WorldWideScience

Sample records for fine particulate matter

  1. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  3. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  4. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  5. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  7. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  8. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  9. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  10. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  12. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  13. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... otherwise protected. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

  14. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure t...

  15. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  16. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007, concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August and warm (September to February seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41% than in the warm season (44 ± 18%. On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3 for fine particulate matter.

  17. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  18. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  19. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM 2.5 (particles levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM 2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM 2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  20. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  1. Artificial neural network forecast application for fine particulate matter concentration using meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Memarianfard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most parts of the urban areas are faced with the problem of floating fine particulate matter. Therefore, it is crucial to estimate the amounts of fine particulate matter concentrations through the urban atmosphere. In this research, an artificial neural network technique was utilized to model the PM2.5 dispersion in Tehran City. Factors which are influencing the predicted value consist of weather-related and air pollution-related data, i.e. wind speed, humidity, temperature, SO2, CO, NO2, and PM2.5 as target values. These factors have been considered in 19 measuring stations (zones over urban area across Tehran City during four years, from March 2011 to March 2015. The results indicate that the network with hidden layer including six neurons at training epoch 113, has the best performance with the lowest error value (MSE=0.049438 on considering PM2.5 concentrations across metropolitan areas in Tehran. Furthermore, the “R” value for regression analysis of training, validation, test, and all data are 0.65898, 0.6419, 0.54027, and 0.62331, respectively. This study also represents the artificial neural networks have satisfactory implemented for resolving complex patterns in the field of air pollution.

  2. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  3. Source contributions of fine particulate matter during one winter haze episodes in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term exposure to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is found to be associated with adverse effects on human health, ecological environment and climate change. Identification the major source regions of fine particulate matter are essential to proposing proper joint prevention and control strategies for heavy haze mitigation. In this work, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) and the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF), have been applied to analyze the major source regions of PM2.5 in Xi'an during the heavy haze episodes in winter (29, December, 2016 - 5 January 2017), and the framework of the model system is shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, according to the model evaluation of the daily PM2.5 concentrations for the two months, the model has well performance, and the fraction of predictions within a factor of 2 of the observations (FAC2) is 84%, while the correlation coefficient (R) is 0.80 in Xi'an. By using the PSAT in CAMx model, a detailed source region contribution matrix is derived for all points within the Xi'an region and its six surrounding areas, and long-range regional transport. The results show that the local emission in Xi'an is the mainly sources at downtown area, which contributing 72.9% as shown in Fig.2, and the contribution rate of transportations between adjacent areas depends on wind direction. Meanwhile, three different suburban areas selected for detailed analysis in fine particles sources. Comparing to downtown area, the sources of suburban areas are more multiply, and the transportations make the contribution 40%-82%. In the suburban areas, regional inflows play an important role in the fine particles concentrations, indicating a strong need for regional joint emission control efforts. The results enhance the quantitative understanding of the PM2.5 source regions and provide a basis for policymaking to advance the control of pollution

  4. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee-Loon; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Tee, Ming-Hui; Tan, Nicholas; Hemond, Harold F

    2018-01-18

    Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  5. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Loon Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  6. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  7. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  8. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM 2.5 ) than coarse particles (PM >2.5 ), and the major trace elements identified in the PM 2.5 included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM 2.5 . Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM 2.5 were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM 2.5 of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM 2.5 was 1.57 × 10 −4 , which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10 −6 . Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM 2.5 , the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10 −4 and 3.89 × 10 −5 , respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM 2.5 . • Charcoal combustion and indoor activities were the

  9. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan, E-mail: bpekey@kocaeli.edu.tr; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-06-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) than coarse particles (PM{sub >2.5}), and the major trace elements identified in the PM{sub 2.5} included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM{sub 2.5}. Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM{sub 2.5} were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM{sub 2.5} of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM{sub 2.5} was 1.57 × 10{sup −4}, which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −6}. Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM{sub 2.5}, the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10{sup −4} and 3.89 × 10{sup −5}, respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM{sub 2.5}.

  10. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  11. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5 and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088; lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113; lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092; lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088 and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106. The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes.

  12. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Hertel, Ole; Chawes, Bo L K; Vissing, Nadja; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM(2.5) and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. The concentration of PM(2.5) was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM(2.5) concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM(2.5) concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  14. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  15. Health effects of fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment: findings from the Basel Guidance Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Evans, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered to be one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the global human disease burden. However, due to the lack of broad consensus and harmonization in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, there is no clear guidance on ho...

  16. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelly L; Facciola, Nick A; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055-0.1 μm) and fine (0.1-0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design.

  17. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  18. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  19. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10 and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  20. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  1. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Using Complementary Experimental Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Hamdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate matter (PM pollutants were sampled from an urban background site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The fine fraction (PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm was collected on 47-mm Teflon filters and analyzed using a combined set of non-destructive techniques in order to provide better understanding of the sources of pollutants and their interaction during transport in the atmosphere. These techniques included gravimetric analysis, equivalent black carbon (EBC, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Generally, the PM2.5 concentrations are within the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States (US Environmental Protection Agency. The EBC content is in the range of 10–12% of the total PM concentration (2–4 µg m−3, while S (as ammonium sulfate, Ca (as calcite, gypsum, and calcium carbonate, Si (as quartz, Fe, and Al were the major sources of PM pollution. EBC, ammonium sulfate, Zn, V, and Mn originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning, traffic, and industrial emissions. Natural elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and Ti are due to natural sources such as crustal materials (enhanced during dust episodes and sea salts. The average contribution of natural sources in the total PM2.5 mass concentration over the sampling period is about 40%, and the contribution of the secondary inorganic compounds is about 27% (mainly ammonium sulfate in our case. The remaining 22% is assumed to be secondary organic compounds.

  2. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  3. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Clarke, Philippa

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how exposures in the residential environment relate to cognitive function in older adults. The goal of this study is to determine if neighborhood-level exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with cognitive function in a diverse, national sample of older U.S. adults. We use cross-sectional data on non-Hispanic black and white men and women aged 55 and older from the 2001/2002 Americans' Changing Lives Study (N = 780). EPA air monitoring data were linked to respondents using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was assessed with tests of working memory and orientation. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and the number of errors on the cognitive assessment. Older adults living in areas with high concentrations of PM2.5 had an error rate 1.5 times greater than those exposed to lower concentrations, net of individual and neighborhood-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. This study adds to a growing body of research demonstrating the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improvements to air quality may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. An update on mortality in Denmark caused by fine particulate matter air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Brandt, Jørgen

    Introduction In terms of effects on mortality fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered the most important component of air polllution. Several international studies have investigated the effect size. It is estimated that overall mortality increases 6% per 10µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.......5 and that PM2.5 affects global mortality signficantly (Hoek, 2013). The first attempt to describe the size of the effects of PM2.5 in Denmark were published in 2002 (Raaschou-Nielsen, 2002). At that time only PM10 data were available and only with a great deal of uncertainty. Since then the knowledge of PM2...... to what extent the changes in estimates of mortality from PM2.5 exposure over the years is due to changes in population and in pollution and to what extent they are due to improved models. Methods Several methods of calculation were compared for the year 2012. First the method used in 2002 in which...

  5. Estimation of Fine Particulate Matter in Taipei Using Landuse Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS, the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan from 2005–2007.

  6. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  7. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  8. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  9. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  10. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  11. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  12. Characteristics and oxidative stress on rats and traffic policemen of ambient fine particulate matter from Shenyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingyue; Li, Shuyin; Jin, Huanrong; Zhang, Yumin; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dongmei; Kuimin, Chen; Yuan, Zhou; Xiao, Chunling

    2015-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is becoming serious in China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on DNA damage in Shenyang city. The concentration and composition of PM2.5 in traffic policemen's working sites including fields and indoor offices were obtained. Blood samples of field and office policemen were collected to detect DNA damage by Comet assay. Rats were used to further analyzing the oxidative DNA damage. The average concentration of PM2.5 in exposed group was significantly higher than that in control group. Composition analysis revealed that toxic heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substances were main elements of this PM2.5. DNA damage in field policemen was significantly higher than those in non-field group. Moreover, animal studies confirmed the oxidative DNA damage induced by PM2.5. Taken together, high DNA damages are found in the Shenyang traffic policemen and rats exposed to high level of airborne PM2.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  14. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory protection, individual differences in sensitivity to WTC PM2

  15. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  16. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  17. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  18. Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Malig, Brian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    The stillbirth rate in the United States is relatively high, but limited evidence is available linking stillbirth with fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), its chemical constituents and sources. In this study, we explored associations between cause-specific stillbirth and prenatal exposures to those pollutants with using live birth and stillbirth records from eight California locations during 2002-2009. ICD-10 codes were used to identify cause of stillbirth from stillbirth records. PM 2.5 total mass and chemical constituents were collected from ambient monitors and PM 2.5 sources were quantified using Positive Matrix Factorization. Conditional logistic regression was applied using a nested case-control study design (N = 32,262). We found that different causes of stillbirth were associated with different PM 2.5 sources and/or chemical constituents. For stillbirths due to fetal growth, the odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range increase in gestational age-adjusted exposure to PM 2.5 total mass was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.44). Similar associations were found with resuspended soil (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.42), and secondary ammonium sulfate (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78). No associations were found between any pollutants and stillbirths caused by maternal complications. This study highlighted the importance of investigating cause-specific stillbirth and the differential toxicity levels of specific PM 2.5 sources and chemical constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in the neurotoxicity of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hongying; Feng, Yan; Liang, Fan; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Ren; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative stress-mediated neurocytotoxicity and DNA hydroxymethylation abnormalities involved in neuronal pathology of PM 2.5 . • PM 2.5 particles and toxic compounds adsorbed on the particle caused different types of neurocytotoxicity. • DNA hydroxymethylation abnormalities participated in PM 2.5 -induced impairments in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies have implicated fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the influences of different components remain largely elusive. Here, we extended our previous work to investigate the role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal pathology of PM 2.5 . We found PM 2.5 and its extracts (water-soluble extracts, organic extracts and carbon core component) differentially caused cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and the cell proliferation inhibition in neuronal cells. These effects were mechanistically related to each other and oxidative stress, suggesting PM 2.5 and toxic compounds adsorbed on the particles may cause different types of brain damages. In addition, PM 2.5 and its organic extracts increased global DNA hydroxymethylation and gene-specific DNA hydroxymethylation of neuronal genes, and subsequently interfered with their mRNA expression. The impairments in neuronal progression characterized with decreased length of neurite and reduced mRNA expression of neuronal markers and synaptic markers. The blocking effects of antioxidants demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress-mediated hydroxymethylation abnormalities in PM 2.5 -induced defects in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Our results first revealed the role of oxidative stress-mediated abnormal DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal impairments of PM 2.5 , and thoroughly evaluated the neurocytotoxicity of different components.

  20. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  1. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; hide

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  2. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001-2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007-2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01-1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99-1.14). This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains.

  4. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  5. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  6. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  7. Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among Older US Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large...

  8. Long-term exposure to residential ambient fine and coarse particulate matter and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Eliot, Melissa N; Eaton, Charles B; Whitsel, Eric; Stewart, James D; Mu, Lina; Suh, Helen; Szpiro, Adam; Kaufman, Joel D; Vedal, Sverre; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM 2.5 ), respirable (PM 10 ), and course (PM 10-2.5 ) fractions of particulate matter among 44,255 post-menopausal women free of hypertension enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between long-term average residential pollutant concentrations and incident hypertension, adjusting for potential confounding by sociodemographic factors, medical history, neighborhood socioeconomic measures, WHI study clinical site, clinical trial, and randomization arm. During 298,383 person-years of follow-up, 14,511 participants developed incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratios per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM 10-2.5 were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17), 1.06 (1.03, 1.10), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.04), respectively. Statistically significant concentration-response relationships were identified for PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. The association between PM 2.5 and hypertension was more pronounced among non-white participants and those residing in the Northeastern United States. In this cohort of post-menopausal women, ambient fine and respirable particulate matter exposures were associated with higher incidence rates of hypertension. These results suggest that particulate matter may be an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, H.; Ying, Q.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few decades, China have been facing extreme particulate matter (PM) pollution problems due to the combination of fast increase of population, industrialization, urbanization and associated energy consumption and lagging of sufficient emission control measures. Studies have identified the major components of fine PM (PM2.5) in China include primary PM (which is directly emitted into the atmosphere), sulfate and nitrate (which are mainly secondary PM, i.e., formed from gaseous precursors), and organic aerosols (which can be primary or secondary). Contributions of different source sectors to the different PM components are substantially different; therefore source apportionment of these components can provide critical information needed for policy makers to design effective emission control strategies. In the current study, a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that directly tracks the contributions from multiple emission sources to primary and secondary PM2.5 is developed, and then applied to determine the regional contributions of power, industry, transportation and residential sectors to primary PM, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in China. Four months in 2012-2013 are simulated to predict the seasonal variations of source contributions. Model predictions are evaluated with ambient measured concentrations. The source-oriented CMAQ model is capable of reproducing most of the available PM10 and PM2.5 mass, and PM2.5 EC, POC, nitrate and sulfate observations. Predicted source contributions for EC also generally agree with to the source contributions estimated by receptor models reported in previous studies. Model predictions suggest residential is a major contributor to primary PM (30-70%) in the spring and winter, and industrial contributes 40-60% of primary PM in the summer and fall; Transportation is an important source for EC (20-30%); Power sector is the dominating source of nitrate and sulfate in both

  10. Impact of Agricultural Emission Reductions on Fine Particulate Matter and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Tsimpidi, A.; Karydis, V.; De Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2017-12-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, South and East Asia. Hypothetical reduction of agricultural emission of 50%, 66% and 100% have been simulated and compared with the reference simulation. The simulations results reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, and this effect can almost be exclusively explain by the reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions, released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases, although the relative reduction is very low (below 13% for a full removal of agricultural emissions) . Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically and an ammonia limited regions of aerosol growth is reached. Further, our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It is calculated that ammonia emission controls could reduce the particle pH up to 1.5 pH-units in East Asia during winter, and more than 1.7 pH-units in South Asia, theoretically assuming complete agricultural emission removal, which could have repercussions for the reactive uptake of gases from the gas phase and the outgassing of relative weak acids. It is finally shown that a 50% reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30%, 19% , 8% and 3% over North America, Europe and South Asia and East Asia, respectively

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Risk of Community-Acquired Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Elisa J; Moore, Justin Xavier; McClure, Leslie A; Griffin, Russell; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Wang, Henry E

    2018-04-21

    While air pollution has been associated with health complications, its effect on sepsis risk is unknown. We examined the association between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution and risk of sepsis hospitalization. We analyzed data from the 30,239 community-dwelling adults in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort linked with satellite-derived measures of PM 2.5 data. We defined sepsis as a hospital admission for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) criteria. We performed incidence density sampling to match sepsis cases with 4 controls by age (±5 years), sex, and race. For each matched group we calculated mean daily PM 2.5 exposures for short-term (30-day) and long-term (one-year) periods preceding the sepsis event. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between PM 2.5 exposure and sepsis, adjusting for education, income, region, temperature, urbanicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and medical conditions. We matched 1386 sepsis cases with 5544 non-sepsis controls. Mean 30-day PM 2.5 exposure levels (Cases 12.44 vs. Controls 12.34 µg/m³; p = 0.28) and mean one-year PM 2.5 exposure levels (Cases 12.53 vs. Controls 12.50 µg/m³; p = 0.66) were similar between cases and controls. In adjusted models, there were no associations between 30-day PM 2.5 exposure levels and sepsis (4th vs. 1st quartiles OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85⁻1.32). Similarly, there were no associations between one-year PM 2.5 exposure levels and sepsis risk (4th vs. 1st quartiles OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78⁻1.18). In the REGARDS cohort, PM 2.5 air pollution exposure was not associated with risk of sepsis.

  12. Airborne fine particulate matter induces an upregulation of endothelin receptors on rat bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rong; Xiao, Xue; Cao, Lei; Shen, Zhen-xing; Lei, Ying; Cao, Yong-xiao

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the effects of PM2.5 on bronchi. The present study investigated the effect of airborne PM2.5 on rat bronchi and the underlying mechanisms. Isolated rat bronchial segments were cultured for 24 h. Endothelin (ET) receptor-mediated contractile responses were recorded using a wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ET receptors were studied using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that ET A and ET B receptor agonists induced remarkable contractile responses on fresh and cultured bronchial segments. PM2.5 (1.0 or 3.0 μg/ml) significantly enhanced ET A and ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses in bronchi with a markedly increased maximal contraction compared to the DMSO or fresh groups. PM2.5 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of ET A and ET B receptors. U0126 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) significantly suppressed PM2.5-induced increases in ET B receptor-mediated contractile responses, mRNA and protein levels. SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 significantly abrogated the PM2.5-induced enhancement of ET A receptor-mediated contraction and receptor expression. In conclusion, PM2.5 upregulates ET receptors in bronchi. ET B receptor upregulation is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways, and the upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. - Highlights: • Airborne PM2.5 induces bronchial hyperreactivity mediated with endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in rats. • PM2.5 increases mRNA and protein expressions of endothelin ET B and ET A receptors in bronchi. • The upregulation of ET B receptor is associated with MEK1/2 and p38 pathways. • The upregulation of ET A receptor is involved in JNK and p38 pathways. • The research provides novel understanding for PM2.5-associated respiratory diseases.

  13. Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Leads to Rapid Heart Rate Variability Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Riediker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart Rate Variability (HRV reflects the adaptability of the heart to internal and external stimuli. Reduced HRV is a predictor of post-infarction mortality. We previously found in road maintenance workers HRV-increases several hours after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5. This seemed to conflict with studies where PM-exposure acutely reduced HRV. We therefore assessed whether time from exposure to HRV-assessment could explain the differences observed.Methods: On five non-consecutive days, workers carried nephelometers providing 1-min-interval PM2.5-exposure. Five-min HRV-intervals of SDNN (Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal beat intervals and pNN50 (Percentage of the interval differences exceeding 50 ms were extracted from 24-h electrocardiograms (ECGs. Following 60 min PM2.5-exposure, changes in HRV-parameters were assessed during 120-min visually and by regression analysis with control for time at work, at home, and during the night using autoregressive integrating moving average (ARIMA models to account for autocorrelation of the time-series. Additional controls included changing the time windows and including body mass index (BMI and age in the models.Result: Pattern analysis of 12,669 data points showed high modulation of mean, standard deviation (SD, and time trend of HRV (SDNN and pNN50 at low, and much reduced modulation at high PM2.5-exposures. The time trend following exposure was highly symmetrical, resembling a funnel plot. Regression analysis showed significant associations of decreasing SDNN and pNN50 (average, SD, and absolute value of time trend with increasing PM2.5-exposure, which remained significant when controlling for activity phases. Changing time windows did not change the pattern of response. Including BMI and age did not change the results.Conclusions: The reduced modulation of HRV following PM2.5-exposure is striking. It suggests strong interference with homeostatic controls. Such an

  14. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  15. Temporal variations of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chris C; Thurston, George D; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Khoder, Mamdouh; Mohorjy, Abdullah M; Alkhalaf, Abdulrahman K; Brocato, Jason; Chen, Lung Chi; Costa, Max

    2018-02-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (aerodynamic diameter Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over 1 yr, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM 2.5 (21.9 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (107.8 μg/m 3 ) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM 2.5 (10 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (20 μg/m 3 ), respectively. Similar to other Middle Eastern locales, PM 2.5-10 is the prevailing mass component of atmospheric particulate matter at Jeddah, accounting for approximately 80% of the PM 10 mass. Considerations of enrichment factors, absolute principal component analysis (APCA), concentration roses, and backward trajectories identified the following source categories for both PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 : (1) soil/road dust, (2) incineration, and (3) traffic; and for PM 2.5 only, (4) residual oil burning. Soil/road dust accounted for a major portion of both the PM 2.5 (27%) and PM 2.5-10 (77%) mass, and the largest source contributor for PM 2.5 was from residual oil burning (63%). Temporal variations of PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 were observed, with the elevated concentration levels observed for mass during the spring (due to increased dust storm frequency) and on weekdays (due to increased traffic). The predominant role of windblown soil and road dust in both the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 masses in this city may have implications regarding the toxicity of these particles versus those in the Western world where most PM health assessments have been made in the past. These results support the need for region-specific epidemiological investigations to be conducted and considered in future PM standard setting. Temporal variations of fine and coarse PM mass, elemental constituents, and sources were examined in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the first time. The main source

  16. Regulatory T Cells Protect Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-cai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T cells (Tregs in protecting fine particulate matter (PM- induced inflammatory responses, and its potential mechanisms. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with graded concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/cm2 of suspension of fine particles for 24h. For coculture experiment, HUVECs were incubated alone, with CD4+CD25− T cells (Teff, or with Tregs in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies for 48 hours, and then were stimulated with or without suspension of fine particles for 24 hours. The expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was examined. Results. Adhesion molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL- 6 and IL-8, were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 to endothelial cells was increased and NF-κB activity was upregulated in HUVECs after treatment with fine particles. However, after Tregs treatment, fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation were significantly alleviated. Transwell experiments showed that Treg-mediated suppression of HUVECs inflammatory responses impaired by fine particles required cell contact and soluble factors. Conclusions. Tregs could attenuate fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation in HUVECs.

  17. The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and schizophrenia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-04-23

    Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM 2.5 concentrations and scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) of schizophrenia patients at admission, with a lag of up to 7 days. During the study period, there were 1193 schizophrenia cases. The odds ratio (OR) for a BPRS score ≥ 50 at admission was 1.05 [95% confidence interval 1.00-1.10] and the effect of PM 2.5 concentration was significant for lag period of 2 days. The ORs associated with PM 2.5 concentration increased substantially for patients over 65 years of age. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was associated with exacerbation of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that protection for several days should be considered for controlling PM 2.5 -related schizophrenia, especially among elderly patients.

  18. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  19. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  20. Emissions from residential energy use dominate exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibear, L.; Butt, E. W.; Knote, C. J.; Arnold, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of disease burden in India. Information on the source contributions to the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure is critical to support the national and sub-national control of air pollution. Previous studies analysing the contributions of different emission sectors to disease burden in India have been limited by coarse model resolutions and a lack of extensive PM2.5 observations before 2016. We use a regional numerical weather prediction model online-coupled with chemistry, evaluated against extensive surface observations, to make the first high resolution study of the contributions of seven emission sectors to the disease burden associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. We find that residential energy use is the dominant contributing emission sector. Removing air pollution emissions from residential energy use would reduce population-weighted annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 52%, reducing the number of premature mortalities caused by exposure to ambient PM2.5 by 26%, equivalent to 268,000 (95% uncertainty interval (95UI): 167,000-360,000) lives every year. The smaller fractional reduction in mortality burden is due to the non-linear exposure-response relationship at the high PM2.5 concentrations observed across India and consequently large reductions in emissions are required to reduce the health burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Keywords: ambient air quality, India, residential energy use, health impact, particulate matter, WRF-Chem

  1. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits. PMID:29584626

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Nie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF, stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD, lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  3. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Wu, Yun; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-03-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM 2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM 2.5 , and mortality benefits due to PM 2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM 2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM 2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM 2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM 2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m³, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 1000 W/m2 solar radiation intensity. 7.4.8.2 The ambient temperature sensor shall be of such a... measurement of the mass concentration of fine particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than or... matter specified in § 50.7 and § 50.13 of this part are met. The measurement process is considered to be...

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  6. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  7. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  8. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-08-15

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large, nationally representative sample of US adults aged 50 years or older. We linked participant data with 2000 US Census tract data and 2004 census tract-level annual average PM2.5 concentrations. Older adults living in areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations had worse cognitive function (β = -0.26, 95% confidence interval: -0.47, -0.05) even after adjustment for community- and individual-level social and economic characteristics. Results suggest that the association is strongest for the episodic memory component of cognitive function. This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  10. Ambient fine particulate matter in China: Its negative impacts and possible countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zihan; Chen, Tingjia; Chen, Jiang; Qi, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced rapid economic development accompanied by increasing concentrations of ambient PM 2.5 , particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter. PM 2.5 is now believed to be a carcinogen, causing higher lung cancer risks and generating losses to the economy and society. This meta-analysis evaluates the losses generated by ambient PM 2.5 in Suzhou from 2014 to 2016 and predicts losses at different concentrations. Estimations of total losses in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Dalian, and Xiamen are also presented, with a total national loss in 2015. The authors then demonstrate that lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be a realistic way for China to reduce the evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures are listed for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. The present findings quantify the economic effects of ambient PM 2.5 due to the increased incidence rate and mortality rate of lung cancer. Lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be the most realistic way for China to reduce tghe evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations to reduce the total losses are identified.

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  12. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  13. Pregnancy and Lifetime Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Infant Mortality in Massachusetts, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have found associations between particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and adult mortality. Comparatively few studies evaluated particles and infant mortality, although infants and children are particularly vulnerable to pollution. Moreover, existing studies mostly focused on short-term exposure to larger particles. We investigated PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and lifetime and postneonatal infant mortality. The study included 465,682 births with 385 deaths in Massachusetts (2001-2007). Exposures were estimated from PM2.5-prediction models based on satellite imagery. We applied extended Cox proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates to total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality. Exposure was calculated from birth to death (or end of eligibility for outcome, at age 1 year) and pregnancy (gestation and each trimester). Models adjusted for sex, birth weight, gestational length, season of birth, temperature, relative humidity, and maternal characteristics. Hazard ratios for total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality per-interquartile-range increase (1.3 μg/m3) in lifetime PM2.5 exposure were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.11, 3.36), 3.14 (95% CI: 2.39, 4.13), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56, 4.00), respectively. We did not observe a statistically significant relationship between gestational exposure and mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence that lifetime exposure to PM2.5 increases risk of infant mortality. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Fine Particulate Matter in Urban Environments: A Trigger of Respiratory Symptoms in Sensitive Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dunea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this research was to study children’s respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5. We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October–December 2015 and required the active cooperation of the children’s parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i.e., coughing, rhinorrhoea, wheezing, and fever, as well as their outdoor program. We selected the most sensitive children (n = 25; age: 2–10 years with perturbed respiratory health, i.e., wheezing, asthma, and associated symptoms. The estimated average PM2.5 doses were 0.8–14.5 µg·day−1 for weekdays, and 0.4–6.6 µg·day−1 for the weekend. The frequency and duration of the symptoms decreased with increasing age. The 4- to 5-year old children recorded the longest duration of symptoms, except for rhinorrhoea, which suggested that this age interval is the most vulnerable to exogenous trigger agents (p < 0.01 compared to the other age groups. PM2.5 air pollution was found to have a direct positive correlation with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.87; p < 0.01 in November 2015. Monitoring of wheezing occurrences in the absence of fever can provide a reliable assessment of the air pollution effect on the exacerbation of asthma and respiratory disorders in sensitive children.

  15. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  16. A conditional Poisson analysis of fine particulate matter and U.S. Medicare hospitalization, 1999-2010, by individual-level chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Aim: A previous analysis suggested that U.S. counties with higher county-level prevalence of chronic conditions had stronger associations of mortality with fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This study assesses the modification of the effect of PM2.5 on daily hospitaliz...

  17. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S.N.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; Weiden-Reinmüller, S.L. von der; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q.J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J.G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions.

  18. Association of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors of non-communicable disease (NCD origin from early life, and exposure to environmental pollutant may be a predisposing factor. This study aimed to investigate the association of air quality index (AQI and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 with some NCD risk factors in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 to 2016 among children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Physical examination, including weight, height, and blood pressure, was conducted by standard methods. Fasting blood sample was obtained for fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and triglycerides. The mean AQI and PM2.5 values from the study time till one year prior to the survey were used. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for the association of AQI and PM2.5 with other variables. Results: Participants consisted of 186 children and adolescents with mean (SD age of 10.52(2.38 years. Exposure to higher level of PM2.5 had significant associations with higher levels of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. It also had positive relationship with other risk factors and inverse association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, but these associations were not statistically significant. The corresponding figures were not significant for AQI. Conclusion: At current study results showed that exposure to higher levels of fine particulates was associated with some NCD risk factors in children and adolescents. Early life prevention of NCDs can lead to large reductions in disease risk; adverse effects of ambient pollutants should be considered in this regard.

  19. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  1. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  2. An Automated Heart Rate Detection Platform in Wild-Type Zebrafish for Cardiotoxicity Screening of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) causes adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, with increasing evidence implicating soluble components of PM; however, the enormous number of unique PM samples from different air sheds far exceeds the capacity of conventio...

  3. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  4. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  5. INJECTING FASTENING LOESS SOILS GROZNY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUCH AS «MIKRODUR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-A. Y. Murtazaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the actual problem of development and implementation of effective ways to increase the bearing capacity of foundations of buildings and structures by impregnating the soil very finely dispersed binders such as "Mikrodur", turning it into a constructive element of the structure.The article shows that the use of a fine binder improves impervious properties strengthened by arrays, resistance to aggressive influences, hardening in a negative temperature, the strength development, etc. 

  6. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  7. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Hertel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times....... Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12–54%) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant’s bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation......, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions We identified several sources of fine PM in infants’ bedrooms...

  8. Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six US cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laden, F.; Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (USA). School of Medicine, Brigham & Womens Hospital

    2000-07-01

    In this study, the authors use the elemental composition of size-fractionated particles to identify several distinct source-related fractions of fine particles and examined the association of these fractions with daily mortality in each of six US cities. Using specific rotation factor analysis for each city, a silicon factor classified as soil and crustal material, a lead factor classified as motor vehicle exhaust, a selenium factor representing coal combustion, and up to two additional factors were identified. Daily counts of deaths from National Center for Health Statistics records were extracted and city-specific associations of mortality with each source factor were estimated. Combined effect estimates were calculated as the inverse variance weighted mean of the city-specific estimates. Results indicated that combustion particles in the fine fraction from mobile and coal combustion sources, but not fine crustal particles, are associated with increased mortality.

  9. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient

  10. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  11. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  12. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  13. Urban airborne matter in central and southern Chile: Effects of meteorological conditions on fine and coarse particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Marco A.; Baettig, Ricardo; Cornejo, Jorge; Zamudio, Francisco; Guajardo, Jorge; Fica, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the major global environmental problems affecting human health and life quality. Many cities of Chile are heavily polluted with PM2.5 and PM10, mainly in the cold season, and there is little understanding of how the variation in particle matter differs between cities and how this is affected by the meteorological conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of meteorological variables on respirable particulate matter (PM) of the main cities in the central-south valley of Chile during the cold season (May to August) between 2014 and 2016. We used hourly PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM10- PM2.5) information along with wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and other variables derived from meteorological parameters. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were fitted for each of the eight cities selected, covering a latitudinal range of 929 km, from Santiago to Osorno. Great variation in PM was found between cities during the cold months, and that variation exhibited a marked latitudinal pattern. Overall, the more northerly cities tended to be less polluted in PM2.5 and more polluted in PMcoarse than the more southerly cities, and vice versa. The results show that other derived variables from meteorology were better related with PM than the use of traditional daily means. The main variables selected with regard to PM2.5 content were mean wind speed and minimum temperature (negative relationship). Otherwise, the main variables selected with regard to PMcoarse content were mean wind speed (negative), and the daily range in temperature (positive). Variables derived from relative humidity contributed differently to the models, having a higher effect on PMcoarse than PM2.5, and exhibiting both negative and positive effects. For the different cities the deviance explained by the GAMs ranged from 37.6 to 79.1% for PM2.5 and from 18.5 to 63.7% for PMcoarse. The percentage of deviance explained by the models for PM2.5 exhibited a

  14. Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Angyal, A.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 2.5-10 ) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

  15. Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental structure and the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Soto

    Full Text Available Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1 and RAS were evaluated by indirect ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR.Exposure to P decreased the placental mass, size, and surface area as well as the TGFβ1, VEGF-A and Flk-1 content. In the maternal portion of the placenta, angiotensin II (AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R and AT2 (AT2R were decreased in the PF and PP groups. In the fetal portion of the placenta, AngII in the FP, PF and PP groups and AT2R in the PF and PP groups were decreased, but AT1R was increased in the FP group. VEGF-A gene expression was lower in the PP group than in the FF group.Exposure to pollutants before and/or during pregnancy alters some characteristics of the placenta, indicating a possible impairment of trophoblast invasion and placental angiogenesis with possible consequences for the maternal-fetal interaction, such as a limitation of fetal nutrition and growth.

  16. An association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan. The nationwide data on emergency dispatches of ambulance for cardiovascular diseases classified as I00-I99 by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision in 30 Japanese prefectures between April 1 and December 31, in 2010 were analyzed. Data on weather variability including PM 2.5 , temperature and relative humidity were acquired from ambient air pollution monitoring stations. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of PM 2.5 on morbidity, and adjust for confounding factors. A meta-analysis was then applied to pool estimates at the 30-prefecture level. A total of 160,566 emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases were reported during the study period. The risk of emergency ambulance dispatch for cardiovascular diseases significantly increased with an increase in the exposure to PM 2.5 in Fukuoka and Iwate Prefectures. However, we found no statistically significant associations between PM 2.5 and emergency ambulance dispatches in the pooled analysis (odds ratio 1.00, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.00). Heterogeneity was not observed between prefectures (Cochran Q test, p = 0.187, I 2  = 18.4 %). Exposure to PM 2.5 is not associated with overall emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

  17. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  18. Spatiotemporal Changes in Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and the Associated Mortality Burden in China between 2015 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on the spatiotemporal distribution and health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has been conducted in China. However, the limitations of different research scopes and methods have led to low comparability between regions regarding the mortality burden of PM2.5. A kriging model was used to simulate the distribution of PM2.5 in 2015 and 2016. Relative risk (RR at a specified PM2.5 exposure concentration was estimated with an integrated exposure–response (IER model for different causes of mortality: lung cancer (LC, ischaemic heart disease (IHD, cerebrovascular disease (stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The population attributable fraction (PAF was adopted to estimate deaths attributed to PM2.5. 72.02% of cities experienced decreases in PM2.5 from 2015 to 2016. Due to the overall decrease in the PM2.5 concentration, the total number of deaths decreased by approximately 10,658 per million in 336 cities, including a decrease of 1400, 1836, 6312 and 1110 caused by LC, IHD, stroke and COPD, respectively. Our results suggest that the overall PM2.5 concentration and PM2.5-related deaths exhibited decreasing trends in China, although air quality in local areas has deteriorated. To improve air pollution control strategies, regional PM2.5 concentrations and trends should be fully considered.

  19. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myounghee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: A total of 27,270 participants 15–79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008–2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases. Conclusion: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure. Citation: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547–1553; http://dx.doi.org/10

  20. Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China, has become an important restricting factor for livelihood development, thus exerting local social and economic impacts. Coal is the main fuel of the local community and also the main source of indoor pollution. This study aims to explore the coal combustion inhalable fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and its component output differences in different areas of Xuanwei, Yunnan. Moreover, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between inhalation of fine particles and high incidence of local lung cancer. Methods For combustion test, coal mines designated as C1, K7 and M30 were collected from LaoLin Colliery of Laibing Town, Huchang Colliery of Baoshan Town, and Taiping Colliery of Wenxing Town in Xuanwei, respectively. PM2.5 of indoor air was weighed, analyzed for elemental composition, and morphologically compared. The pathological specimen of lung cancer patients in Xuanwei who underwent operation was observed through electron microscope. Results The PM2.5 concentrations in indoor air were (8.244 ±1.460 mg/m3 (C1, (5.066±0.984 mg/m3 (K7, and (5.071±1.460 mg/m3 (M30. The differences among pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (P=0.029. The filter impurities of C1 coal seam primarily include Si- and O-enriched compounds. Moreover, three membranes that comprised other elements, including C, S, and Si, were observed. These membranes were evident from the aggregation of silica and a Ca-Al membrane. Compared with that of other coal seams, C1 coal generated a mass of impurities, in which several particles have irregular shape. We found nanoscale fine particles in some specimens of Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Conclusion The produced combustion of C1 coal was different from that of K7 and M30 coal. PM2.5 composition may be associated with the high local incidence of lung cancer.

  1. Water-soluble ions measured in fine particulate matter next to cement works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, N.; Yubero, E.; Nicolás, J. F.; Crespo, J.; Pastor, C.; Carratalá, A.; Santacatalina, M.

    2011-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected for one year in a suburban area close to an industrial complex formed by two cement factories and some quarries in southeastern Spain. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography to determine the concentrations of major inorganic ions: Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+. The average PM2.5 concentration (17.6 μg m -3) was within the interval reported for other Mediterranean suburban environments. Concentration peaks were registered during both winter and summer, concurrently with maxima levels of nitrate and sulfate, due to stagnation conditions and African dust episodes, respectively. Sulfate was found to be a main contributor to PM2.5 aerosol mass (4.2 μg m -3, 24%), followed by nitrate and ammonium (1.5 μg m -3, 9% each one). Correlation analyses demonstrated that fine sulfate was present as (NH 4) 2SO 4, CaSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 since ammonium concentrations were not high enough to neutralize both anions. The mean concentration of calcium (1.0 μg m -3), an element commonly found in the coarse fraction, was higher than those found in other locations of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, the lowest levels were registered during summer, in contrast with previous findings. This was attributed to resuspension and transport of mineral dust from the neighboring quarries and cement plants during fall and winter, which was supported by the results of the CPF analysis. Atmospheric levels of potassium and chloride (0.28 and 0.51 μg m -3 annual average, respectively) also seemed to be affected by cement works, as suggested by correlation and CPF analyses. In the case of Cl -, a marked seasonality was observed, with mean winter concentrations considerably higher than summer ones, indicating a clear prevalence of anthropogenic sources over sea spray emissions.

  2. Short-term Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Children?s Hospital Admissions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyungryul; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Choi, Won-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: No children-specified review and meta-analysis paper about the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on hospital admissions and emergency department visits for asthma has been published. We calculated more precise pooled effect estimates on this topic and evaluated the variation in effect size according to the differences in study characteristics not considered in previous studies. Methods: Two authors each independently searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant studi...

  3. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  4. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  5. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  6. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass

  7. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  8. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10 and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5 on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old, obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health

  9. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS and ion chromatography (IC, respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS. The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN (35 %, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA (11 %, sea salt (SS (7 %, and trace elements (TE (2 %. PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 % were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %, coal burning (19 %, nitrate aerosol (17 %, and mineral/road dust (13 %. The hazard quotient (HQ for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning

  10. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  11. Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in China in 2013 using a source-oriented chemical transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihao; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Lin; Wang, Peng; Wu, Li; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Lu, Li; Liu, Xuejun; Liao, Hong; Hu, Jianlin

    2017-12-01

    China has been suffering high levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). Designing effective PM 2.5 control strategies requires information about the contributions of different sources. In this study, a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to quantitatively estimate the contributions of different source sectors to PM 2.5 in China. Emissions of primary PM 2.5 and gas pollutants of SO 2 , NO x , and NH 3 , which are precursors of particulate sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA, major PM 2.5 components in China), from eight source categories (power plants, residential sources, industries, transportation, open burning, sea salt, windblown dust and agriculture) were separately tracked to determine their contributions to PM 2.5 in 2013. Industrial sector is the largest source of SNA in Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing, followed by agriculture and power plants. Residential emissions are also important sources of SNA, especially in winter when severe pollution events often occur. Nationally, the contributions of different source sectors to annual total PM 2.5 from high to low are industries, residential sources, agriculture, power plants, transportation, windblown dust, open burning and sea salt. Provincially, residential sources and industries are the major anthropogenic sources of primary PM 2.5 , while industries, agriculture, power plants and transportation are important for SNA in most provinces. For total PM 2.5 , residential and industrial emissions are the top two sources, with a combined contribution of 40-50% in most provinces. The contributions of power plants and agriculture to total PM 2.5 are about 10%, respectively. Secondary organic aerosol accounts for about 10% of annual PM 2.5 in most provinces, with higher contributions in southern provinces such as Yunnan (26%), Hainan (25%) and Taiwan (21%). Windblown dust is an important source in western provinces such as Xizang (55% of total PM 2.5 ), Qinghai (74%), Xinjiang (59

  12. Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment of fine particulate matters emitted from the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Fei; Lou, Wenhao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-15

    Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology. For light diesel oil, marine heavy diesel oil, 93 octane petrol and 97 octane petrol diesel oil, the emission factors of FPMs were 3.05±0.29, 3.21±0.54, 2.36±0.33, and 2.28±0.25g/kg fuel, respectively. And the emission factors for the "16 US EPA" PAHs of FPM were 0.45±0.20, 0.80±0.22, 1.00±0.20, and 1.05±0.19mg/g FPMs, respectively. Fe is the most abundant metal in these FPMs, and the emission factors of FPMs were 2.58±1.70, 4.45±0.11, 8.18±0.58, and 9.24±0.17mg/g FPMs, respectively. We ranked the cytotoxicity of the FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>97 octane petrol>93 octane petrol>light diesel oil, and the genotoxicity of FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>light diesel oil>93 octane petrol>97 octane petrol. Significant correlations were found between PAH concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results demonstrated that fuels exhaust FPMs have strong association with ROS activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. These results indicated that fuels exhaust FPMs pose a potentially serious health, and emphasized the importance of assessing the health risks posed by the particulate pollutants in vehicle exhausts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  14. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  15. Prolonged continuous exposure to high fine particulate matter associated with cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Yin, Qian; Tong, Shilu; Ren, Zhoupeng; Hu, Maogui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies examined the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the deaths of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD), few research has paid attention to the effects of prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution. This study estimated the excess risks (ER) of CVD and RD mortalities associated with prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution for the whole population and specific subsociodemographic groups in Beijing, which is the capital city of China with over 20 million residents and having severe PM2.5 pollution problems. Our results suggested that when high PM2.5 pollution occurred continuously, at various thresholds and durations, the adverse effects on CVD and RD mortalities varied significantly. The CVD mortality risks in association with prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution exposure were more serious for single individuals (including unmarried, divorced, and widowed), illiterate and outdoor workers than for other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the daily PM2.5 concentration higher than 105 μg/m3 consecutively occurs, at the ninth day, the ERs of CVD death for single individuals, illiterate and outdoor workers groups reached to 45% (95% CI: 22, 71), 51% (95% CI: 28, 79) and 53% (95% CI: 29, 82) respectively. On the other hand, prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution level appeared to contribute a higher proportion of RD deaths among illiterate and outdoor workers, but less significant for the other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the duration with daily PM2.5 pollution higher than 115 μg/m3 reached to six days, the ERs for outdoor workers and illiterate attributed to prolonged continuous PM2.5 pollution exposure increased 36% (95% CI: 5, 76) and 49% (95% CI: 16, 91) respectively.

  16. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  17. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter using high resolution satellite images in the southeastern U.S 2003–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM2.5 to assess personal exposure; however, induces measurement error. Land use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM2.5 variables such as meteorological variables, land use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM2.5 at a 1 km2 resolution of the southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 through 2011. We divided the study area into 3 regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM2.5 measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors (RMSPE) of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 μg/m3 for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM2.5 concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM2.5. Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM2.5 which have mostly focused on urban areas due to the paucity of monitors in rural areas. PMID:26082149

  18. Indoor-outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter in school building microenvironments near a mine tailing deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality in school classrooms is a major pediatric health concern because children are highly susceptible to adverse effects from xenobiotic exposure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emitted from mining waste deposits within and near cities in northern Chile is a serious environmental problem. We measured PM2.5 in school microenvironments in urban areas of Chañaral, a coastal community whose bay is contaminated with mine tailings. PM2.5 levels were measured in six indoor and outdoor school environments during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013. Measurements were taken during school hours on two consecutive days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were 12.53–72.38 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.85–100.53 μg/m3 in winter, while outdoor concentrations were 11.86–181.73 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.50–93.07 μg/m3 in winter. Indoor/outdoor ratios were 0.17–2.76 in the summer and 0.64–4.49 in winter. PM2.5 levels were higher in indoor microenvironments during the winter, at times exceeding national and international recommendations. Our results demonstrate that indoor air quality Chañaral school microenvironments is closely associated with outdoor air pollution attributable to the nearby mine tailings. Policymakers should enact environmental management strategies to minimize further environmental damage and mitigate the risks that this pollution poses for pediatric health.

  19. Impact of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution on health behaviors: a longitudinal study of university students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Yu, H

    2018-03-19

    Poor air quality has become a national public health concern in China. This study examines the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution on health behaviors among college students in Beijing, China. Prospective cohort study. Health surveys were repeatedly administered among 12,000 newly admitted students at Tsinghua University during 2012-2015 over their freshman year. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed to estimate the impacts of ambient PM 2.5 concentration on health behaviors among survey participants, adjusting for various time-variant individual characteristics and environmental measures. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was found to be negatively associated with time spent on walking, vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior in the last week, but positively associated with time spent on nighttime/daytime sleep among survey participants. An increase in the ambient PM 2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (36.5 μg/m³) was associated with a reduction in weekly total minutes of walking by 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3-9.4), a reduction in weekly total minutes of vigorous physical activity by 10.1 (95% CI = 8.5-11.7), a reduction in daily average hours of sedentary behavior by 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.10) but an increase in daily average hours of nighttime/daytime sleep by 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04-1.11). Ambient PM 2.5 air pollution was inversely associated with physical activity level but positively associated with sleep duration among college students. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently called to reduce air pollution level in China's urban areas. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Apportionment of the sources of high fine particulate matter concentration events in a developing aerotropolis in Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shih-Yu; Su, Zhen-Sen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics and contributions of the sources of fine particulate matter with a size of up to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) during the period when pollution events could easily occur in Taoyuan aerotropolis, Taiwan, this study conducted sampling at three-day intervals from September 2014 to January 2015. Based on the mass concentration of PM2.5, the sampling days were classified into high PM2.5 concentration event days (PM2.5>35 μg m(-3)) and non-event days (PM2.5<35 μg m(-3)). In addition, the chemical species, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, and metal elements, were analyzed. The sources of pollution and their contributions were estimated using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Furthermore, the effect of the weather type on the measurement results was also explored based on wind field conditions. The mass fractions of Cl(-) and NO3(-) increased when a high PM2.5 concentration event occurred, and they were also higher under local emitted conditions than under long range transported conditions, indicating that secondary nitrate aerosols were the major increasing local species that caused high PM2.5 concentration events. Seven sources of pollution could be distinguished using the PMF model on the basis of the characteristics of the species. Industrial emissions, coal combustion/urban waste incineration, and local emissions from diesel/gasoline vehicles were the main sources that contributed to pollution on high PM2.5 concentration event days. In order to reduction of high PM2.5 concentration events, the control of diesel and gasoline vehicle emission is important and should be given priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM 2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM 2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM 2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical

  2. Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Margaret C

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollutants (PM2.5 affects heart rate variability parameters, and levels of serum proteins associated with inflammation, hemostasis and thrombosis. This study investigated sources potentially responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects in highway patrol troopers. Results Nine healthy young non-smoking male troopers working from 3 PM to midnight were studied on four consecutive days during their shift and the following night. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 were identified with variance-maximizing rotational principal factor analysis of PM2.5-components and associated pollutants. Two source models were calculated. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 identified were 1 crustal material, 2 wear of steel automotive components, 3 gasoline combustion, 4 speed-changing traffic with engine emissions and brake wear. In one model, sources 1 and 2 collapsed to a single source. Source factors scores were compared to cardiac and blood parameters measured ten and fifteen hours, respectively, after each shift. The "speed-change" factor was significantly associated with mean heart cycle length (MCL, +7% per standard deviation increase in the factor score, heart rate variability (+16%, supraventricular ectopic beats (+39%, % neutrophils (+7%, % lymphocytes (-10%, red blood cell volume MCV (+1%, von Willebrand Factor (+9%, blood urea nitrogen (+7%, and protein C (-11%. The "crustal" factor (but not the "collapsed" source was associated with MCL (+3% and serum uric acid concentrations (+5%. Controlling for potential confounders had little influence on the effect estimates. Conclusion PM2.5 originating from speed-changing traffic modulates the autonomic control of the heart rhythm, increases the frequency of premature supraventricular beats and elicits pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses in healthy young men.

  3. Hearing Schedule and List of Speakers for the Public Hearing on Revisions to FIPs to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone – October 28, 2011, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of Speakers and Hearing Schedule for the October 28 Public Hearing on the proposed Revisions to the Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone.

  4. Fine-scale estimation of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter concentrations in proximity to a road intersection by using wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Feng; He, Hong-di; Lu, Qing-Chang; Wang, Dongsheng; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2015-03-01

    At road intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly in the green-light period, which generates higher velocity fluctuation and thus higher emission rates. Additionally, the frequent changes of wind direction further add the highly variable dispersion of pollutants at the street scale. It is, therefore, very difficult to estimate the distribution of pollutant concentrations using conventional deterministic causal models. For this reason, a hybrid model combining wavelet neural network and genetic algorithm (GA-WNN) is proposed for predicting 5-min series of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in proximity to an intersection. The proposed model is examined based on the measured data under two situations. As the measured pollutant concentrations are found to be dependent on the distance to the intersection, the model is evaluated in three locations respectively, i.e. 110 m, 330 m and 500 m. Due to the different variation of pollutant concentrations on varied time, the model is also evaluated in peak and off-peak traffic time periods separately. Additionally, the proposed model, together with the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), is examined with the measured data in these situations. The proposed model is found to perform better in predictability and precision for both CO and PM2.5 than BPNN does, implying that the hybrid model can be an effective tool to improve the accuracy of estimating pollutants' distribution pattern at intersections. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to forecast the distribution pattern of air pollution in real-time in proximity to road intersection.

  5. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Ravnskjaer, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1......,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model. We examined the association between...

  6. Quality and Reputation: The Indirect Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Health through Individuals' Life-style

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzia Di Novi

    2011-01-01

    Limited literature has been published on the association between environmental health indicators, life-style habits and ambient air pollution. We have examined the association of asthma prevalence and the amount of health investment with daily mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM 2.5 ) in 16 metropolitan areas in U.S. using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2001) data in conjunction with the Air Quality Syste...

  7. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  8. Fine particulate matter components and mortality in Greater Houston: Did the risk reduce from 2000 to 2011?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suyang; Zhang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Zhang@uth.tmc.edu

    2015-12-15

    Fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM{sub 2.5}) pollution poses a major environmental threat in Greater Houston due to rapid economic growth and the numerous PM{sub 2.5} sources including ports, vehicles, and the largest petrochemical industry in the United States (U.S.). Our objectives were to estimate the short-term associations between the PM{sub 2.5} components and mortality during 2000–2011, and evaluate whether these associations have changed over time. A total of 333,317 deaths were included in our assessment, with an average of 76 deaths per day. We selected 17 PM{sub 2.5} components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the associations between the PM{sub 2.5} components and mortality. Additionally, we repeated our analysis for two consecutive periods: 2000–2005 and 2006–2011. Interquartile range increases in ammonium (0.881 μg/m{sup 3}), nitrate (0.487 μg/m{sup 3}), sulfate (2.245 μg/m{sup 3}), and vanadium (0.004 μg/m{sup 3}) were associated with an increased risk in mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.12%), 0.38% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.66%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.15, 1.06%), and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.12, 1.04%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested that the associations were strongest during the winter months. The association between PM{sub 2.5} mass and mortality decreased during 2000–2011, however, the PM{sub 2.5} components showed no notable changes in mortality risk over time. Our study indicates that the short-term associations between PM{sub 2.5} and mortality differ across the PM{sub 2.5} components and suggests that future air pollution control measures should not only focus on mass but also pollutant sources. - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were associated with increased mortality risk. • A few major PM{sub 2.5} components were associated with increased mortality risk.

  9. Spatiotemporal Prediction of Fine Particulate Matter Using High-Resolution Satellite Images in the Southeastern US 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5), particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM(sub 2.5) to assess personal exposure, however, induces measurement error. Land-use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land-use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM(sub 2.5) exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM(sub 2.5) variables, such as meteorological variables, land-use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM(sub 2.5) at a 1 sq km resolution of the Southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 to 2011. We divided the study area into three regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM(sub 2.5) measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 cu micrograms for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM(sub 2.5) concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM(sub 2.5). Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM(sub 2.5) which have mostly focused on urban areas because of the paucity of monitors in rural areas.

  10. In Utero Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension Due to Impaired Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmeng Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adverse environment in utero can modulate adult phenotypes including blood pressure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure in utero causes hypertension in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R, regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4, plays an important role in the regulation of renal sodium transport and blood pressure. In this present study, we determined if renal D1R dysfunction is involved in PM2.5–induced hypertension in the offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were given an oropharyngeal drip of PM2.5 (1.0 mg/kg at gestation day 8, 10, and 12. The blood pressure, 24-hour sodium excretion, and urine volume were measured in the offspring. The expression levels of GRK4 and D1R were determined by immunoblotting. The phosphorylation of D1R was investigated using immunoprecipitation. Plasma malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were also measured in the offspring. Results: As compared with saline-treated dams, offspring of PM2.5-treated dams had increased blood pressure, impaired sodium excretion, and reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis, accompanied by decreased renal D1R expression and GRK4 expression. The impaired renal D1R function and increased GRK4 expression could be caused by increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS induced by PM2.5 exposure. Administration of tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide, for 4 weeks in the offspring of PM2.5-treated dam normalized the decreased renal D1R expression and increased renal D1R phosphorylation and GRK4 expression. Furthermore, tempol normalized the increased renal expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates GRK4 expression. Conclusions: In utero exposure to PM2.5 increases ROS and GRK4 expression, impairs D1R-mediated sodium excretion, and increases blood pressure in the offspring. These studies suggest that normalization of D1R function may be a target for the

  11. Apportionment of the sources of high fine particulate matter concentration events in a developing aerotropolis in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shih-Yu; Su, Zhen-Sen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and contributions of the sources of fine particulate matter with a size of up to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) during the period when pollution events could easily occur in Taoyuan aerotropolis, Taiwan, this study conducted sampling at three-day intervals from September 2014 to January 2015. Based on the mass concentration of PM 2.5 , the sampling days were classified into high PM 2.5 concentration event days (PM 2.5 >35 μg m −3 ) and non-event days (PM 2.5 <35 μg m −3 ). In addition, the chemical species, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, and metal elements, were analyzed. The sources of pollution and their contributions were estimated using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Furthermore, the effect of the weather type on the measurement results was also explored based on wind field conditions. The mass fractions of Cl − and NO 3 − increased when a high PM 2.5 concentration event occurred, and they were also higher under local emitted conditions than under long range transported conditions, indicating that secondary nitrate aerosols were the major increasing local species that caused high PM 2.5 concentration events. Seven sources of pollution could be distinguished using the PMF model on the basis of the characteristics of the species. Industrial emissions, coal combustion/urban waste incineration, and local emissions from diesel/gasoline vehicles were the main sources that contributed to pollution on high PM 2.5 concentration event days. In order to reduction of high PM 2.5 concentration events, the control of diesel and gasoline vehicle emission is important and should be given priority. - Highlights: • The mass fractions of NH 4 + , K + , Cl − and NO 3 − increased during PM 2.5 event days. • Reduction of coal combustion/urban waste incineration emissions should be prioritized. • The control of vehicle emission is important in the locally emitted periods. • Secondary

  12. Fine particulate matter components and mortality in Greater Houston: Did the risk reduce from 2000 to 2011?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Suyang; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM_2_._5) pollution poses a major environmental threat in Greater Houston due to rapid economic growth and the numerous PM_2_._5 sources including ports, vehicles, and the largest petrochemical industry in the United States (U.S.). Our objectives were to estimate the short-term associations between the PM_2_._5 components and mortality during 2000–2011, and evaluate whether these associations have changed over time. A total of 333,317 deaths were included in our assessment, with an average of 76 deaths per day. We selected 17 PM_2_._5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the associations between the PM_2_._5 components and mortality. Additionally, we repeated our analysis for two consecutive periods: 2000–2005 and 2006–2011. Interquartile range increases in ammonium (0.881 μg/m"3), nitrate (0.487 μg/m"3), sulfate (2.245 μg/m"3), and vanadium (0.004 μg/m"3) were associated with an increased risk in mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.12%), 0.38% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.66%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.15, 1.06%), and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.12, 1.04%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested that the associations were strongest during the winter months. The association between PM_2_._5 mass and mortality decreased during 2000–2011, however, the PM_2_._5 components showed no notable changes in mortality risk over time. Our study indicates that the short-term associations between PM_2_._5 and mortality differ across the PM_2_._5 components and suggests that future air pollution control measures should not only focus on mass but also pollutant sources. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentrations were associated with increased mortality risk. • A few major PM_2_._5 components were associated with increased mortality risk. • Associations were generally strongest in winter in Greater

  13. Two Model-Based Methods for Policy Analyses of Fine Particulate Matter Control in China: Source Apportionment and Source Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have been controlled in recent years in China to mitigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Recent studies show that sulfate dioxide (SO2)-only control cannot reduce total PM2.5 levels efficiently. Other species such as nitrogen oxide, ammonia, black carbon, and organic carbon may be equally important during particular seasons. Furthermore, each species is emitted from several anthropogenic sectors (e.g., industry, power plant, transportation, residential and agriculture). On the other hand, contribution of one emission sector to PM2.5 represents contributions of all species in this sector. In this work, two model-based methods are used to identify the most influential emission sectors and areas to PM2.5. The first method is the source apportionment (SA) based on the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) available in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) driven by meteorological predictions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The second method is the source sensitivity (SS) based on an adjoint integration technique (AIT) available in the GEOS-Chem model. The SA method attributes simulated PM2.5 concentrations to each emission group, while the SS method calculates their sensitivity to each emission group, accounting for the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and its precursors. Despite their differences, the complementary nature of the two methods enables a complete analysis of source-receptor relationships to support emission control policies. Our objectives are to quantify the contributions of each emission group/area to PM2.5 in the receptor areas and to intercompare results from the two methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of emission sources in PM2.5 formation. The results will be compared in terms of the magnitudes and rankings of SS or SA of emitted species and emission groups/areas. GEOS-Chem with AIT is applied over East Asia at a horizontal grid

  14. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate conce...

  15. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Busch; Ravnskjær, Line; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It has been suggested that air pollution may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes but data on particulate matter with diameter PM2.5) are inconsistent. We examined the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and diabetes incidence. METHODS: We used the Danish Nurse...... Cohort with 28,731 female nurses who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on diabetes prevalence and risk factors, and obtained data on incidence of diabetes from National Diabetes Register until 2013. We estimated annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter ... diabetes. We detected a significant positive association between PM2.5 and diabetes incidence (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.11; 1.02-1.22 per interquartile range of 3.1μg/m(3)), and weaker associations for PM10 (1.06; 0.98-1.14 per 2.8μg/m(3)), NO2 (1.05; 0.99-1.12 per 7.5μg/m(3)), and NOx (1...

  18. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  19. Association between ambient fine particulate matter and preterm birth or term low birth weight: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiangyu; Huang, Shuqiong; Jiao, Anqi; Yang, Xuhao; Yun, Junfeng; Wang, Yuxin; Xue, Xiaowei; Chu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Feifei; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have been conducted to determine a possible linkage between maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and effects on the developing human fetus that can lead to adverse birth outcomes, but, the present results are not consistent. A total of 23 studies published before July 2016 were collected and analyzed and the mean value of reported exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) ranged from 1.82 to 22.11 We found a significantly increased risk of preterm birth with interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 exposure throughout pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% conditional independence (CI): 1.01–1.05). The pooled OR for the association between PM 2.5 exposure, per interquartile range increment, and term low birth weight throughout pregnancy was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02–1.03). The pooled ORs for the association between PM 2.5 exposure per 10 increment, and term low birth weight and preterm birth were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.98–1.12) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93–1.12), respectively throughout pregnancy. There is a significant heterogeneity in most meta-analyses, except for pooled OR per interquartile range increase for term low birth weight throughout pregnancy. We here show that maternal exposure to fine particulate air pollution increases the risk of preterm birth and term low birth weight. However, the effect of exposure time needs to be further explored. In the future, prospective cohort studies and personal exposure measurements needs to be more widely utilized to better characterize the relationship between ambient fine particulate exposure and adverse birth outcomes. - Highlights: • The results had shorter intervals indicate and smaller heterogeneity by using IQR increment increase as selected standard. • The manuscript included the latest research results and updated the previous systematic review and meta-analysis. - Meta-analysis of preterm birth and term low birth weight of PM 2.5

  20. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) or to coarse particles on infant mortality. We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to PM and infant mortality in Japan and assessed whether adverse health effects were observable at PM concentrations below Japanese air quality guidelines. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. The participants included 2086 infants who died in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained measures of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM. We then used conditional logistic regression to analyze the data. Same-day PM2.5 was associated with increased risks of infant and postneonatal mortality, especially for mortality related to respiratory causes. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5, the odds ratios were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12) for infant mortality and 1.10 (1.02-1.19) for postneonatal mortality. PM7-2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of postneonatal mortality, independent of PM2.5. Even when PM2.5 and SPM concentrations were below Japanese air quality guidelines, we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles (PM7-2.5) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. Further, rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass concentration, composition and sources of fine and coarse particulate matter in Tijuana, Mexico, during Cal-Mex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Campos, Arturo Alberto; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Blanco, Salvador; Molina, Luisa T.; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the Cal-Mex project, which focuses on investigating the atmosphere along Mexico-California border region. Sampling was carried out at two sites located in Tijuana urban area: Parque Morelos and Metales y Derivados. PM2.5 and PM10 24 h samples were collected every three days from 17th May 2010 to 27th June 2010, and were used for gravimetric and chemical analyses (major and minor elements, inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon) of PM. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations during Cal-Mex were relatively lower compared to usual annual averages. Trace elements concentrations recorded in the present study were lower than those recorded in Mexico City in 2006, with the exception of Pb at Metales y Derivados, attributed to the influence of a specific industrial source, which also includes As, Cd and Tl. Apart from this industrial source, both urban sites were found to be affected by similar sources with respect to bulk PM. Fine PM (PM2.5) was mainly apportioned by fueloil and biomass combustion and secondary aerosols, and road traffic. Coarse PM (PM2.5-10) was mainly apportioned by a mineral source (sum of road dust resuspension, construction emissions and natural soil) and fresh and aged sea salt. The road traffic was responsible for more than 60% of the fine elemental carbon and almost 40% of the fine organic matter.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  3. Characteristics of fine particulate matter and its sources in an industrialized coastal city, Ningbo, Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Yu, Jie; Cui, Yang; He, Jun; Xue, Peng; Cao, Wan; Ying, Hongmei; Gao, Wenkang; Yan, Yingchao; Hu, Bo; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Lili; Liu, Zirui; Sun, Yang; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-05-01

    Chemical information is essential in understanding the characteristics of airborne particles, and effectively controlling airborne particulate matter pollution, but it remains unclear in some regions due to the scarcity of measurement data. In the present study, 92 daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) samples as well as historical observation data of air pollutants were collected in urban Ningbo, one of important industrial cities in the coastal area of the Yangtze River Delta, China in autumn and winter (from Nov. 2014 to Feb. 2015). Various chemical species in PM2.5 were determined including water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon and elements. Positive matrix factorization model, cluster analysis of back trajectories, potential source contribution function (PSCF) model and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) model were used for identifying sources, apportioning contributions from each source and tracking potential areas of sources. The results showed the PM2.5 concentration has been reducing; nonetheless, the concentrations of PM2.5 are still much higher than the World Health Organization guideline with high PM2.5 concentrations observed in autumn and winter for the past few years. During the sampling period, the average PM2.5 mass concentration was 77 μg/m3 with the major components of OC, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+ and EC, accounting for 24.7, 18.8, 14.5, 11.8 and 6.4% in the total mass concentration, respectively. When the aerosol pollution got worse during the sampling period, the NO3-, SO42 - and NH4+ concentrations increased accordingly and NO3- appeared to increase at fastest rate. SO42 - transported from industrial areas led to slight difference in spatial distribution of SO42 - in Ningbo. More secondary organic carbon was formed and the enrichment factor values of Cu, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb increased with the degradation of air quality. Ten types of sources were identified for PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of

  4. Prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations using aerosol optical depth retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Lee, Hyung Joo; Kostinski, Alex; Kotlov, Tanya; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-09-01

    Although ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm) monitoring sites provide accurate measurements, their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate location- and/or subject-specific exposures to PM2.5. In this study, the authors apply a mixed-effects model approach to aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to predict PM2.5 concentrations within the New England area of the United States. With this approach, it is possible to control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles, and ground surface reflectance. The model-predicted PM2.5 mass concentration are highly correlated with the actual observations, R2 = 0.92. Therefore, adjustment for the daily variability in AOD-PM2.5 relationship allows obtaining spatially resolved PM2.5 concentration data that can be of great value to future exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. The authors demonstrated how AOD can be used reliably to predict daily PM2.5 mass concentrations, providing determination of their spatial and temporal variability. Promising results are found by adjusting for daily variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, without the need to account for a wide variety of individual additional parameters. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to PM2.5 and their health effects. Higher 4 x 4-km resolution GOES AOD retrievals comparing with the conventional MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 10-km product has the potential to capture PM2.5 variability within the urban domain.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  6. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  7. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  8. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  9. Aircraft measurements to characterize polluted winter boundary layers: Overview of twin otter flights during the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Matter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. S.; Baasandorj, M.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Fibiger, D. L.; Moravek, A.; Clark, J. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Mitchell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution is a significant public health concern. In many regions of the U.S., Europe and Asia, wintertime particulate matter concentrations exceed national and / or international air quality standards. Winter air pollution also represents a scientific challenge because these events occur during stagnation events in shallow, vertically stratified boundary layers whose composition is difficult to probe from surface level measurements. Chemical processes responsible for the conversion of primary emissions to secondary pollutants such as ammonium nitrate aerosol vary with height above ground level. Sources of oxidants are poorly understood and may result from both local chemical production and mixing between shallow inversion layers and background air. During the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in January - February 2017, the NOAA twin otter executed 23 research flights with a payload designed to characterize the formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in three mountain valleys of northern Utah (Salt Lake, Cache, and Utah). These valleys are subject to periodic episodes of winter aerosol pollution well in excess of U.S. national ambient air quality standards. This presentation will describe the measurement strategy of the twin otter flights to address the specific features of aerosol pollution within winter boundary layer of this region. This strategy is relevant to understanding the broader issue of winter air pollution in other regions and potentially to the design of future studies. The presentation will summarize findings from UWFPS related to boundary layer structure, emissions and chemical processes responsible for ammonium nitrate aerosol in this region.

  10. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  11. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  12. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 μg/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 μg/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  15. The influence of model spatial resolution on simulated ozone and fine particulate matter for Europe: implications for health impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Sara; Doherty, Ruth M.; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Macintyre, Helen L.; O'Connor, Fiona M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the impact of model horizontal resolution on simulated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and the associated health impacts over Europe, using the HadGEM3-UKCA chemistry-climate model to simulate pollutant concentrations at a coarse (˜ 140 km) and a finer (˜ 50 km) resolution. The attributable fraction (AF) of total mortality due to long-term exposure to warm season daily maximum 8 h running mean (MDA8) O3 and annual-average PM2.5 concentrations is then calculated for each European country using pollutant concentrations simulated at each resolution. Our results highlight a seasonal variation in simulated O3 and PM2.5 differences between the two model resolutions in Europe. Compared to the finer resolution results, simulated European O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are higher on average in winter and spring (˜ 10 and ˜ 6 %, respectively). In contrast, simulated O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are lower in summer and autumn (˜ -1 and ˜ -4 %, respectively). These differences may be partly explained by differences in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations simulated at the two resolutions. Compared to O3, we find the opposite seasonality in simulated PM2.5 differences between the two resolutions. In winter and spring, simulated PM2.5 concentrations are lower at the coarse compared to the finer resolution (˜ -8 and ˜ -6 %, respectively) but higher in summer and autumn (˜ 29 and ˜ 8 %, respectively). Simulated PM2.5 values are also mostly related to differences in convective rainfall between the two resolutions for all seasons. These differences between the two resolutions exhibit clear spatial patterns for both pollutants that vary by season, and exert a strong influence on country to country variations in estimated AF for the two resolutions. Warm season MDA8 O3 levels are higher in most of southern Europe, but lower in areas of northern and eastern Europe when

  16. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  17. Effects of the Ambient Fine Particulate Matter on Public Awareness of Lung Cancer Risk in China: Evidence from the Internet-Based Big Data Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxi; Li, Shu; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xinyu; Hou, Jie; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-10-03

    In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the particulate matter from outdoor air pollution as a group 1 carcinogen and declared that particulate matter can cause lung cancer. Fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban areas of China. It is essential to emphasize the importance of the public's awareness and knowledge of modifiable risk factors of lung cancer for prevention. The objective of our study was to explore the public's awareness of the association of PM 2.5 with lung cancer risk in China by analyzing the relationship between the daily PM 2.5 concentration and searches for the term "lung cancer" on an Internet big data platform, Baidu. We collected daily PM 2.5 concentration data and daily Baidu Index data in 31 Chinese capital cities from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. We used Spearman correlation analysis to explore correlations between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration. Granger causality test was used to analyze the causal relationship between the 2 time-series variables. In 23 of the 31 cities, the pairwise correlation coefficients (Spearman rho) between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration were positive and statistically significant (P<.05). However, the correlation between the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches and the daily average PM 2.5 concentration was poor (all r 2 s <.1). Results of Granger causality testing illustrated that there was no unidirectional causality from the daily PM 2.5 concentration to the daily Baidu Index for lung cancer searches, which was statistically significant at the 5% level for each city. The daily average PM 2.5 concentration had a weak positive impact on the daily search interest for lung cancer on the Baidu search engine. Well-designed awareness campaigns are needed to enhance the general public's awareness of

  18. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  19. Exposure to fine particulate matter and hospital admissions due to pneumonia: Effects on the number of hospital admissions and its costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patto, Nicole Vargas; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Mantovani, Katia Cristina C; Vieira, Luciana C P F S; Moreira, Demerval S

    2016-07-01

    Given that respiratory diseases are a major cause of hospitalization in children, the objectives of this study are to estimate the role of exposure to fine particulate matter in hospitalizations due to pneumonia and a possible reduction in the number of these hospitalizations and costs. An ecological time-series study was developed with data on hospitalization for pneumonia among children under 10 years of age living in São José do Rio Preto, state of São Paulo, using PM2.5 concentrations estimated using a mathematical model. We used Poisson regression with a dependent variable (hospitalization) associated with PM2.5 concentrations and adjusted for effective temperature, seasonality and day of the week, with estimates of reductions in the number of hospitalizations and costs. 1,161 children were admitted to hospital between October 1st, 2011, and September 30th, 2013; the average concentration of PM2.5 was 18.7 µg/m3 (≈32 µg/m3 of PM10) and exposure to this pollutant was associated with hospitalization four and five days after exposure. A 10 µg/m3 decrease in concentration would imply 256 less hospital admissions and savings of approximately R$ 220,000 in a medium-sized city.

  20. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( >  59 % to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for  >  70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  1. Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SOCs) in Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) during Clear, Fog, and Haze Episodes in Winter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tian, Mi; Ding, Nan; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Mo, Yang-Zhi; Yang, Wei-Qiang; Bi, Xin-Hui; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-05-01

    Few efforts have been made to elucidate the influence of weather conditions on the fate of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs). Here, daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) during clear, haze, and fog episodes collected in the winter in Beijing, China was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total concentrations of PAHs, OPFRs, and BFRs had medians of 45.1 ng/m 3 and 1347 and 46.7 pg/m 3 , respectively. The temporal pattern for PAH concentrations was largely dependent on coal combustion for residential heating. OPFR compositions that change during colder period were related to enhanced indoor emissions due to heating. The mean concentrations of SOCs during haze and fog days were 2-10 times higher than those during clear days. We found that BFRs with lower octanol and air partition coefficients tended to increase during haze and fog episodes, be removed from PM 2.5 during clear episodes, or both. For PAHs and OPFRs, pollutants that are more recalcitrant to degradation were prone to accumulate during haze and fog days. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicated that southern and eastern cities were major source regions of SOCs at this site.

  2. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiqiu; Cheng, Yubo; Qiu, Xinghua; Cao, Gang; Fang, Yanhua; Wang, Junxia; Zhu, Tong; Yu, Jianzhen; Hu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5); however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( > 59 %) to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  3. Modeling of episodic particulate matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the US/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Hyde, Peter; Fernando, H. J. S.

    High (episodic) particulate matter (PM) events over the sister cities of Douglas (AZ) and Agua Prieta (Sonora), located in the US-Mexico border, were simulated using the 3D Eulerian air quality model, MODELS-3/CMAQ. The best available input information was used for the simulations, with pollution inventory specified on a fine grid. In spite of inherent uncertainties associated with the emission inventory as well as the chemistry and meteorology of the air quality simulation tool, model evaluations showed acceptable PM predictions, while demonstrating the need for including the interaction between meteorology and emissions in an interactive mode in the model, a capability currently unavailable in MODELS-3/CMAQ when dealing with PM. Sensitivity studies on boundary influence indicate an insignificant regional (advection) contribution of PM to the study area. The contribution of secondary particles to the occurrence of high PM events was trivial. High PM episodes in the study area, therefore, are purely local events that largely depend on local meteorological conditions. The major PM emission sources were identified as vehicular activities on unpaved/paved roads and wind-blown dust. The results will be of immediate utility in devising PM mitigation strategies for the study area, which is one of the US EPA-designated non-attainment areas with respect to PM.

  4. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  5. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in situ measurements during short intensive and longer-term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE chemistry transport models. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions constituted less than 20 % in winter and 40 % in summer of carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly small for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e., from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only being partially responsible for its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  6. In-situ, satellite measurement and model evidence for a~dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-03-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns and from additional one year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in-situ measurements during short intensive and longer term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only controlling part of its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  7. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, S E; Zeinali, M; Minjares, R; Silva, R; West, J J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM 2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM 2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m −3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  8. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  10. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  11. Composition and source apportionment of fine particulate matter during extended calm periods in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivošević, T.; Orlić, I.; Bogdanović Radović, I.; Čargonja, M.; Stelcer, E.

    2017-09-01

    In the city of Rijeka, Croatia, an extended, two-year aerosol pollution monitoring campaign was recently completed. During that period, 345 samples of fine fraction of aerosols were collected on stretched Teflon filters. All samples were analyzed by Ion Beam Analysis techniques Proton Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Induced γ-Ray Emission and concentrations of 22 elements were determined. Concentrations of black carbon were determined by Laser Integrated Plate Method. For the Bay of Kvarner, where the city of Rijeka is located, long periods of calm weather are common. As a consequence, during these periods, air pollution is steadily increasing. To pin-point and characterize local, mostly anthropogenic, air pollution sources, only samples collected during the extended calm periods were used in this work. As a cut-off wind speed, speed of 1.5 m/s was used. In that way, out of all 345 samples, only 188 were selected. Those samples were statistically evaluated by means of positive matrix factorization. Results show that from all anthropogenic sources (vehicles, secondary sulphates, smoke, heavy oil combustion, road dust, industry Fe and port activities) only secondary sulphates and heavy oil combustion were significantly higher (40% and 50%, respectively) during calm periods. On the other hand, natural components of aerosol pollution such as soil and sea salts, (typically present in concentrations of 1.4% and 9%, respectively) are practically non-existent for calm weather conditions.

  12. Ultra fine particulates. Small particulates with large consequences?; Ultrafijn stof. Kleine deeltjes met grote gevolgen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensema, A.; Keuken, M.; Kooter, I.; Verbeek, R.; Van Vugt, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations of ultra fine particles (and elementary carbon) have increased significantly near traffic routes. The amount of ultra fine particles (and the chemical composition of particulate matter) are related to traffic emissions and are therefore relevant to the established health effects. Better insight in the effectiveness of particulate matter policy requires more attention for ultra fine particles than just maintaining the standards for PM2,5 and PM10. [mk]. [Dutch] De concentraties van ultrafijne deeltjes (en elementair koolstof) zijn fors verhoogd in de buurt van verkeerswegen. Het aantal ultrafijne deeltjes (en de chemische samenstelling van fijnstof) gerelateerd aan verkeersemissies lijkt daarom relevant voor de vastgestelde gezondheidseffecten. Voor een beter inzicht in de effectiviteit van het fijnstofbeleid is meer aandacht nodig voor ultrafijne deeltjes dan alleen handhaving van de normen voor PM2,5 en PM10.

  13. Fine particulate matter associated with monsoonal effect and the responses of biomass fire hotspots in the tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2015-08-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in tropical regions of Southeast Asia are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 is strongly influenced by the monsoon. We quantitatively characterize the health risks posed to human populations by selected heavy metals in PM2.5. Monsoonal effects as well as factors influencing the sources of PM2.5 were also determined. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was undertaken using US EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. Overall, 48 % of the samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h guideline. The mass closure model identified four sources of PM2.5: (a) mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), (b) secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), (c) sea salt (SS) (7 %), (d) trace elements (TE) (2 %) and (e) undefined (UD) (45 %). PMF 5.0 identified five potential sources and motor vehicle emissions and biomass burning were dominant followed by marine and sulfate aerosol, coal burning, nitrate aerosol, and mineral and road dust. The non-carcinogenic risk level for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd and Ni) in PM2.5 and in the identified major sources by PMF > 5.0, with respect to inhalation follows the order of PM2.5 > coal burning > motor vehicle emissions/biomass burning > mineral/road dust. The lifetime cancer risk follows the order of As > Ni > Pb > Cd for mineral/road dust, coal burning and overall of PM2.5 concentration and As > Pb > Ni > Cd for motor vehicle/biomass burning. Overall, the associated cancer risk posed by the exposure of toxic metals in PM2.5 is three to four in 1 000 000 people in this location.

  14. Understanding Spatiotemporal Variability of Fine Particulate Matter in an Urban Environment Using Combined Fixed and Mobile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R.; Pryor, S. C.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Acute and chronic exposure to elevated levels of aerosol particles represents a well-documented threat to public health. This is especially true in urban areas where in situ emissions elevate concentrations above regional background levels and population density is high, exposing a greater number of people to unhealthy air. The EPA's evaluation of compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ambient fine particle (PM 2.5) concentrations in a city is frequently based on a limited number of observing stations and daily average concentrations. For example, data from only three locations indicates that Indianapolis (a city of nearly 1 million people) fails the NAAQS for PM2.5. However, the true population exposure exhibits spatial and temporal variability and thus is not adequately represented by long-term measurements. Thus, since 2011 we have conducted additional highly time-resolved PM2.5 measurements at four additional stations within Indianapolis. Analyses of these data indicate: ● PM2.5 concentrations in the city are an average of over 4 micrograms per cubic meter above a non-urban regionally representative site. ● A distinct diurnal cycle of PM2.5 concentrations in the city with a daily maximum in concentrations and higher outliers typically occurring during the morning hours (approx. 0700-0900 LST) and a daily minimum in concentrations and fewer outliers occurring in the afternoon (approx. 1400-1800 LST). ● Highest concentrations typically occur during weekdays. This hebdomadal pattern was amplified in proximity to the main interstate junction through the center of the city. ● PM2.5 concentrations thus exhibit similar timescales of variability to carbon monoxide, of which over 90% derives from the mobile sector, indicating a strong signature from motor vehicles. An additional mode of variability in PM2.5 as observed in power spectra equates to synoptic time scales (four days up to two weeks). ● On average wind speeds during

  15. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Kooijman, C.; Breuer, M.; Bohler, P.; Zund, T.; Wenk, S.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking

  16. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physi...

  17. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  18. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  19. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  20. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  1. Satellite-based estimates of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter are associated with C-reactive protein in 30 034 Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zilong; Chang, Ly-Yun; Lau, Alexis K H; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chieh Chuang, Yuan; Chan, Jimmy; Lin, Changqing; Kai Jiang, Wun; Dear, Keith; Zee, Benny C Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Hoek, Gerard; Tam, Tony; Qian Lao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanism underlying the associations remains unclear. Atherosclerosis, the underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease, is a chronic inflammatory process. We therefore investigated the association of long-term exposure to fine PM (PM2.5) with C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation, in a large Taiwanese population. Participants were from a large cohort who participated in a standard medical examination programme with measurements of high-sensitivity CRP between 2007 and 2014. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate 2-year average PM2.5 exposure at each participant's address, based on satellite-derived aerosol optical depth data. General regression models were used for baseline data analysis and mixed-effects linear regression models were used for repeated data analysis to investigate the associations between PM2.5 exposure and CRP, adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. In this population of 30 034 participants with 39 096 measurements, every 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 increment was associated with a 1.31% increase in CRP [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00%, 1.63%) after adjusting for confounders. For those participants with repeated CRP measurements, no significant changes were observed between the first and last measurements (0.88 mg/l vs 0.89 mg/l, P = 0.337). The PM2.5 concentrations remained stable over time between 2007 and 2014. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased level of systemic inflammation, supporting the biological link between PM2.5 air pollution and deteriorating cardiovascular health. Air pollution reduction should be an important strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Fine particulate matter potentiates type 2 diabetes development in high-fat diet-treated mice: stress response and extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettems-Fiorin, Pauline Brendler; Grochanke, Bethânia Salamoni; Baldissera, Fernanda Giesel; Dos Santos, Analu Bender; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Ludwig, Mirna Stela; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Heck, Thiago Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We argue whether the potentiating effect of PM 2.5 over the development of T2DM in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice would be related to modification in cell stress response, particularly in antioxidant defenses and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) status. Male mice were fed standard chow or HFD for 12 weeks and then randomly exposed to daily nasotropic instillation of PM 2.5 for additional 12 weeks under the same diet schedule, divided into four groups (n = 14-15 each): Control, PM 2.5 , HFD, and HFD + PM 2.5 were evaluated biometric and metabolic profiles of mice, and cellular stress response (antioxidant defense and HSP70 status) of metabolic tissues. Extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio ([eHSP72]/[iHSP70]), viz. H-index, was then calculated. HFD + PM 2.5 mice presented a positive correlation between adiposity, increased body weight and glucose intolerance, and increased glucose and triacylglycerol plasma levels. Pancreas exhibited lower iHSP70 expression, accompanied by 3.7-fold increase in the plasma to pancreas [eHSP72]/[iHSP70] ratio. Exposure to PM 2.5 markedly potentiated metabolic dysfunction in HFD-treated mice and promoted relevant alteration in cell stress response assessed by [eHSP72]/[iHSP70], a relevant biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammatory state and T2DM risk.

  3. Exercise Training under Exposure to Low Levels of Fine Particulate Matter: Effects on Heart Oxidative Stress and Extra-to-Intracellular HSP70 Ratio

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    Aline Sfalcin Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 promotes heart oxidative stress (OS and evokes anti-inflammatory responses observed by increased intracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (iHSP70. Furthermore, PM2.5 increases the levels of these proteins in extracellular fluids (eHSP70, which have proinflammatory roles. We investigated whether moderate and high intensity training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 modifies heart OS and the eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index, a biomarker of inflammatory status. Male mice (n=32, 30 days old, were divided into six groups for 12 weeks: control (CON, moderate (MIT and high intensity training (HIT, exposure to 5 μg of PM2.5 daily (PM2.5, and moderate and high intensity training exposed to PM2.5 (MIT + PM2.5 and HIT + PM2.5 groups. The CON and PM2.5 groups remained sedentary. The MIT + PM2.5 group showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels than the MIT and PM2.5 groups. HIT and HIT + PM2.5 showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels and lower eHSP70 and H-index levels compared to sedentary animals. No alterations were found in heart antioxidant enzyme activity or iHSP70 levels. Moderate exercise training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 induces heart OS but does not modify eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index. High intensity exercise training promotes anti-inflammatory profile despite exposure to low levels of PM2.5.

  4. Short-term effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution on hospital visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Huang, Chao; Li, Man; Hu, Yonghua

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the effect of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term effects of PM 2.5 on outpatient and inpatient visits for COPD in Beijing, China. A total of 3,503,313 outpatient visits and 126,982 inpatient visits for COPD between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to estimate the percentage change with 95% confidence interval (CI) in hospital visits for COPD in relation to an interquartile range (IQR) (90.8 μg/m 3 ) increase in PM 2.5 concentrations. Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 was significantly associated with increased use of COPD-related health services. There were clear exposure-response associations of PM 2.5 with COPD outpatient and inpatient visits. An IQR increase in the concurrent day PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with a 2.38% (95% CI, 2.22%-2.53%) and 6.03% (95% CI, 5.19%-6.87%) increase in daily outpatient visits and inpatient visits, respectively. Elderly people were more sensitive to the adverse effects. The estimated risk was higher during the warm season compared to the cool season. Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with increased risk of hospital visits for COPD. Our findings contributed to the limited evidence concerning the effects of ambient PM 2.5 on COPD morbidity in developing countries.

  5. Do causal concentration-response functions exist? A critical review of associational and causal relations between fine particulate matter and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2017-08-01

    Concentration-response (C-R) functions relating concentrations of pollutants in ambient air to mortality risks or other adverse health effects provide the basis for many public health risk assessments, benefits estimates for clean air regulations, and recommendations for revisions to existing air quality standards. The assumption that C-R functions relating levels of exposure and levels of response estimated from historical data usefully predict how future changes in concentrations would change risks has seldom been carefully tested. This paper critically reviews literature on C-R functions for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality risks. We find that most of them describe historical associations rather than valid causal models for predicting effects of interventions that change concentrations. The few papers that explicitly attempt to model causality rely on unverified modeling assumptions, casting doubt on their predictions about effects of interventions. A large literature on modern causal inference algorithms for observational data has been little used in C-R modeling. Applying these methods to publicly available data from Boston and the South Coast Air Quality Management District around Los Angeles shows that C-R functions estimated for one do not hold for the other. Changes in month-specific PM2.5 concentrations from one year to the next do not help to predict corresponding changes in average elderly mortality rates in either location. Thus, the assumption that estimated C-R relations predict effects of pollution-reducing interventions may not be true. Better causal modeling methods are needed to better predict how reducing air pollution would affect public health.

  6. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  7. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  8. Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 was collected in situ from peat smoke during the 2015 El Niño peat fire episode in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Twenty-one PM samples were collected from 18 peat fire plumes that were primarily smoldering with modified combustion efficiency (MCE values of 0.725–0.833. PM emissions were determined and chemically characterized for elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-soluble OC, water-soluble ions, metals, and organic species. Fuel-based PM2.5 mass emission factors (EFs ranged from 6.0 to 29.6 g kg−1 with an average of 17.3 ± 6.0 g kg−1. EC was detected only in 15 plumes and comprised  ∼ 1 % of PM mass. Together, OC (72 %, EC (1 %, water-soluble ions (1 %, and metal oxides (0.1 % comprised 74 ± 11 % of gravimetrically measured PM mass. Assuming that the remaining mass is due to elements that form organic matter (OM; i.e., elements O, H, N an OM-to-OC conversion factor of 1.26 was estimated by linear regression. Overall, chemical speciation revealed the following characteristics of peat-burning emissions: high OC mass fractions (72 %, primarily water-insoluble OC (84 ± 11 %C, low EC mass fractions (1 %, vanillic to syringic acid ratios of 1.9, and relatively high n-alkane contributions to OC (6.2 %C with a carbon preference index of 1.2–1.6. Comparison to laboratory studies of peat combustion revealed similarities in the relative composition of PM but greater differences in the absolute EF values. The EFs developed herein, combined with estimates of the mass of peat burned, are used to estimate that 3.2–11 Tg of PM2.5 was emitted to atmosphere during the 2015 El Niño peatland fire event in Indonesia. Combined with gas-phase measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, and volatile organic carbon from Stockwell et al. (2016, it is determined that OC and EC accounted for 2.1 and 0.04 % of total carbon emissions, respectively. These in situ EFs can be used to

  9. Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Gilbert, Ashley A.; Daugherty, Kaitlyn; Cochrane, Mark A.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Putra, Erianto I.; Saharjo, Bambang H.; Nurhayati, Ati D.; Albar, Israr; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected in situ from peat smoke during the 2015 El Niño peat fire episode in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Twenty-one PM samples were collected from 18 peat fire plumes that were primarily smoldering with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) values of 0.725-0.833. PM emissions were determined and chemically characterized for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC, water-soluble ions, metals, and organic species. Fuel-based PM2.5 mass emission factors (EFs) ranged from 6.0 to 29.6 g kg-1 with an average of 17.3 ± 6.0 g kg-1. EC was detected only in 15 plumes and comprised ∼ 1 % of PM mass. Together, OC (72 %), EC (1 %), water-soluble ions (1 %), and metal oxides (0.1 %) comprised 74 ± 11 % of gravimetrically measured PM mass. Assuming that the remaining mass is due to elements that form organic matter (OM; i.e., elements O, H, N) an OM-to-OC conversion factor of 1.26 was estimated by linear regression. Overall, chemical speciation revealed the following characteristics of peat-burning emissions: high OC mass fractions (72 %), primarily water-insoluble OC (84 ± 11 %C), low EC mass fractions (1 %), vanillic to syringic acid ratios of 1.9, and relatively high n-alkane contributions to OC (6.2 %C) with a carbon preference index of 1.2-1.6. Comparison to laboratory studies of peat combustion revealed similarities in the relative composition of PM but greater differences in the absolute EF values. The EFs developed herein, combined with estimates of the mass of peat burned, are used to estimate that 3.2-11 Tg of PM2.5 was emitted to atmosphere during the 2015 El Niño peatland fire event in Indonesia. Combined with gas-phase measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, and volatile organic carbon from Stockwell et al. (2016), it is determined that OC and EC accounted for 2.1 and 0.04 % of total carbon emissions, respectively. These in situ EFs can be used to improve the

  10. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  11. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  12. Impact of 2000–2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality inferred from a multi-model analysis of meteorological modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effect of climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality using general circulation models (GCMs show inconsistent results including in the sign of the effect. This reflects uncertainty in the GCM simulations of the regional meteorological variables affecting PM2.5. Here we use the CMIP3 archive of data from fifteen different IPCC AR4 GCMs to obtain improved statistics of 21st-century trends in the meteorological modes driving PM2.5 variability over the contiguous US. We analyze 1999–2010 observations to identify the dominant meteorological modes driving interannual PM2.5 variability and their synoptic periods T. We find robust correlations (r > 0.5 of annual mean PM2.5 with T, especially in the eastern US where the dominant modes represent frontal passages. The GCMs all have significant skill in reproducing present-day statistics for T and we show that this reflects their ability to simulate atmospheric baroclinicity. We then use the local PM2.5-to-period sensitivity (dPM2.5/dT from the 1999–2010 observations to project PM2.5 changes from the 2000–2050 changes in T simulated by the 15 GCMs following the SRES A1B greenhouse warming scenario. By weighted-average statistics of GCM results we project a likely 2000–2050 increase of ~ 0.1 μg m−3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the eastern US arising from less frequent frontal ventilation, and a likely decrease albeit with greater inter-GCM variability in the Pacific Northwest due to more frequent maritime inflows. Potentially larger regional effects of 2000–2050 climate change on PM2.5 may arise from changes in temperature, biogenic emissions, wildfires, and vegetation, but are still unlikely to affect annual PM2.5 by more than 0.5 μg m−3.

  13. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

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    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  15. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM 2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM 2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + , C 2 O 4 2- ) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM 2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO 4 2- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO 4 2- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca 2+ , and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM 2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca 2+ to personal PM 2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The desert southwestern United States routinely exceeds health-based standards for coarse particulate matter [1]. PM10 concentrations are high in both urban and rural areas and are believed to originate from fugitive dust emissions from agricultural fields and roads and soil erosion from the surrounding desert locations. Soil together with its associated biota contains a complex mixture of biogenic detritus, including plant detritus, airborne microbes comprised of bacteria, viruses, spores of lichens and fungi, small algae, and protozoan cysts [4][5], which can mostly become airborne when winds are strong enough and soil dry enough to be re-entrained into the atmosphere [3]. Other potential sources to PM10 may include primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), given a multitude of flower, grass, and fungal species that thrive in the Sonoran desert and actively release pollens and spores throughout the year [2]. However, because soil and fugitive dust is also believed to contain a large number of these biological particles and is considered as a secondary host of PBAPs [3] [4], the role and contribution of PBAPs as a direct ambient PM source in the desert southwest have not been clearly stated or investigated. In an effort to identify and assess the relative contribution of these and other major PM sources in the southwestern US region, and particularly to assess the contribution from soil and fugitive dust, a series of ambient PM samples and soil samples were collected in Higley, AZ, USA, a suburb of the Phoenix metropolitan area which has seen rapid urban sprawl onto agricultural lands. Because of their suggested ability to track biologically important organic materials from natural environment [4][6][7][8][9][10], saccharides were chosen as the key compounds to trace the release of soil dusts into the atmosphere, and to elucidate other major sources that contribute to the PM levels in this location in the arid southwestern US. To this end, saccharide compounds

  17. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  18. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  19. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Fine, Phillip M; Hays, Michael D; Schauer, James J; Hannigan, Michael P

    2009-01-15

    Size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected during a severe winter pollution episode at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California were extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for detailed organic compounds using GC-MS. Six particle size fractions were characterized with diameter (Dp) < 1.8 microm; the smallest size fraction was 0.056 < Dp < 0.1 microm which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Source profiles for ultrafine particles developed during previous studies were applied to the measurements at each sampling site to calculate source contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. Ultrafine EC concentrations ranged from 0.03 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.18 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products accounted for the majority of the ultrafine EC concentrations, with relatively minor contributions from biomass combustion and meat cooking. Ultrafine OC concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.8 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Wood combustion was found to be the largest source of ultrafine OC. Meat cooking was also identified as a significant potential source of PM0.1 mass but further study is required to verify the contributions from this source. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products made minor contributions to PM0.1 OC mass. Total ultrafine particulate matter concentrations were dominated by contributions from wood combustion and meat cooking during the current study. Future inhalation exposure studies may wish to target these sources as potential causes of adverse health effects.

  20. Combined effects of exposure to dim light at night and fine particulate matter on C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-11-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced in vitro toxicity of fine particulate matter collected during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing: the roles of chemical and biological components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yu; Zhu, Tong; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Frankenberger, Birgit; Tian, Feng; Chen, Chenyong; Stoeger, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Beijing has implemented systematic air pollution control legislation to reduce particulate emissions and improve air quality during the 2008 Summer Olympics, but whether the toxicity of fine fraction of particles (PM(2.5)) would be changed remains unclear. In present study we compared in vitro biological responses of PM(2.5) collected before and during the Olympics and tried to reveal possible correlations between its chemical components and toxicological mechanism(s). We measured cytotoxicity, cytokines/chemokines, and related gene expressions in murine alveolar macrophages, MH-S, after treated with 20 PM(2.5) samples. Significant, dose-dependent effects on cell viability, cytokine/chemokine release and mRNA expressions were observed. The cytotoxicity caused at equal mass concentration of PM(2.5) was notably reduced (p<0.05) by control measures, and significant association was found for viability and elemental zinc in PM(2.5). Endotoxin content in PM(2.5) correlated with all of the eight detected cytokines/chemokines; elemental and organic carbon correlated with four; arsenic and chromium correlated with six and three, respectively; iron and barium showed associations with two; nickel, magnesium, potassium, and calcium showed associations with one. PM(2.5) toxicity in Beijing was substantially dependent on its chemical components, and lowering the levels of specific components in PM(2.5) during the 2008 Olympics resulted in reduced biological responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  3. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  4. Isolating the Meteorological Impact of 21st Century GHG Warming on the Removal and Atmospheric Loading of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter Pollution at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2018-03-01

    Particulate matter with the diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) poses health threats to human population. Regardless of efforts to regulate the pollution sources, it is unclear how climate change caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) would affect PM2.5 levels. Using century-long ensemble simulations with Community Earth System Model 1 (CESM1), we show that, if the anthropogenic emissions would remain at the level in the year 2005, the global surface concentration and atmospheric column burden of sulfate, black carbon, and primary organic carbon would still increase by 5%-10% at the end of 21st century (2090-2100) due to global warming alone. The decrease in the wet removal flux of PM2.5, despite an increase in global precipitation, is the primary cause of the increase in the PM2.5 column burden. Regionally over North America and East Asia, a shift of future precipitation toward more frequent heavy events contributes to weakened wet removal fluxes. Our results suggest climate change impact needs to be accounted for to define the future emission standards necessary to meet air quality standard.

  5. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin pathway by fine particulate matter in haze: Roles of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Cao, Jun-Ji; Lee, Chii-Hong; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huynh, Thanh-Tuan; Han, Yong-Ming; Li, Xiang-Dong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-05-01

    Air pollution might have a great impact on pulmonary health, but biological evidence in response to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5) has been lacking. Physicochemical characterization of haze PM2.5 collected from Beijing, Xian and Hong Kong was performed. Biological pathways were identified by proteomic profiling in mouse lungs, suggesting that WNT/β-catenin is important in the response to haze PM2.5. Suppression of β-catenin levels, activation of caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, as well as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ production, were observed in the lungs. The inhibition of β-catenin, TCF4 and cyclin D1 was observed in vitro in response to haze PM2.5. The inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling, apoptosis-related results (caspase-3 and alveolar destruction), and inflammation, particularly including caspase-3 and alveolar destruction, were more highly associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze PM2.5. In conclusion, decreased WNT/β-catenin expression modulated by haze PM2.5 could be involved in alveolar destruction and inflammation during haze episodes.

  6. Association of Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter with Skin Symptoms in Schoolchildren: A Panel Study in a Rural Area of Western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have unmasked the deleterious effects of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 on health. However, epidemiologic evidence focusing on the effects of PM2.5 on skin health remains limited. An important aspect of Asian dust (AD in relationship to health is the amount of PM2.5 contained therein. Several studies have demonstrated that AD can aggravate skin symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD particles on skin symptoms in schoolchildren. A total of 339 children recorded daily skin symptom scores during February 2015. Light detection and ranging were used to calculate AD particle size. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among skin symptoms and the daily levels of PM2.5 and AD particles. Increases in the levels of PM2.5 and AD particles were not related to an increased risk of skin symptom events, with increases of 10.1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01 km−1 in AD particles changing odds ratios by 1.03 and 0.99, respectively. These results suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD does not impact skin symptoms in schoolchildren.

  7. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-13

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  8. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  9. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate

  10. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  11. Fast inverse distance weighting-based spatiotemporal interpolation: a web-based application of interpolating daily fine particulate matter PM2:5 in the contiguous U.S. using parallel programming and k-d tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-09-03

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  12. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2002-01-01

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  13. Feasibility of using low-cost portable particle monitors for measurement of fine and coarse particulate matter in urban ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Inkyu; Symanski, Elaine; Stock, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is known as a significant risk factor for mortality and morbidity due to cardiorespiratory causes. Owing to increased interest in assessing personal and community exposures to PM, we evaluated the feasibility of employing a low-cost portable direct-reading instrument for measurement of ambient air PM exposure. A Dylos DC 1700 PM sensor was collocated with a Grimm 11-R in an urban residential area of Houston Texas. The 1-min averages of particle number concentrations for sizes between 0.5 and 2.5 µm (small size) and sizes larger than 2.5 µm (large size) from a DC 1700 were compared with the 1-min averages of PM 2.5 (aerodynamic size less than 2.5 µm) and coarse PM (aerodynamic size between 2.5 and 10 µm) concentrations from a Grimm 11-R. We used a linear regression equation to convert DC 1700 number concentrations to mass concentrations, utilizing measurements from the Grimm 11-R. The estimated average DC 1700 PM 2.5 concentration (13.2 ± 13.7 µg/m 3 ) was similar to the average measured Grimm 11-R PM 2.5 concentration (11.3 ± 15.1 µg/m 3 ). The overall correlation (r 2 ) for PM 2.5 between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R was 0.778. The estimated average coarse PM concentration from the DC 1700 (5.6 ± 12.1 µg/m 3 ) was also similar to that measured with the Grimm 11-R (4.8 ± 16.5 µg/m 3 ) with an r 2 of 0.481. The effects of relative humidity and particle size on the association between the DC 1700 and the Grimm 11-R results were also examined. The calculated PM mass concentrations from the DC 1700 were close to those measured with the Grimm 11-R when relative humidity was less than 60% for both PM 2.5 and coarse PM. Particle size distribution was more important for the association of coarse PM between the DC 1700 and Grimm 11-R than it was for PM 2.5 . The performance of a low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensor was evaluated in an urban residential area. Both PM 2.5 and coarse PM (PM 10-2.5 ) mass concentrations

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Three Study Populations: KORA F3, KORA F4, and the Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Tommaso; Mehta, Amar J; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Just, Allan C; Wolf, Kathrin; Wahl, Simone; Cyrys, Josef; Kunze, Sonja; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and cancer and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. DNA methylation has been identified as a possible link but so far it has only been analyzed in candidate sites. We studied the association between DNA methylation and short- and mid-term air pollution exposure using genome-wide data and identified potential biological pathways for additional investigation. We collected whole blood samples from three independent studies-KORA F3 (2004-2005) and F4 (2006-2008) in Germany, and the Normative Aging Study (1999-2007) in the United States-and measured genome-wide DNA methylation proportions with the Illumina 450k BeadChip. PM concentration was measured daily at fixed monitoring stations and three different trailing averages were considered and regressed against DNA methylation: 2-day, 7-day and 28-day. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the study-specific results. Random-effect meta-analysis revealed 12 CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites as associated with PM concentration (1 for 2-day average, 1 for 7-day, and 10 for 28-day) at a genome-wide Bonferroni significance level (p ≤ 7.5E-8); 9 out of these 12 sites expressed increased methylation. Through estimation of I2 for homogeneity assessment across the studies, 4 of these sites (annotated in NSMAF, C1orf212, MSGN1, NXN) showed p > 0.05 and I2 F4, and the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:983-990; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509966.

  15. Evaluation of cellular effects of fine particulate matter from combustion of solid fuels used for indoor heating on the Navajo Nation using a stratified oxidative stress response model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Champion, Wyatt M.; Imam, Jemal; Sidhu, Damansher; Salazar, Joseph R.; Majestic, Brian J.; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2018-06-01

    Communities in the Navajo Nation face public health burdens caused in part by the combustion of wood and coal for indoor heating using stoves that are old or in disrepair. Wood and coal combustion emits particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter combustion-derived PM2.5 on Navajo Nation residents. This study tested the hypothesis that PM2.5 generated from solid fuel combustion in stoves commonly used by Navajo residents would induce stratified oxidative stress responses ranging from activation of antioxidant defense to inflammation and cell death in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). PM2.5 emitted from burning Ponderosa Pine (PP) and Utah Juniper (UJ) wood and Black Mesa (BM) and Fruitland (FR) coal in a stove representative of those widely used by Navajo residents were collected, and their aqueous suspensions used for cellular exposure. PM from combustion of wood had significantly more elemental carbon (EC) (15%) and soluble Ni (0.0029%) than the samples from coal combustion (EC: 3%; Ni: 0.0019%) and was also a stronger activator of antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (11-fold increase vs. control) than that from coal (5-fold increase). Only PM from PP-wood (12-fold) and BM-coal (3-fold) increased the release of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. Among all samples, PP-wood consistently had the strongest oxidative stress and inflammatory effects. PM components, i.e. low-volatility organic carbon, EC, Cu, Ni and K were positively correlated with the cellular responses. Results showed that, at the concentrations tested, emissions from all fuels did not have significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that PM2.5 emitted from combustion of wood and coal commonly used by Navajo residents may negatively impact the health of this community.

  16. Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5 in Urban Hotspots of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the spatiotemporal distributions of black carbon (BC and particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 m (PM2.5 concentrations at urban diesel engine emission (DEE hotspots of South Korea. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were measured at the entrance gate of two diesel bus terminals and a train station, in 2014. Measurements were conducted simultaneously at the hotspot (Site 1 and at its adjacent, randomly selected, residential areas, apartment complex near major roadways, located with the same direction of 300 m (Site 2 and 500 m (Site 3 away from Site 1 on 4 different days over the season, thrice per day; morning (n = 120 measurements for each day and site, evening (n = 120, and noon (n = 120. The median (interquartile range PM2.5 ranged from 12.6 (11.3–14.3 to 60.1 (47.0–76.0 μg/m3 while those of BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 (1.9–3.7 to 6.3 (4.2–10.3 μg/m3. We observed a strong relationship of PM2.5 concentrations between sites (slopes 0.89–0.9, the coefficient of determination 0.89–0.96 while the relationship for BC concentrations between sites was relatively weak (slopes 0.76–0.85, the coefficient of determination 0.54–0.72. PM2.5 concentrations were changed from 4% to 140% by unit increase of BC concentration, depending on site and time while likely supporting the necessity of monitoring of BC as well as PM2.5, especially at urban DEE related hotspot areas.

  17. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate Matter (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting ... U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department ...

  18. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  19. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  20. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  1. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  2. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  3. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  4. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  5. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  6. Measurement of fine particulate matter water-soluble inorganic species and precursor gases in the Alberta Oil Sands Region using an improved semicontinuous monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Clair, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The ambient ion monitor-ion chromatography (AIM-IC) system, which provides hourly measurements of the main chemical components of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diametergases, was evaluated and deployed from May to July 2011 and April to December 2013 in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northeastern Alberta, Canada. The collection efficiencies for the gas-phase SO2 and HNO3 using the cellulose membrane were 96% and 100%, respectively, and the collection efficiency of NH3 using the nylon membrane was 100%. The AIM-IC was compared with a collocated annular denuder sampling system (ADSS) and a Federal Reference Method (FRM) Partisol PM2.5 sampler. The correlation coefficients of SO4(2-) concentrations between the AIM-IC and ADSS and between the AIM-IC and the Partisol PM2.5 sampler were 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. The comparisons also showed no statistically significant difference between the measurement sets, suggesting that the AIM-IC measurements of the PM2.5 chemical composition are comparable to the ADSS and Partisol PM2.5 methods. NH3 concentration in the summer (mean±standard deviation, 1.9±0.7 µg m(-3)) was higher than in the winter (1.3±0.9 µg m(-3)). HNO3 and NO3- concentrations were generally low in the AOSR, and especially in the winter months. NH4+ (0.94±0.96 µg m(-3)) and SO4(2-) (0.58±0.93 µg m(-3)) were the major ionic species of PM2.5. Direct SO2 emissions from oil sands processing operations influenced ambient particulate NH4+ and SO4(2-) values, with hourly concentrations of NH4+ and SO4(2-) measured downwind (~30 km away from the stack) at 10 and 28 µg m(-3). During the regional forest fire event in 2011, high concentrations of NO3-, NH4+, HNO3, NH3, and PM2.5 were observed and the corresponding maximum hourly concentrations were 31, 15, 9.6, 89, and >450 (the upper limit of PM2.5 measurement) µg m(-3), suggesting the formation of NH4NO3. The AOSR in Canada is one of the most scrutinized industrial regions in the

  7. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  8. Estimation of disease burdens on preterm births and low birth weights attributable to maternal fine particulate matter exposure in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anni; Qian, Naisi; Yu, Huiting; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2017-12-31

    Studies have shown that maternal exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) was associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). However, the burdens of PTB and LBW attributable to PM 2.5 were rarely evaluated, especially in developing countries. To estimate the burdens of PTBs and LBWs attributable to outdoor PM 2.5 in Shanghai, China. We collected annual-average PM 2.5 concentrations, concentration-response relationships between PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy and PTBs and LBWs, rates of PTB and LBW, number of live births, and population sizes in grids of 10km×10km in Shanghai in 2013. Then, they were combined to estimate the odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs), attributable fractions (AFs), and numbers of PTBs and LBWs associated with PM 2.5 exposure. The population-weighted annual-average concentration of PM 2.5 in Shanghai was 56.19μg/m 3 in 2013. According to the first-class limit of PM 2.5 (15μg/m 3 ) in the Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the weighted RRs of PTBs or LBWs associated with PM 2.5 in Shanghai were 1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.80] and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.04-1.67), respectively. There might be 32.61% (95% CI: 13.93%-44.42%) or 4160 (95% CI: 1778-5667) PTBs and 23.36% (95% CI: 3.86%-40.02%) or 1882 (95% CI: 311-3224) LBWs attributable to PM 2.5 exposure. The estimates varied appreciably among different districts of Shanghai. Our analysis suggested that outdoor PM 2.5 air pollution might have led to considerable burdens of PTBs and LBWs in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Estimation of Satellite-Based SO42- and NH4+ Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Over China Using Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Y.; Li, S.; Chen, L.; Yu, C.; Zhu, W.

    2018-04-01

    follows: winter > summer > autumn > spring. High concentrations of these species were concentrated in the NCP and SCB, originating from coal-fired power plants and agricultural activities, respectively. Efforts to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have yielded remarkable results since the government has adopted stricter control measures in recent years. Moreover, ammonia emissions should be controlled while reducing the concentration of sulfur, nitrogen and particulate matter. This study provides an assessment of the population's exposure to certain chemical components.

  10. Interactive effects of specific fine particulate matter compositions and airborne pollen on frequency of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosri, Arthit; Ueda, Kayo; Tasmin, Saira; Kishikawa, Reiko; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hara, Keiichiro; Uehara, Yamato; Phung, Vera Ling Hui; Yasukouchi, Shusuke; Konishi, Shoko; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have revealed the interactive effects of airborne pollen and particulate matter on the daily consultations for pollinosis, but it is uncertain which compositions are responsible. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effects of specific PM 2.5 compositions and airborne pollen on the daily number of clinic visits for pollinosis in Fukuoka. We obtained daily data on pollen concentrations, PM 2.5 compositions, PM 2.5 mass, gaseous pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 ), and weather variables monitored in Fukuoka between February and April, 2002-2012. In total, 73,995 clinic visits for pollinosis were made at 10 clinics in Fukuoka Prefecture during the study period. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to examine the interactive effects. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and its compositions were stratified into low (85th percentile) levels, and the association between airborne pollen and daily clinic visits for pollinosis was analyzed within each level. We found a significant interaction between specific PM 2.5 compositions and airborne pollen. Specifically, the odds ratio of daily clinic visits for pollinosis per interquartile increase in pollen concentration (39.8 grains/cm 2 ) at the average cumulative lag of 0 and 2 days during high levels of non-sea-salt Ca 2+ was 1.446 (95% CI: 1.323-1.581), compared to 1.075 (95% CI: 1.067-1.083) when only moderate levels were observed. This result remained significant when other air pollutants were incorporated into the model and was fairly persistent even when different percentile cut-off points were used. A similar interaction was found when we stratified the data according to non-sea-salt SO 4 2- levels. This finding differed from estimates made according to PM 2.5 and NO 3 - levels, which predicted that the effects of pollen were strongest in the lower levels. Associations between airborne pollen and daily clinic visits for pollinosis could be enhanced by high levels of specific PM 2

  11. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  12. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  13. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  14. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0 and Coarse (PM10–2.5 Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Byeon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor and indoor (subway samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX. Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0 in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5 with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83% and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%. As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  15. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  16. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  17. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  18. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gabriela Karottki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF, lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16 and surfactant protein-D (SPD were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC, weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.

  19. Distribution spatiale intra-urbaine des particules fines : monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2014 ... En outre, l'accumulation des particules fines est faible pendant un mois pluvieux par rapport à un mois sec ..... benjamina, et la structure (tige, branches) des arborées ... par Zhang et al., (2006) sur des feuilles de Pinus pumila.

  20. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, P. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring

    2007-07-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Atmospheric particulate matter within the Sudbury footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, P.; Spiers, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess health and risks to ecosystems, measuring exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine dust and their association with metals in the air is necessary. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the concentration, particle size distribution and spatial dispersion of metals in total and fractioned airborne dust. The study involved collection of airborne dust samples at five different sites over a one year period in the Sudbury area, including one control site located downwind of the south-westerly most industrial emission source. The paper discussed the goals and objectives of the project which included analysis of total concentration of particulate matter (PM) within various size fractions; analysis of concentration of selected metals such as arsenic, zinc, copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and lead as well as the species of sulphur within those size fractions; delineation between particle chemistry of both short and long range transport origin; determining the effects of the different seasons on PM concentrations, and establish any seasonal/temperature trends that may occur. The paper also discussed the methodology for the study with reference to sampling sites, sampling equipment, sampling schedule, mass determination, and chemical analysis. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the total metals concentration in airborne dust. The results of the study were also presented. It was concluded that PM analysis within the Sudbury footprint indicated that the finer fractions primarily contained the highest weight and metal concentration. In addition, sulphate seemed to be the only species of sulphur present in the different size fractions at each site. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  2. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  3. Exposure to the elemental carbon, organic carbon, nitrate and sulfate fractions of fine particulate matter and risk of preterm birth in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees, but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied.OBJECTIVE:We estimated risk differences (RD) of PTB (reported per 106 pregnancies...

  4. Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.

    Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

  5. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. Methods We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002–2009 and resided in NC. Exposure to PM2.5 for the year prior to catheterization was estimated using data from air quality monitors (AQS), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) fused models at the census tract and 12 km spatial resolutions, and satellite-based models at 10 km and 1 km resolutions. Case status was either a coronary artery disease (CAD) index >23 or a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Logistic regression was used to model odds of having CAD or an MI with each 1-unit (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, adjusting for sex, race, smoking status, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. Results We found that the elevated odds for CAD>23 and MI were nearly equivalent for all exposure assessment methods. One difference was that data from AQS and the census tract CMAQ showed a rural/urban difference in relative risk, which was not apparent with the satellite or 12 km-CMAQ models. Conclusions

  6. Smog episodes, fine particulate pollution and mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maigeng; He, Guojun; Fan, Maoyong; Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Jing; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Jiangmei; Liu, Yunning; Wang, Linhong; Liu, Yuanli

    2015-01-01

    Starting from early January 2013, northern China was hit by multiple prolonged and severe smog events which were characterized by extremely high-level concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with hourly peaks of PM2.5 over 800 µg/m(3). However, the consequences of this severe air pollution are largely unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of the smog episodes and PM2.5 on mortality for both urban and rural areas in northern China. We collected PM2.5, mortality, and meteorological data for 5 urban city districts and 2 rural counties in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province of China from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013. We employed the generalized additive models to estimate the associations between smog episodes or PM2.5 and daily mortality for each district/county. Without any meteorological control, the smog episodes are positively and statistically significantly associated with mortality in 5 out of 7 districts/counties. However, the findings are sensitive to the meteorological factors. After controlling for temperature, humidity, dew point and wind, the statistical significance disappears in all urban districts. In contrast, the smog episodes are consistently and statistically significantly associated with higher total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular/respiratory diseases in the two rural counties. In Ji County, a smog episode is associated with 6.94% (95% Confidence Interval, -0.20 to 14.58) increase in overall mortality, and in Ci County it is associated with a 19.26% (95% CI, 6.66-33.34) increase in overall mortality. The smog episodes kill people primarily through its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. On average, a smog episode is associated with 11.66% (95% CI, 3.12-20.90) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ji County, and it is associated with a 22.23% (95% CI, 8.11-38.20) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ci County. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2

  7. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  8. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of the physical–chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles’ equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical–chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity. - Highlights: • Airborne pollen sorbs other PM found in suspension. • 84% of the particles sorbed belonged to the fine aerosol fraction. • Adsorbed PM presented daily physical–chemical variations. • Particles sorbed dominated by Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Fe-rich and Cl-rich. - Airborne pollen is able to transport finer particulate matter, which presents daily physical–chemical variations.

  9. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  10. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Sansoni, B.

    1988-11-01

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  11. Impacts of 2000-2050 Climate Change on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Quality in China Based on Statistical Projections Using an Ensemble of Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D. M.; Tai, A. P. K.; Shen, L.; Moch, J. M.; van Donkelaar, A.; Mickley, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality is strongly dependent on not only on emissions but also meteorological conditions. Here we examine the dominant synoptic circulation patterns that control day-to-day PM2.5 variability over China. We perform principal component (PC) analysis on 1998-2016 NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I daily meteorological fields to diagnose distinct synoptic meteorological modes, and perform PC regression on spatially interpolated 2014-2016 daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in China to identify modes dominantly explaining PM2.5 variability. We find that synoptic systems, e.g., cold-frontal passages, maritime inflow and frontal precipitation, can explain up to 40% of the day-to-day PM2.5 variability in major metropolitan regions in China. We further investigate how annually changing frequencies of synoptic systems, as well as changing local meteorology, drive interannual PM2.5 variability. We apply a spectral analysis on the PC time series to obtain the 1998-2016 annual median synoptic frequency, and use a forward-selection multiple linear regression (MLR) model of satellite-derived 1998-2015 annual mean PM2.5 concentrations on local meteorology and synoptic frequency, selecting predictors that explain the highest fraction of interannual PM2.5 variability while guarding against multicollinearity. To estimate the effect of climate change on future PM2.5 air quality, we project a multimodel ensemble of 15 CMIP5 models under the RCP8.5 scenario on the PM2.5-to-meteorology sensitivities derived for the present-day from the MLR model. Our results show that climate change could be responsible for increases in PM2.5 of more than 25 μg m-3 in northwestern China and 10 mg m-3 in northeastern China by the 2050s. Increases in synoptic frequency of cold-frontal passages cause only a modest 1 μg m-3 decrease in PM2.5 in North China Plain. Our analyses show that climate change imposes a significant penalty on air quality over China and poses serious threat on

  12. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  13. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  14. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Predict Irritant Potential of Smoke Particulate Matter from Five Biomass Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past few decades, the drying and warming trends of global climate change have increased wildland fire (WF) season length, as well as geographic area impacted. Consequently, exposures to WF fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) are likely ...

  15. Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigo, Devanir; Godoi, Ana F L; Janissek, Paulo R; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Krata, Agnieszka; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Alfoldy, Balint; Van Grieken, René; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2008-06-01

    The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels.

  16. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  17. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  18. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  19. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  20. Electromagnetic characterization of fine-scale particulate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, P.; Konn, A.M.; Brosseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of the composition and frequency-dependent complex permittivity and permeability of ZnO and γ-Fe 2 O 3 composites prepared by powder pressing. The electromagnetic properties of these materials exhibit a strong dependence on the powder size of the starting materials. In the microwave frequency range, the permittivity and permeability show nonlinear variations with volume fraction of Fe 2 O 3 . As the particle size decreases from a few micrometers to a few tens of nanometers, the data indicate that local mesostructural factors such as shape anisotropy, porosity and possible effect of the binder are likely to be intertwined in the understanding of electromagnetic properties of fine-scale particulate composite materials

  1. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  2. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 1: design, sampling and analysis for an experimental campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro E, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work describes the siting and sampling procedures of collecting airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, determining its chemical composition and daily behaviour. The airborne particulate matter was collected onto polycarbonate membranes, one of fine pore and other of coarse pore, using Pm 10 samplers. The material was analyzed using neutron activation analysis., proton induced X ray emission, X ray fluorescence, voltametry, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and isotope dilution. (author). 1 tab

  3. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  4. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  5. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  6. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  7. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  8. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  9. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  10. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  11. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  12. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    To assist states in developing air quality standards, this book offers a review of literature related to atmospheric particulates and the development of criteria for air quality. It not only summarizes the current scientific knowledge of particulate air pollution, but points up the major deficiencies in that knowledge and the need for further…

  13. Thorium-particulate matter interaction. Thorium complexing capacity of oceanic particulate matter: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Tanque, Eiichiro

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between thorium and oceanic particulate matter was examined experimentally by using chemical equilibrium techniques. Thorium reacts quantitatively with the organic binding site of Particulate Matter (PM) in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution by complexation, which is equilibrated within 34 h. According to mass balance analysis, thorium forms a 1:1 complex with the organic binding site in PM, whose conditional stability constant is 10 6.6 L/mol. The Th adsorption ability is present even in 6.9 mol/L HCl solution although the amount of Th adsorption decreases with increasing acidity in the solution. Interferences to Th adsorption by Fe(III) suggests that other metals cannot react with PM in more than 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions when concentrations of other metals are the same level of Th. The competitive reaction between Th and Fe(III) occurs in higher Fe concentrations, which means that the organic binding site is nonspecific for Th. A vertical profile of Th complexing capacity of PM in the western North Pacific is characterized; that is, the Th complexing capacity shows a surface maximum and decreases rapidly with depth

  14. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...

  15. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  16. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  17. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  18. Characterizing health impacts from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigon, Bruce; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  19. Individual-Level Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter Chemical Components and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Based on 2 Advanced Exposure Prediction Models in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; Larson, Timothy V.; Adar, Sara D.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Polak, Joseph F.; Vedal, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to outdoor particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The chemical composition of PM2.5 that may be most responsible for producing these associations has not been identified. We assessed cross-sectional associations between long-term concentrations of PM2.5 and 4 of its chemical components (sulfur, silicon, elemental carbon, and organic carbon (OC)) and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium, between 2000 and 2002 among 5,488 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants residing in 6 US metropolitan areas. Long-term concentrations of PM2.5 components at participants' homes were predicted using both city-specific spatiotemporal models and a national spatial model. The estimated differences in CIMT associated with interquartile-range increases in sulfur, silicon, and OC predictions from the spatiotemporal model were 0.022 mm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.014, 0.031), 0.006 mm (95% CI: 0.000, 0.012), and 0.026 mm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.034), respectively. Findings were generally similar using the national spatial model predictions but were often sensitive to adjustment for city. We did not find strong evidence of associations with coronary artery calcium. Long-term concentrations of sulfur and OC, and possibly silicon, were associated with CIMT using 2 distinct exposure prediction modeling approaches. PMID:25164422

  20. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  1. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ab. Khalik Bin Haji Wood

    2006-01-01

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  2. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  3. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  4. Emission factors of fine particulate matter, organic and elemental carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide for four solid fuels commonly used in residential heating by the U.S. Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Connors, Lea; Montoya, Lupita D

    2017-09-01

    Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EFs) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (ponderosa pine and Utah juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASTM/EPA) protocol. Filter sampling quantified PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the emissions. Real-time monitoring quantified carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and total suspended particles (TSP). EFs for these air pollutants were developed and normalized to both fuel mass and energy consumed. In general, coal had significantly higher mass EFs than wood for all pollutants studied. In particular, coal emitted, on average, 10 times more PM 2.5 than wood on a mass basis, and 2.4 times more on an energy basis. The EFs developed here were based on fuel types, stove design, and operating protocols relevant to the Navajo Nation, but they could be useful to other Native Nations with similar practices, such as the nearby Hopi Nation. Indoor wood and coal combustion is an important contributor to public health burdens in the Navajo Nation. Currently, there exist no emission factors representative of Navajo homestoves, fuels, and practices. This study developed emission factors for PM 2.5 , OC, EC, CO, and CO 2 using a representative Navajo homestove. These emission factors may be utilized in regional-, national-, and global-scale health and environmental models. Additionally, the protocols developed and results presented here may inform on-going stove design of

  5. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  6. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  7. Sensitivity analyses of factors influencing CMAQ performance for fine particulate nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadera, Hikari; Hayami, Hiroshi; Chatani, Satoru; Morino, Yu; Mori, Yasuaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Improvement of air quality models is required so that they can be utilized to design effective control strategies for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was applied to the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan in winter 2010 and summer 2011. The model results were compared with observed concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium, and gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3). The model approximately reproduced PM2.5 SO4(2-) concentration, but clearly overestimated PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). This study conducted sensitivity analyses of factors associated with the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, including temperature and relative humidity, emission of nitrogen oxides, seasonal variation of NH3 emission, HNO3 and NH3 dry deposition velocities, and heterogeneous reaction probability of dinitrogen pentoxide. Change in NH3 emission directly affected NH3 concentration, and substantially affected NH4NO3 concentration. Higher dry deposition velocities of HNO3 and NH3 led to substantial reductions of concentrations of the gaseous species and NH4NO3. Because uncertainties in NH3 emission and dry deposition processes are probably large, these processes may be key factors for improvement of the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system clearly overestimated the concentration of fine particulate nitrate in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for factors associated with the model performance for nitrate. Ammonia emission and dry deposition of nitric acid and ammonia may be key factors for improvement of the model performance.

  8. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  9. Comparison and trend study on acidity and acidic buffering capacity of particulate matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lihong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qingyue; Yang, XiaoYang; Tang, Dagang

    2011-12-01

    The acidity of about 2000 particulate matter samples from aircraft and ground-based monitoring is analyzed by the method similar to soil acidity determination. The ground-based samples were collected at about 50 urban or background sites in northern and southern China. Moreover, the acidic buffering capacity of those samples is also analyzed by the method of micro acid-base titration. Results indicate that the acidity level is lower in most northern areas than those in the south, and the acidic buffering capacity showed inverse tendency, correspondingly. This is the most important reason why the pollution of acidic-precipitation is much more serious in Southern China than that in Northern China. The acidity increases and the acidic buffering capacity drops with the decreasing of the particle sizes, indicating that fine particle is the main influencing factor of the acidification. The ionic results show that Ca salt is the main alkaline substance in particulate matter, whereas the acidification of particulate matter is due to the SO 2 and NO x emitted from the fossil fuel burning. And among of them, coal burning is the main contributor of SO 2, however the contribution of NO x that emitted from fuel burning of motor vehicles has increased in recent years. By comparison of the experimental results during the past 20 years, it can be concluded that the acid precipitation of particulate matter has not been well controlled, and it even shows an increasing tendency in China lately. The acid precipitation of particulate matter has begun to frequently attack in part of the northern areas. Multiple regression analysis indicates that coefficient value of the ions is the lowest at the urban sites and the highest at the regional sites, whereas the aircraft measurement results are intermediate between those two kinds of sites.

  10. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  11. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  12. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  13. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  14. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  15. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method detection limit was also low (0.2 to 1 μg/L) for most metals, and 50% and less standard deviation to mean ratios were obtained for Ni and Pb. Key words: Toxic metals, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry, particulate matter, ...

  16. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  17. Exposure to fine particulate, black carbon, and particle number concentration in transportation microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Betancourt, R.; Galvis, B.; Balachandran, S.; Ramos-Bonilla, J. P.; Sarmiento, O. L.; Gallo-Murcia, S. M.; Contreras, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This research determined intake dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC), and number of sub-micron particles (Np) for commuters in Bogotá, Colombia. Doses were estimated through measurements of exposure concentration, a surrogate of physical activity, as well as travel times and speeds. Impacts of travel mode, traffic load, and street configuration on dose and exposure were explored. Three road segments were selected because of their different traffic loads and composition, and dissimilar street configuration. The transport modes considered include active modes (walking and cycling) and motorized modes (bus, car, taxi, and motorcycle). Measurements were performed simultaneously in the available modes at each road segment. High average eBC concentrations were observed throughout the campaign, ranging from 20 to 120 μgm-3 . Commuters in motorized modes experienced significantly higher exposure concentrations than pedestrians and bicyclists. The highest average concentrations of PM2.5, eBC , and Np were measured inside the city's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system vehicles. Pedestrians and bicycle users in an open street configuration were exposed to the lowest average concentrations of PM2.5 and eBC , six times lower than those experienced by commuters using the BRT in the same street segment. Pedestrians experienced the highest particulate matter intake dose in the road segments studied, despite being exposed to lower concentrations than commuters in motorized modes. Average potential dose of PM2.5 and eBC per unit length traveled were nearly three times higher for pedestrians in a street canyon configuration compared to commuters in public transport. Slower travel speed and elevated inhalation rates dominate PM dose for pedestrians. The presence of dedicated bike lanes on sidewalks has a significant impact on reducing the exposure concentration for bicyclists compared to those riding in mixed traffic lanes. This study proposes a simple

  18. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  19. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  20. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Freitas, M.C.; Alves, L.C.; Reis, M.; Bugalho de Almeida, A.; Moniz, D.; Monteiro, P.; Alvarez, E.

    2000-01-01

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  2. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  3. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  4. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  5. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberger, Steven R.; Ohtsuka, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  6. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  7. Effects of particulate air pollution on human health. Statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution; Partikulaere Luftverunreinigung und ihre Folgen fuer die menschliche Gesundheit. Stellungnahme der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie (DGP) zur aktuellen Feinstaub-Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)

  8. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacono, T.

    1996-07-01

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  9. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  10. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  11. Caracterização do material particulado fino e grosso e composição da fração inorgânica solúvel em água em São José dos Campos (SP Caracterization of fine and coarse particulate matter and composition of the water-soluble inorganic fraction in São José dos Campos (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alexandre de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air samples of fine (PM2,5 and coarse (PM2,5-10 particulate matter were collected in São José dos Campos from February 2004 to February 2005. Average PM10 mass concentrations was 31.2 ± 14.0 μg m-3, half of which belonging to the PM2.5 fraction. Ammonium and SO4(2- were predominantly found in the fine fraction. Average (NH42SO4 concentration was estimated to be about 2.9 μg m-3. Chloride, Na+ and NO3- were mostly associated with PM2,5-10. Chloride deficits with respect to sea-salt Cl/Na ratio were found in both size fractions.

  12. High-Latitude Wintertime Urban Pollution: Particulate Matter Composition and Temporal Trends in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W. R.; Nattinger, K.; Hooper, M.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude cities often experience severe pollution episodes during wintertime exacerbated by thermal inversion trapping of pollutant emissions. Fairbanks, Alaska is an extreme example of this problem, currently being classified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a "serious" non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For this reason, we have studied the chemical composition of PM2.5 at multiple EPA monitoring sites in the non-attainment area from 2006 to the present. The chemical composition is dominated by organic carbon with lesser amounts of black carbon and inorganic ionic species such as ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate. We find large spatial differences in composition and amount of PM2.5 that indicate a different mix of sources in residential areas as compared to the city center. Specifically, the difference in composition is consistent with increased wood smoke source in the residential areas. The extent to which organic matter could be secondary (formed through conversion of emitted gases) is also an area needing study. Ammonium sulfate is responsible for about a fifth to a quarter of the particles mass during the darkest months, possibly indicating a non-photochemical source of sulfate, but the chemical mechanism for this possible transformation is unclear. Therefore, we quantified the relationship between particulate sulfate concentrations and gas-phase sulfur dioxide concentrations along with particulate metals and inferred particulate acidity with the hopes that these data can assist in elucidation of the mechanism of particulate sulfate formation. We also analyze temporal trends in PM2.5 composition in an attempt to understand how the problem is changing over time and find most trends are small despite regulatory changes. Improving mechanistic understanding of particulate formation under cold and dark conditions could assist in reducing air-quality-related health effects.

  13. INAA of airborne particulate matter collected in Bangkok 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Tedthong, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper. (author)

  14. INAA of Airborne Particulate Matter Collected in Bangkok and Pathumthani 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the summary report of the monitoring study on ambient air quality in Bangkok metropolis and its boundary covering the period from 2002 to 2004. The work performed included sampling of fine and coarse fractions of particulate matter at the sites representing urban and suburban areas; measurement of particle mass concentration and elemental concentration; and data interpretation. Instrumental neutron activation by use of research reactor facilities at Office of Atoms for Peace was carried out for multielemental analysis of all filter samples collected. Twenty elements were determined. The database of the three consecutive years are summarized and reviewed in this paper

  15. Characterization of particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage: A landscape analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Jingli; Ma, Keming; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Guojian; Tang, Rongli; Zhang, Yuxin

    2017-12-01

    Plants can mitigate ambient particulate matter by cleaning the air, which is crucial to urban environments. A novel approach was presented to quantitatively characterize particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage. This approach could accurately quantify the number, size, shape, and spatial distribution of particles with different diameters on leaves. Spatial distribution is represented by proximity, which measures the closeness of particles. We sampled three common broadleaf species and obtained images through field emission scanning electron microscopy. We conducted the object-based method to extract particles from images. We then used Fragstats to analyze the landscape characteristics of these particles in term of selected metrics. Results reveal that Salix matsudana is more efficient than Ailanthus altissima and Fraxinus chinensis in terms of the number and area of particles per unit area and the proportion of fine particulate matter. The shape complexity of the particles increases with their size. Among the three species, S. matsudana and A. altissima particles respectively yield the highest and lowest proximity. PM1 in A. altissima and PM10 in F. chinensis and S. matsudana show the highest proximity, which may influence subsequent particle retention. S. matsudana should be generally considered to collect additional small particles. Different species and particle sizes exhibit various proximities, which should be further examined to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  16. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Hao; Yao, Lan; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Fanping; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Yang, Lingxiao; Lu, Keding; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanghang; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-03-01

    Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain) in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m-3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m-3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  17. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  18. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching from...... repacked sandy soil columns (length: 51 cm). Biochar (2 wt%), ammonium fertilizer (NH4+, amount corresponding to 300 kg N ha-1) and an inert tracer (bromide) were added to a 3-cm top layer of sandy loam, and the columns were then irrigated with constant rate (36 mm d-1) for 15 d. The total amount...... of leachate came to about 3.0 water filled pore volumes (WFPVs). Our study revealed a high mobility of labile C components originating from the fine particulate fast pyrolysis biochar. This finding highlights a potential risk of C leaching coupled with the use of fast pyrolysis biochars for soil amendment...

  20. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  1. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  2. Tackling the problem of fine particulate (HAP) collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K.; Sanyal, A.

    2000-07-01

    With increasing concern over the emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), measures are being considered to limit their discharge from many industrial sources. The main thrust o the proposed legislation is towards the power generators, because of their potentially large mass emissions, but also at specific targets, such as incinerators. Legislation already exists governing the emission of heavy metals, etc., from various types of incineration process and regulations controlling the emission of pM 2.5 material are proposed for the US. Provided the HAPs are in a solid particulate phase then their collection can be accomplished by correctly designed and operated control systems, such as electrostatic precipitators and bag filters. There are, however, other HAP species which are usually in a gaseous phase at normal back end temperatures, such as elemental mercury, dioxins, furans, etc. These need special consideration and equipment in order to satisfy the proposed regulations. one of the difficulties facing the designers and operators of processes giving rise to these species is the accurate measurement of these trace elements and predicting the uncontrolled emission level in order to size the collection system such as to remain in compliance. The options for the effective collection of these normally gaseous phase pollutants will be examined; these methods will include combined wet and dry collection, absorption and carbon injection systems. Finally, whichever system is finally considered and adopted, in order to satisfy and proposed regulations, will add significant capital and operating cost to the overall installation.

  3. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  4. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  5. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  6. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  7. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  8. [Comparison of atmospheric particulate matter and aerosol optical depth in Beijing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-Feng; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Zi-Rui; Chen, Chuan-Lei

    2013-03-01

    The pollution of particulate matter was serious in Beijing City from the synchronous observation of particulate matter mass concentration and aerosol optical characteristics in 2009. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were (65 +/- 14) microg x m(-3) and (117 +/- 31) microg x m(-3), respectively, which exceeded the national ambient air quality annual standards to be implemented in 2016. There were 35% and 26% days of 2009 that the daily standards were exceeded. There was a significant correlation between fine particulate (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10), with a correlation coefficient (R) of approximately 0.90 (P 500 nm) and Angstrom exponent were (0.55 +/- 0.1) and (1.12 +/- 0.08), respectively. There were significant correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and AOD in the four seasons and the whole year, and the correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.50. Furthermore, the correlation functions and coefficients had seasonal variations. The correlations were more significant in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. The annual correlation could cover up the seasonal systematic differences. The correlations between AOD revised by Mixed Layer Height and PM2.5 PM10 revised by Relative Humidity became stronger, and the exponential correlations were superior to the linear correlations.

  9. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piniero, T.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Reis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic ar...

  11. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) wit...

  12. Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

  13. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  14. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  15. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  16. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    different cropping systems, N fertilizer applications, and organic amendments, we found that C and N in the fine to medium sand fraction (0.063-0.600 mm, "Fraction B") showed considerably larger relative errors according to ANOVA (RMSE was 11-20% of the mean), slightly lower values of the F statistic......This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including......, and slightly less contrast between treatments than total organic C and N (RMSE 3-9% of the mean). Imprecision in laboratory procedures only explained part of the increase in RMSE for C and N in Fraction B compared with total C and N; within-field spatial variability most likely had a greater influence...

  17. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  18. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  19. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. PIXE analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in glas fibre filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Orsini, C.Q.; Maenhaut, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 3-step extraction procedure was developed to allow particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of particulate matter in normal glass fibre filter samples. The detection limits, expressed in ng/m 3 of air, for the filter extracts were 5 to 30 times lower than those achieved by PIXE analysis or ordinary Nuclepore polycarbonate filter samples. The concentration results were compared with those obtained from routine atomic absorption spectrometry measurements and with the PIXE data from Nuclepore stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel. (orig.)

  1. Surface water, particulate matter, and sediments of inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde (BfG) since 1958 runs a system for monitoring the surface water and sediments of Federal German waterways in its capacity as a directing water monitoring centre. The data recorded over the years show that the radioactivity released by the various emission sources leads to radionuclide concentrations in water, particulate matter, or sediments that generally are below the detection limits defined in the relevant legal provisions governing monitoring and surveillance of nuclear facilities effluents. Representative examples of measuring methods and results (as for e.g. for H-3) are given. (DG) [de

  2. The filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.; Mustonen, R.

    1987-06-01

    Within the radioecological programme of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy (NKA), the possible consequences of a major reactor accident are one of its main research branches. This study of the filtering effect of buildings on airborne particulate matter has been one part of this branch. The absorbed dose to a person from a passing radioactive cloud will be lower if he has been indoors and not ourdoors during the cloud passage. The aim of this study has been to find filtering factors for typical Finnish and Norwegian houses to use in model work

  3. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Šafránek, Jiří

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5-1.0)) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM(10-2.5) 4.1-7.4 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 2.0-3.3 μg m(-3)) than indoors (average PM(10-2.5) 13.6-26.7 μg m(-3) and PM(2.5-1.0) 3.7-7.4 μg m(-3)). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM(10-2.5) and 1.4-4.8 for the PM(2.5-1.0) values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM(10-2.5)) and 19.1 (PM(2.5-1.0)). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high

  4. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  5. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  6. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  7. Environmental pollution studies. Quantitative determination of elements in the air particulate matter by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutisna; Hidayat, Achmad; Muhayatun; Supriatna, Dadang

    2006-01-01

    Regarding to the 2002 PNCA Program for the Utilization of INAA in the Environmental Study, the elemental determination of air particulate matter have been done. Two sampling site were chosen to collect a PMs samples, i.e. Lembang and Bandung that represent the rural and the urban region respectively. The period of sampling was January 2002 to November 2002. Air sample was collect by GANT Stacked air sampler using 47 mm diameter cellulose filter which have a pore size of 0.45 μm and 8 μm for fine and coarse particle respectively. Quantitative elemental determination has been done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis based on a comparative method. The elemental distributions on fine and coarse fraction of air particulate matter have been analyzed for both sampling sites as well as the enrichment factor (EF) for all elements interest. The result shows that the average annual concentrations of fine and coarse PMs in the Lembang sampling site were 7.8 μg.m -3 and 1.6 μg.m -3 respectively. Meanwhile at Bandung sampling site, the PMs are higher than that a Lembang sampling site, i.e. 14.4 μg.m -3 and 22.5 μg.m -3 for fine and coarse PMs respectively. The fine fraction was higher than the coarse fraction at Lembang sampling site, but at Bandung sampling site the fine fraction was lower than the coarse fraction. Fifteen elements of Na, Al, V, Mn, Br, I, Cl, Sc, Co, Fe, Cr, Zn, La, Sb and Sm were analyzed for both sampling site. Among those elements concerned, Na, Al, Br, Cl and Fe were major constituent elements in all fractions that have a concentration more than 40 ng.cm -3 . Generally, the concentration of elements determined in the urban sampling site was higher than that in the rural site. Al, V, Mn, Sc, Co and Fe are relatively higher in concentration in coarse fraction of urban site. Br element concentration was not significantly different for both sampling site. The EF values of most elements concerned are generally also higher for the fine fraction

  8. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital visits for asthma in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Sun, Kexin; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Hu, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Data on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in China were first announced in 2013. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity in Beijing, China. A total of 978,658 asthma hospital visits consisting of 928,607 outpatient visits, 40,063 emergency room visits and 9988 hospital admissions from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to explore the association between PM 2.5 and health service use. The mean daily PM 2.5 concentration was 99.5 μg/m 3 with a range from 7.2 μg/m 3 to 492.8 μg/m 3 . Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increased use of asthma-related health services. Every 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration on the same day was significantly associated with a 0.67% (95% CI, 0.53%–0.81%), 0.65% (95% CI, 0.51%–0.80%), and 0.49% (95% CI, 0.35%–0.64%) increase in total hospital visits, outpatient visits and emergency room visits, respectively. The exposure–response association between PM 2.5 concentration and hospital visits for asthma exacerbations was approximately linear. In conclusion, this study found that short-term elevations in PM 2.5 concentration may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity outcomes in developing countries. - Graphical abstract: The exposure-response curve of 3-day (lag0–2) moving average fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations and hospital visits for asthma between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012, in Beijing, China. Note: The X-axis is the 3-day (lag0–2) moving average PM 2.5 concentrations (μg/m 3 ). Y-axis is the predicted log (relative risk (RR)), after adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, day of week, public holiday, and calendar time, is shown by the solid line, and the dotted

  9. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kuenen , Jeroen; Gschwind , Benoît; Drebszok , Kamila M.; Stetter , Daniel; Kranenburg , Richard; Hendriks , Carlijn; Lefèvre , Mireille; Blanc , Isabelle; Wyrwa , Artur; Schaap , Martijn

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin...

  10. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital visits for asthma in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Sun, Kexin; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Hu, Yonghua

    2017-11-01

    Data on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in China were first announced in 2013. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity in Beijing, China. A total of 978,658 asthma hospital visits consisting of 928,607 outpatient visits, 40,063 emergency room visits and 9988 hospital admissions from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to explore the association between PM 2.5 and health service use. The mean daily PM 2.5 concentration was 99.5 μg/m 3 with a range from 7.2 μg/m 3 to 492.8 μg/m 3 . Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increased use of asthma-related health services. Every 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration on the same day was significantly associated with a 0.67% (95% CI, 0.53%-0.81%), 0.65% (95% CI, 0.51%-0.80%), and 0.49% (95% CI, 0.35%-0.64%) increase in total hospital visits, outpatient visits and emergency room visits, respectively. The exposure-response association between PM 2.5 concentration and hospital visits for asthma exacerbations was approximately linear. In conclusion, this study found that short-term elevations in PM 2.5 concentration may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity outcomes in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality. A Nationwide Analysis in 272 Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Yin, Peng; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Xiaohui; Ross, Jennifer A; Tse, Lap A; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-07-01

    Evidence concerning the acute health effects of air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in developing countries is quite limited. To evaluate short-term associations between PM 2.5 and daily cause-specific mortality in China. A nationwide time-series analysis was performed in 272 representative Chinese cities from 2013 to 2015. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to estimate regional- and national-average associations between PM 2.5 concentrations and daily cause-specific mortality. City-specific effects of PM 2.5 were estimated using the overdispersed generalized additive models after adjusting for time trends, day of the week, and weather conditions. Exposure-response relationship curves and potential effect modifiers were also evaluated. The average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentration in each city was 56 μg/m 3 (minimum, 18 μg/m 3 ; maximum, 127 μg/m 3 ). Each 10-μg/m 3 increase in 2-day moving average of PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with increments in mortality of 0.22% from total nonaccidental causes, 0.27% from cardiovascular diseases, 0.39% from hypertension, 0.30% from coronary heart diseases, 0.23% from stroke, 0.29% from respiratory diseases, and 0.38% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was a leveling off in the exposure-response curves at high concentrations in most, but not all, regions. The associations were stronger in cities with lower PM 2.5 levels or higher temperatures, and in subpopulations with elder age or less education. This nationwide investigation provided robust evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to PM 2.5 and increased mortality from various cardiopulmonary diseases in China. The magnitude of associations was lower than those reported in Europe and North America.

  12. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  13. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  14. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Longo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  15. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  16. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND ORGANIC SPECIATION OF FIREPLACE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an on-going project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10?m (PM10) con...

  17. Source identification and metallic profiles of size-segregated particulate matters at various sites in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Naba; Jain, V K; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-09-01

    A study of elemental composition in the ambient air of Delhi was carried out in the monsoon, winter and summer seasons at four different sites from August 2012 to April 2013 in the size ranges 10 μm using "Dekati PM10" impactor. At each site, three samples were collected and were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The presence of elements was found to be very common and highly concentrated in aerosol particles at all the sites, which are Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Zn and Ba. Total suspended particulate matters (TSPMs) of fine particles were found high in comparison to coarse particles at all seasons. The TSPM of fine particles was found to be varied in the range from 303.6 to 416.2 μg/m(3). Similarly, the range of coarse TSPM was observed from 162.9 to 262.8 μg/m(3). Correlation matrices were observed between fine (size ranges 10 μm) size particles for all elements with seasons. Source apportionments of elements were carried out using MS Excel 2010 through XLSTAT software. The source apportionments between fine and coarse particles were carried out through factor analysis and dominated sources found to be crustal re-suspension and industrial activities.

  18. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m−3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m−3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  1. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  2. Particulate Matter Resuspension in Mississippi Bight Evaluated with CONCORDE's Synthesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S. J.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Pan, C.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Greer, A. T.; Church, I.; Wiggert, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The CONsortium for oil spill exposure pathways in COastal River-Dominated Ecosystems (CONCORDE) was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. During CONCORDE's spring 2016 field campaign, the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) on the R/V Point Sur and the Scanfish on the R/V Pelican comprehensively characterized the physical and biological structure in the region. Increased suspended particulate matter was observed by the ISIIS, with concentrations at depth sufficient to completely occlude the in situ images of planktonic organisms. Data was also collected on the continental shelf during the spring cruise by the RU31 glider in the proximity of the Mississippi River Delta, east of the ISIIS / Scanfish transects. Backscatter and salinity observed by the Scanfish and glider showed elevated suspended particulate matter and increased salinity, suggesting a linkage to shoreward advection from the continental shelf of oceanic waters that are sufficiently energetic to drive sediment resuspension. As part of the CONCORDE research effort, a four-dimensional biogeochemical/lower trophic level synthesis model for Mississippi Sound and Bight has been developed, based on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. This study utilizes CONCORDE's synthesis model to investigate the physical forcing mechanisms affecting the increased suspended particulate matter concentration observed in the Mississippi Bight during spring 2016, and advection pathways between estuarine and shelf waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that episodic, advection-driven resuspension is a critical aspect controlling suspended sediment distributions in Mississippi Bight, which has implications for observed spatio-temporal patterns of planktonic species.

  3. Characterization and sources of air particulate matter at Kwabenya, near Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboh, I. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Gravimetric, reflectometric and elemental analyses have been carried out on airborne particulate matter sampled in a semi-rural area of Kwabenya, near Accra-Ghana. The PM 10 aerosols were sampled using a Gent sampler, size segregating the aerosol into coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) and fine (PM 1.5 ) fractions. The data and derived information were generated from 216 days of sampling spanning a period of about 14 months, 28 th December 2005 to 12 th February 2007. The particulate matter (PM) at Kwabenya was dominated by the coarse particulates and showed low levels during the Rainy season and high levels during the Harmattan period. The levels measured during the 2006/07 Harmattan were very high. The mass concentration for the measuring period were in the following ranges; coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) fraction (0.16 - 1794.01 µg/m 3 ); PM 2.5 (fine) fraction (0.50 - 430.23 µg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (0.87 µg/m 3 to 2064.89 µg/m 3 ). Additional information about the ambient air was obtained through the subsequent determination of elemental concentration using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis and black carbon (BC) concentration through the b lack smoke method . The elements identified and quantified with the Quantitative X-ray Analysis System (QXAS) package software were: AI, Si, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in the coarse fraction. The following elements were identified and quantified in the fine fraction: AI, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Validation of the quantitative methods with the standard reference filter SRM2783 gave very good agreement (within ± 15%) for most elements analysed except for Ni (±43%)which was very close to the detection limit. The elemental concentrations in the two fractions vary from season to season. Using simple correlation analysis some elements correlate, the elemental correlations also vary from season to season, for example during the Harmattan S, CI, V, Br and Sr correlated very

  4. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: (1) a petrochemical source, 13% in PM10 and 8% in PM2.5; and (2) a mixed metallurgical-phosphate source, which accounts for 11-12% of PM10 and PM2.5. In PM2.5 a secondary source has been also identified, which contributed to 17% of the mass. A complete characterization of industrial emission plumes during their impact on the ground allowed for the identification of tracer species for specific point sources, such as petrochemical, metallurgic, and fertilizer and phosphate production industries.

  5. An exploratory analysis of the relationship between ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations during early pregnancy and selected birth defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Associations between ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and birth outcomes have been previously demonstrated. We perform an exploratory analysis of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations during early pregnancy and multiple types of birth defects. Met...

  6. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  7. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lone; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    and inflammatory pathways. We have assessed the effect of exposure to particulate matter on progression of atherosclerosis and vasomotor function in humans, animals, and ex vivo experimental systems. The type of particles that have been tested in these systems encompass TiO(2), carbon black, fullerene C(60...... of particulate matter....

  8. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  9. GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VTIRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON IN VITRO PARTICULATE MATTER-INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INFLAMMATORY MEDIATOR RELEASE. JA Dye, JH Richards, DA Andrews, UP Kodavanti. US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is capable of damaging the airway epitheli...

  10. The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

  11. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branis, Martin, E-mail: branis@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Outdoor Sports, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0}) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 4.1-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 2.0-3.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}) than indoors (average PM{sub 10-2.5} 13.6-26.7 {mu}g m{sup -3} and PM{sub 2.5-1.0} 3.7-7.4 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM{sub 10-2.5} and 1.4-4.8 for the PM{sub 2.5-1.0} values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and 19.1 (PM{sub 2.5-1.0}). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school

  12. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  13. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  14. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  15. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  16. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branis, Martin; Safranek, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-1.0 ) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM 10-2.5 4.1-7.4 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 2.0-3.3 μg m -3 ) than indoors (average PM 10-2.5 13.6-26.7 μg m -3 and PM 2.5-1.0 3.7-7.4 μg m -3 ). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM 10-2.5 and 1.4-4.8 for the PM 2.5-1.0 values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM 10-2.5 ) and 19.1 (PM 2.5-1.0 ). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of

  17. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  18. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  19. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa

    2018-03-01

    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  20. Suspended particulate matter flocculation in a natural tidal wetland located in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, J.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Wright, S. A.; Boss, E.; Downing, B. D.; Fleck, J.; Ganju, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    Suspended mineral and algal particles together comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM). The SPM size distribution influences the quantity and color of light penetration and the adsorption and transport of contaminants such as pesticides and metals. It is widely known that interaction with wetlands alters the size distribution and quality of particles through local primary production, differential settling and particle aggregation, however, our understanding of how tidal wetland processes affect SPM quantity and size spectra has been hampered by the difficulty of directly observing these parameters at tidal time scales. To evaluate how SPM concentration and size varied over tidal time scales and to better understand the relationship between organic matter and sediment characteristics, simultaneous measurements of dissolved organic matter, SPM concentration and organic content as well as in situ surrogates of particle concentration (turbidity, particulate attenuation, volume concentration) and particle size (laser diffraction) were carried out with measurements of current velocity (acoustic Doppler velocity meter) in the main channel of Brown's Island located in the western San Joaquin/Sacramento River Delta, CA. The study period coincided with high estuary sediment levels following a significant precipitation runoff event. In the Brown Island wetland, particle concentration and size dynamics were tied to variations in water level and velocity. Turbidity and attenuation covaried with the volume concentration of particles smaller than 33 um, which on average represented greater than 50% of particle population by volume. On average, these SPM concentration surrogates were three times higher in flood water than in ebb water; consistent with a loss of fine particles on the island. Following the highest flood tide, the decrease in fine particles was coincident with an increase in the concentration of particles larger than 130 um; a finding consistent with particle

  1. Impact of banning of two-stroke engines on airborne particulate matter concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular air pollution is common in growing metropolitan areas throughout the world. Vehicular emissions of fine particles are particularly harmful because they occur near ground level, close to where people live and work. Two-stroke engines represented an important contribution to the motor vehicle emissions where they constitute approximately half of the total vehicle fleet in Dhaka city. Two-stroke engines have lower fuel efficiency than four-stroke engines, and they emit as much of an order of magnitude and more particulate matter (PM) than four-stroke engines of similar size. To eliminate their impact on air quality, the government of Bangladesh promulgated an order banning all two-stroke engines from the roads in Dhaka starting on December 31, 2002. The effect of the banning of two-stroke engines on airborne PM was studied at the Farm Gate air quality-monitoring station in Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh), a hot spot with very high-pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The samples were collected using a "Gent" stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 microm and 2.2-10 microm sizes. Samples of fine and coarse fractions of airborne PM collected from 2000 to 2004 were studied. It has been found that the fine PM and black carbon concentrations decreased from the previous years because of the banning of two-stroke engine baby taxies.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  3. Winter fine particulate air quality in Cranbrook, British Columbia, 1973 to 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.E.

    2001-06-01

    Fine particulate levels in Cranbrook, BC, are analyzed and reported based on monitoring records which began in 1973. Prior to 1988 the sampler collected all particle sizes, but was subsequently replaced with a selective size inlet to capture only PM 1 0 particles or smaller. A mathematical relationship was produced and used to convert historical total suspended particulates measurements to PM 1 0. It was determined that only monitoring records obtained during the winter months could be reliably converted in this fashion; however, that was not a problem since the winter months happen to correspond to the highest levels of fine particulates. Results of the analysis showed increased levels of PM 1 0 from the early 1970s to the early 1980s; during this time average and maximum annual PM 1 0 levels in Cranbrook were higher than those in Los Angeles in 1999. Winter PM 1 0 levels began to fall through the late 1980s and early 1990s. The lowest average and maximum (18 microgram/cubic metre and 47 microgram/cubic metre, respectively) was recorded in the winter of 1996/1997. Worst conditions were recorded in 1980/1981 when 15 of 21 samples exceeded the current provincial PM 1 0 air quality objective of 50 microgram/cubic metre. In the five winters between 1994/1995 and 1998/1999 only three of 109 samples exceeded the provincial objective. There appears to be no correlation between known changes in industrial and mobile sources of pollutants and historical patterns of fine particulate air pollution in Cranbrook, BC. Observation and experience over three decades suggest that the major source of PM 1 0 in Cranbrook was combustion of wood for home heating. The most probable major cause of the improvements in winter air quality was identified as the gradual conversion from wood to natural gas fired appliances through the 1980s and the 1990s. The 115 per cent increase in the cost of natural gas in the last two years unfortunately, will again make wood an attractive alternative

  4. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  5. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  6. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, L.C.; Wong, L. L.; Amnorzahira, A.; Sa'ari, M.; Abdul Rashid, M. S.; Salmiaton Ali

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  7. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  8. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  9. Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring.

  10. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown

  11. Characterizing temporal changes of agricultural particulate matter number concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docekal, G. P.; Mahmood, R.; Larkin, G. P.; Silva, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted among literature that particulate matter (PM) are of detriment to human health and the environment as a whole. These effects can vary depending on the particle size. This study examines PM size distributions and number concentrations at a poultry house. Despite much literature on PM concentrations at agricultural facilities, few studies have looked at the size distribution of particles at such facilities from the nucleation up through the coarse mode. Two optical particle counters (OPCs) were placed, one inside of a chicken house, and one on the outside of an exhaust fan to determine particle size distributions. In addition, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) sampled poultry house particles to give sizing information from a full size range of 10 nm - 20 mm. The data collected show several different types of events where observed size distributions changed. While some of these are due to expected dust generation events producing coarse mode particles, others suggest particle nucleation and accumulation events at the smaller size ranges that also occurred. The data suggest that agricultural facilities have an impact one the presence of PM in the environment beyond just generation of coarse mode dust. Data for different types of size distribution changes observed will be discussed.

  12. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  13. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  14. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Esguerra, Luz V.; Pabroa, Preciosa B.; Almoneda, Rosalina

    2004-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  15. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  16. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  17. PARTICULATE MATTER IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the mass concentration of PM10 in the air in urban area. The specific objective of the research was to analyze and assess the impact of transport road emissions on the level of concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere in the Lublin agglomeration. The measuring points were located in places at different distances from the communications emission sources and, at the same time, possibly varying degrees of air pollution dust. Measuring the concentration of dust at the measuring points was performed using an indirect method using a laser photometer. In the research point which was not under direct influence of a heavy traffic road dust levels lower by 10.5% to 65.4% than in the vicinity of the transport route were reported. Small particle air pollution at all the points covered by the study increased significantly during the heating season. Based on the comparison of the obtained values of PM10 concentrations with legal standards, it was found that the air pollution exceeded the limits in all measurement points only during a series of measurements in the months of November-December. The recorded increase in air pollution during the heating season should be associated with an increased dust emissions in this period from the "low" emitters - local house boilers and detached houses.

  18. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  19. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  20. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestiani, D.D.; Santoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Particle samples in the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preferred, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment. (author)

  1. Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Samaras, Z.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical

  2. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  3. Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical

  4. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  5. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  6. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  7. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn; Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur; Stetter, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  8. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  9. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  10. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  11. On street observations of particulate matter movement and dispersion due to traffic on an urban road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya; Colvile, Roy; Arnold, Samantha; Bowen, Emma; Shallcross, Dudley; Martin, Damien; Price, Catheryn; Tate, James; ApSimon, Helen; Robins, Alan

    Empirical models for particulate matter emissions from paved road surfaces have been criticised for their lack of realism and accuracy. To support the development of a less empirical model, a study was conducted in a busy street at the DAPPLE site in Central London to understand the processes and to identify important parameters that influence emission from paved roads. Ordinary road gritting salt was applied to the road and the particulate matter entering the air at near-road surface level was monitored using optical particle counters. The grit acted as a tracer. The grit moved rapidly along the road in the direction of traffic flow. Build-up of material at the kerb indicated material being thrown across the road by the traffic. Coarser particles were resuspended faster than the finer ones. A clear decay profile was seen in the case of particles larger than 2μm; particles smaller than 2μm did not show any decay pattern during the experiment duration. Grinding of material appears to control the reservoir of fine particles on the road surface. The amount of material resuspended by traffic is about 30% less than those removed along the road and a factor of 6 higher than the amount removed across the road. Resuspension accounts for 40% of the total material removed from a road segment and 70% of the material removed together along and across the road. On average a single vehicle pass removes 0.08% of material present on a road segment at that instant. The calculation scheme is obtained from a short-duration study and therefore further studies of long duration involving varying road geometry and different traffic and meteorological condition need to be carried out before applying parameter estimates presented in this paper.

  12. A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva G, Manuel A.; Santibañez, Daniela A.; Ibarra E, Sergio; Matus C, Patricia; Seguel, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity in both Chile and the rest of the world. However, the relationship between particulate matter pollution and strokes is not well characterized. The association between fine particle concentration and stroke admissions was studied. Data on hospital admissions due to cerebrovascular accidents were collected from the Ministry of Health. Air quality and meteorological data were taken from the Air Quality database of the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Santiago reported 33,624 stroke admissions between January 1, 2002 and December 30, 2006. PM2.5 concentration was markedly seasonal, increasing during the winter. This study found an association between PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for stroke; for every PM2.5 concentration increase of 10 μg m −3 , the risk of emergency hospital admissions for cerebrovascular causes increased by 1.29% (95% CI 0.552%–2.03%). Highlights: •Particulate matter pollution – cerebrovascular diseases relationship is not well known. •Cerebrovascular diseases are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity. •PM2.5 increase 10 μg/m 3 the risk of hospital admissions for stroke causes increases by 1.29%. •The results are similar to that of other cities worldwide. -- Relationship between PM pollution and strokes is not well characterized. In Santiago the risk of the stroke increased by 1.29%; for every increase of 10 μg m −3 in PM2.5

  13. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  15. Monitoring of suspended particulate matter (SPM), heavy metals and other parameters in some workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, A.M.; Gatebe, C.K.; Mangala, M.J.; Korir, A.K.; Bartilol, S.; Maina, D.M.; Mugera, W.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Chakaya, J.M.; Karama, M.; Miungu, D.M.; Kitio, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements of sound levels, chemical analysis of air particulate matter and soil samples from two factories in Nairobi. A preliminary assessment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a residential site and its possible impacts on acute respiratory infections (ARI) of children under five years of age is also reported. Our investigations show that for Factory A, the Soil pH measurements within the Factory were more basic (pH=8.5) than those collected near a complainant's residence (pH=7.2). The sound level measurements showed that the maximum noise level recorded was 90 dB. This was at a distance of about 0.5 m from the main exhaust vent of the Factory (20 m above ground level). There was a strong ''detergent-perfume'' odour within and outside the Factory premises especially towards the complainant's side. However, the odour fluctuated. There was also no smoke emissions noticed during the site visits when the factory was operational. For Factory B, the major source of environmental degradation was drainage and management of the factory effluents. The BOD and COD levels for effluents samples analyzed ( 3 whereas the fine particles ranged from 16.2-24.4 μm/m 3 . The prevalence of ARI cases in 1998 ranged between 29.9% in January to the highest level of 59.6% in June. The total number of children who presented themselves throughout the study period, January-December 1998, was 146. A parallel study of dust sampling was also carried out from January to December 1998 in a typical office environment. Dust levels recorded from the working office environment at the Institute of Nuclear Science was found to range from 0. 44 -1.79 μg/cm 2 /day. (author)

  16. Long-term trend of haze pollution and impact of particulate matter in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Jiang, Jingkun; Fu, Qingyan; Chen, Changhong; Xu, Bingye; Yu, Jianqiao; Fu, Xiao; Hao, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    Haze pollution caused by heavy particulate matter (PM) loading brings significant damage in eastern China. Long-term monitoring from 1980 to 2011 and 1-year field measurement in 2011–2012 are used for investigating visibility variation and the impact of PM pollution for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). It was found that visual range in the YRD endured a sharp reduction from 13.2 km to 10.5 km during 1980–2000. Average mass extinction efficiency (MEE) for inhalable PM (PM 10 ) is 2.25 m 2 /g in 2001–2011, and extinction coefficient due to PM 10 is 207 Mm −1 , accounting for 36.2% of total extinction coefficient. MEE of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 are 4.08 m 2 /g and 0.58 m 2 /g, respectively. Extinction coefficient due to PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10 is 198 Mm −1 (39.6%) and 20 Mm −1 (4.0%) in 2011–2012. Maximum daily concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 is estimated to be 63 μg/m 3 (RH: 73%) and 38 μg/m 3 (RH: 70%) to keep visual range above 10 km. Fine particulate matter is the key factor for haze pollution improvement in the YRD area. -- Highlights: •Long-term visual range variation and its causes in the Yangtze River Delta are analyzed. •Quantitative contribution of particulate matter to haze pollution is estimated. •Mass extinction efficiency of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 2.5–10 is estimated. -- The long-term variation of haze pollution in the YRD and its cause is investigated and the quantitative contribution of particulate matter to haze pollution is estimated

  17. Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions to Model Particulate Matter Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, Gh.I.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify the best probability distribution and the plotting position formula for modeling the concentrations of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) as well as the Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter<10 μm (PM 10 ). The best distribution provides the estimated probabilities that exceed the threshold limit given by the Egyptian Air Quality Limit value (EAQLV) as well the number of exceedance days is estimated. The standard limits of the EAQLV for TSP and PM 10 concentrations are 24-h average of 230 μg/m 3 and 70 μg/m 3 , respectively. Five frequency distribution functions with seven formula of plotting positions (empirical cumulative distribution functions) are compared to fit the average of daily TSP and PM 10 concentrations in year 2014 for Ain Sokhna city. The Quantile-Quantile plot (Q-Q plot) is used as a method for assessing how closely a data set fits a particular distribution. A proper probability distribution that represents the TSP and PM 10 has been chosen based on the statistical performance indicator values. The results show that Hosking and Wallis plotting position combined with Frechet distribution gave the highest fit for TSP and PM 10 concentrations. Burr distribution with the same plotting position follows Frechet distribution. The exceedance probability and days over the EAQLV are predicted using Frechet distribution. In 2014, the exceedance probability and days for TSP concentrations are 0.052 and 19 days, respectively. Furthermore, the PM 10 concentration is found to exceed the threshold limit by 174 days

  18. Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2002-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift to a size-specific standard, PM 10 , began. PM 10 is the fraction of PM captured with 50% efficiency at 10 μm and greater efficiency at smaller sizes. In the late 1990s, standards were proposed for PM 2.5 , which is captured with 50% efficiency at 2.5 μm. The standards for PM are based almost exclusively on human epidemiological data, with laboratory animal and in vitro data used in a supporting role. During the 1990s, new statistical tools began to be used and demonstrated an association between increased PM and an increase in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The analyses are complicated by the effects of other pollutants such as ozone. Effects have been observed down to 10-20 μg of PM 10 per cubic meter, levels equal to or below background in many parts of the world. In many studies there has been no evidence of a threshold. In the absence of a threshold, a critical issue becomes how to determine how low is low enough? This paper reviews the current literature on PM health effects and suggests research avenues that may yield data which, combined with public policy considerations, may be able to address the issue of 'how low is low enough?'

  19. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  2. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  3. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  4. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m -3 . The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88-95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM 2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM 2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75-11.1 mg kg -1 . According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning and

  5. Synopsis of the temporal variation of particulate matter composition and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerjian, Kenneth L; Mohnen, Volker A

    2008-02-01

    A synopsis of the detailed temporal variation of the size and number distribution of particulate matter (PM) and its chemical composition on the basis of measurements performed by several regional research consortia funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PM Supersite Program is presented. This program deployed and evaluated a variety of research and emerging commercial measurement technologies to investigate the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols at a level of detail never before achieved. Most notably these studies demonstrated that systematic size-segregated measurements of mass, number, and associated chemical composition of the fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) fraction of ambient aerosol with a time resolution down to minutes and less is achievable. A wealth of new information on the temporal variation of aerosol has been added to the existing knowledge pool that can be mined to resolve outstanding research and policy-related questions. This paper explores the nature of temporal variations (on time scales from several minutes to hours) in the chemical and physical properties of PM and its implications in the identification of PM formation processes, and source attribution (primary versus secondary), the contribution of local versus transported PM and the development of effective PM control strategies. The PM Supersite results summarized indicate that location, time of day, and season significantly influence not only the mass and chemical composition but also the size-resolved chemical/elemental composition of PM. Ambient measurements also show that ultrafine particles have different compositions and make up only a small portion of the PM mass concentration compared with inhalable coarse and fine particles, but their number concentration is significantly larger than their coarse or fine counterparts. PM size classes show differences in the relative amounts of nitrates, sulfates, crustal materials, and most especially

  6. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  7. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  8. Concentration levels and temporal variations of heavy elements in the urban particulate matter of Navi Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothai, P.; Saradhi, I.V.; Prathibha, P.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter (PM) were collected and analysed for trace elements using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence techniques. The result showed high concentrations of Fe, S, Zn and Pb in both the size fractions. The elemental data obtained is used to analyze the temporal and seasonal variations. The trend showed maximum concentrations of PM and metals during winter and minimum during the monsoon season. Enrichment Factor (EF) and source analysis was performed for the same data set to identify the strength of contribution of anthropogenic sources and the possible contributing sources in the study area. EF studies showed high enrichments of Zn, Pb and As in the fine fraction particles. Crustal, vehicular and industrial emissions are identified as the major contributing sources of PM in the study area. (author)

  9. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  10. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Supriatna, Dadang; Kumolowati, Endang; Widjajakusuma, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  11. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  12. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  13. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  14. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-01-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m −3 . The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88–95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM 2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM 2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75–11.1 mg kg −1 . According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning

  15. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 (micro)m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO 2 emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the