to the total AOD. The important processes in our method include the estimation of the surface intensity and polarized reflectance by using two semi-empirical models, and the building of two sets of aerosol retrieval lookup tables for the intensity and polarized measurements via the 6SV radiative transfer code. We apply this method to East Asia, and comparisons of the retrieved FMFs for the Beijing, Xianghe and Seoul_SNU sites with those of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ground-based observations produce correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.838, 0.818, and 0.877, respectively. However, the comparison results are relatively poor (R2 = 0.537 in low-AOD areas, such as the Osaka site, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of the satellite observations.

  13. Emissions and measure analysis of fine particles 2000-2020; Emissionen und Massnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerss, Wolfram; Handke, Volker [Institut fuer Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung gGmbH (IZT), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    With this study, the Federal Environmental Agency's emission inventory on total suspended particles and the fine fractions PM{sub 1}0 and PM{sub 2}.5 was updated. On that basis, a reference scenario was developed for anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter up to the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. In addition, potential additional emission reduction measures were systematically collected and quantified. At the source groups which contribute most strongly to the emissions there are clear differences between the fine fractions and in the course of time. In particular, with the total fine the emission freight is very broadly distributed over many source groups. With PM{sub 2}.5, the emissions are more strongly concentrated on a limited number of source groups. The decrease of the emissions in the years between 2000 and 2020 in the reference scenario takes place in source groups with high portions of PM{sub 2}.5 of the emissions of total fine particles.

  14. Global Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations and Trends Inferred from Satellite Observations, Modeling, and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Boys, Brian; Philip, Sajeev; Lee, Colin; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal

    2014-05-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmentally-related cause of premature mortality worldwide. However, ground-level PM2.5 monitors remain sparse in many regions of the world. Satellite remote sensing from MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS yields a powerful global data source to address this issue. Global modeling (GEOS-Chem) plays a critical role in relating these observations to ground-level concentrations. The resultant satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 indicate dramatic variation around the world, with implications for global public health. A new ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances in combining satellite remote sensing, global modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of global population exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

  15. MEASURING AND MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BEARING PAD MADE OF PLASTIC MATRIX AND FINE BRONZE ELASTIC SPRINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the normal PTFE plastic and strengthened PTFE plastic for bearing pad are measured. The mechanical properties of the composite material for bearing pad, which is made of the aforementioned plastics as matrix reinforced by fine bronze elastic springs, are modeled and relaxation modulus of the material are presented. The difference between these two kinds of PTFE is studied. The results show that the complex modulus of PTFE plastics for bearing pad is higher than that of normal PTFE plastics.

  16. A unified description for dipoles of the fine-structure constant and SnIa Hubble diagram in Finslerian universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Chang, Zhe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    We propose a Finsler spacetime scenario of the anisotropic universe. The Finslerian universe requires both the fine-structure constant and the accelerating cosmic expansion to have a dipole structure and the directions of these two dipoles to be the same. Our numerical results show that the dipole direction of the SnIa Hubble diagram locates at (l,b) = (314.6 {sup circle} ± 20.3 {sup circle},-11.5 {sup circle} ± 12.1 {sup circle}) with magnitude B = (-3.60 ± 1.66) x 10{sup -2}. The dipole direction of the fine-structure constant locates at (l,b) = (333.2 {sup circle} ± 8.8 {sup circle},-12.7 {sup circle} ± 6.3 {sup circle}) with magnitude B = (0.97 ± 0.21) x 10{sup -5}. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is about 18.2 {sup circle}. (orig.)

  17. A unified description for dipoles of the fine-structure constant and SnIa Hubble diagram in Finslerian universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Finsler spacetime scenario of the anisotropic universe. The Finslerian universe requires both the fine-structure constant and accelerating cosmic expansion have dipole structure, and the directions of these two dipoles are the same. Our numerical results show that the dipole direction of SnIa Hubble diagram locates at $(l,b)=(314.6^\\circ\\pm20.3^\\circ,-11.5^\\circ\\pm12.1^\\circ)$ with magnitude $B=(-3.60\\pm1.66)\\times10^{-2}$. And the dipole direction of the fine-structure constant locates at $(l,b)=(333.2^\\circ\\pm8.8^\\circ,-12.7^\\circ\\pm6.3^\\circ)$ with magnitude $B=(0.97\\pm0.21)\\times10^{-5}$. The angular separation between the two dipole directions is about $18.2^\\circ$.

  18. Modeling of 1—D Lossy Fine Structures Using Transformed—Space Non—Uniform PSTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQingliang; CHENYinchao

    2003-01-01

    Although the advantages of the pseu-dospectral time domain (PSTD) has been validated in di-verse applications of electromagnetic problems based on a uniform grid, it faces a difficulty when an electromagnetic structure involves highly conductivity due to the Gibbs phenomena. In addition, its efficiency will be greatly re-duced in solving a problem with fine structure, since a denser grid is needed. In this paper, we apply a newly de-veloped transformed-space non-uniform grid PSTD tech-nique (TSNU-PSTD) to handle an application with very fine structure. By using a quadratic interpolation, we transform an non-unlform grid into a uniform one, and then we simply implement the conventional PSTD by only utilizing the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) to de-rive PSTD update equations.

  19. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  20. Flaring loop parameters estimated from solar decimeter type U-like and type J-like fine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco C. R.; Dutra, José Augusto S. S.; Cunha da Silva, Rafael D.; Sawant, Hanumant S.

    2012-06-01

    This work presents the analysis of five fine structures in the solar radio emission, observed between June 2000 and October 2001 by the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), in the decimeter frequency band of 950-2500 MHz. Based on their morphological characteristics identified in the dynamic spectra, the fine structures had been classified as type U-like or type J-like bursts. Such emissions are variants of the type III bursts. They support the hypothesis of generation by plasma emission mechanism, from interaction of electron beams accelerated during solar flares, propagating along closed magnetic structures, within the trapped plasma of the solar corona. The spectral and temporal characteristics of the five fine structures had been obtained from the dynamic spectra and the parameters of the agent and the emitting source have been determined, assuming both fundamental and harmonic emissions. The analysis revealed the flux density of the structures is less than 20-80 s.f.u. For assumption of harmonic emission, the interval of values for the source parameters estimated are: the loop size is (0.3-5.1) × 1010 cm; the electron beam velocity is in the range of 0.16-0.53 c; the temperature of coronal loop top is of the order of (0.25-1.55) × 107 K; and the low limit for the magnetic field is of 7-26 G. These results are in agreement with previous determinations reported in the literature.