WorldWideScience

Sample records for fine particulate exposure

  1. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope III, C.A.; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States)

    2003-03-06

    A study was conducted to the relationship between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Vital status and cause of death data were collected by the American Cancer Society as part of the Cancer Prevention II study, an ongoing prospective mortality study, which enrolled approximately 1.2 million adults in 1982. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing individual risk factor data (age, sex, race, weight, height, smoking history, education, marital status, diet, alcohol consumption, and occupational exposures). The risk factor data for approximately 500 000 adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas throughout the United States and combined with vital status and cause of death data through December 31, 1998. Fine particulate and sulfur oxide-related pollution were found to be associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. Each 10-{mu}g/m{sup 3} elevation in fine particulate air pollution was associated with approximately a 4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Measures of coarse particle fraction and total suspended particles were not consistently associated with mortality. It was concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Integrated indoor and outdoor exposure assessment framework for fine particulate matter pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Thomas E; Hodas, Natasha; Apte, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report demonstrates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is the major environmental contributor to mortality. Exposures outdoors (ambient) and indoors (household) contribute almost qually to this burden. Unfortunately, the health impacts from exposure t...

  3. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10 and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  4. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  5. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  6. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  7. Characterizing health impacts from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigon, Bruce; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  8. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  9. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  10. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10 and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5 on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old, obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health

  11. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  12. Long-term exposure to residential ambient fine and coarse particulate matter and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Eliot, Melissa N; Eaton, Charles B; Whitsel, Eric; Stewart, James D; Mu, Lina; Suh, Helen; Szpiro, Adam; Kaufman, Joel D; Vedal, Sverre; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM 2.5 ), respirable (PM 10 ), and course (PM 10-2.5 ) fractions of particulate matter among 44,255 post-menopausal women free of hypertension enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between long-term average residential pollutant concentrations and incident hypertension, adjusting for potential confounding by sociodemographic factors, medical history, neighborhood socioeconomic measures, WHI study clinical site, clinical trial, and randomization arm. During 298,383 person-years of follow-up, 14,511 participants developed incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratios per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM 10-2.5 were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17), 1.06 (1.03, 1.10), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.04), respectively. Statistically significant concentration-response relationships were identified for PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. The association between PM 2.5 and hypertension was more pronounced among non-white participants and those residing in the Northeastern United States. In this cohort of post-menopausal women, ambient fine and respirable particulate matter exposures were associated with higher incidence rates of hypertension. These results suggest that particulate matter may be an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  15. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient

  16. Exposure to fine particulate, black carbon, and particle number concentration in transportation microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Betancourt, R.; Galvis, B.; Balachandran, S.; Ramos-Bonilla, J. P.; Sarmiento, O. L.; Gallo-Murcia, S. M.; Contreras, Y.

    2017-05-01

    This research determined intake dose of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC), and number of sub-micron particles (Np) for commuters in Bogotá, Colombia. Doses were estimated through measurements of exposure concentration, a surrogate of physical activity, as well as travel times and speeds. Impacts of travel mode, traffic load, and street configuration on dose and exposure were explored. Three road segments were selected because of their different traffic loads and composition, and dissimilar street configuration. The transport modes considered include active modes (walking and cycling) and motorized modes (bus, car, taxi, and motorcycle). Measurements were performed simultaneously in the available modes at each road segment. High average eBC concentrations were observed throughout the campaign, ranging from 20 to 120 μgm-3 . Commuters in motorized modes experienced significantly higher exposure concentrations than pedestrians and bicyclists. The highest average concentrations of PM2.5, eBC , and Np were measured inside the city's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system vehicles. Pedestrians and bicycle users in an open street configuration were exposed to the lowest average concentrations of PM2.5 and eBC , six times lower than those experienced by commuters using the BRT in the same street segment. Pedestrians experienced the highest particulate matter intake dose in the road segments studied, despite being exposed to lower concentrations than commuters in motorized modes. Average potential dose of PM2.5 and eBC per unit length traveled were nearly three times higher for pedestrians in a street canyon configuration compared to commuters in public transport. Slower travel speed and elevated inhalation rates dominate PM dose for pedestrians. The presence of dedicated bike lanes on sidewalks has a significant impact on reducing the exposure concentration for bicyclists compared to those riding in mixed traffic lanes. This study proposes a simple

  17. Association of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors of non-communicable disease (NCD origin from early life, and exposure to environmental pollutant may be a predisposing factor. This study aimed to investigate the association of air quality index (AQI and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 with some NCD risk factors in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 to 2016 among children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Physical examination, including weight, height, and blood pressure, was conducted by standard methods. Fasting blood sample was obtained for fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and triglycerides. The mean AQI and PM2.5 values from the study time till one year prior to the survey were used. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for the association of AQI and PM2.5 with other variables. Results: Participants consisted of 186 children and adolescents with mean (SD age of 10.52(2.38 years. Exposure to higher level of PM2.5 had significant associations with higher levels of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. It also had positive relationship with other risk factors and inverse association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, but these associations were not statistically significant. The corresponding figures were not significant for AQI. Conclusion: At current study results showed that exposure to higher levels of fine particulates was associated with some NCD risk factors in children and adolescents. Early life prevention of NCDs can lead to large reductions in disease risk; adverse effects of ambient pollutants should be considered in this regard.

  18. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  19. Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Leads to Rapid Heart Rate Variability Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Riediker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart Rate Variability (HRV reflects the adaptability of the heart to internal and external stimuli. Reduced HRV is a predictor of post-infarction mortality. We previously found in road maintenance workers HRV-increases several hours after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5. This seemed to conflict with studies where PM-exposure acutely reduced HRV. We therefore assessed whether time from exposure to HRV-assessment could explain the differences observed.Methods: On five non-consecutive days, workers carried nephelometers providing 1-min-interval PM2.5-exposure. Five-min HRV-intervals of SDNN (Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal beat intervals and pNN50 (Percentage of the interval differences exceeding 50 ms were extracted from 24-h electrocardiograms (ECGs. Following 60 min PM2.5-exposure, changes in HRV-parameters were assessed during 120-min visually and by regression analysis with control for time at work, at home, and during the night using autoregressive integrating moving average (ARIMA models to account for autocorrelation of the time-series. Additional controls included changing the time windows and including body mass index (BMI and age in the models.Result: Pattern analysis of 12,669 data points showed high modulation of mean, standard deviation (SD, and time trend of HRV (SDNN and pNN50 at low, and much reduced modulation at high PM2.5-exposures. The time trend following exposure was highly symmetrical, resembling a funnel plot. Regression analysis showed significant associations of decreasing SDNN and pNN50 (average, SD, and absolute value of time trend with increasing PM2.5-exposure, which remained significant when controlling for activity phases. Changing time windows did not change the pattern of response. Including BMI and age did not change the results.Conclusions: The reduced modulation of HRV following PM2.5-exposure is striking. It suggests strong interference with homeostatic controls. Such an

  20. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myounghee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: A total of 27,270 participants 15–79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008–2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases. Conclusion: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure. Citation: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547–1553; http://dx.doi.org/10

  1. Association between ambient fine particulate matter and preterm birth or term low birth weight: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiangyu; Huang, Shuqiong; Jiao, Anqi; Yang, Xuhao; Yun, Junfeng; Wang, Yuxin; Xue, Xiaowei; Chu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Feifei; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have been conducted to determine a possible linkage between maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and effects on the developing human fetus that can lead to adverse birth outcomes, but, the present results are not consistent. A total of 23 studies published before July 2016 were collected and analyzed and the mean value of reported exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) ranged from 1.82 to 22.11 We found a significantly increased risk of preterm birth with interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 exposure throughout pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% conditional independence (CI): 1.01–1.05). The pooled OR for the association between PM 2.5 exposure, per interquartile range increment, and term low birth weight throughout pregnancy was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02–1.03). The pooled ORs for the association between PM 2.5 exposure per 10 increment, and term low birth weight and preterm birth were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.98–1.12) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93–1.12), respectively throughout pregnancy. There is a significant heterogeneity in most meta-analyses, except for pooled OR per interquartile range increase for term low birth weight throughout pregnancy. We here show that maternal exposure to fine particulate air pollution increases the risk of preterm birth and term low birth weight. However, the effect of exposure time needs to be further explored. In the future, prospective cohort studies and personal exposure measurements needs to be more widely utilized to better characterize the relationship between ambient fine particulate exposure and adverse birth outcomes. - Highlights: • The results had shorter intervals indicate and smaller heterogeneity by using IQR increment increase as selected standard. • The manuscript included the latest research results and updated the previous systematic review and meta-analysis. - Meta-analysis of preterm birth and term low birth weight of PM 2.5

  2. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  3. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  4. Cause-specific stillbirth and exposure to chemical constituents and sources of fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Malig, Brian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sioutas, Constantinos; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    The stillbirth rate in the United States is relatively high, but limited evidence is available linking stillbirth with fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), its chemical constituents and sources. In this study, we explored associations between cause-specific stillbirth and prenatal exposures to those pollutants with using live birth and stillbirth records from eight California locations during 2002-2009. ICD-10 codes were used to identify cause of stillbirth from stillbirth records. PM 2.5 total mass and chemical constituents were collected from ambient monitors and PM 2.5 sources were quantified using Positive Matrix Factorization. Conditional logistic regression was applied using a nested case-control study design (N = 32,262). We found that different causes of stillbirth were associated with different PM 2.5 sources and/or chemical constituents. For stillbirths due to fetal growth, the odds ratio (OR) per interquartile range increase in gestational age-adjusted exposure to PM 2.5 total mass was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.44). Similar associations were found with resuspended soil (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.42), and secondary ammonium sulfate (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78). No associations were found between any pollutants and stillbirths caused by maternal complications. This study highlighted the importance of investigating cause-specific stillbirth and the differential toxicity levels of specific PM 2.5 sources and chemical constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Journey-time exposure to particulate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David J.

    Journey-time exposures to particulate air pollution were investigated in Leicester, UK, between January and March 2005. Samples of TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 were simultaneously collected using light scattering devices whilst journeys were made by walking an in-car. Over a period of two months, 33 pairs of walking and in-car measurements were collected along two circular routes. Average exposures while walking were seen to be higher than those found in-car for each of the particle fractions: average walking to in-car ratios were 1.2 (± 0.6), 1.5 (± 0.6), 1.3 (± 0.6), and 1.4 (± 0.6) μg m -3 for coarse (TSP-PM 10), intermediate (PM 10-PM 2.5), fine (PM 2.5-PM 1), and very fine particles (PM 1), respectively. Correlations between walking and in-car exposures were seen to be weak for coarse particles ( r=0.10, p=0.58), moderate for the intermediate particles ( r=0.49, pcar exposures were 25% higher than the same fixed-site monitor. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm were seen to be highly correlated between walking and in-car particle exposures and a rural fixed-site monitor about 30 km south of Leicester.

  6. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  7. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007, concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August and warm (September to February seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41% than in the warm season (44 ± 18%. On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3 for fine particulate matter.

  8. Carbonaceous aerosols in fine particulate matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G E; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002-2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m(3)) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m(3)) for fine particulate matter.

  9. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  10. Ultra fine particulates. Small particulates with large consequences?; Ultrafijn stof. Kleine deeltjes met grote gevolgen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensema, A.; Keuken, M.; Kooter, I.; Verbeek, R.; Van Vugt, M. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The concentrations of ultra fine particles (and elementary carbon) have increased significantly near traffic routes. The amount of ultra fine particles (and the chemical composition of particulate matter) are related to traffic emissions and are therefore relevant to the established health effects. Better insight in the effectiveness of particulate matter policy requires more attention for ultra fine particles than just maintaining the standards for PM2,5 and PM10. [mk]. [Dutch] De concentraties van ultrafijne deeltjes (en elementair koolstof) zijn fors verhoogd in de buurt van verkeerswegen. Het aantal ultrafijne deeltjes (en de chemische samenstelling van fijnstof) gerelateerd aan verkeersemissies lijkt daarom relevant voor de vastgestelde gezondheidseffecten. Voor een beter inzicht in de effectiviteit van het fijnstofbeleid is meer aandacht nodig voor ultrafijne deeltjes dan alleen handhaving van de normen voor PM2,5 en PM10.

  11. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  12. Emissions from residential energy use dominate exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibear, L.; Butt, E. W.; Knote, C. J.; Arnold, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of disease burden in India. Information on the source contributions to the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure is critical to support the national and sub-national control of air pollution. Previous studies analysing the contributions of different emission sectors to disease burden in India have been limited by coarse model resolutions and a lack of extensive PM2.5 observations before 2016. We use a regional numerical weather prediction model online-coupled with chemistry, evaluated against extensive surface observations, to make the first high resolution study of the contributions of seven emission sectors to the disease burden associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. We find that residential energy use is the dominant contributing emission sector. Removing air pollution emissions from residential energy use would reduce population-weighted annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 52%, reducing the number of premature mortalities caused by exposure to ambient PM2.5 by 26%, equivalent to 268,000 (95% uncertainty interval (95UI): 167,000-360,000) lives every year. The smaller fractional reduction in mortality burden is due to the non-linear exposure-response relationship at the high PM2.5 concentrations observed across India and consequently large reductions in emissions are required to reduce the health burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Keywords: ambient air quality, India, residential energy use, health impact, particulate matter, WRF-Chem

  13. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate conce...

  14. Distribution spatiale intra-urbaine des particules fines : monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2014 ... En outre, l'accumulation des particules fines est faible pendant un mois pluvieux par rapport à un mois sec ..... benjamina, et la structure (tige, branches) des arborées ... par Zhang et al., (2006) sur des feuilles de Pinus pumila.

  15. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  16. Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental structure and the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Soto

    Full Text Available Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1 and RAS were evaluated by indirect ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR.Exposure to P decreased the placental mass, size, and surface area as well as the TGFβ1, VEGF-A and Flk-1 content. In the maternal portion of the placenta, angiotensin II (AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R and AT2 (AT2R were decreased in the PF and PP groups. In the fetal portion of the placenta, AngII in the FP, PF and PP groups and AT2R in the PF and PP groups were decreased, but AT1R was increased in the FP group. VEGF-A gene expression was lower in the PP group than in the FF group.Exposure to pollutants before and/or during pregnancy alters some characteristics of the placenta, indicating a possible impairment of trophoblast invasion and placental angiogenesis with possible consequences for the maternal-fetal interaction, such as a limitation of fetal nutrition and growth.

  17. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013) ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  18. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  19. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  1. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  2. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  3. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  4. Exposure to fine particulate matter and hospital admissions due to pneumonia: Effects on the number of hospital admissions and its costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patto, Nicole Vargas; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Mantovani, Katia Cristina C; Vieira, Luciana C P F S; Moreira, Demerval S

    2016-07-01

    Given that respiratory diseases are a major cause of hospitalization in children, the objectives of this study are to estimate the role of exposure to fine particulate matter in hospitalizations due to pneumonia and a possible reduction in the number of these hospitalizations and costs. An ecological time-series study was developed with data on hospitalization for pneumonia among children under 10 years of age living in São José do Rio Preto, state of São Paulo, using PM2.5 concentrations estimated using a mathematical model. We used Poisson regression with a dependent variable (hospitalization) associated with PM2.5 concentrations and adjusted for effective temperature, seasonality and day of the week, with estimates of reductions in the number of hospitalizations and costs. 1,161 children were admitted to hospital between October 1st, 2011, and September 30th, 2013; the average concentration of PM2.5 was 18.7 µg/m3 (≈32 µg/m3 of PM10) and exposure to this pollutant was associated with hospitalization four and five days after exposure. A 10 µg/m3 decrease in concentration would imply 256 less hospital admissions and savings of approximately R$ 220,000 in a medium-sized city.

  5. Source contributions of fine particulate matter during one winter haze episodes in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term exposure to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is found to be associated with adverse effects on human health, ecological environment and climate change. Identification the major source regions of fine particulate matter are essential to proposing proper joint prevention and control strategies for heavy haze mitigation. In this work, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) together with the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) and the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF), have been applied to analyze the major source regions of PM2.5 in Xi'an during the heavy haze episodes in winter (29, December, 2016 - 5 January 2017), and the framework of the model system is shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, according to the model evaluation of the daily PM2.5 concentrations for the two months, the model has well performance, and the fraction of predictions within a factor of 2 of the observations (FAC2) is 84%, while the correlation coefficient (R) is 0.80 in Xi'an. By using the PSAT in CAMx model, a detailed source region contribution matrix is derived for all points within the Xi'an region and its six surrounding areas, and long-range regional transport. The results show that the local emission in Xi'an is the mainly sources at downtown area, which contributing 72.9% as shown in Fig.2, and the contribution rate of transportations between adjacent areas depends on wind direction. Meanwhile, three different suburban areas selected for detailed analysis in fine particles sources. Comparing to downtown area, the sources of suburban areas are more multiply, and the transportations make the contribution 40%-82%. In the suburban areas, regional inflows play an important role in the fine particles concentrations, indicating a strong need for regional joint emission control efforts. The results enhance the quantitative understanding of the PM2.5 source regions and provide a basis for policymaking to advance the control of pollution

  6. Prolonged continuous exposure to high fine particulate matter associated with cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Yin, Qian; Tong, Shilu; Ren, Zhoupeng; Hu, Maogui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies examined the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the deaths of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD), few research has paid attention to the effects of prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution. This study estimated the excess risks (ER) of CVD and RD mortalities associated with prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution for the whole population and specific subsociodemographic groups in Beijing, which is the capital city of China with over 20 million residents and having severe PM2.5 pollution problems. Our results suggested that when high PM2.5 pollution occurred continuously, at various thresholds and durations, the adverse effects on CVD and RD mortalities varied significantly. The CVD mortality risks in association with prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution exposure were more serious for single individuals (including unmarried, divorced, and widowed), illiterate and outdoor workers than for other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the daily PM2.5 concentration higher than 105 μg/m3 consecutively occurs, at the ninth day, the ERs of CVD death for single individuals, illiterate and outdoor workers groups reached to 45% (95% CI: 22, 71), 51% (95% CI: 28, 79) and 53% (95% CI: 29, 82) respectively. On the other hand, prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution level appeared to contribute a higher proportion of RD deaths among illiterate and outdoor workers, but less significant for the other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the duration with daily PM2.5 pollution higher than 115 μg/m3 reached to six days, the ERs for outdoor workers and illiterate attributed to prolonged continuous PM2.5 pollution exposure increased 36% (95% CI: 5, 76) and 49% (95% CI: 16, 91) respectively.

  7. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM 2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM 2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + , C 2 O 4 2- ) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM 2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO 4 2- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO 4 2- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca 2+ , and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM 2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca 2+ to personal PM 2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  9. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, S E; Zeinali, M; Minjares, R; Silva, R; West, J J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM 2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM 2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m −3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  10. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5 and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088; lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113; lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092; lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088 and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106. The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes.

  11. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Risk of Community-Acquired Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Elisa J; Moore, Justin Xavier; McClure, Leslie A; Griffin, Russell; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Wang, Henry E

    2018-04-21

    While air pollution has been associated with health complications, its effect on sepsis risk is unknown. We examined the association between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution and risk of sepsis hospitalization. We analyzed data from the 30,239 community-dwelling adults in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort linked with satellite-derived measures of PM 2.5 data. We defined sepsis as a hospital admission for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) criteria. We performed incidence density sampling to match sepsis cases with 4 controls by age (±5 years), sex, and race. For each matched group we calculated mean daily PM 2.5 exposures for short-term (30-day) and long-term (one-year) periods preceding the sepsis event. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between PM 2.5 exposure and sepsis, adjusting for education, income, region, temperature, urbanicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and medical conditions. We matched 1386 sepsis cases with 5544 non-sepsis controls. Mean 30-day PM 2.5 exposure levels (Cases 12.44 vs. Controls 12.34 µg/m³; p = 0.28) and mean one-year PM 2.5 exposure levels (Cases 12.53 vs. Controls 12.50 µg/m³; p = 0.66) were similar between cases and controls. In adjusted models, there were no associations between 30-day PM 2.5 exposure levels and sepsis (4th vs. 1st quartiles OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85⁻1.32). Similarly, there were no associations between one-year PM 2.5 exposure levels and sepsis risk (4th vs. 1st quartiles OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78⁻1.18). In the REGARDS cohort, PM 2.5 air pollution exposure was not associated with risk of sepsis.

  12. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  13. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory protection, individual differences in sensitivity to WTC PM2

  14. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching from...... repacked sandy soil columns (length: 51 cm). Biochar (2 wt%), ammonium fertilizer (NH4+, amount corresponding to 300 kg N ha-1) and an inert tracer (bromide) were added to a 3-cm top layer of sandy loam, and the columns were then irrigated with constant rate (36 mm d-1) for 15 d. The total amount...... of leachate came to about 3.0 water filled pore volumes (WFPVs). Our study revealed a high mobility of labile C components originating from the fine particulate fast pyrolysis biochar. This finding highlights a potential risk of C leaching coupled with the use of fast pyrolysis biochars for soil amendment...

  15. Fine particulate air pollution and all-cause mortality within the Harvard Six-Cities Study: variations in risk by period of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Goldberg, Mark S; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Yue

    2002-11-01

    We used Poisson regression methods to examine the relation between temporal changes in the levels of fine particulate air pollution (PM(2.5)) and the risk of mortality among participants of the Harvard Six Cities longitudinal study. Our analyses were based on 1430 deaths that occurred between 1974 and 1991 in a cohort that accumulated 105,714 person-years of follow-up. For each city, indices of PM(2.5) were derived using daily samples. Individual level data were collected on several risk factors including: smoking, education, body mass index (BMI), and occupational exposure to dusts. Time-dependent indices of PM(2.5) were created across 13 calendar periods (/= 1990) to explore whether recent or chronic exposures were more important predictors of mortality. The relative risk (RR) of mortality calculated using Poisson regression based on average city-specific exposures that remained constant during follow-up was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.52] per 18.6 microg/m(3) of PM(2.5). This result was similar to the risk calculated using the Cox model (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46). The RR of mortality was attenuated when the Poisson regression model included a time-dependent estimate of exposure (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36). There was little variation in RR across time-dependent indices of PM(2.5). The attenuated risk of mortality that was observed with a time-dependent index of PM(2.5) is due to the combined influence of city-specific variations in mortality rates and decreasing levels of air pollution that occurred during follow-up. The RR of mortality associated with PM(2.5) did not depend on when exposure occurred in relation to death, possibly because of little variation between the time-dependent city-specific exposure indices.

  16. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM 2.5 ) than coarse particles (PM >2.5 ), and the major trace elements identified in the PM 2.5 included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM 2.5 . Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM 2.5 were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM 2.5 of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM 2.5 was 1.57 × 10 −4 , which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10 −6 . Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM 2.5 , the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10 −4 and 3.89 × 10 −5 , respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM 2.5 . • Charcoal combustion and indoor activities were the

  17. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: Elemental compositions, sources and health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, Simge; Pekey, Beyhan, E-mail: bpekey@kocaeli.edu.tr; Pekey, Hakan

    2013-06-01

    Cooking is a significant source of indoor particulate matter that can cause adverse health effects. In this study, a 5-stage cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter from 14 restaurants that cooked with charcoal in Kocaeli, the second largest city in Turkey. A total of 24 elements were quantified using ICP-MS. All of the element contents except for Mn were higher for fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) than coarse particles (PM{sub >2.5}), and the major trace elements identified in the PM{sub 2.5} included V, Se, Zn, Cr, As, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Principle component analysis (PCA) and enrichment factor (EF) calculations were used to determine the sources of PM{sub 2.5}. Four factors that explained over 77% of the total variance were identified by the PCA. These factors included charcoal combustion, indoor activities, crustal components, and road dust. The Se, As, Cd, and V contents in the PM{sub 2.5} were highly enriched (EF > 100). The health risks posed by the individual metals were calculated to assess the potential health risks associated with inhaling the fine particles released during charcoal cooking. The total hazard quotient (total HQ) for a PM{sub 2.5} of 4.09 was four times greater than the acceptable limit (i.e., 1.0). In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (total ELCR) for PM{sub 2.5} was 1.57 × 10{sup −4}, which is higher than the acceptable limit of 1.0 × 10{sup −6}. Among all of the carcinogenic elements present in the PM{sub 2.5}, the cancer risks resulting from Cr(VI) and As exposure were the highest (i.e., 1.16 × 10{sup −4} and 3.89 × 10{sup −5}, respectively). Overall, these results indicate that the lifetime cancer risk associated with As and Cr(VI) exposure is significant at selected restaurants, which is of concern for restaurant workers. - Highlights: • Particulate emissions from charcoal combustion in the BBQ restaurants were studied. • Vanadium, Se, Zn, Cr and As were found as high concentrations in PM{sub 2.5}.

  18. Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter Inside and Outside of Mechanically Ventilated Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelly L; Facciola, Nick A; Toohey, Darin; Zhai, John

    2017-01-28

    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of particulate matter (PM) in mechanically ventilated buildings and to improve understanding of filtration requirements to reduce exposure. With the use of an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer, ultrafine (0.055-0.1 μm) and fine (0.1-0.7 μm) indoor and outdoor PM was measured as a function of time in an office, a university building, and two elementary schools. Indoor particle levels were highly correlated with outdoor levels. Indoor and outdoor number concentrations in Denver were higher than those in Boulder, with the highest number concentrations occurring during summer and fall. The ratio of indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) PM was weakly but positively correlated with the amount of ventilation provided to the indoor environment, did not vary much with particle size (ranged between 0.48 and 0.63 for the entire size range), and was similar for each period of the week (weekend vs. weekday, night vs. day). Regression analyses showed that ultrafine indoor PM baseline concentrations were higher at night from nighttime infiltration. A lag time was observed between outdoor and indoor measurements. Weekday days had the shortest lag time of 11 min, and weekend nighttime lags when the HVAC was not in use were 50 to 148 min. Indoor-outdoor PM concentration plots showed ultrafine PM was more correlated compared to fine, and especially when the HVAC system was on. Finally, AMS data showed that most of the PM was organic, with occasional nitrate events occurring outdoors. During nitrate events, there were less indoor particles detected, indicating a loss of particulate phase nitrate. The results from this study show that improved filtration is warranted in mechanically ventilated buildings, particularly for ultrafine particles, and that nighttime infiltration is significant depending on the building design.

  19. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  1. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  2. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) or to coarse particles on infant mortality. We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to PM and infant mortality in Japan and assessed whether adverse health effects were observable at PM concentrations below Japanese air quality guidelines. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. The participants included 2086 infants who died in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained measures of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM. We then used conditional logistic regression to analyze the data. Same-day PM2.5 was associated with increased risks of infant and postneonatal mortality, especially for mortality related to respiratory causes. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5, the odds ratios were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12) for infant mortality and 1.10 (1.02-1.19) for postneonatal mortality. PM7-2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of postneonatal mortality, independent of PM2.5. Even when PM2.5 and SPM concentrations were below Japanese air quality guidelines, we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles (PM7-2.5) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. Further, rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  4. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  5. Pregnancy and Lifetime Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Infant Mortality in Massachusetts, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have found associations between particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and adult mortality. Comparatively few studies evaluated particles and infant mortality, although infants and children are particularly vulnerable to pollution. Moreover, existing studies mostly focused on short-term exposure to larger particles. We investigated PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and lifetime and postneonatal infant mortality. The study included 465,682 births with 385 deaths in Massachusetts (2001-2007). Exposures were estimated from PM2.5-prediction models based on satellite imagery. We applied extended Cox proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates to total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality. Exposure was calculated from birth to death (or end of eligibility for outcome, at age 1 year) and pregnancy (gestation and each trimester). Models adjusted for sex, birth weight, gestational length, season of birth, temperature, relative humidity, and maternal characteristics. Hazard ratios for total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality per-interquartile-range increase (1.3 μg/m3) in lifetime PM2.5 exposure were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.11, 3.36), 3.14 (95% CI: 2.39, 4.13), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56, 4.00), respectively. We did not observe a statistically significant relationship between gestational exposure and mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence that lifetime exposure to PM2.5 increases risk of infant mortality. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  7. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Busch; Ravnskjær, Line; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It has been suggested that air pollution may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes but data on particulate matter with diameter PM2.5) are inconsistent. We examined the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and diabetes incidence. METHODS: We used the Danish Nurse...... Cohort with 28,731 female nurses who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on diabetes prevalence and risk factors, and obtained data on incidence of diabetes from National Diabetes Register until 2013. We estimated annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter ... diabetes. We detected a significant positive association between PM2.5 and diabetes incidence (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.11; 1.02-1.22 per interquartile range of 3.1μg/m(3)), and weaker associations for PM10 (1.06; 0.98-1.14 per 2.8μg/m(3)), NO2 (1.05; 0.99-1.12 per 7.5μg/m(3)), and NOx (1...

  8. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Particulates emitted from combustion engines have been a great concern in past years due to their adverse health effects, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. The source of particulates can be stationary and transient, such as gas and oil fuelled engines, turbines and boilers. Particulate matter (PM) dispersed into ambient air can be classified in many ways: the mechanism of the formation, the size and the composition. Fine particles (PM2.5) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum and particles, greater than 2.5 mum in diameter are generally referred to as coarse particles (PM10). PM2.5 is also called the respirable fraction, because they can penetrate to the unciliated regions of the lung. Fine particles consist of so called ultrafine particles (an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 mum). The sizes of particulates emitted from combustion processes range between 10 nm and 100 mum, and are usually a mixture of unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust particles have a mass median diameter of 0.05-1.0 mum. They are a complex mixture of elemental carbon, a variety of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, and other species. They consist of a numerous spherical primary particles, which are agglomerated into aggregates. Particles from natural gas engine emissions range from 0.01-0.7 mum. Increase in PM10 pollution has been found to be associated with a range of adverse health effects, such as increased use of medication for asthma, attacks of asthma in patients with pre-existing asthma, attacks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deaths from respiratory causes, admission to hospital for cardiovascular causes, deaths from heart attacks and deaths from strokes. While it is unknown, which particulate matter component is the most hazardous for humans, a number of factors suggest that ultrafine particles may be more toxic than larger particles. Ultrafine particles have a large surface area per

  9. Exercise Training under Exposure to Low Levels of Fine Particulate Matter: Effects on Heart Oxidative Stress and Extra-to-Intracellular HSP70 Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sfalcin Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 promotes heart oxidative stress (OS and evokes anti-inflammatory responses observed by increased intracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (iHSP70. Furthermore, PM2.5 increases the levels of these proteins in extracellular fluids (eHSP70, which have proinflammatory roles. We investigated whether moderate and high intensity training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 modifies heart OS and the eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index, a biomarker of inflammatory status. Male mice (n=32, 30 days old, were divided into six groups for 12 weeks: control (CON, moderate (MIT and high intensity training (HIT, exposure to 5 μg of PM2.5 daily (PM2.5, and moderate and high intensity training exposed to PM2.5 (MIT + PM2.5 and HIT + PM2.5 groups. The CON and PM2.5 groups remained sedentary. The MIT + PM2.5 group showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels than the MIT and PM2.5 groups. HIT and HIT + PM2.5 showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels and lower eHSP70 and H-index levels compared to sedentary animals. No alterations were found in heart antioxidant enzyme activity or iHSP70 levels. Moderate exercise training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 induces heart OS but does not modify eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index. High intensity exercise training promotes anti-inflammatory profile despite exposure to low levels of PM2.5.

  10. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac responses to fine and ultrafine ambient particulate matter in mice: concordance of electrocardiogram and mechanical responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundStudies have shown a relationship between air pollution and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the complexity of ambient air pollution composition, recent studies have examined the effects of co-exposure, particularly particulate matter (PM...

  11. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  12. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  13. Winter fine particulate air quality in Cranbrook, British Columbia, 1973 to 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, L.E.

    2001-06-01

    Fine particulate levels in Cranbrook, BC, are analyzed and reported based on monitoring records which began in 1973. Prior to 1988 the sampler collected all particle sizes, but was subsequently replaced with a selective size inlet to capture only PM 1 0 particles or smaller. A mathematical relationship was produced and used to convert historical total suspended particulates measurements to PM 1 0. It was determined that only monitoring records obtained during the winter months could be reliably converted in this fashion; however, that was not a problem since the winter months happen to correspond to the highest levels of fine particulates. Results of the analysis showed increased levels of PM 1 0 from the early 1970s to the early 1980s; during this time average and maximum annual PM 1 0 levels in Cranbrook were higher than those in Los Angeles in 1999. Winter PM 1 0 levels began to fall through the late 1980s and early 1990s. The lowest average and maximum (18 microgram/cubic metre and 47 microgram/cubic metre, respectively) was recorded in the winter of 1996/1997. Worst conditions were recorded in 1980/1981 when 15 of 21 samples exceeded the current provincial PM 1 0 air quality objective of 50 microgram/cubic metre. In the five winters between 1994/1995 and 1998/1999 only three of 109 samples exceeded the provincial objective. There appears to be no correlation between known changes in industrial and mobile sources of pollutants and historical patterns of fine particulate air pollution in Cranbrook, BC. Observation and experience over three decades suggest that the major source of PM 1 0 in Cranbrook was combustion of wood for home heating. The most probable major cause of the improvements in winter air quality was identified as the gradual conversion from wood to natural gas fired appliances through the 1980s and the 1990s. The 115 per cent increase in the cost of natural gas in the last two years unfortunately, will again make wood an attractive alternative

  14. An update on mortality in Denmark caused by fine particulate matter air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Brandt, Jørgen

    Introduction In terms of effects on mortality fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered the most important component of air polllution. Several international studies have investigated the effect size. It is estimated that overall mortality increases 6% per 10µg/m3 increase in annual PM2.......5 and that PM2.5 affects global mortality signficantly (Hoek, 2013). The first attempt to describe the size of the effects of PM2.5 in Denmark were published in 2002 (Raaschou-Nielsen, 2002). At that time only PM10 data were available and only with a great deal of uncertainty. Since then the knowledge of PM2...... to what extent the changes in estimates of mortality from PM2.5 exposure over the years is due to changes in population and in pollution and to what extent they are due to improved models. Methods Several methods of calculation were compared for the year 2012. First the method used in 2002 in which...

  15. Electromagnetic characterization of fine-scale particulate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, P.; Konn, A.M.; Brosseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of the composition and frequency-dependent complex permittivity and permeability of ZnO and γ-Fe 2 O 3 composites prepared by powder pressing. The electromagnetic properties of these materials exhibit a strong dependence on the powder size of the starting materials. In the microwave frequency range, the permittivity and permeability show nonlinear variations with volume fraction of Fe 2 O 3 . As the particle size decreases from a few micrometers to a few tens of nanometers, the data indicate that local mesostructural factors such as shape anisotropy, porosity and possible effect of the binder are likely to be intertwined in the understanding of electromagnetic properties of fine-scale particulate composite materials

  16. Satellite-based estimates of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter are associated with C-reactive protein in 30 034 Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zilong; Chang, Ly-Yun; Lau, Alexis K H; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chieh Chuang, Yuan; Chan, Jimmy; Lin, Changqing; Kai Jiang, Wun; Dear, Keith; Zee, Benny C Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Hoek, Gerard; Tam, Tony; Qian Lao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanism underlying the associations remains unclear. Atherosclerosis, the underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease, is a chronic inflammatory process. We therefore investigated the association of long-term exposure to fine PM (PM2.5) with C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation, in a large Taiwanese population. Participants were from a large cohort who participated in a standard medical examination programme with measurements of high-sensitivity CRP between 2007 and 2014. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate 2-year average PM2.5 exposure at each participant's address, based on satellite-derived aerosol optical depth data. General regression models were used for baseline data analysis and mixed-effects linear regression models were used for repeated data analysis to investigate the associations between PM2.5 exposure and CRP, adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. In this population of 30 034 participants with 39 096 measurements, every 5 μg/m3 PM2.5 increment was associated with a 1.31% increase in CRP [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00%, 1.63%) after adjusting for confounders. For those participants with repeated CRP measurements, no significant changes were observed between the first and last measurements (0.88 mg/l vs 0.89 mg/l, P = 0.337). The PM2.5 concentrations remained stable over time between 2007 and 2014. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased level of systemic inflammation, supporting the biological link between PM2.5 air pollution and deteriorating cardiovascular health. Air pollution reduction should be an important strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  17. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  19. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  20. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  1. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  2. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee-Loon; Kai, Fuu-Ming; Tee, Ming-Hui; Tan, Nicholas; Hemond, Harold F

    2018-01-18

    Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  3. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... otherwise protected. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA... Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the State...

  4. In Utero Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension Due to Impaired Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmeng Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adverse environment in utero can modulate adult phenotypes including blood pressure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure in utero causes hypertension in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R, regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4, plays an important role in the regulation of renal sodium transport and blood pressure. In this present study, we determined if renal D1R dysfunction is involved in PM2.5–induced hypertension in the offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were given an oropharyngeal drip of PM2.5 (1.0 mg/kg at gestation day 8, 10, and 12. The blood pressure, 24-hour sodium excretion, and urine volume were measured in the offspring. The expression levels of GRK4 and D1R were determined by immunoblotting. The phosphorylation of D1R was investigated using immunoprecipitation. Plasma malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were also measured in the offspring. Results: As compared with saline-treated dams, offspring of PM2.5-treated dams had increased blood pressure, impaired sodium excretion, and reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis, accompanied by decreased renal D1R expression and GRK4 expression. The impaired renal D1R function and increased GRK4 expression could be caused by increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS induced by PM2.5 exposure. Administration of tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide, for 4 weeks in the offspring of PM2.5-treated dam normalized the decreased renal D1R expression and increased renal D1R phosphorylation and GRK4 expression. Furthermore, tempol normalized the increased renal expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates GRK4 expression. Conclusions: In utero exposure to PM2.5 increases ROS and GRK4 expression, impairs D1R-mediated sodium excretion, and increases blood pressure in the offspring. These studies suggest that normalization of D1R function may be a target for the

  5. [Health evaluation of fine particulate matter in indoor air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    When evaluating the health effects of indoor air fine particulate matter, the indoor dynamics as well as the physical, chemical and biological properties of fine particles have to be considered. The indoor air fraction PM2.5 largely stems from outdoor air. Accordingly, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities also recommends WHO's (2006) 24-hour mean guideline value of 25 microg PM2,5 per cubic meter for indoor air evaluation. In contrast to PM2.5, coarse particles (PM10) in schools, kindergartens and dwellings show much higher indoor air concentrations. Additional sources indoors have to be assumed. Because of the different composition of indoor air compared to outdoor air and due to the lack of dose-response relationships of coarse particles in indoor air, the health effects of indoor air PM10 can not be evaluated yet. Sufficient and consistent ventilation is an indispensable basis to reduce PM concentrations in indoor spaces. Furthermore, known sources of PM indoors should be detected consequently and subsequently minimized.

  6. Combined effects of exposure to dim light at night and fine particulate matter on C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Matthew K; Kovalycsik, Taylor; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-11-01

    Air and light pollution contribute to fetal abnormalities, increase prevalence of cancer, metabolic and cardiorespiratory diseases, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A component of air pollution, particulate matter, and the phenomenon of dim light at night (dLAN) both result in neuroinflammation, which has been implicated in several CNS disorders. The combinatorial role of these pollutants on health outcomes has not been assessed. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, with intact melatonin production, were used to model humans exposed to circadian disruption by dLAN and contaminated environmental air. We hypothesized exposure to 2.5 μm of particulate matter (PM2.5) and dLAN (5lx) combines to upregulate neuroinflammatory cytokine expression and alter hippocampal morphology compared to mice exposed to filtered air (FA) and housed under dark nights (LD). We also hypothesized that exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN provokes anxiety-like and depressive-like responses. For four weeks, four groups of mice were simultaneously exposed to ambient concentrated PM2.5 or FA and/or dLAN or LD. Following exposure, mice underwent several behavioral assays and hippocampi were collected for qPCR and morphological analyses. Our results are generally comparable to previous PM2.5 and dLAN reports conducted on mice and implicate PM2.5 and dLAN as potential factors contributing to depression and anxiety. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and dLAN upregulated neuroinflammatory cytokines and altered CA1 hippocampal structural changes, as well as provoked depressive-like responses (anhedonia). However, combined, PM2.5 and dLAN exposure did not have additive effects, as hypothesized, suggesting a ceiling effect of neuroinflammation may exist in response to multiple pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST: BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion of diesel fuel contributes to ambient air pollutant fine particulate matter (PM) and gases. Fine PM exposure has been associated with increased mortality due to adverse cardiac events, and morbidity, such as increased hospitalization for asthma symptoms and lung infect...

  8. Exposure to particulate matter in India: A synthesis of findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pallavi; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution poses a critical threat to human health with ambient and household air pollution identified as key health risks in India. While there are many studies investigating concentration, composition, and health effects of air pollution, investigators are only beginning to focus on estimating or measuring personal exposure. Further, the relevance of exposures studies from the developed countries in developing countries is uncertain. This review summarizes existing research on exposure to particulate matter (PM) in India, identifies gaps and offers recommendations for future research. There are a limited number of studies focused on exposure to PM and/or associated health effects in India, but it is evident that levels of exposure are much higher than those reported in developed countries. Most studies have focused on coarse aerosols, with a few studies on fine aerosols. Additionally, most studies have focused on a handful of cities, and there are many unknowns in terms of ambient levels of PM as well as personal exposure. Given the high mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure in India, a deeper understanding of ambient pollutant levels as well as source strengths is crucial, both in urban and rural areas. Further, the attention needs to expand beyond the handful large cities that have been studied in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM 2.5 (particles levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM 2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM 2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  10. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among U.S. older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Clarke, Philippa

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how exposures in the residential environment relate to cognitive function in older adults. The goal of this study is to determine if neighborhood-level exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with cognitive function in a diverse, national sample of older U.S. adults. We use cross-sectional data on non-Hispanic black and white men and women aged 55 and older from the 2001/2002 Americans' Changing Lives Study (N = 780). EPA air monitoring data were linked to respondents using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was assessed with tests of working memory and orientation. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and the number of errors on the cognitive assessment. Older adults living in areas with high concentrations of PM2.5 had an error rate 1.5 times greater than those exposed to lower concentrations, net of individual and neighborhood-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. This study adds to a growing body of research demonstrating the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improvements to air quality may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Loon Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  12. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-04-01

    Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Our goals were a ) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b ) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. We employed facility-demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level ( n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600-1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., "walkability" or "bikeability") to assess exposure. Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20-42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2-3% of blocks (3-8% of total active travel) are "sweet spots" (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a ) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b ) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were mostly unchanged with land use. Public health officials and

  13. Artificial neural network forecast application for fine particulate matter concentration using meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Memarianfard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most parts of the urban areas are faced with the problem of floating fine particulate matter. Therefore, it is crucial to estimate the amounts of fine particulate matter concentrations through the urban atmosphere. In this research, an artificial neural network technique was utilized to model the PM2.5 dispersion in Tehran City. Factors which are influencing the predicted value consist of weather-related and air pollution-related data, i.e. wind speed, humidity, temperature, SO2, CO, NO2, and PM2.5 as target values. These factors have been considered in 19 measuring stations (zones over urban area across Tehran City during four years, from March 2011 to March 2015. The results indicate that the network with hidden layer including six neurons at training epoch 113, has the best performance with the lowest error value (MSE=0.049438 on considering PM2.5 concentrations across metropolitan areas in Tehran. Furthermore, the “R” value for regression analysis of training, validation, test, and all data are 0.65898, 0.6419, 0.54027, and 0.62331, respectively. This study also represents the artificial neural networks have satisfactory implemented for resolving complex patterns in the field of air pollution.

  14. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

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    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  15. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001-2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007-2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01-1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99-1.14). This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains.

  16. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  17. Air quality at outdoor community events: findings from fine particulate (PM2.5) sampling at festivals in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Damian; Parsons, Marc; Zinyemba, Chaka

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a broad range of health risks. This study assessed the impacts of cooking smoke and environmental tobacco smoke on air quality at outdoor community events in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Data were collected at three festivals in July-August 2011 using a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. The pooled mean PM2.5 level was 12.41 μg/m(3). Peak readings varied from 52 to 1877 μg/m(3). Mean PM2.5 near food stalls was 35.42 μg/m(3), which exceeds the WHO limit for 24 h exposure. Mean PM2.5 levels with smokers present were 16.39 μg/m(3) (all points) and 9.64 μg/m(3) (excluding points near food stalls). Although some smokers withdrew from common spaces, on average 20 smokers/hour were observed within 3 m. Extending smoking bans would improve air quality and address related concerns. However, food preparation is a more pressing area for policy action to reduce PM2.5 exposure at these community events.

  18. Air pollution exposure modeling of individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  19. Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate Matter Components in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence indicates that toxicity of fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) differs by chemical component. Exposure to components may differ by population. Objectives: We investigated whether exposures to PM2.5 components differ by race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Long-term exposures (2000 through 2006) were estimated for 215 U.S. census tracts for PM2.5 and for 14 PM2.5 components. Population-weighted exposures were combined to generate overall estimated exposures by race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, employment, age, and earnings. We compared population characteristics for tracts with and without PM2.5 component monitors. Results: Larger disparities in estimated exposures were observed for components than for PM2.5 total mass. For race/ethnicity, whites generally had the lowest exposures. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher exposures than did whites for 13 of the 14 components. Hispanics generally had the highest exposures (e.g., 152% higher than whites for chlorine, 94% higher for aluminum). Young persons (0–19 years of age) had levels as high as or higher than other ages for all exposures except sulfate. Persons with lower SES had higher estimated exposures, with some exceptions. For example, a 10% increase in the proportion unemployed was associated with a 20.0% increase in vanadium and an 18.3% increase in elemental carbon. Census tracts with monitors had more non-Hispanic blacks, lower education and earnings, and higher unemployment and poverty than did tracts without monitors. Conclusions: Exposures to PM2.5 components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES. If some components are more toxic than others, certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens. Demographics differed between populations covered and not covered by monitors. PMID:22889745

  20. Particulate matter exposure exacerbates high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction through ROS generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus and fine particulate matter from diesel exhaust (DEP are both important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate in patients suffering from CVD, resulting in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Elevated DEP levels in the air are attributed to the development of various CVDs, presumably since fine DEP (<2.5 µm in diameter can be inhaled and gain access to the circulatory system. However, mechanisms defining how DEP affects diabetic or control cardiomyocyte function remain poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate cardiomyocyte function and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated rat ventricular myocytes exposed overnight to fine DEP (0.1 µg/ml, and/or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM. Our hypothesis was that DEP exposure exacerbates contractile dysfunction via ROS generation in cardiomyocytes exposed to HG. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats cultured overnight and sarcomeric contractile properties were evaluated, including: peak shortening normalized to baseline (PS, time-to-90% shortening (TPS(90, time-to-90% relengthening (TR(90 and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt, using an IonOptix field-stimulator system. ROS generation was determined using hydroethidine/ethidium confocal microscopy. We found that DEP exposure significantly increased TR(90, decreased PS and ±dL/dt, and enhanced intracellular ROS generation in myocytes exposed to HG. Further studies indicated that co-culture with antioxidants (0.25 mM Tiron and 0.5 mM N-Acetyl-L-cysteine completely restored contractile function in DEP, HG and HG+DEP-treated myocytes. ROS generation was blocked in HG-treated cells with mitochondrial inhibition, while ROS generation was blocked in DEP-treated cells with NADPH oxidase inhibition. Our results suggest that DEP exacerbates myocardial dysfunction in isolated

  1. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Hertel, Ole; Chawes, Bo L K; Vissing, Nadja; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM(2.5) and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. The concentration of PM(2.5) was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM(2.5) concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM(2.5) concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health effects of fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment: findings from the Basel Guidance Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Evans, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is considered to be one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the global human disease burden. However, due to the lack of broad consensus and harmonization in the life cycle assessment (LCA) community, there is no clear guidance on ho...

  3. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  4. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  5. Sensitivity analyses of factors influencing CMAQ performance for fine particulate nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadera, Hikari; Hayami, Hiroshi; Chatani, Satoru; Morino, Yu; Mori, Yasuaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Improvement of air quality models is required so that they can be utilized to design effective control strategies for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was applied to the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan in winter 2010 and summer 2011. The model results were compared with observed concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium, and gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3). The model approximately reproduced PM2.5 SO4(2-) concentration, but clearly overestimated PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). This study conducted sensitivity analyses of factors associated with the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, including temperature and relative humidity, emission of nitrogen oxides, seasonal variation of NH3 emission, HNO3 and NH3 dry deposition velocities, and heterogeneous reaction probability of dinitrogen pentoxide. Change in NH3 emission directly affected NH3 concentration, and substantially affected NH4NO3 concentration. Higher dry deposition velocities of HNO3 and NH3 led to substantial reductions of concentrations of the gaseous species and NH4NO3. Because uncertainties in NH3 emission and dry deposition processes are probably large, these processes may be key factors for improvement of the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system clearly overestimated the concentration of fine particulate nitrate in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for factors associated with the model performance for nitrate. Ammonia emission and dry deposition of nitric acid and ammonia may be key factors for improvement of the model performance.

  6. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on ST segment height: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Rongling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods We investigate the acute effects and the time course of fine particulate pollution (PM2.5 on myocardium ischemic injury as assessed by ST-segment height in a community-based sample of 106 healthy non-smokers. Twenty-four hour beat-to-beat electrocardiogram (ECG data were obtained using a high resolution 12-lead Holter ECG system. After visually identifying and removing all the artifacts and arrhythmic beats, we calculated beat-to-beat ST-height from ten leads (inferior leads II, III, and aVF; anterior leads V3 and V4; septal leads V1 and V2; lateral leads I, V5, and V6,. Individual-level 24-hour real-time PM2.5 concentration was obtained by a continuous personal PM2.5 monitor. We then calculated, on a 30-minute basis, the corresponding time-of-the-day specific average exposure to PM2.5 for each participant. Distributed lag models under a linear mixed-effects models framework were used to assess the regression coefficients between 30-minute PM2.5 and ST-height measures from each lead; i.e., one lag indicates a 30-minute separation between the exposure and outcome. Results The mean (SD age was 56 (7.6 years, with 41% male and 74% white. The mean (SD PM2.5 exposure was 14 (22 μg/m3. All inferior leads (II, III, and aVF and two out of three lateral leads (I and V6, showed a significant association between higher PM2.5 levels and higher ST-height. Most of the adverse effects occurred within two hours after PM2.5 exposure. The multivariable adjusted regression coefficients β (95% CI of the cumulative effect due to a 10 μg/m3 increase in Lag 0-4 PM2.5 on ST-I, II, III, aVF and ST-V6 were 0.29 (0.01-0.56 μV, 0.79 (0.20-1.39 μV, 0.52 (0.01-1.05 μV, 0.65 (0.11-1.19 μV, and 0.58 (0.07-1.09 μV, respectively, with all p

  7. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital visits for asthma in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Sun, Kexin; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Hu, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Data on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in China were first announced in 2013. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity in Beijing, China. A total of 978,658 asthma hospital visits consisting of 928,607 outpatient visits, 40,063 emergency room visits and 9988 hospital admissions from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to explore the association between PM 2.5 and health service use. The mean daily PM 2.5 concentration was 99.5 μg/m 3 with a range from 7.2 μg/m 3 to 492.8 μg/m 3 . Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increased use of asthma-related health services. Every 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration on the same day was significantly associated with a 0.67% (95% CI, 0.53%–0.81%), 0.65% (95% CI, 0.51%–0.80%), and 0.49% (95% CI, 0.35%–0.64%) increase in total hospital visits, outpatient visits and emergency room visits, respectively. The exposure–response association between PM 2.5 concentration and hospital visits for asthma exacerbations was approximately linear. In conclusion, this study found that short-term elevations in PM 2.5 concentration may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity outcomes in developing countries. - Graphical abstract: The exposure-response curve of 3-day (lag0–2) moving average fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations and hospital visits for asthma between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012, in Beijing, China. Note: The X-axis is the 3-day (lag0–2) moving average PM 2.5 concentrations (μg/m 3 ). Y-axis is the predicted log (relative risk (RR)), after adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, day of week, public holiday, and calendar time, is shown by the solid line, and the dotted

  8. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  9. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  10. Effect of co-exposure to nickel and particulate matter on insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Rao, Xiaoquan; Wang, Tse-Yao; Jiang, Silis Y; Ying, Zhekang; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Zhong, Mianhua; Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-11-05

    It has been well recognized that toxicity of fine ambient air particulate matter (PM(2.5)) may depend on its chemical constituents, including components such as soluble metals that may theoretically exert distinctive effects. We have recently demonstrated an important effect of PM(2.5) on metabolic function. Since transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), represent an important component of exposure in certain environments, and may significantly influence the toxicity of inhalational exposure, we investigated the effects of Ni as a variable component of ambient PM(2.5) exposure. Male ApoE knockout mice were exposed to filtered air (FA), fine-sized nickel sulfate particles alone (Ni) at 0.44 μg/m(3), concentrated ambient air PM(2.5) (CAPs) at a mean of 70 μg/m(3), or CAPs+Ni in Tuxedo, NY, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 months. Exposure to Ni, irrespective of co-exposure to CAPs, resulted in body weight gain, while exposure to CAPs+Ni significantly enhanced fasting glucose and worsened insulin resistance measures (HOMA-IR), when compared with exposure to CAPs alone. CAPs+Ni exposure induced a significant decrease in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α. Exposure to Ni or CAPs+Ni significantly induced microcirculatory dysfunction and increased monocytic cell infiltration into lung and adipose, and decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression at gene and protein levels and several brown adipocyte-specific genes in adipose tissue. Ni exposure has effects on metabolic and inflammatory parameters that are comparable to that of CAPs. Additionally, Ni synergistically exacerbates CAPs-induced adverse effects on some of, but not all of, these parameters, that may be mediated via the AMPK signaling pathway. These findings have important implications for inhaled transition metal toxicity that may exert synergistic effects with other PM(2.5) components.

  11. Association of fine particles with respiratory disease mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuhong; Zhou, Liangjia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Short-time exposure to high levels of fine particles (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm; PM2.5) may trigger respiratory disease, but this association has not been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify the short-time exposure to fine particles on respiratory disease mortality. Published articles were obtained from electronic databases and a validity assessment was used. The meta-analysis was conducted with the incorporation of good-quality studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, 9 articles were included in the study. The methodological qualities of the published studies were good, and every study achieved a score of 3. Fine particles were significantly associated with an increase in respiratory mortality risk (for every 10 μg/m3 increment, rate difference [RD]=1.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95%-1.68%; p=.000). These findings indicate that short-time exposure to fine particles could increase the risk of respiratory disease mortality.

  12. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  13. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality. A Nationwide Analysis in 272 Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Yin, Peng; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Wang, Lijun; Xu, Xiaohui; Ross, Jennifer A; Tse, Lap A; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-07-01

    Evidence concerning the acute health effects of air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in developing countries is quite limited. To evaluate short-term associations between PM 2.5 and daily cause-specific mortality in China. A nationwide time-series analysis was performed in 272 representative Chinese cities from 2013 to 2015. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to estimate regional- and national-average associations between PM 2.5 concentrations and daily cause-specific mortality. City-specific effects of PM 2.5 were estimated using the overdispersed generalized additive models after adjusting for time trends, day of the week, and weather conditions. Exposure-response relationship curves and potential effect modifiers were also evaluated. The average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentration in each city was 56 μg/m 3 (minimum, 18 μg/m 3 ; maximum, 127 μg/m 3 ). Each 10-μg/m 3 increase in 2-day moving average of PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with increments in mortality of 0.22% from total nonaccidental causes, 0.27% from cardiovascular diseases, 0.39% from hypertension, 0.30% from coronary heart diseases, 0.23% from stroke, 0.29% from respiratory diseases, and 0.38% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was a leveling off in the exposure-response curves at high concentrations in most, but not all, regions. The associations were stronger in cities with lower PM 2.5 levels or higher temperatures, and in subpopulations with elder age or less education. This nationwide investigation provided robust evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to PM 2.5 and increased mortality from various cardiopulmonary diseases in China. The magnitude of associations was lower than those reported in Europe and North America.

  14. Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only.......Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only....

  15. Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Ahn, Jiyoung; Cromar, Kevin R; Shao, Yongzhao; Reynolds, Harmony R; Jerrett, Michael; Lim, Chris C; Shanley, Ryan; Park, Yikyung; Hayes, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been identified as a global health threat, but the number of large U.S. prospective cohort studies with individual participant data remains limited, especially at lower recent exposures. We aimed to test the relationship between long-term exposure PM2.5 and death risk from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular (CVD), and respiratory diseases in 517,041 men and women enrolled in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort. Individual participant data were linked with residence PM2.5 exposure estimates across the continental United States for a 2000-2009 follow-up period when matching census tract-level PM2.5 exposure data were available. Participants enrolled ranged from 50 to 71 years of age, residing in six U.S. states and two cities. Cox proportional hazard models yielded hazard ratio (HR) estimates per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with total mortality (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), but the association with respiratory mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.13). A significant association was found with respiratory mortality only among never smokers (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.56). Associations with 10-μg/m3 PM2.5 exposures in yearly participant residential annual mean, or in metropolitan area-wide mean, were consistent with baseline exposure model results. Associations with PM2.5 were similar when adjusted for ozone exposures. Analyses of California residents alone also yielded statistically significant PM2.5 mortality HRs for total and CVD mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent test of the PM2.5-mortality relationship in a new large U.S. prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM2.5 exposure levels. Thurston GD, Ahn J, Cromar KR, Shao Y, Reynolds HR, Jerrett M

  16. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  17. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 (micro)m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO 2 emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue gas

  18. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Predict Irritant Potential of Smoke Particulate Matter from Five Biomass Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past few decades, the drying and warming trends of global climate change have increased wildland fire (WF) season length, as well as geographic area impacted. Consequently, exposures to WF fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) are likely ...

  19. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  20. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  1. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  2. Dose-dependent relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulates and exhaled carbon monoxide in non-asthmatic children. A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław A. Jędrychowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to

  3. Controlling exposure to DPM : diesel particulate filters vs. biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugarski, A.D.; Shi, X.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with Mine Safety and Health Administration regulations, mining companies are required to reduce miners exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) to 160 μg/m 3 of total carbon. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, disposable filter elements (DFEs), and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are among the most effective strategies and technologies for curtailing DPM at its source. Substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel blends is also considered to be a plausible solution by many underground mine operators. Studies were conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Diesel Laboratory at Lake Lynn Experimental Mine to evaluate various control technologies and strategies available to the underground mining industry to reduce exposure to DPM. The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of diesel aerosols (DPM) emitted by engines in an underground mine were also evaluated. The DPF and DFE systems were found to be highly effective in reducing total particulate and elemental carbon mass concentrations, total aerosol surface concentrations and, in most cases, concentrations of diesel aerosols in occupational settings such as underground mines. Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuels had the potential to reduce the mine air concentrations of total DPM, although the rate of reduction varied depending on engine operating conditions. The disadvantage of using biodiesel fuels was an increase in the fraction of particle-bound volatile organics and concentration of aerosols for light-load engine operating conditions.

  4. Bulky PAH-DNA induced by exposure of a co-culture model of human alveolar macrophages and embryonic epithelial cells to atmospheric particulate pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Imane; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Shirali, Pirouz; Andre, Veronique; Le Goff, Jeremie; Sichel, Francois; Roy Saint-Georges, Francoise; Mulliez, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Because of their deep penetration in human lungs, fine airborne particulate matter were described as mainly responsible for the deleterious effects of exposure to air pollution on health. Organic constituents are adsorbed on particles surface and, after inhalation, some (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) can be activated into reactive metabolites and can bind to DNA. The formation of bulky DNA adducts has been researched after exposure of mono-and co-cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and human embryonic human lung epithelial (L132), to fine air pollution particulate matter Air samples have been collected with cascade impactor and characterized: size distribution (92.15% 2 /g), inorganic (Fe, AI, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic compounds (PAHs, etc.). 32 P post-labeling method was applied to detect bulky DNA adducts in AM and L132, in mono-and co-cultures, 72 h after their exposure to atmospheric particles at their Lethals and Effects concentrations or (LC or CE) to 50% (i.e. MA: EC 50 = 74.63 μg/mL and L132: LC-5-0 = 75.36 μg/mL). Exposure to desorbed particles (MA: C1= 61.11 μg/mL and L132 : C2 = 61.71 μg/mL) and B[a]P (1 μM) were included. Bulky PAH-DNA adducts were detected in AM in mono-culture after exposure to total particles (Pt), to B[a]P and desorbed particles (Pd). Whatever the exposure, no DNA adduct was detected in L132 in mono-culture. These results are coherent with the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 l Al in AM and L132. Exposure of co-culture to Pt, or Pd induced bulky adducts to DNA in AM but not in L132. Exposure to B[a]P alone has altered the DNA of AM and L132, in co-culture. Exposure to Pt is closer to the environmental conditions, but conferred an exposure to amounts of genotoxic agents compared to studies using organic extracts. The formation of bulky DNA adducts was nevertheless observed in AM exposed to Pt, in mono- or co-culture, indicating that they were competent in terms of metabolic activation of PAHs. The

  5. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  6. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Epidemiology Studies and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  7. Advances in the simulation of personal protective equipment for the mitigation of exposure to radioactive particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeterink, M.J.; Kelly, D.G.; Dickson, E.F.G; Corcoran, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulates represent a significant potential hazard to first responders in nuclear related incidents. Personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular radio-opaque fabrics, can be used to reduce wearer exposure to the emitted radiation, but do not offer complete protection. The objective of this project is to create a realistic dosimetric model of the human arm, protected by a sleeve, which can eventually be developed into a tool to assess the full-body dose imparted to the wearer in the event of radiological particulate exposure. A two-fold approach will be employed whereby: (1) a particulate transport model will be used to determine the regional radioactive particulate concentrations; and (2) these concentration data will then be incorporated into a dosimetric model that will use the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code to determine the dose imparted to the tissue. Benchmarking experiments will be carried out to validate the results generated by the computer models. Such experimentation will be conducted for both the particulate transport and dosimetric models. Model advancement aims to consider whole body dose and will be invaluable in the development of future radiation exposure policies and procedures. (author)

  8. Regulatory T Cells Protect Fine Particulate Matter-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-cai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T cells (Tregs in protecting fine particulate matter (PM- induced inflammatory responses, and its potential mechanisms. Methods. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated with graded concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/cm2 of suspension of fine particles for 24h. For coculture experiment, HUVECs were incubated alone, with CD4+CD25− T cells (Teff, or with Tregs in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies for 48 hours, and then were stimulated with or without suspension of fine particles for 24 hours. The expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was examined. Results. Adhesion molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL- 6 and IL-8, were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1 to endothelial cells was increased and NF-κB activity was upregulated in HUVECs after treatment with fine particles. However, after Tregs treatment, fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation were significantly alleviated. Transwell experiments showed that Treg-mediated suppression of HUVECs inflammatory responses impaired by fine particles required cell contact and soluble factors. Conclusions. Tregs could attenuate fine particles-induced inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation in HUVECs.

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  10. Estimation of Fine Particulate Matter in Taipei Using Landuse Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS, the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan from 2005–2007.

  11. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  12. Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among Older US Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large...

  13. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  14. A conditional Poisson analysis of fine particulate matter and U.S. Medicare hospitalization, 1999-2010, by individual-level chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Aim: A previous analysis suggested that U.S. counties with higher county-level prevalence of chronic conditions had stronger associations of mortality with fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This study assesses the modification of the effect of PM2.5 on daily hospitaliz...

  15. An association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan. The nationwide data on emergency dispatches of ambulance for cardiovascular diseases classified as I00-I99 by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision in 30 Japanese prefectures between April 1 and December 31, in 2010 were analyzed. Data on weather variability including PM 2.5 , temperature and relative humidity were acquired from ambient air pollution monitoring stations. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of PM 2.5 on morbidity, and adjust for confounding factors. A meta-analysis was then applied to pool estimates at the 30-prefecture level. A total of 160,566 emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases were reported during the study period. The risk of emergency ambulance dispatch for cardiovascular diseases significantly increased with an increase in the exposure to PM 2.5 in Fukuoka and Iwate Prefectures. However, we found no statistically significant associations between PM 2.5 and emergency ambulance dispatches in the pooled analysis (odds ratio 1.00, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.00). Heterogeneity was not observed between prefectures (Cochran Q test, p = 0.187, I 2  = 18.4 %). Exposure to PM 2.5 is not associated with overall emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

  16. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  17. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  18. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  19. Cardiomyopathy confers susceptibility to particulate matter-induced oxidative stress, vagal dominance, arrhythmia, pulmonary inflammation in heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is tied to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially among those with prior cardiac injury. The mechanisms and pathophysiologic events precipitating these outcomes remain poorly understood but may involve inflamm...

  20. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  1. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM 2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM 2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM 2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical

  2. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S.N.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; Weiden-Reinmüller, S.L. von der; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q.J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J.G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions.

  3. Redox/methylation mediated abnormal DNA methylation as regulators of ambient fine particulate matter-induced neurodevelopment related impairment in human neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Zhou, Ren; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been implicated as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including autism in children. However, the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation is suggested to be a fundamental mechanism for the neuronal responses to environmental cues. We prepared whole particle of PM2.5 (PM2.5), water-soluble extracts (Pw), organic extracts (Po) and carbon core component (Pc) and characterized their chemical constitutes. We found that PM2.5 induced significant redox imbalance, decreased the levels of intercellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine and caused global DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure triggered gene-specific promoter DNA hypo- or hypermethylation and abnormal mRNA expression of autism candidate genes. PM2.5-induced DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions of synapse related genes were associated with the decreases in their mRNA and protein expression. The inhibiting effects of antioxidative reagents, a methylation-supporting agent and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of redox/methylation mechanism in PM2.5-induced abnormal DNA methylation patterns and synaptic protein expression. The biological effects above generally followed a sequence of PM2.5 ≥ Pwo > Po > Pw > Pc. Our results implicated a novel epigenetic mechanism for the neurodevelopmental toxicity of particulate air pollution, and that eliminating the chemical components could mitigate the neurotoxicity of PM2.5.

  4. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  5. Prolonged Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Suppresses Homologous Recombination Repair in Human Lung Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Qin, Qin; Kelly, Deborah F; Prakash, Rohit; Vanoli, Fabio; Jasin, Maria; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-09-01

    Genomic instability is one of the primary models of carcinogenesis and a feature of almost all cancers. Homologous recombination (HR) repair protects against genomic instability by maintaining high genomic fidelity during the repair of DNA double strand breaks. The defining step of HR repair is the formation of the Rad51 nucleofilament, which facilitates the search for a homologous sequence and invasion of the template DNA strand. Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a human lung carcinogen, induces DNA double strand breaks and chromosome instability. Since the loss of HR repair increases Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability, we investigated the effect of extended Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair. We show acute (24 h) Cr(VI) exposure induces a normal HR repair response. In contrast, prolonged (120 h) exposure to particulate Cr(VI) inhibited HR repair and Rad51 nucleofilament formation. Prolonged Cr(VI) exposure had a profound effect on Rad51, evidenced by reduced protein levels and Rad51 mislocalization to the cytoplasm. The response of proteins involved in Rad51 nuclear import and nucleofilament formation displayed varying responses to prolonged Cr(VI) exposure. BRCA2 formed nuclear foci after prolonged Cr(VI) exposure, while Rad51C foci formation was suppressed. These results suggest that particulate Cr(VI), a major chemical carcinogen, inhibits HR repair by targeting Rad51, causing DNA double strand breaks to be repaired by a low fidelity, Rad51-independent repair pathway. These results further enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability and thus, carcinogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  7. Smog episodes, fine particulate pollution and mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maigeng; He, Guojun; Fan, Maoyong; Wang, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Jing; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Jiangmei; Liu, Yunning; Wang, Linhong; Liu, Yuanli

    2015-01-01

    Starting from early January 2013, northern China was hit by multiple prolonged and severe smog events which were characterized by extremely high-level concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with hourly peaks of PM2.5 over 800 µg/m(3). However, the consequences of this severe air pollution are largely unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of the smog episodes and PM2.5 on mortality for both urban and rural areas in northern China. We collected PM2.5, mortality, and meteorological data for 5 urban city districts and 2 rural counties in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province of China from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013. We employed the generalized additive models to estimate the associations between smog episodes or PM2.5 and daily mortality for each district/county. Without any meteorological control, the smog episodes are positively and statistically significantly associated with mortality in 5 out of 7 districts/counties. However, the findings are sensitive to the meteorological factors. After controlling for temperature, humidity, dew point and wind, the statistical significance disappears in all urban districts. In contrast, the smog episodes are consistently and statistically significantly associated with higher total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular/respiratory diseases in the two rural counties. In Ji County, a smog episode is associated with 6.94% (95% Confidence Interval, -0.20 to 14.58) increase in overall mortality, and in Ci County it is associated with a 19.26% (95% CI, 6.66-33.34) increase in overall mortality. The smog episodes kill people primarily through its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. On average, a smog episode is associated with 11.66% (95% CI, 3.12-20.90) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ji County, and it is associated with a 22.23% (95% CI, 8.11-38.20) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Ci County. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2

  8. Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, M.A.J.; Proctor, C.J.; Baker-Rogers, J.; Warren, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 μg m -3 ) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 μg m -3 ) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland

  9. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital visits for asthma in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Sun, Kexin; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Hu, Yonghua

    2017-11-01

    Data on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in China were first announced in 2013. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity in Beijing, China. A total of 978,658 asthma hospital visits consisting of 928,607 outpatient visits, 40,063 emergency room visits and 9988 hospital admissions from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to explore the association between PM 2.5 and health service use. The mean daily PM 2.5 concentration was 99.5 μg/m 3 with a range from 7.2 μg/m 3 to 492.8 μg/m 3 . Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with increased use of asthma-related health services. Every 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration on the same day was significantly associated with a 0.67% (95% CI, 0.53%-0.81%), 0.65% (95% CI, 0.51%-0.80%), and 0.49% (95% CI, 0.35%-0.64%) increase in total hospital visits, outpatient visits and emergency room visits, respectively. The exposure-response association between PM 2.5 concentration and hospital visits for asthma exacerbations was approximately linear. In conclusion, this study found that short-term elevations in PM 2.5 concentration may increase the risk of asthma exacerbations. Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the acute effects of PM 2.5 on asthma morbidity outcomes in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter and hospitalization for respiratory disease. It was an ecological time series study with daily indicators of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children up to 10 years old, living in Piracicaba, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. A generalized additive Poisson regression model was used. The relative risks were RR = 1.008; 95%CI 1.001;1.016 for lag 1 and RR = 1.009; 95%CI 1.001;1.017 for lag 3. The increment of 10 μg/m3in particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter implies increase in relative risk of between 7.9 and 8.6 percentage points. In conclusion, exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter was associated with hospitalization for respiratory disease in children. PMID:24626559

  11. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  12. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  13. The relationships between short-term exposure to particulate matter and mortality in Korea: impact of particulate matter exposure metrics for sub-daily exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of short-term particulate matter (PM) exposure use 24 h averages. However, other pollutants have stronger effects in shorter timeframes, which has influenced policy (e.g., ozone 8 h maximum). The selection of appropriate exposure timeframes is important for effective regulation. The US EPA identified health effects for sub-daily PM exposures as a critical research need. Unlike most areas, Seoul, Korea has hourly measurements of PM 10 , although not PM 2.5 . We investigated PM 10 and mortality (total, cardiovascular, respiratory) in Seoul (1999–2009) considering sub-daily exposures: 24 h, daytime (7 am–8 pm), morning (7–10 am), nighttime (8 pm–7 am), and 1 h daily maximum. We applied Poisson generalized linear modeling adjusting for temporal trends and meteorology. All PM 10 metrics were significantly associated with total mortality. Compared to other exposure timeframes, morning exposure had the most certain effect on total mortality (based on statistical significance). Increases of 10 μg m −3 in 24 h, daytime, morning, nighttime, and 1 h maximum PM 10 were associated with 0.15% (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.28%), 0.14% (0.01–0.27%), 0.10% (0.03–0.18%), 0.12% (0.03–0.22%), and 0.10% (0.00–0.21%) increases in total mortality, respectively. PM 10 was significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality for 24 h, morning, and nighttime exposures. We did not identify significant associations with respiratory mortality. The results support use of a 24 h averaging time as an appropriate metric for health studies and regulation, particularly for PM 10 and mortality. (letter)

  14. Modeling individual exposures to ambient PM2.5 in the diabetes and the environment panel study (DEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which can induce exposure error. The goal of this study was to improve ambient PM2.5 exposure assessments for a repeated measurements study with ...

  15. Effects of particulate air pollution on human health. Statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution; Partikulaere Luftverunreinigung und ihre Folgen fuer die menschliche Gesundheit. Stellungnahme der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie (DGP) zur aktuellen Feinstaub-Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voshaar, T.H. [Krankenhaus Bethanien, Moers (Germany). Zentrum fuer Schlafmedizin und Heimbeatmung; Heyder, J. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Koehler, D. [Fachkrankenhaus Kloster Grafschaft, Schmallenberg (Germany); Krug, N. [Fraunhofer-Inst. Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Hannover (Germany); Nowak, D. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Scheuch, G. [Inamed GmbH, Muenchen-Gauting und Gemuenden/Wohra (Germany); Schulz, H. [GSF Inst. fuer Inhalationsbiologie, Neuherberg/Muenchen (Germany); Witt, C. [Charite-Universitaetsklinik, Schwerpunkt Pneumologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The statement of the German Society of Pneumology (DGP) on the discussion about fine particulate air pollution reviews recent research on the matter: effects of particulates depending on particle size, abundance indoor and outdoor, tobacco smoke, diesel soot particles, health hazards especially for children, epidemiology, toxicological studies, aerosols. (uke)

  16. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 μg/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 μg/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short

  17. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  18. [Reduction of exposure to particulate matter in classrooms by improved cleaning: extent of exposure and results of a pilot study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardella, D; Fromme, H; Dietrich, S; Dietrich, W C

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the research project were (I) to describe the exposure to particulate matter in Bavarian schools and identify predictors of increased exposure and (II) to evaluate whether exposure can be reduced by improving the ventilation and/or cleaning routine. Air quality was measured in 46 schools, two classrooms each, in the City of Munich and Dachau county. Each classroom was measured on one school day in both winter 2004/2005 and summer 2005. The continuously generated data on particulate matter during the teaching hours were summarised to daily medians and the possible association of the median concentration with classroom characteristics was tested using non-parametric methods. In winter, the median PM (2.5) concentration was 18.8 microg/m (3), in summer 12.7 microg/m (3). The median PM (10) concentration was 91.5 microg/m (3) in winter and 64.9 microg/m (3) in summer. Determinants of a high particulate matter concentration were the winter period, an increased number of pupils or decreased room size, a high CO(2) concentration, and a low class level. Following this survey, a pilot study on the effects of improved cleaning and ventilation routines was conducted in autumn 2005. Three conditions were tested in two classrooms of one school: (a) standard, (b) improved airing (3 min during short and 20 min during long breaks), and (c) improved airing and improved cleaning (thorough cleaning once and vacuuming before wet wiping). Each condition was implemented for 2 weeks and particulate matter concentrations measured concurrently. In both rooms a reduction of both PM (2.5) and PM (10) concentration was found following improved airing and a further reduction occurred when improved cleaning was introduced in addition. However, in a linear regression accounting for other factors (room, physical activity of the pupils, outdoor concentration of particulate matter) the effect of improved airing was no longer significant, while the effect of improved cleaning remained at

  19. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  20. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the risk of respiratory tract disease...

  1. Spatiotemporal Prediction of Fine Particulate Matter Using High-Resolution Satellite Images in the Southeastern US 2003-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5), particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM(sub 2.5) to assess personal exposure, however, induces measurement error. Land-use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land-use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM(sub 2.5) exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM(sub 2.5) variables, such as meteorological variables, land-use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM(sub 2.5) at a 1 sq km resolution of the Southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 to 2011. We divided the study area into three regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM(sub 2.5) measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 cu micrograms for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM(sub 2.5) concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM(sub 2.5). Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM(sub 2.5) which have mostly focused on urban areas because of the paucity of monitors in rural areas.

  2. Particulate air pollution and vascular reactivity: the bus stop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Szyszkowicz, Mietek; Dalipaj, Mary; Willey, Jeff; Kulka, Ryan; Ruddy, Terrence D

    2007-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity but mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the effects on vascular reactivity of exposure to fine particulates matter mass (PM(2.5)), number of particles bus stops. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was then measured by ultrasound and expressed as: (maximum artery diameter after release of a blood pressure cuff inflated above systolic pressure-baseline resting diameter)/baseline resting diameter. A 30 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) exposure corresponded to a 0.48% reduction in FMD, P=0.05 representing a 5% relative change in the maximum ability to dilate. Results were consistent between the two bus stops and not sensitive to type of analysis. No significant association was found between FMD and NO(2), PM(1.0) or traffic density. PM(2.5) may reduce the capacity to vasodilate, a potential explanation for the documented association with cardiovascular morbidity.

  3. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  4. Commuter exposure to particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs in three transportation modes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Qunfang; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Yanjun; Fu, Huaiyu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles as well as particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by commuters in three transportation modes (walking, subway and bus) were examined in December 2011 in Beijing, China. During the study period, real-time measured median PM 2.5 mass concentration (PMC) for walking, riding buses and taking the subway were 26.7, 32.9 and 56.9 μg m −3 , respectively, and particle number concentrations (PNC) were 1.1 × 10 4 , 1.0 × 10 4 and 2.2 × 10 4  cm −3 . Commuters were exposed to higher PNC in air-conditioned buses and aboveground-railway, but higher PMC in underground-subway compared to aboveground-railway. PNC in roadway modes (bus and walking) peaked at noon, but was lower during traffic rush hours, negatively correlated with PMC. Toxic potential of particulate-PAHs estimated based on benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQs) showed that walking pedestrians were subjected to higher BaP TEQs than bus (2.7-fold) and subway (3.6-fold) commuters, though the highest PMC and PNC were observed in subway. - Highlights: • The highest PNC and PM 2.5 occurred around noon and late rush hours, respectively. • Higher PM 2.5 and PNC, but lower PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. • Traffic congestion, roadside cooking, and construction evidently enhanced roadway PM. • Ventilation and air-conditioning system impact PM level in bus and subway cabins. - Higher PMC and PNC, but lower particulate PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. PNC and PMC in on-roadway modes were peaked around noon and late rush hours, respectively

  5. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality associations in US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclass...

  6. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of organic compounds in source samples and in atmospheric fine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christopher G; Schauer, James J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-10-15

    Source sample extracts of vegetative detritus, motor vehicle exhaust, tire dust paved road dust, and cigarette smoke have been silylated and analyzed by GC-MS to identify polar organic compounds that may serve as tracers for those specific emission sources of atmospheric fine particulate matter. Candidate molecular tracers were also identified in atmospheric fine particle samples collected in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A series of normal primary alkanols, dominated by even carbon-numbered homologues from C26 to C32, the secondary alcohol 10-nonacosanol, and some phytosterols are prominent polar compounds in the vegetative detritus source sample. No new polar organic compounds are found in the motor vehicle exhaust samples. Several hydrogenated resin acids are present in the tire dust sample, which might serve as useful tracers for those sources in areas that are heavily impacted by motor vehicle traffic. Finally, the alcohol and sterol emission profiles developed for all the source samples examined in this project are scaled according to the ambient fine particle mass concentrations attributed to those sources by a chemical mass balance receptor model that was previously applied to the San Joaquin Valley to compute the predicted atmospheric concentrations of individual alcohols and sterols. The resulting underprediction of alkanol concentrations at the urban sites suggests that alkanols may be more sensitive tracers for natural background from vegetative emissions (i.e., waxes) than the high molecular weight alkanes, which have been the best previously available tracers for that source.

  7. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  8. Short-term effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution on hospital visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaohua; Xiang, Xiao; Juan, Juan; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Huang, Chao; Li, Man; Hu, Yonghua

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the effect of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. The objective of this study was to explore the short-term effects of PM 2.5 on outpatient and inpatient visits for COPD in Beijing, China. A total of 3,503,313 outpatient visits and 126,982 inpatient visits for COPD between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012, were identified from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to estimate the percentage change with 95% confidence interval (CI) in hospital visits for COPD in relation to an interquartile range (IQR) (90.8 μg/m 3 ) increase in PM 2.5 concentrations. Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 was significantly associated with increased use of COPD-related health services. There were clear exposure-response associations of PM 2.5 with COPD outpatient and inpatient visits. An IQR increase in the concurrent day PM 2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with a 2.38% (95% CI, 2.22%-2.53%) and 6.03% (95% CI, 5.19%-6.87%) increase in daily outpatient visits and inpatient visits, respectively. Elderly people were more sensitive to the adverse effects. The estimated risk was higher during the warm season compared to the cool season. Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with increased risk of hospital visits for COPD. Our findings contributed to the limited evidence concerning the effects of ambient PM 2.5 on COPD morbidity in developing countries.

  9. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  10. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S; Grady, Michael L; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L

    2017-07-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO 2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm 3 , although CO 2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO 2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm 3 . We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO 2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO 2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO 2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO 2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO 2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO 2 accumulation.

  11. Transcriptome-wide analyses indicate mitochondrial responses to particulate air pollution exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winckelmans, Ellen; Nawrot, Tim S.; Tsamou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    validation cohort (n = 169, 55.6% women). Results: Overrepresentation analyses revealed significant pathways (p-value transport chain (ETC) for medium-term exposure in women. For men, medium-term PM10....... Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we identified mitochondrial genes and pathways associated with particulate air pollution indicating upregulation of energy producing pathways as a potential mechanism to compensate for PM-induced mitochondrial damage....

  12. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  13. A persisting secondhand smoke hazard in urban public places: results from fine particulate (PM2.5) air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard; Parry, Rhys

    2011-03-04

    To assess the need for additional smokefree settings, by measuring secondhand smoke (SHS) in a range of public places in an urban setting. Measurements were made in Wellington City during the 6-year period after the implementation of legislation that made indoor areas of restaurants and bars/pubs smokefree in December 2004, and up to 20 years after the 1990 legislation making most indoor workplaces smokefree. Fine particulate levels (PM2.5) were measured with a portable real-time airborne particle monitor. We collated data from our previously published work involving random sampling, purposeful sampling and convenience sampling of a wide range of settings (in 2006) and from additional sampling of selected indoor and outdoor areas (in 2007-2008 and 2010). The "outdoor" smoking areas of hospitality venues had the highest particulate levels, with a mean value of 72 mcg/m3 (range of maximum values 51-284 mcg/m3) (n=20 sampling periods). These levels are likely to create health hazards for some workers and patrons (i.e., when considered in relation to the WHO air quality guidelines). National survey data also indicate that these venues are the ones where SHS exposure is most frequently reported by non-smokers. Areas inside bars that were adjacent to "outdoor" smoking areas also had high levels, with a mean of 54 mcg/m3 (range of maximum values: 18-239 mcg/m3, for n=13 measurements). In all other settings mean levels were lower (means: 2-22 mcg/m3). These other settings included inside traditional style pubs/sports bars (n=10), bars (n=18), restaurants (n=9), cafes (n=5), inside public buildings (n=15), inside transportation settings (n=15), and various outdoor street/park settings (n=22). During the data collection in all settings made smokefree by law, there was only one occasion of a person observed smoking. The results suggest that compliance in pubs/bars and restaurants has remained extremely high in this city in the nearly six years since implementation of the

  14. Estimation of disease burdens on preterm births and low birth weights attributable to maternal fine particulate matter exposure in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anni; Qian, Naisi; Yu, Huiting; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2017-12-31

    Studies have shown that maternal exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) was associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). However, the burdens of PTB and LBW attributable to PM 2.5 were rarely evaluated, especially in developing countries. To estimate the burdens of PTBs and LBWs attributable to outdoor PM 2.5 in Shanghai, China. We collected annual-average PM 2.5 concentrations, concentration-response relationships between PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy and PTBs and LBWs, rates of PTB and LBW, number of live births, and population sizes in grids of 10km×10km in Shanghai in 2013. Then, they were combined to estimate the odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs), attributable fractions (AFs), and numbers of PTBs and LBWs associated with PM 2.5 exposure. The population-weighted annual-average concentration of PM 2.5 in Shanghai was 56.19μg/m 3 in 2013. According to the first-class limit of PM 2.5 (15μg/m 3 ) in the Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the weighted RRs of PTBs or LBWs associated with PM 2.5 in Shanghai were 1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.80] and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.04-1.67), respectively. There might be 32.61% (95% CI: 13.93%-44.42%) or 4160 (95% CI: 1778-5667) PTBs and 23.36% (95% CI: 3.86%-40.02%) or 1882 (95% CI: 311-3224) LBWs attributable to PM 2.5 exposure. The estimates varied appreciably among different districts of Shanghai. Our analysis suggested that outdoor PM 2.5 air pollution might have led to considerable burdens of PTBs and LBWs in Shanghai, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A meta-analysis of exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirga Kumar Lamichhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to provide summarized evidence on the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and birth weight (BW and preterm birth (PTB after taking into consideration the potential confounding effect of maternal smoking. Methods We systematically searched all published cohort and case-control studies examining BW and PTB association with particulate matter (PM, less than or equal to 2.5μm and 10.0 μm in diameter, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively from PubMed and Web of Science, from January 1980 to April 2015. We extracted coefficients for continuous BW and odds ratio (OR for PTB from each individual study, and meta-analysis was used to combine the coefficient and OR of individual studies. The methodological quality of individual study was assessed using a standard protocol proposed by Downs and Black. Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Results In random effects meta-analyses, BW as a continuous outcome was negativelyassociated with 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 (-10.31 g; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.57 to -3.13 g; I-squared=0%, p=0.947 and PM2.5 (-22.17 g; 95% CI, -37.93 to -6.41 g; I-squared=92.3%, p <0.001 exposure during entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal smoking. A significantly increased risk of PTB per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.41; I-squared=0%, p =0.977 and PM2.5 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; I-squared=92.5%, p <0.001 exposure during entire pregnancy was observed. Effect size of change in BW per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM tended to report stronger associations after adjustment for maternal smoking. Conclusions While this systematic review supports an adverse impact of maternal exposure to particulate air pollution on birth outcomes, variation in effects by exposure period and sources of heterogeneity between studies should be further explored.

  16. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  17. Metro Commuter Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution and PM2.5-Associated Elements in Three Canadian Cities: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, Keith; Anastasopolos, Angelos T; Evans, Greg; Sun, Liu; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Kulka, Ryan; Wallace, Lance; Weichenthal, Scott

    2017-05-16

    System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM 2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM 10 , ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 . Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM 2.5 and its elemental components were compared to those of the metro in each city. A microenvironmental exposure model was used to estimate the contribution of a 70 min metro commute to daily mean exposure to PM 2.5 elemental and mass concentrations. Time spent in the metro was estimated to contribute the majority of daily exposure to several metallic elements of PM 2.5 and 21.2%, 11.3% and 11.5% of daily PM 2.5 exposure in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, respectively. Findings suggest that particle air pollutant levels in Canadian metros are substantially impacted by the systems themselves, are highly enriched in steel-based elements, and can contribute a large portion of PM 2.5 and its elemental components to a metro commuter's daily exposure.

  18. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Hao; Yao, Lan; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Fanping; Wang, Weihao; Xue, Likun; Yang, Lingxiao; Lu, Keding; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanghang; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-03-01

    Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain) in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m-3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m-3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  19. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  20. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  1. Characterization of particulate and gas exposures of sensitive subpopulations living in Baltimore and Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Petros; Suh, Helen H; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Brown, Kathleen Ward; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-12-01

    Personal exposures to particulate and gaseous pollutants and corresponding ambient concentrations were measured for 56 subjects living in Baltimore, Maryland, and 43 subjects living in Boston, Massachusetts. The 3 Baltimore cohorts consisted of 20 healthy older adults (seniors), 21 children, and 15 individuals with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD*). The 2 Boston cohorts were 20 healthy seniors and 23 children. All children were 9 to 13 years of age; seniors were 65 years of age or older; and the COPD participants had moderate to severe physician-diagnosed COPD. Personal exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5), sulfate (SO(4)2-), elemental carbon (EC), ozone (03), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured simultaneously for 24 hours/day. All subjects were monitored for 8 to 12 consecutive days. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the personal particulate and gaseous exposures for individuals sensitive to PM health effects and (2) to assess the appropriateness of exposure assessment strategies for use in PM epidemiologic studies. Personal exposures to multiple pollutants and ambient concentrations were measured for subjects from each cohort from each location. Pollutant data were analyzed using correlation and mixed-model regression analyses. In Baltimore, personal PM2.5 exposures tended to be comparable to (and frequently lower than) corresponding ambient concentrations; in Boston, the personal exposures were frequently higher. Overall, personal exposures to the gaseous pollutants, especially O3 and SO2, were considerably lower than corresponding ambient concentrations because of the lack of indoor sources for these gases and their high removal rate on indoor surfaces. Further, the impact of ambient particles on personal exposure (the infiltration factor) and differences in infiltration factor by city, season, and cohort were investigated

  2. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  3. Reducing personal exposure to particulate air pollution improves cardiovascular health in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Li, Xi; Wang, Shengfeng; Lee, Matthew M Y; Barnes, Gareth D; Miller, Mark R; Cassee, Flemming R; Boon, Nicholas A; Donaldson, Ken; Li, Jing; Li, Liming; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2012-03-01

    Air pollution exposure increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is a major global public health concern. We investigated the benefits of reducing personal exposure to urban air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. In an open randomized crossover trial, 98 patients with coronary heart disease walked on a predefined route in central Beijing, China, under different conditions: once while using a highly efficient face mask, and once while not using the mask. Symptoms, exercise, personal air pollution exposure, blood pressure, heart rate, and 12-lead electrocardiography were monitored throughout the 24-hr study period. Ambient air pollutants were dominated by fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) that was present at high levels [74 μg/m³ for PM(2.5) (PM with aerodynamic diamater reduced maximal ST segment depression (-142 vs. -156 μV, p = 0.046) over the 24-hr period. When the face mask was used during the prescribed walk, mean arterial pressure was lower (93 ± 10 vs. 96 ± 10 mmHg, p = 0.025) and heart rate variability increased (high-frequency power: 54 vs. 40 msec², p = 0.005; high-frequency normalized power: 23.5 vs. 20.5 msec, p = 0.001; root mean square successive differences: 16.7 vs. 14.8 msec, p = 0.007). However, mask use did not appear to influence heart rate or energy expenditure. Reducing personal exposure to air pollution using a highly efficient face mask appeared to reduce symptoms and improve a range of cardiovascular health measures in patients with coronary heart disease. Such interventions to reduce personal exposure to PM air pollution have the potential to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in this highly susceptible population.

  4. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  5. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).

  6. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  7. Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth; Eisen, Ellen; Cullen, Mark R; Hammond, Katharine

    2018-05-31

    Objectives As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation. Results Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m 3 , respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (Pfacilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities. Conclusions Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

  8. Interdigitated Pt-GaN Schottky interfaces for high-temperature soot-particulate sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hongyun; Hou, Minmin; Jain, Sambhav R.; Lim, Jongwoo; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-04-01

    A microscale soot-particulate sensor using interdigitated platinum-gallium nitride (Pt-GaN) Schottky interfaces was developed to monitor fine soot particles within high-temperature environments (e.g., combustion exhausts and flues). Upon exposure to soot particles (30 to 50 nm in diameter) from an experimental chimney, an increased current (∼43.6%) is observed through the back-to-back Schottky contact to n-type GaN. This is attributed to a reduction in the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) of ∼10 meV due to the electric field from the charged soot particles in the depletion region and exposed GaN surface. Furthermore, the microfabricated sensor was shown to recover sensitivity and regenerate the sensing response (∼11 meV SBH reduction) after exposure to temperature as high as 550 °C. This study supports the feasibility of a simple and reliable soot sensor to meet the increasing market demand for particulate matter sensing in harsh environments.

  9. Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. Objective To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. Results We identified 1,760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6 μg/m3 during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1μg/m3) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26 mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. Conclusions This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China. PMID:27148900

  10. Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with Chinese, Malay and Indian cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei See, Siao; Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2006-03-01

    Food cooking using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has received considerable attention in recent years since it is an important source of particulate air pollution in indoor environments for non-smokers. Exposure to organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in particles is of particular health concern since some of these compounds are suspected carcinogens. It is therefore necessary to chemically characterize the airborne particles emitted from gas cooking to assess their possible health impacts. In this work, the levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and 16 priority PAHs were determined in three different ethnic commercial kitchens, specifically Chinese, Malay and Indian food stalls, where distinctive cooking methods were employed. The mass concentrations of PM(2.5) and PAHs, and the fraction of PAHs in PM(2.5) were the highest at the Malay stall (245.3 microg m(-3), 609.0 ng m(-3), and 0.25%, respectively), followed by the Chinese stall (201.6 microg m(-3), 141.0 ng m(-3), and 0.07%), and the Indian stall (186.9 microg m(-3), 37.9 ng m(-3), and 0.02%). This difference in the levels of particulate pollution among the three stalls may be attributed to the different cooking methods employed at the food stalls, the amount of food cooked, and the cooking time, although the most sensitive parameter appears to be the predominant cooking method used. Frying processes, especially deep-frying, produce more air pollutants, possibly due to the high oil temperatures used in such operations. Furthermore, it is found that frying, be it deep-frying at the Malay stall or stir-frying at the Chinese stall, gave rise to an abundance of higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene whereas low-temperature cooking, such as simmering at the Indian stall, has a higher concentration of lower molecular weight PAHs. In addition, the correlation matrices and diagnostic ratios of PAHs were

  11. An Automated Heart Rate Detection Platform in Wild-Type Zebrafish for Cardiotoxicity Screening of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) causes adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, with increasing evidence implicating soluble components of PM; however, the enormous number of unique PM samples from different air sheds far exceeds the capacity of conventio...

  12. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  13. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter using high resolution satellite images in the southeastern U.S 2003–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM2.5 to assess personal exposure; however, induces measurement error. Land use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM2.5 variables such as meteorological variables, land use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM2.5 at a 1 km2 resolution of the southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 through 2011. We divided the study area into 3 regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM2.5 measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R2 values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors (RMSPE) of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 μg/m3 for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM2.5 concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM2.5. Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM2.5 which have mostly focused on urban areas due to the paucity of monitors in rural areas. PMID:26082149

  14. Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gym-implications for exposure of exercising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Safránek, Jiří; Hytychová, Adéla

    2011-05-01

    It has been noticed many times that schools are buildings with high levels of particulate matter concentrations. Several authors documented that concentrations of particulate matter in indoor school microenvironments exceed limits recommended by WHO namely when school buildings are situated near major roads with high traffic densities. In addition, exercise under conditions of high particulate concentrations may increase the adverse health effects, as the total particle deposition increases in proportion to minute ventilation, and the deposition fraction nearly doubles from rest to intense exercise. Mass concentrations of size-segregated aerosol were measured simultaneously in an elementary school gym and an adjacent outdoor site in the central part of Prague by two pairs of collocated aerosol monitors-a fast responding photometer DusTrak and a five stage cascade impactor. To encompass seasonal and annual differences, 89 days of measurements were performed during ten campaigns between 2005 and 2009. The average (all campaigns) outdoor concentration of PM(2.5) (28.3 μg m(-3)) measured by the cascade impactors was higher than the indoor value (22.3 μg m(-3)) and the corresponding average from the nearest fixed site monitor (23.6 μg m(-3)). Indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the WHO recommended 24-h limit in 42% and 49% of the days measured, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between corresponding outdoor and indoor aerosol sizes increased with decreasing aerodynamic diameter of the collected particles (r = 0.32-0.87), suggesting a higher infiltration rate of fine and quasi-ultrafine particles. Principal component analysis revealed five factors explaining more than 82% of the data variability. The first two factors reflected a close association between outdoor and indoor fine and quasi-ultrafine particles confirming the hypothesis of high infiltration rate of particles from outdoors. The third factor indicated that human

  15. Observations of fine particulate nitrated phenols in four sites in northern China: concentrations, source apportionment, and secondary formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Filter samples of fine particulate matters were collected at four sites in northern China (urban, rural, and mountain in summer and winter, and the contents of nine nitrated phenols were quantified in the laboratory with the use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During the sampling periods, the concentrations of particulate nitrated phenols exhibited distinct temporal and spatial variation. On average, the total concentration of particulate nitrated phenols in urban Jinan in the wintertime reached 48.4 ng m−3, and those in the summertime were 9.8, 5.7, 5.9, and 2.5 ng m−3 in urban Jinan, rural Yucheng and Wangdu, and Mt. Tai, respectively. The elevated concentrations of nitrated phenols in wintertime and in urban areas demonstrate the apparent influences of anthropogenic sources. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was then applied to determine the origins of particulate nitrated phenols in northern China. The five major source factors were traffic, coal combustion, biomass burning, secondary formation, and aged coal combustion plume. Among them, coal combustion played a vital role, especially at the urban site in the wintertime, with a contribution of around 55 %. In the summertime, the observed nitrated phenols were highly influenced by aged coal combustion plumes at all of the sampling sites. Meanwhile, in remote areas, contributions from secondary formation were significant. Further correlation analysis indicates that nitrosalicylic acids were produced mostly from secondary formation that was dominated by NO2 nitration.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 1000 W/m2 solar radiation intensity. 7.4.8.2 The ambient temperature sensor shall be of such a... measurement of the mass concentration of fine particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than or... matter specified in § 50.7 and § 50.13 of this part are met. The measurement process is considered to be...

  17. EFFECTS OF SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAM AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked air pollution exposure to adverse respiratory health effects, especially in individuals with inflammatory airways disease. Symptomatic asthmatics appear to be at greatest risk. We previously demonstrated that exposure of rats to particulate...

  18. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) wit...

  19. Assessment of population exposure to particulate matter pollution in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Gangcai; Wang, Fei; Aunan, Kristin; Hao, Jiming

    2008-05-01

    To determine the population exposure to PM(10) in Chongqing, China, we developed an indirect model by combining information on the time activity patterns of various demographic subgroups with estimates of the PM(10) concentrations in different microenvironments (MEs). The spatial and temporal variations of the exposure to PM(10) were illustrated in a geographical information system (GIS). The population weighted exposure (PWE) for the entire population was 229, 155 and 211 microg/m(3), respectively, in winter, summer and as the annual average. Indoor PM(10) level at home was the largest contributor to the PWE, especially for the rural areas where high pollution levels were found due to solid fuels burning. Elder people had higher PM(10) exposure than adults and youth, due to more time spent in indoor MEs. The highest health risk due to particulate was found in the city zone and northeast regions, suggesting that pollution abatement should be prioritized in these areas.

  20. Assessment of population exposure to particulate matter pollution in Chongqing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuxiao Wang; Yu Zhao; Gangcai Chen; Fei Wang; Aunan Kristin; Jiming Hao [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2008-05-15

    To determine the population exposure to PM10 in Chongqing, China, we developed an indirect model by combining information on the time activity patterns of various demographic subgroups with estimates of the PM10 concentrations in different microenvironments (MEs). The spatial and temporal variations of the exposure to PM10 were illustrated in a geographical information system (GIS). The population weighted exposure (PWE) for the entire population was 229, 155 and 211 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively, in winter, summer and as the annual average. Indoor PM10 level at home was the largest contributor to the PWE, especially for the rural areas where high pollution levels were found due to solid fuels burning. Elder people had higher PM10 exposure than adults and youth, due to more time spent in indoor MEs. The highest health risk due to particulate was found in the city zone and northeast regions, suggesting that pollution abatement should be prioritized in these areas.

  1. Pulmonary effects of ultrafine and fine ammonium salts aerosols in healthy and monocrotaline-treated rats following short-term exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spoor, S.M.; Boere, A.J.F.; Bree, L. van; Dormans, J.A.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the effects of a 3-day inhalation exposure to model compounds for ambient particulate matter were investigated: ammonium bisulfate, ammonium ferrosulfate, and ammonium nitrate, all components of the secondary aerosol fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM), and carbon black

  2. Method and apparatus for removing volatile hydrocarbons from particulate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for heating solid particulate mineral compositions. It comprises: a counterflow ratable drum having a first end and an opposite second end, a first portion of the drum extending from the first end for a first length and having a first diameter along the first length, and a second portion of the drum secured to and extending from the first portion to the second end for a second length and having a second diameter along the second length, the second diameter being less than the first diameter, a burner adjacent the first end for introducing and directing hot gases of combustion into the first portion of the drum toward the second end, means for introducing particulate composition into the drum at the second end, means for directing the particulate composition along the drum from the second end toward the first end, and means for recovering composition at the first end, means for removing a gaseous mixture of organic volatiles, gases of combustion and fine particles of the particulate composition adjacent the second drum end, means for separating fine particles of the particulate composition from the gaseous mixture, and means for returning the separated fine particulate composition particles to the first portion of the drum

  3. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: p.kumar@surrey.ac.uk, E-mail: prashant.kumar@cantab.net; Mulheron, Mike [University of Surrey, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom); Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, Chris [University of Surrey, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Ion Beam Centre (United Kingdom); Adhami, Siavash; Watts, John F. [University of Surrey, The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM{sub 10} ≤10 μm), fine (PM{sub 2.5} ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  5. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008–2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m3) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored. PMID:27026336

  6. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  7. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease: Comparison of Assessment Methods for Long-term Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however...

  8. Assessment of the effect of population and diary sampling methods on estimation of school-age children exposure to fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2014-12-01

    Population and diary sampling methods are employed in exposure models to sample simulated individuals and their daily activity on each simulation day. Different sampling methods may lead to variations in estimated human exposure. In this study, two population sampling methods (stratified-random and random-random) and three diary sampling methods (random resampling, diversity and autocorrelation, and Markov-chain cluster [MCC]) are evaluated. Their impacts on estimated children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) are quantified via case studies for children in Wake County, NC for July 2002. The estimated mean daily average exposure is 12.9 μg/m(3) for simulated children using the stratified population sampling method, and 12.2 μg/m(3) using the random sampling method. These minor differences are caused by the random sampling among ages within census tracts. Among the three diary sampling methods, there are differences in the estimated number of individuals with multiple days of exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern of 25 μg/m(3) due to differences in how multiday longitudinal diaries are estimated. The MCC method is relatively more conservative. In case studies evaluated here, the MCC method led to 10% higher estimation of the number of individuals with repeated exposures exceeding the benchmark. The comparisons help to identify and contrast the capabilities of each method and to offer insight regarding implications of method choice. Exposure simulation results are robust to the two population sampling methods evaluated, and are sensitive to the choice of method for simulating longitudinal diaries, particularly when analyzing results for specific microenvironments or for exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabovsky, J.; Judy, D.J.; Rodak, D.J.; Petersen, M.

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE.

  10. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  11. Spatiotemporal Changes in Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and the Associated Mortality Burden in China between 2015 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on the spatiotemporal distribution and health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has been conducted in China. However, the limitations of different research scopes and methods have led to low comparability between regions regarding the mortality burden of PM2.5. A kriging model was used to simulate the distribution of PM2.5 in 2015 and 2016. Relative risk (RR at a specified PM2.5 exposure concentration was estimated with an integrated exposure–response (IER model for different causes of mortality: lung cancer (LC, ischaemic heart disease (IHD, cerebrovascular disease (stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The population attributable fraction (PAF was adopted to estimate deaths attributed to PM2.5. 72.02% of cities experienced decreases in PM2.5 from 2015 to 2016. Due to the overall decrease in the PM2.5 concentration, the total number of deaths decreased by approximately 10,658 per million in 336 cities, including a decrease of 1400, 1836, 6312 and 1110 caused by LC, IHD, stroke and COPD, respectively. Our results suggest that the overall PM2.5 concentration and PM2.5-related deaths exhibited decreasing trends in China, although air quality in local areas has deteriorated. To improve air pollution control strategies, regional PM2.5 concentrations and trends should be fully considered.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  13. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine particulates over South Asia: Review and meta-analysis of PM2.5 source apportionment through receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Barman, S C; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM 2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources. Review of 51 SA studies were performed of which 48 (94%) were appeared within a span of 2007-2016. Almost half of SA studies (55%) were found concentrated over few typical urban stations (Delhi, Dhaka, Mumbai, Agra and Lahore). Due to lack of local particulate source profile and emission inventory, positive matrix factorization and principal component analysis (62% of studies) were the primary choices, followed by chemical mass balance (CMB, 18%). Metallic species were most regularly used as source tracers while use of organic molecular markers and gas-to-particle conversion were minimum. Among all the SA sites, vehicular emissions (mean ± sd: 37 ± 20%) emerged as most dominating PM 2.5 source followed by industrial emissions (23 ± 16%), secondary aerosols (22 ± 12%) and natural sources (20 ± 15%). Vehicular emissions (39 ± 24%) also identified as dominating source for highly polluted sites (PM 2.5 >100 μgm -3 , n = 15) while site specific influence of either or in combination of industrial, secondary aerosols and natural sources were recognized. Source specific trends were considerably varied in terms of region and seasonality. Both natural and industrial sources were most influential over Pakistan and Afghanistan while over Indo-Gangetic plain, vehicular, natural and industrial emissions appeared dominant. Influence of vehicular emission was

  15. Indoor-outdoor concentrations of fine particulate matter in school building microenvironments near a mine tailing deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality in school classrooms is a major pediatric health concern because children are highly susceptible to adverse effects from xenobiotic exposure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emitted from mining waste deposits within and near cities in northern Chile is a serious environmental problem. We measured PM2.5 in school microenvironments in urban areas of Chañaral, a coastal community whose bay is contaminated with mine tailings. PM2.5 levels were measured in six indoor and outdoor school environments during the summer and winter of 2012 and 2013. Measurements were taken during school hours on two consecutive days. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were 12.53–72.38 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.85–100.53 μg/m3 in winter, while outdoor concentrations were 11.86–181.73 μg/m3 in the summer and 21.50–93.07 μg/m3 in winter. Indoor/outdoor ratios were 0.17–2.76 in the summer and 0.64–4.49 in winter. PM2.5 levels were higher in indoor microenvironments during the winter, at times exceeding national and international recommendations. Our results demonstrate that indoor air quality Chañaral school microenvironments is closely associated with outdoor air pollution attributable to the nearby mine tailings. Policymakers should enact environmental management strategies to minimize further environmental damage and mitigate the risks that this pollution poses for pediatric health.

  16. Assessment of population exposure to particulate matter pollution in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxiao; Zhao Yu; Chen Gangcai; Wang Fei; Aunan, Kristin; Hao Jiming

    2008-01-01

    To determine the population exposure to PM 10 in Chongqing, China, we developed an indirect model by combining information on the time activity patterns of various demographic subgroups with estimates of the PM 10 concentrations in different microenvironments (MEs). The spatial and temporal variations of the exposure to PM 10 were illustrated in a geographical information system (GIS). The population weighted exposure (PWE) for the entire population was 229, 155 and 211 μg/m 3 , respectively, in winter, summer and as the annual average. Indoor PM 10 level at home was the largest contributor to the PWE, especially for the rural areas where high pollution levels were found due to solid fuels burning. Elder people had higher PM 10 exposure than adults and youth, due to more time spent in indoor MEs. The highest health risk due to particulate was found in the city zone and northeast regions, suggesting that pollution abatement should be prioritized in these areas. - Using an indirect microenvironment model, the population weighted exposure (PWE) to PM 10 in Chongqing was estimated to be 211 μg/m 3 with significant contribution from indoor pollution

  17. Assessment of population exposure to particulate matter pollution in Chongqing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shuxiao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: shxwang@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhao Yu [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen Gangcai; Wang Fei [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology of Chongqing, Chongqing 630020 (China); Aunan, Kristin [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, 0318 Oslo (Norway); Hao Jiming [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-05-15

    To determine the population exposure to PM{sub 10} in Chongqing, China, we developed an indirect model by combining information on the time activity patterns of various demographic subgroups with estimates of the PM{sub 10} concentrations in different microenvironments (MEs). The spatial and temporal variations of the exposure to PM{sub 10} were illustrated in a geographical information system (GIS). The population weighted exposure (PWE) for the entire population was 229, 155 and 211 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively, in winter, summer and as the annual average. Indoor PM{sub 10} level at home was the largest contributor to the PWE, especially for the rural areas where high pollution levels were found due to solid fuels burning. Elder people had higher PM{sub 10} exposure than adults and youth, due to more time spent in indoor MEs. The highest health risk due to particulate was found in the city zone and northeast regions, suggesting that pollution abatement should be prioritized in these areas. - Using an indirect microenvironment model, the population weighted exposure (PWE) to PM{sub 10} in Chongqing was estimated to be 211 {mu}g/m{sup 3} with significant contribution from indoor pollution.

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure and contamination by means of airborne particulate matter and biomonitors using k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Pereira Maia, E.C.; Filho, S.S.; Albinati, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the elemental concentration level in a galvanizing industry and alert for the need to assess the outcome of a long-term exposure, scalp hair and toenail samples were used as bioindicators and the industry environment was evaluated through airborne particulate matter. The elemental concentration results have pointed out a high exposure to pollutant at workplaces and a high elemental concentration in biomonitors suggesting endogenous contamination. The majority of the elements determined in airborne particulate matter were also determined in hair and toenail samples. The results evidence the efficiency of these matrixes as biomonitors and the importance to carry out the airborne particulate matter sampling in parallel to these biomonitors mainly in occupational epidemiological studies. (author)

  19. Comparison of fine particle measurements from a direct-reading instrument and a gravimetric sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Young; Magari, Shannon R; Herrick, Robert F; Smith, Thomas J; Christiani, David C

    2004-11-01

    Particulate air pollution, specifically the fine particle fraction (PM2.5), has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in general population studies. Occupational exposure to fine particulate matter can exceed ambient levels by a large factor. Due to increased interest in the health effects of particulate matter, many particle sampling methods have been developed In this study, two such measurement methods were used simultaneously and compared. PM2.5 was sampled using a filter-based gravimetric sampling method and a direct-reading instrument, the TSI Inc. model 8520 DUSTTRAK aerosol monitor. Both sampling methods were used to determine the PM2.5 exposure in a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes and residual fuel oil ash. The geometric mean PM2.5 concentration was 0.30 mg/m3 (GSD 3.25) and 0.31 mg/m3 (GSD 2.90)from the DUSTTRAK and gravimetric method, respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient for the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations was 0.68. Linear regression models indicated that log, DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations significantly predicted loge gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations (p gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations was found to be modified by surrogate measures for seasonal variation and type of aerosol. PM2.5 measurements from the DUSTTRAK are well correlated and highly predictive of measurements from the gravimetric sampling method for the aerosols in these work environments. However, results from this study suggest that aerosol particle characteristics may affect the relationship between the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 measurements. Recalibration of the DUSTTRAK for the specific aerosol, as recommended by the manufacturer, may be necessary to produce valid measures of airborne particulate matter.

  20. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  1. Chronic Exposure to Fine Particles and Mortality: An Extended Follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laden, Francine; Dockery, Douglas; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between fine particles (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm; PM2.5) and mortality. However, concerns have been raised regarding the sensitivity of the results to model specifications, lower exposures, and averaging time. Objective: We addressed these issues using 11 additional years of follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study, incorporating recent lower exposures. Methods: We replicated the previously applied Cox regression, and examined different time lags, the shape of the concentration–response relationship using penalized splines, and changes in the slope of the relation over time. We then conducted Poisson survival analysis with time-varying effects for smoking, sex, and education. Results: Since 2001, average PM2.5 levels, for all six cities, were < 18 µg/m3. Each increase in PM2.5 (10 µg/m3) was associated with an adjusted increased risk of all-cause mortality (PM2.5 average on previous year) of 14% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 22], and with 26% (95% CI: 14, 40) and 37% (95% CI: 7, 75) increases in cardiovascular and lung-cancer mortality (PM2.5 average of three previous years), respectively. The concentration–response relationship was linear down to PM2.5 concentrations of 8 µg/m3. Mortality rate ratios for PM2.5 fluctuated over time, but without clear trends despite a substantial drop in the sulfate fraction. Poisson models produced similar results. Conclusions: These results suggest that further public policy efforts that reduce fine particulate matter air pollution are likely to have continuing public health benefits. PMID:22456598

  2. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  3. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  4. Homologous Recombination Repair Signaling in Chemical Carcinogenesis: Prolonged Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Suppresses the Rad51 Response in Human Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Xie, Hong; Wise, Sandra S.; Browning, Cynthia L.; Thompson, Kelsey N.; Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on hexavalent chromium, [Cr(VI)], a chemical carcinogen and major public health concern, and consider its ability to impact DNA double strand break repair. We further focused on particulate Cr(VI), because it is the more potent carcinogenic form of Cr(VI). DNA double strand break repair serves to protect cells against the detrimental effects of DNA double strand breaks. For particulate Cr(VI), data show DNA double strand break repair must be overcome for neoplastic transformation to occur. Acute Cr(VI) exposures reveal a robust DNA double strand break repair response, however, longer exposures have not been considered. Using the comet assay, we found longer exposures to particulate zinc chromate induced concentration-dependent increases in DNA double strand breaks indicating breaks were occurring throughout the exposure time. Acute (24 h) exposure induced DNA double strand break repair signaling by inducing Mre11 foci formation, ATM phosphorylation and phosphorylated ATM foci formation, Rad51 protein levels and Rad51 foci formation. However, longer exposures reduced the Rad51 response. These data indicate a major chemical carcinogen can simultaneously induce DNA double strand breaks and alter their repair and describe a new and important aspect of the carcinogenic mechanism for Cr(VI). PMID:25173789

  5. Effect of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Age on the Signaling Pathway of Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Murine Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ultrafine particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure. Advanced age is one ...

  6. Hearing Schedule and List of Speakers for the Public Hearing on Revisions to FIPs to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone – October 28, 2011, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List of Speakers and Hearing Schedule for the October 28 Public Hearing on the proposed Revisions to the Federal Implementation Plans to Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone.

  7. Traffic-related particulate air pollution exposure in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A. M.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    In the last years, there has been an increase of scientific studies confirming that long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution leads to adverse health effects. The development of a methodology for the determination of accumulated human exposure in urban areas is the main objective of the current work, combining information on concentrations at different microenvironments and population time-activity pattern data. A link between a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model and a local scale air quality model was developed to define the boundary conditions for the local scale application. The time-activity pattern of the population was derived from statistical information for different sub-population groups and linked to digital city maps. Finally, the hourly PM 10 concentrations for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were estimated for the Lisbon city centre, which was chosen as the case-study, based on the local scale air quality model application for a selected period. This methodology is a first approach to estimate population exposure, calculated as the total daily values above the thresholds recommended for long- and short-term health effects. Obtained results reveal that in Lisbon city centre a large number of persons are exposed to PM levels exceeding the legislated limit value.

  8. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Using Complementary Experimental Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Hamdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate matter (PM pollutants were sampled from an urban background site in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The fine fraction (PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm was collected on 47-mm Teflon filters and analyzed using a combined set of non-destructive techniques in order to provide better understanding of the sources of pollutants and their interaction during transport in the atmosphere. These techniques included gravimetric analysis, equivalent black carbon (EBC, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Generally, the PM2.5 concentrations are within the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United States (US Environmental Protection Agency. The EBC content is in the range of 10–12% of the total PM concentration (2–4 µg m−3, while S (as ammonium sulfate, Ca (as calcite, gypsum, and calcium carbonate, Si (as quartz, Fe, and Al were the major sources of PM pollution. EBC, ammonium sulfate, Zn, V, and Mn originate from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning, traffic, and industrial emissions. Natural elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Si, and Ti are due to natural sources such as crustal materials (enhanced during dust episodes and sea salts. The average contribution of natural sources in the total PM2.5 mass concentration over the sampling period is about 40%, and the contribution of the secondary inorganic compounds is about 27% (mainly ammonium sulfate in our case. The remaining 22% is assumed to be secondary organic compounds.

  9. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, J; Judy, D J; Rodak, D J; Petersen, M

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under these conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels in the mice used in this study peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE (Hahon et al., (1985). The data suggest the relationship that exists

  10. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic ar...

  11. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  12. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad

    2003-01-01

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m 3 to 21,1 μg/m 3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m 3 to 19,2 μg/m 3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m 3 to 44, 1 μg/m 3 , where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m 3 to 30,6 μg/m 3 . The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m 3 and 150 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  13. Predicting exposure-response associations of ambient particulate matter with mortality in 73 Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly to the heterogeneity of PM10-mortality associations for 16 Chinese cities. Then, those city-specific characteristics with statistically significant regression coefficients were treated as independent variables to build multivariate meta-regression models. The model with the best fitness was used to predict PM10-mortality associations in 73 Chinese cities in 2010. Mean temperature, PM10 concentration and green space per capita could best explain the heterogeneity in PM10-mortality associations. Based on city-specific characteristics, we were able to develop multivariate meta-regression models to predict associations between air pollutants and health outcomes reasonably well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure of children to airborne particulate matter of different size fractions during indoor physical education at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branis, Martin; Hytychova, Adela [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Institute for Environmental Studies, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Safranek, Jiri [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of outdoor sports, Jose Martiho 31, 162 52 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-15

    Although moderate regular aerobic exercise is recommended for good health, adverse health consequences may be incurred by people who exercise in areas with high ambient pollution, such as in the centres of large cities with dense traffic. The exposure of children during exercise is of special concern because of their higher sensitivity to air pollutants. The size-segregated mass concentration of particulate matter was measured in a naturally ventilated elementary school gym during eight campaigns, seven to ten days long, from November 2005 through August 2006 in a central part of Prague (Czech Republic). The air was sampled using a five-stage cascade impactor. The indoor concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} recorded in the gym exceeded the WHO recommended 24-hour limit of 25 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 50% of the days measured. The average 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} (24.03 {mu}g m{sup -3}) in the studied school room did not differ much from those obtained from the nearest fixed site monitor (25.47 {mu}g m{sup -3}) and the indoor and ambient concentrations were closely correlated (correlation coefficient 0.91), suggesting a high outdoor-to-indoor penetration rate. The coarse indoor fraction concentration (PM{sub 2.5-10}) was associated with the number of exercising pupils (correlation coefficient 0.77), indicating that human activity is its main source. Considering the high pulmonary ventilation rate of exercising children and high outdoor particulate matter concentrations, the levels of both coarse and fine aerosols may represent a potential health risk for sensitive individuals during their physical education performed in naturally ventilated gyms in urban areas with high traffic intensity. (author)

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gabriela Karottki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF, lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16 and surfactant protein-D (SPD were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC, weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.

  16. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  17. Pulmonary function response in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive lung diseae (COPD) following exposure to concentrated fine (PM2.5) particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-based studies strongly suggest that smokers and patients with COPD may be susceptible to particulate matter (PM). The reported associations were stronger with fine than coarse PM .These findings, however, have not been supported by laboratory or clinical data. We stu...

  18. Atherosclerosis and vasomotor dysfunction in arteries of animals after exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter or nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Raun Jacobsen, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles is hazardous to the vascular system, leading to clinical manifestations and mortality due to ischemic heart disease. By analogy, nanomaterials may also be associated with the same outcomes. Here, the effects of exposure to PM from ambient......O2, carbon black and carbon nanotubes, have similar hazards to the vascular system as combustion-derived PM....

  19. Short-term exposure to fine and coarse particles and mortality: A multicity time-series study in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyewon; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Kan, Haidong; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Yi, Seungmuk; Kim, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Few studies on size-specific health effects of particulate matter have been conducted in Asia. We examined the association between both fine and coarse particles (PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5) and mortality across 11 East Asian cities from 4 countries (Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and China). We performed a two-stage analysis: we generated city-specific estimates using a time-series analysis with a generalized additive model (Quasi-Poisson distribution), and estimated the overall effects by conducting a meta-analysis. Each 10−μg/m"3 increase in PM_2_._5 (lag01) was associated with an increase of 0.38% (95% confidence interval = 0.21%–0.55%) in all causes mortality, 0.96% (0.46%–1.46%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1% (0.23%–1.78%) in respiratory mortality. Each 10−μg/m"3 increase in PM_1_0_−_2_._5 (lag01) was associated with cardiovascular mortality (0.69%, [0.05%–1.33%]), although this association attenuated after controlling for other pollutants, especially PM_2_._5. Increased mortality was associated with increasing PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5 concentrations over 11 East Asian cities. - Highlights: • Few studies on size-specific health effects of PM have been conducted in East Asia. • We estimated size-specific PM effects on mortality over 11 East Asian cities. • Both fine and coarse particles were associated with mortality in East Asian cites. • Effect estimates for fine particles were higher than those for coarse particles. - Short-term exposure to PM_2_._5 and PM_1_0_−_2_._5 was associated with an increased risk of mortality in East Asian cities, and PM_2_._5 effect estimates were higher than PM_1_0_−_2_._5.

  20. Use of historical uranium air sampling data to estimate worker exposure potential to airborne radioactive particulate in a uranium processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, M M; Feng, H A; Utterback, D F

    2001-12-01

    Historical industrial hygiene monitoring records from a uranium processing plant were collected and analyzed to characterize exposure potential to airborne radioactive particulate. More than 2,100 samples were collected during the period of 1954-1968. The data was organized by job title, plant number, and year of measurement. Laboratory analysis of air samples indicated a wide range of potential exposures to the alpha-emitting particulate. Logarithmic transformation of the data was necessary to approximate Gaussian distributions. Geometric Mean (GM) values were used as the measure of central tendency within years. GM values ranged from 23-49 disintegrations per minute per cubic meter of air sampled (dpm/m3) with the years 1963 and 1964 being significantly higher than other years (ANOVA: p exposure potential across plants, GM ranged from 20-68 dpm/m3, with plants 5 and 8 being significantly higher than the others (ANOVA: p Exposure potential for specific job titles across the plants varied widely. GM for clerks was the lowest (11 dpm/m3) while furnace operators were the highest (235 dpm/m3). Other job titles with potentially high exposures were chemical operators, forklift operators, machine operators, and furnace operators. This analysis indicates the magnitude and distributions of worker exposure to alpha-emitting airborne particulate. Additional analysis and epidemiologic studies are planned for this facility.

  1. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Ravnskjaer, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1......,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model. We examined the association between...

  2. Indoor exposure to environmental cigarette smoke, but not other inhaled particulates associates with respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor sources of PM. We investigated the associations between self-reported exposure to indoor sources of PM and lower airway sympto...

  3. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits. PMID:29584626

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Nie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF, stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD, lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Wu, Yun; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-03-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM 2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM 2.5 , and mortality benefits due to PM 2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM 2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM 2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM 2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM 2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m³, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  6. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2010-01-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...

  7. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okokon, E.O.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Turunen, A.W.; Taimisto, P.; Pennanen, A.; Vouitsis, I.; Samaras, Z.; Voogt, M.; Keuken, M.; Lanki, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during

  8. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  9. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  10. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    not stationary and continuously move as dredge materials are removed; and 3) the fanning behavior of fish, such as SMB, can disperse fine-grained...235–249. Gordon, A. K., and C. G. Palmer. 2015. Defining an exposure-response relationship for suspended kaolin clay particulates and aquatic

  11. Fine motor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.

  12. Replacement of fine particle purification filter of the PHT purification system - 15083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of chalk river unidentified deposit (CRUD), a particulate corrosion product in PHT (primary heat transport) system with increased operating years of a nuclear power plant causes: -) the problems of increased heavy water decomposition and deuterium formation reaction due to catalytic reaction with CRUD, -) damage to PHT pump seal due to a corrosion product, -) damage to fuel channel closure seal, and increased radiation exposure of workers due to elevated dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Wolsung unit 3 and 4 have replaced fine filter media in PHT purification system in phases reducing the pore size of the filter media (5 μm → 2 μm → 1 μm → 0.45 μm) to solve this problem. The phased replacement of fine filter media by the one with a smaller pore size reduced CRUD in PHT system significantly and also radiation dose rate in steam generator water chamber. Accordingly, many problems related to the aging of a plant (including increased radiation exposure of workers during outage, damage to mechanical seal of PHT pump) have been solved. (author)

  13. Advances in exposure and toxicity assessment of particulate matter: An overview of presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekar, Palur G.; Stanek, Lindsay W.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference (TRAC) session on 'Advances in Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Particulate Matter' was held in April 2009 in West Chester, OH. The goal of this session was to bring together toxicology, geology and risk assessment experts from the Department of Defense and academia to examine issues in exposure assessment and report on recent epidemiological findings of health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. Important aspects of PM exposure research are to detect and monitor low levels of PM with various chemical compositions and to assess the health risks associated with these exposures. As part of the overall theme, some presenters discussed collection methods for sand and dust from Iraqi and Afghanistan regions, health issues among deployed personnel, and future directions for risk assessment research among these populations. The remaining speakers focused on the toxicity of ultrafine PM and the characterization of aerosols generated during ballistic impacts of tungsten heavy alloys.

  14. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  15. Short-term Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Children?s Hospital Admissions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyungryul; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Choi, Won-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: No children-specified review and meta-analysis paper about the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on hospital admissions and emergency department visits for asthma has been published. We calculated more precise pooled effect estimates on this topic and evaluated the variation in effect size according to the differences in study characteristics not considered in previous studies. Methods: Two authors each independently searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant studi...

  16. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  17. Predicting exposure-response associations of ambient particulate matter with mortality in 73 Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM_1_0) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly to the heterogeneity of PM_1_0-mortality associations for 16 Chinese cities. Then, those city-specific characteristics with statistically significant regression coefficients were treated as independent variables to build multivariate meta-regression models. The model with the best fitness was used to predict PM_1_0-mortality associations in 73 Chinese cities in 2010. Mean temperature, PM_1_0 concentration and green space per capita could best explain the heterogeneity in PM_1_0-mortality associations. Based on city-specific characteristics, we were able to develop multivariate meta-regression models to predict associations between air pollutants and health outcomes reasonably well. - Highlights: • The heterogeneity was examined in PM_1_0-mortality associations among Chinese cities. • Temperature, PM_1_0 and green space could best explain the heterogeneity. • PM_1_0-mortality associations were predicted for 73 Chinese cities. - This study provides a practical way to assess exposure-response associations and evaluate the burden of mortality in areas with insufficient data.

  18. Measurement and analysis of ambient atmospheric particulate matter in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Gayle S. W.

    Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is a challenging environmental concern in both urban and remote locations worldwide. It is intrinsically difficult to control, given numerous anthropogenic and natural sources (e.g. fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust, and seaspray) and atmospheric transport up to thousands of kilometers after production. In urban regions, fine particulate matter (particles with diameters under 2.5 mum) is of special concern for its ability to penetrate the human respiratory system and threaten cardiopulmonary health. A second major impact area is climate, with particulate matter altering Earth's radiative balance through scattering and absorbing solar radiation, modifying cloud properties, and reducing surface reflectivity after deposition in snow-covered regions. While atmospheric particulate matter has been generally well-characterized in populated areas of developed countries, particulate pollution in developing nations and remote regions is relatively unexplored. This thesis characterizes atmospheric particulate matter in locations that represent the extreme ends of the spectrum in terms of air pollution-the rapidly-developing and heavily populated Pearl River Delta Region of China, the pristine and climate-sensitive Greenland Ice Sheet, and a remote site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In China, fine particles were studied through a year-long field campaign at seven sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta. Fine particulate matter was analyzed for chemical composition, regional variation, and meteorological impacts. On the Greenland Ice Sheet and in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the carbonaceous fraction (organic and elemental carbon) of particulate matter was studied in the atmosphere and snow pack. Analyses included quantifying particulate chemical and optical properties, assessing atmospheric transport, and evaluating post-depositional processing of carbonaceous species in snow.

  19. Evaluation of airborne particulate matter pollution in Kenitra City, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Benchrif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two size fractions of atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 µm and 2.5-10 µm were collected in Kenitra City from February 2007 to February 2008. The sampling was done using a Gent Stacked sampler on nuclepore polycarbonate filters and the collected filters were analyzed using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The particulate matter trends show higher concentrations during the summer as compared to other seasons. The highest concentrations were obtained for Ca in coarse particles and Fe for fine particles. However, the lowest concentrations were observed for Cd in both particulate sizes. The principal component analysis (PCA based on multivariate study enabled the identification of soil, road dust and traffic emissions as common sources for coarse and fine particles.

  20. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  1. A Modeling Framework for Improved Characterization of Near-Road Exposure at Fine Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffic-related air pollutants could cause adverse health impact to communities near roadways. To estimate the population risk and locate "hotspots" in the near-road environment, quantifying the exposure at a fine spatial resolution is essential. A new state-of-the-art ...

  2. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  3. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  4. The use of nuclear and related techniques for the studies of possible health impact of airborne particulate matter in a metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojosubroto, Harjoto; Supriatna, Dadang; Kumolowati, Endang; Widjajakusuma, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Various processes in an industry may produce gases and fine airborne particulate matters. Elements and hazardous chemicals in the fine particulate matters may enter the human body through inhalation and direct contact with the skin. Excessive inhalation and contact with the fine airborne particulate matter may lead to intoxication due to excessive intake of the hazardous chemicals and toxic elements. The elements will be accumulated in human organs, such as liver, kidneys and brain, manifest in clinical syndromes such as hypertension, renal failure and neurological symptoms and signs. The absorbed elements are excreted through the urinary tract as urine. They also can be excreted through hair and nails. Elevated blood and urinary aluminum levels have been observed after occupational exposure to various aluminum compounds. This phenomenon indicates the absorption through inhalation, as there are no data indicating significant dermal absorption for aluminum. Absorption of chromium compounds in the workplace occurs mainly through inhalation. The absorption is dependent on the valence and solubility of the particular chromium species. Some elements such as trivalent chromium ions are readily cleared from the blood, but hexavalent chromium ions are retained much longer in the blood. The aluminum compounds vary greatly in their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Although the trivalent chromium is readily excreted, continuous intake may cause the blood chromium level to be higher than normal. These elements may either have an deleterious effect on, or be considered essential for human health. In this study, the levels and health effects of airborne particulate matter in the workplace are assessed by elemental quantification of blood, hair and nail of workers in a metal industry and in airborne particulate samples that are collected at the workplace. The present report represents progress of activities following the first Research Co-ordination Meeting 1997 in Vienna

  5. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  6. Association between Exposure to Ambient Air Particulates and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Saudi Arabian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Shamy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulates may be a factor in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this novel study, we investigated the relationship between particulate levels and prevalence of MetS component abnormalities (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity in a recruited cohort (N = 2025 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We observed significant associations between a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and increased risks for MetS (Risk Ratio (RR: 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.06–1.19, hyperglycemia (RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03–1.14, and hypertension (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.14. PM2.5 from soil/road dust was found to be associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.19 and hypertension (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05–1.18, while PM2.5 from traffic was associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05–1.71. We did not observe any health associations with source-specific mass exposures. Our findings suggest that exposure to specific elemental components of PM2.5, especially Ni, may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic disorders.

  7. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  8. Particulate Respirators Functionalized with Silver Nanoparticles Showed Excellent Real-Time Antimicrobial Effects against Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Clark Renjun; Li, Shuai; Ye, Chengsong; Li, Xinyang; Zhang, Chiqian; Yu, Xin

    2016-07-05

    Particulate respirators designed to filtrate fine particulate matters usually do not possess antimicrobial functions. The current study aimed to functionalize particulate respirators with silver nanoparticles (nanosilver or AgNPs), which have excellent antimicrobial activities, utilizing a straightforward and effective method. We first enhanced the nanosilver-coating ability of nonwoven fabrics from a particulate respirator through surface modification by sodium oleate. The surfactant treatment significantly improved the fabrics' water wet preference where the static water contact angles reduced from 122° to 56°. Both macroscopic agar-plate tests and microscopic scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization revealed that nanosilver functionalized fabrics could effectively inhibit the growth of two model bacterial strains (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The coating of silver nanoparticles would not affect the main function of particulate respirators (i.e., filtration of fine air-borne particles). Nanosilver coated particulate respirators with excellent antimicrobial activities can provide real-time protection to people in regions with severe air pollution against air-borne pathogens.

  9. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  10. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    2013-03-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC. We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice. These

  11. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihal-Talantikite Wahida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M.; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs. PMID:26999170

  13. Report Task 2.3: Particulate waste and turbidity in (marine) RAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kals, J.; Schram, E.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.; Bakel, van, B.

    2006-01-01

    Particulate waste management and removal is one of the most problematic parts of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Particulate waste and thereby turbidity originates from three major sources: fish (faeces), feed and biofilm (heterotrophic bacteria and fungi). Based on size and density there are roughly four categories of particulate waste: settable, suspended, floatable and fine or dissolved solids. Specific problems related to high turbidity are a decreasing feed intake by fish, causi...

  14. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-04

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  15. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  16. Quantifying the sources of ozone, fine particulate matter, and regional haze in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, M Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G; Hanedar, Asude; Boylan, James W; Brewer, Patricia F

    2009-07-01

    A detailed sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify the contributions of various emission sources to ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and regional haze in the Southeastern United States. O3 and particulate matter (PM) levels were estimated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and light extinction values were calculated from modeled PM concentrations. First, the base case was established using the emission projections for the year 2009. Then, in each model run, SO2, primary carbon (PC), NH3, NO(x) or VOC emissions from a particular source category in a certain geographic area were reduced by 30% and the responses were determined by calculating the difference between the results of the reduced emission case and the base case. The sensitivity of summertime O3 to VOC emissions is small in the Southeast and ground-level NO(x) controls are generally more beneficial than elevated NO(x) controls (per unit mass of emissions reduced). SO2 emission reduction is the most beneficial control strategy in reducing summertime PM2.5 levels and improving visibility in the Southeast and electric generating utilities are the single largest source of SO2. Controlling PC emissions can be very effective locally, especially in winter. Reducing NH3 emissions is an effective strategy to reduce wintertime ammonium nitrate (NO3NH4) levels and improve visibility; NO(x) emissions reductions are not as effective. The results presented here will help the development of specific emission control strategies for future attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the region.

  17. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. Methods We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002–2009 and resided in NC. Exposure to PM2.5 for the year prior to catheterization was estimated using data from air quality monitors (AQS), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) fused models at the census tract and 12 km spatial resolutions, and satellite-based models at 10 km and 1 km resolutions. Case status was either a coronary artery disease (CAD) index >23 or a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Logistic regression was used to model odds of having CAD or an MI with each 1-unit (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, adjusting for sex, race, smoking status, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. Results We found that the elevated odds for CAD>23 and MI were nearly equivalent for all exposure assessment methods. One difference was that data from AQS and the census tract CMAQ showed a rural/urban difference in relative risk, which was not apparent with the satellite or 12 km-CMAQ models. Conclusions

  18. Association of Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter with Skin Symptoms in Schoolchildren: A Panel Study in a Rural Area of Western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have unmasked the deleterious effects of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 on health. However, epidemiologic evidence focusing on the effects of PM2.5 on skin health remains limited. An important aspect of Asian dust (AD in relationship to health is the amount of PM2.5 contained therein. Several studies have demonstrated that AD can aggravate skin symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD particles on skin symptoms in schoolchildren. A total of 339 children recorded daily skin symptom scores during February 2015. Light detection and ranging were used to calculate AD particle size. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among skin symptoms and the daily levels of PM2.5 and AD particles. Increases in the levels of PM2.5 and AD particles were not related to an increased risk of skin symptom events, with increases of 10.1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01 km−1 in AD particles changing odds ratios by 1.03 and 0.99, respectively. These results suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD does not impact skin symptoms in schoolchildren.

  19. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  20. Expert workshop traffic-caused airborne particles in urban areas; Experten-Workshop 'Verkehrsbedingte Feinstaeube in der Stadt'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzendorf, Martin; Birmili, Wolfram; Franke, Patrick

    2006-07-15

    The proceedings of the expert workshop on traffic-caused airborne particulates in urban regions include the following contributions: epidemiology of ultra-fine particulates, ultra-fine particulates and their impacts in human health, environmental particulates in the urban atmosphere: properties and future requirement of measuring methods; ultra-fine particulates from traffic emissions - problems of measuring site selection for the evaluation of human exposure, modeling of PMx emissions in the context of environmental compatibility assessments and mitigation planning, traffic-caused particulates - need for action and remedial actions from the sight of the Federal environment Agency, traffic-related measures for the reduction of urban particulate exposure and their impact on the planning of air pollution prevention, strategic environmental assessment as an instrument for the airborne particulate consideration within the traffic and regional planning.

  1. Health impact caused by exposure to particulate matter in the air of Tehran in the past decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution, especially the phenomenon of dust and particulate matter can cause mortality of many civilians, and causes various diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. One of the major pollutants in the air is particulate matter that concentration has increased over recent years. So, present study with aim of Quantification Health Endpoints Attributed to particulate matter in Tehran, Capital of Iran during the past decade (2005-2014 by AirQ software, version 2.2.3 (WHO European Centre for Environment and Health was performed. Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytic investigation. The process of performance this study lasted 12 months. Subject of this the study and research was in Environmental Health Engineering Department of Iran University of Medical Sciences. Exact data of every hour pollutants were taken from Department of environmental (DOE Islamic Republic Iran and Air Quality Control Company of Tehran. Then validated according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines and Statistical parameters for quantifying health effects were calculated in excel software. Finally, assessment of cases total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality and cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, with AirQ software was performed. Results: The results of this study showed that the number of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality caused by exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10 in the past decade is 11776, 12121 and 33066 cases respectively. Also the total number of hospital admission due to cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease in the past decade is 20990 and 54352 cases in 2005-2014 years. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, during the last decade the level of air pollution and Concentration of pollutants in Tehran Increased. Effects and health consequences due to exposure to Particulate matter smaller than 10

  2. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  3. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    . Adhesive image-charge forces acting on charged particles touching conducting surfaces can be up to 50 times stronger if the charge is located in discrete spots on the particle surface instead of being distributed uniformly over the surface of the particle, as is assumed by most other models. Besides being useful in modeling particulates in space and distant objects, this modeling technique is useful for electrophotography (used in copiers) and in simulating the effects of static charge in the pulmonary delivery of fine dry powders.

  4. Characteristics of Airborne Particulates Containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Monazite Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geon; Choi, Cheol Kyu; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Go, A Ra; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The properties included particulate size distribution, concentration, shape, density, and radioactivity concentration. Monazite is one of the minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Therefore, external and internal exposure can be occurred to the workers in monazite industry. The major exposure pathway of the workers is internal exposure due to inhalation of airborne particulates. According to International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation dose due to inhaled particulates containing NORM depends on particulate properties. Therefore, ICRP recommended the internal dose assessment using measured physicochemical properties of the airborne particulates. In the absence of specific information, ICRP provided default reference values. In this study, we characterized physicochemical properties of airborne particulates at a monazite pulverization industry. The databases of particulate information can be used for accurate internal dose assessment of worker.

  5. Impact of short-term preconceptional exposure to particulate air pollution on treatment outcome in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Mariangela; Czeresnia, Carlos Eduardo; Januário, Daniela Aparecida Nicolosi Foltran; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the potential effects of short-term exposure to particulate air pollution during follicular phase on clinical, laboratory, and pregnancy outcomes of women undergoing IVF/ET. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 400 first IVF/ET cycles of women exposed to ambient particulate matter during follicular phase. Particulate matter (PM) was categorized into quartiles (Q1: ≤30.48 µg/m3, Q2: 30.49–42.00 µg/m3, Q3: 42.01–56.72 µg/m3, and Q4: >56.72 µg/m3). Results Clinical, laboratory, or treatment variables were not affected by follicular phase PM exposure periods. Women exposed to Q4 period during the follicular phase of conception cycles had a higher risk of miscarriage (odds ratio, 5.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.04–25.51) when compared to women exposed to Q1–3 periods. Conclusion Our results show an association between brief exposure to high levels of ambient PM during the preconceptional period and early pregnancy loss, although no effect of this exposure on clinical, laboratory, and treatment outcomes was observed. PMID:20405197

  6. Fine particulate matter potentiates type 2 diabetes development in high-fat diet-treated mice: stress response and extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettems-Fiorin, Pauline Brendler; Grochanke, Bethânia Salamoni; Baldissera, Fernanda Giesel; Dos Santos, Analu Bender; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Ludwig, Mirna Stela; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Heck, Thiago Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We argue whether the potentiating effect of PM 2.5 over the development of T2DM in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice would be related to modification in cell stress response, particularly in antioxidant defenses and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) status. Male mice were fed standard chow or HFD for 12 weeks and then randomly exposed to daily nasotropic instillation of PM 2.5 for additional 12 weeks under the same diet schedule, divided into four groups (n = 14-15 each): Control, PM 2.5 , HFD, and HFD + PM 2.5 were evaluated biometric and metabolic profiles of mice, and cellular stress response (antioxidant defense and HSP70 status) of metabolic tissues. Extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio ([eHSP72]/[iHSP70]), viz. H-index, was then calculated. HFD + PM 2.5 mice presented a positive correlation between adiposity, increased body weight and glucose intolerance, and increased glucose and triacylglycerol plasma levels. Pancreas exhibited lower iHSP70 expression, accompanied by 3.7-fold increase in the plasma to pancreas [eHSP72]/[iHSP70] ratio. Exposure to PM 2.5 markedly potentiated metabolic dysfunction in HFD-treated mice and promoted relevant alteration in cell stress response assessed by [eHSP72]/[iHSP70], a relevant biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammatory state and T2DM risk.

  7. Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Margaret C

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollutants (PM2.5 affects heart rate variability parameters, and levels of serum proteins associated with inflammation, hemostasis and thrombosis. This study investigated sources potentially responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects in highway patrol troopers. Results Nine healthy young non-smoking male troopers working from 3 PM to midnight were studied on four consecutive days during their shift and the following night. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 were identified with variance-maximizing rotational principal factor analysis of PM2.5-components and associated pollutants. Two source models were calculated. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 identified were 1 crustal material, 2 wear of steel automotive components, 3 gasoline combustion, 4 speed-changing traffic with engine emissions and brake wear. In one model, sources 1 and 2 collapsed to a single source. Source factors scores were compared to cardiac and blood parameters measured ten and fifteen hours, respectively, after each shift. The "speed-change" factor was significantly associated with mean heart cycle length (MCL, +7% per standard deviation increase in the factor score, heart rate variability (+16%, supraventricular ectopic beats (+39%, % neutrophils (+7%, % lymphocytes (-10%, red blood cell volume MCV (+1%, von Willebrand Factor (+9%, blood urea nitrogen (+7%, and protein C (-11%. The "crustal" factor (but not the "collapsed" source was associated with MCL (+3% and serum uric acid concentrations (+5%. Controlling for potential confounders had little influence on the effect estimates. Conclusion PM2.5 originating from speed-changing traffic modulates the autonomic control of the heart rhythm, increases the frequency of premature supraventricular beats and elicits pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses in healthy young men.

  8. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  9. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  10. Prolonged particulate chromate exposure does not inhibit homologous recombination repair in North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-09-15

    Chromosome instability is a common feature of cancers that forms due to the misrepair of DNA double strand breaks. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is a high fidelity DNA repair pathway that utilizes a homologous DNA sequence to accurately repair such damage and protect the genome. Prolonged exposure (>72h) to the human lung carcinogen, particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), inhibits HR repair, resulting in increased chromosome instability in human cells. Comparative studies have shown acute Cr(VI) exposure induces less chromosome damage in whale cells than human cells, suggesting investigating the effect of this carcinogen in other species may inform efforts to prevent Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair and clastogenesis in North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung cells. We show particulate Cr(VI) induces HR repair activity after both acute (24h) and prolonged (120h) exposure in North Atlantic right whale cells. Although the RAD51 response was lower following prolonged Cr(VI) exposure compared to acute exposure, the response was sufficient for HR repair to occur. In accordance with active HR repair, no increase in Cr(VI)-induced clastogenesis was observed with increased exposure time. These results suggest prolonged Cr(VI) exposure affects HR repair and genomic stability differently in whale and human lung cells. Future investigation of the differences in how human and whale cells respond to chemical carcinogens may provide valuable insight into mechanisms of preventing chemical carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  12. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  13. Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7. PMID:22754710

  14. Do causal concentration-response functions exist? A critical review of associational and causal relations between fine particulate matter and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2017-08-01

    Concentration-response (C-R) functions relating concentrations of pollutants in ambient air to mortality risks or other adverse health effects provide the basis for many public health risk assessments, benefits estimates for clean air regulations, and recommendations for revisions to existing air quality standards. The assumption that C-R functions relating levels of exposure and levels of response estimated from historical data usefully predict how future changes in concentrations would change risks has seldom been carefully tested. This paper critically reviews literature on C-R functions for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality risks. We find that most of them describe historical associations rather than valid causal models for predicting effects of interventions that change concentrations. The few papers that explicitly attempt to model causality rely on unverified modeling assumptions, casting doubt on their predictions about effects of interventions. A large literature on modern causal inference algorithms for observational data has been little used in C-R modeling. Applying these methods to publicly available data from Boston and the South Coast Air Quality Management District around Los Angeles shows that C-R functions estimated for one do not hold for the other. Changes in month-specific PM2.5 concentrations from one year to the next do not help to predict corresponding changes in average elderly mortality rates in either location. Thus, the assumption that estimated C-R relations predict effects of pollution-reducing interventions may not be true. Better causal modeling methods are needed to better predict how reducing air pollution would affect public health.

  15. Commuters' exposure to particulate matter air pollution is affected by mode of transport, fuel type, and route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-06-01

    Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters' exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Commuters' rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type.

  16. Characteristics and oxidative stress on rats and traffic policemen of ambient fine particulate matter from Shenyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingyue; Li, Shuyin; Jin, Huanrong; Zhang, Yumin; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dongmei; Kuimin, Chen; Yuan, Zhou; Xiao, Chunling

    2015-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is becoming serious in China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on DNA damage in Shenyang city. The concentration and composition of PM2.5 in traffic policemen's working sites including fields and indoor offices were obtained. Blood samples of field and office policemen were collected to detect DNA damage by Comet assay. Rats were used to further analyzing the oxidative DNA damage. The average concentration of PM2.5 in exposed group was significantly higher than that in control group. Composition analysis revealed that toxic heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substances were main elements of this PM2.5. DNA damage in field policemen was significantly higher than those in non-field group. Moreover, animal studies confirmed the oxidative DNA damage induced by PM2.5. Taken together, high DNA damages are found in the Shenyang traffic policemen and rats exposed to high level of airborne PM2.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  18. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; hide

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  19. The impact of total suspended particulate concentration on workers’ health at ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintorini, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic production process pollutes the air with particulate matter at high concentration and has negative impact on the workers. The objective of this research was to determine the particulate concentration in the air and to analyse its impact on the workers. This research used cross sectional method to correlate the particulate concentration, temperature, humidity, smoke level and level of workers’ compliance with safety regulations. Sampling was conducted from April to May 2012 in three locations, i.e. exposure area (Mass Preparation I, II) and non-exposure area (Forming area). In the exposure area (Mass Preparation I and II) where the particulate concentrations were 22.3673 mg/m3 and 14.8277 mg/m3, and 58.33%, the workers had bad health status. In the non-exposure area, where the particulate concentration was 3.2185 mg/m3 and 25% the workers had bad health status. The Odds Ratio among the workers in exposure area was 4.2 times higher than the workers in the non-exposure area.

  20. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  1. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Biomarkers of World Trade Center Particulate Matter Exposure: Physiology of distal airway and blood biomarkers that predict FEV1 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Caraher, Erin; Berger, Kenneth I.; Reibman, Joan; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Nolan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can be important predictors of disease severity and progression. The intense exposure to particulates and other toxins from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) overwhelmed the lung’s normal protective barriers. The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) cohort not only had baseline pre-exposure lung function measures but also had serum samples banked soon after their WTC exposure. This well phenotyped group of highly exposed first responders is an ideal cohort for biomarker discovery and eventual validation. Disease progression was heterogeneous in this group in that some individuals subsequently developed abnormal lung function while others recovered. Airflow obstruction predominated in WTC exposed patients who were symptomatic. Multiple independent disease pathways may cause this abnormal FEV1 after irritant exposure. WTC exposure activates one or more of these pathways causing abnormal FEV1 in an individual. Our hypothesis was that serum biomarkers expressed within 6 months after World Trade Center (WTC) exposure reflect active disease pathways and predict subsequent development or protection from abnormal FEV1exposure that were predictive of their FEV1 up to 7 years after their WTC exposure. Predicting future risk of airway injury after particulate exposures can focus monitoring and early treatment on a subset of patients in greatest need of these services. PMID:26024341

  3. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  4. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate

  5. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  6. Fast inverse distance weighting-based spatiotemporal interpolation: a web-based application of interpolating daily fine particulate matter PM2:5 in the contiguous U.S. using parallel programming and k-d tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-09-03

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  7. Fine particulate air pollution and premature atrial contractions: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Efird, Jimmy T; Judd, Suzanne E; Howard, Virginia J; Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-05-01

    Several reports have suggested that particulate matter (PM) exposure increases the risk for atrial arrhythmias. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We examined the association of PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) concentration with premature atrial contractions (PACs) in 26,609 (mean age=65±9.4 years; 55% female; 41% black) participants from the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study. Estimates of short- (2 weeks) and long-term (1 year) PM 2.5 exposure were computed before each participant's baseline visit using geographic information system data on the individual level at the coordinates of study participants' residences. PACs were identified from baseline electrocardiograms. A total of 2140 (8.2%) participants had evidence of PACs on the baseline electrocardiogram. Short-term PM 2.5 (per 10 μg/m 3 ) exposure was not associated with PACs (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.98, 1.23). Increases in long-term PM 2.5 (per 10 μg/m 3 ) were associated with PACs (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.10, 1.78). Interactions were not detected for short- and long-term PM 2.5 exposure by age, sex, or race. Long- but not short-term PM 2.5 exposure is associated with PACs. This suggests a role for long-term PM 2.5 exposure in initiating supraventricular arrhythmias that are triggered by PACs.

  8. Personal and ambient PM2.5 exposure assessment in the city of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to fine particles can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. To investigate daily exposure characteristics to PM2.5 with ambient concentrations in an urban environment, a personal exposure measurements were conducted for school children, office workers and at their residents, in the city of Taj ‘Agra’, India. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during December 2013 to February 2014 were carried out. Personal environment monitors (PEM and APM 550 were used to measure PM2.5 concentration. The research findings provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels. Keywords: Personal exposure, PM2.5, Ambient concentration, Correlation analysis, Health effects

  9. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  10. Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China, has become an important restricting factor for livelihood development, thus exerting local social and economic impacts. Coal is the main fuel of the local community and also the main source of indoor pollution. This study aims to explore the coal combustion inhalable fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and its component output differences in different areas of Xuanwei, Yunnan. Moreover, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between inhalation of fine particles and high incidence of local lung cancer. Methods For combustion test, coal mines designated as C1, K7 and M30 were collected from LaoLin Colliery of Laibing Town, Huchang Colliery of Baoshan Town, and Taiping Colliery of Wenxing Town in Xuanwei, respectively. PM2.5 of indoor air was weighed, analyzed for elemental composition, and morphologically compared. The pathological specimen of lung cancer patients in Xuanwei who underwent operation was observed through electron microscope. Results The PM2.5 concentrations in indoor air were (8.244 ±1.460 mg/m3 (C1, (5.066±0.984 mg/m3 (K7, and (5.071±1.460 mg/m3 (M30. The differences among pairwise comparisons were statistically significant (P=0.029. The filter impurities of C1 coal seam primarily include Si- and O-enriched compounds. Moreover, three membranes that comprised other elements, including C, S, and Si, were observed. These membranes were evident from the aggregation of silica and a Ca-Al membrane. Compared with that of other coal seams, C1 coal generated a mass of impurities, in which several particles have irregular shape. We found nanoscale fine particles in some specimens of Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Conclusion The produced combustion of C1 coal was different from that of K7 and M30 coal. PM2.5 composition may be associated with the high local incidence of lung cancer.

  11. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  12. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to mercury concentrations. A strong impact of meteorological conditions (wind velocity, air mass direction, air temperature, and precipitation amount) on particulate mercury concentrations was also observed. In particular, higher variation and concentration range of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 was reported for wintertime measurements. An increase in atmospheric particulate mercury during the cold season in the study region indicated that coal combustion, i.e., residential and industrial heating, is the main contribution factor for the selected particle size modes. Coarse particulate Hg at the urban site during summer was mainly attributed to anthropogenic sources, with significant contribution from resuspension processes and long-range transport. The highest values of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 were found during westerly and southerly wind events, reflecting local emission from highly polluted areas. The period from late fall to spring showed that advection from the southern part of Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local

  14. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  15. An evaluation of a pre-charging pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this test program is the performance and economic evaluation of a pre charged-pulse jet filter as the principal particulate control device for a commercial or industrial scale coal fired combustor. Performance factors that will be considered are the effects of particle charge, air/cloth ratio, fabric types, percent humidity and inlet particulate loading on fine particle collection efficiency, and pressure drop. Economic factors that will be considered are capital costs, energy and other operating costs, and maintenance costs. The program will result in a recommendation regarding the relative suitability of the pre charged pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control, as compared to other control devices. Fine particle control capability, ease of operation, and overall economics will be taken into consideration in making comparisons.

  16. Bulky PAH-DNA induced by exposure of a co-culture model of human alveolar macrophages and embryonic epithelial cells to atmospheric particulate pollution; Adduits encombrants a l'ADN dans des cocultures de cellules pulmonaires humaines exposees a une pollution atmospherique particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Imane; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France - Lille (France); Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, MREI, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Andre, Veronique; Le Goff, Jeremie; Sichel, Francois [GRECAN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie et centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Roy Saint-Georges, Francoise; Mulliez, Philippe [Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Philibert, GHICL, Lille (France)

    2012-01-15

    Because of their deep penetration in human lungs, fine airborne particulate matter were described as mainly responsible for the deleterious effects of exposure to air pollution on health. Organic constituents are adsorbed on particles surface and, after inhalation, some (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) can be activated into reactive metabolites and can bind to DNA. The formation of bulky DNA adducts has been researched after exposure of mono-and co-cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and human embryonic human lung epithelial (L132), to fine air pollution particulate matter Air samples have been collected with cascade impactor and characterized: size distribution (92.15% < 2.5{mu}.m), specific surface area (1 m{sup 2}/g), inorganic (Fe, AI, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic compounds (PAHs, etc.). {sup 32}P post-labeling method was applied to detect bulky DNA adducts in AM and L132, in mono-and co-cultures, 72 h after their exposure to atmospheric particles at their Lethals and Effects concentrations or (LC or CE) to 50% (i.e. MA: EC{sub 50} = 74.63 {mu}g/mL and L132: LC-5-0 = 75.36 {mu}g/mL). Exposure to desorbed particles (MA: C1= 61.11 {mu}g/mL and L132 : C2 = 61.71 {mu}g/mL) and B[a]P (1 {mu}M) were included. Bulky PAH-DNA adducts were detected in AM in mono-culture after exposure to total particles (Pt), to B[a]P and desorbed particles (Pd). Whatever the exposure, no DNA adduct was detected in L132 in mono-culture. These results are coherent with the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 l Al in AM and L132. Exposure of co-culture to Pt, or Pd induced bulky adducts to DNA in AM but not in L132. Exposure to B[a]P alone has altered the DNA of AM and L132, in co-culture. Exposure to Pt is closer to the environmental conditions, but conferred an exposure to amounts of genotoxic agents compared to studies using organic extracts. The formation of bulky DNA adducts was nevertheless observed in AM exposed to Pt, in mono- or co-culture, indicating that

  17. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  18. Discharge modulates stream metabolism dependence on fine particulate organic carbon in a Mediterranean WWTP-influenced stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Bernal, S.; Meredith, W.; Schumer, R.; Martí Roca, E.

    2017-12-01

    Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents constitute point source inputs of fine sediment, nutrients, carbon, and microbes to stream ecosystems. A range of responses to these inputs may be observed in recipient streams, including increases in respiration rates, which augment CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known about which fractions of organic carbon (OC) contribute the most to stream metabolism in WWTP-influenced streams. Fine particulate OC (POC) represents ca. 40% of the total mass of OC in river networks, and is generally more labile than dissolved OC. Therefore, POC inputs from WWTPs could contribute disproportionately to higher rates of heterotrophic metabolism by stream microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of POC inputs from a WWTP effluent on the metabolism of a Mediterranean stream over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. We hypothesized that POC inputs would have a positive effect on respiration rates, and that the response to POC availability would be larger during low flows when the dilution capacity of the recipient stream is negligible. We focused on the easily resuspended fine sediment near the sediment-water interface (top 3 cm), as this region is a known hot spot for biogeochemical processes. For one year, samples of resuspended sediment were collected bimonthly at 7 sites from 0 to 800 m downstream of the WWTP point source. We measured total POC, organic matter (OM) content (%), and the associated metabolic activity of the resuspended sediment using the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer system as a proxy for aerobic ecosystem respiration. Resuspended sediment showed no difference in total POC over the year, while the OM content increased with decreasing discharge. This result together with the decreasing trend of total POC observed downstream of the point source during autumn after a long dry period, suggests that the WWTP effluent was the main contributor to stream POC. Furthermore

  19. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  20. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  1. Particulate pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 due to strong anthropopressure in Sosnowiec city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air contamination with particulate matter causes a serious problem in large cities and urban-industrial agglomerations both in Poland and Europe. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas are emissions from municipal, industrial and transportation sector. Many epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to air pollution, especially the fine particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 micrometer, can pose a threat to human health exposed to exceedingly high concentrations of particulate matter. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations in autumn and winter season in the city of Sosnowiec, in relation to ambient air quality standards in Poland and the European Union. Results: The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 in autumn-winter seasons in Sosnowiec city 2010–2011 were 2,1 to 2,7 times higher than limit values, specified in the legislation acts.

  2. Smoking and Cerebral Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution: A Dreadful Equation with Particulate Matter Involved and One More Powerful Reason Not to Smoke Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2016-07-22

    Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. This paper has highly relevant results of interest across the US and the world because millions of people are active smokers and they have other genetic and environmental risk factors that could play a key role in the development/worsening of brain oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Smoking basically anything producing aerosols with particulate matter in the fine and ultrafine size range is detrimental to your brain. Marijuana and e-cigarette use has grown steadily among adolescents and young adults. Smoking-related cerebral oxidative stress is a potential mechanism promoting AD pathology and increased risk for AD. Current knowledge also relates fine and ultrafine particles exposures influencing neurodevelopmental processes in utero. The results from Durazzo et al. should be put in a broader context, a context that includes evaluating the oxidative stress of nano-aerosols associated with cigarette emissions and their synergistic effects with air pollution exposures. AD is expected to increase in the US threefold by the year 2050, and some of these future AD patients are smoking and vaping right now. Understanding the impact of everyday exposures to long-term harmful consequences for brain health is imperative.

  3. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  4. Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Angyal, A.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 2.5-10 ) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

  5. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillrud, Steven N; Grass, David; Ross, James M; Coulibaly, Drissa; Slavkovich, Vesna; Epstein, David; Sax, Sonja N; Pederson, Dee; Johnson, David; Spengler, John D; Kinney, Patrick L; Simpson, H James; Brandt-Rauf, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 reflected increasing concern about potential effects of low-level airborne metal exposure on a wide array of illnesses. Here we summarize results demonstrating that the New York City (NYC) subway system provides an important microenvironment for metal exposures for NYC commuters and subway workers and also describe an ongoing pilot study of NYC transit workers' exposure to steel dust. Results from the TEACH (Toxic Exposure Assessment, a Columbia and Harvard) study in 1999 of 41 high-school students strongly suggest that elevated levels of iron, manganese, and chromium in personal air samples were due to exposure to steel dust in the NYC subway. Airborne concentrations of these three metals associated with fine particulate matter were observed to be more than 100 times greater in the subway environment than in home indoor or outdoor settings in NYC. While there are currently no known health effects at the airborne levels observed in the subway system, the primary aim of the ongoing pilot study is to ascertain whether the levels of these metals in the subway air affect concentrations of these metals or related metabolites in the blood or urine of exposed transit workers, who due to their job activities could plausibly have appreciably higher exposures than typical commuters. The study design involves recruitment of 40 transit workers representing a large range in expected exposures to steel dust, the collection of personal air samples of fine particulate matter, and the collection of blood and urine samples from each monitored transit worker.

  6. Dust particulate absorption by ivy (Hedera helix L) on historic walls in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternberg, Troy; Viles, Heather; Cathersides, Alan; Edwards, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The potential bio-protective role of urban greenery and how it interacts with airborne dust and pollutants has been the subject of much recent research. As particulate pollution has been implicated in both the deterioration of building materials and in damaging human health, understanding how it interacts with urban greenery is of great applied interest. Common or English Ivy (Hedera helix L) grows widely on urban walls in many parts of the world, and thus any bio-protective role it might play is of broad relevance. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy ivy leaves collected on roadways were examined to determine if ivy can absorb dust and pollutants that can instigate decay processes on stone walls and impact human health in urban environments. Results showed that ivy acts as a 'particle sink', absorbing particulate matter, particularly in high-traffic areas. It was effective in adhering fine ( 10 per m 2 . Our findings suggest that through absorbing pollutant particles ivy can retard bio-deteriorative processes on historic walls and reduce human exposure to respiratory problems caused by vehicle pollutants.

  7. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  8. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  9. Metal composition of fine particulate air pollution and acute changes in cardiorespiratory physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Mahmud, Mamun; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Vanos, Jennifer; Liu, Ling; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Weichenthal, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studying the physiologic effects of components of fine particulate mass (PM 2.5 ) could contribute to a better understanding of the nature of toxicity of air pollution. Objectives: We examined the relation between acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory function, and PM 2.5 -associated-metals. Methods: Using generalized linear mixed models, daily changes in ambient PM 2.5 -associated metals were compared to daily changes in physiologic measures in 59 healthy subjects who spent 5-days near a steel plant and 5-days on a college campus. Results: Interquartile increases in calcium, cadmium, lead, strontium, tin, vanadium and zinc were associated with statistically significant increases in heart rate of 1–3 beats per minute, increases of 1–3 mmHg in blood pressure and/or lung function decreases of up to 4% for total lung capacity. Conclusion: Metals contained in PM 2.5 were found to be associated with acute changes in cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. - Highlights: • We measured daily lung function, heart rate and blood pressure in 61 subjects. • Study sites were adjacent to a steel plant and on a college campus. • PM 2.5 -associated metal concentrations were measured daily at each site. • On days of higher metal concentrations, physiologic variables slightly deteriorated. • Some metal components may contribute to the toxicity of PM 2.5 . - Several PM 2.5 metals were associated with acute changes in cardiovascular or respiratory physiology. Given the evidence of source specificity, our study provides novel information

  10. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of the physical–chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles’ equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical–chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity. - Highlights: • Airborne pollen sorbs other PM found in suspension. • 84% of the particles sorbed belonged to the fine aerosol fraction. • Adsorbed PM presented daily physical–chemical variations. • Particles sorbed dominated by Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Fe-rich and Cl-rich. - Airborne pollen is able to transport finer particulate matter, which presents daily physical–chemical variations.

  11. Effects of exposure estimation errors on estimated exposure-response relations for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2018-07-01

    Associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure concentrations and a wide variety of undesirable outcomes, from autism and auto theft to elderly mortality, suicide, and violent crime, have been widely reported. Influential articles have argued that reducing National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 is desirable to reduce these outcomes. Yet, other studies have found that reducing black smoke and other particulate matter by as much as 70% and dozens of micrograms per cubic meter has not detectably affected all-cause mortality rates even after decades, despite strong, statistically significant positive exposure concentration-response (C-R) associations between them. This paper examines whether this disconnect between association and causation might be explained in part by ignored estimation errors in estimated exposure concentrations. We use EPA air quality monitor data from the Los Angeles area of California to examine the shapes of estimated C-R functions for PM2.5 when the true C-R functions are assumed to be step functions with well-defined response thresholds. The estimated C-R functions mistakenly show risk as smoothly increasing with concentrations even well below the response thresholds, thus incorrectly predicting substantial risk reductions from reductions in concentrations that do not affect health risks. We conclude that ignored estimation errors obscure the shapes of true C-R functions, including possible thresholds, possibly leading to unrealistic predictions of the changes in risk caused by changing exposures. Instead of estimating improvements in public health per unit reduction (e.g., per 10 µg/m 3 decrease) in average PM2.5 concentrations, it may be essential to consider how interventions change the distributions of exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  13. Elemental analysis of airborne fine particles collected at the roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected at the intersection of Industrial Road in Kawasaki-city, Kanagawa, Japan using a 12-stage low-pressure impactor. High concentrations of airborne particulate matter have been observed in this area. The collected samples were analyzed for 34 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and data on the elemental concentrations were obtained. High concentrations of fine particles of As, Br, Sb, V, and Zn were observed. It was further observed that these fine particles were originated predominantly from the wear of tires and brakes, and not from automobile exhaust emissions. (author)

  14. Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, H.; Ying, Q.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few decades, China have been facing extreme particulate matter (PM) pollution problems due to the combination of fast increase of population, industrialization, urbanization and associated energy consumption and lagging of sufficient emission control measures. Studies have identified the major components of fine PM (PM2.5) in China include primary PM (which is directly emitted into the atmosphere), sulfate and nitrate (which are mainly secondary PM, i.e., formed from gaseous precursors), and organic aerosols (which can be primary or secondary). Contributions of different source sectors to the different PM components are substantially different; therefore source apportionment of these components can provide critical information needed for policy makers to design effective emission control strategies. In the current study, a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that directly tracks the contributions from multiple emission sources to primary and secondary PM2.5 is developed, and then applied to determine the regional contributions of power, industry, transportation and residential sectors to primary PM, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in China. Four months in 2012-2013 are simulated to predict the seasonal variations of source contributions. Model predictions are evaluated with ambient measured concentrations. The source-oriented CMAQ model is capable of reproducing most of the available PM10 and PM2.5 mass, and PM2.5 EC, POC, nitrate and sulfate observations. Predicted source contributions for EC also generally agree with to the source contributions estimated by receptor models reported in previous studies. Model predictions suggest residential is a major contributor to primary PM (30-70%) in the spring and winter, and industrial contributes 40-60% of primary PM in the summer and fall; Transportation is an important source for EC (20-30%); Power sector is the dominating source of nitrate and sulfate in both

  15. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    Full Text Available Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing.Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender.A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%, 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%, 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53% and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%. The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%. The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure.PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  16. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Li, Xia; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.

  17. Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Int Panis, Luc; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Willems, Hanny; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bleux, Nico; Mishra, Vinit; Thomas, Isabelle; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short episodes of high exposure to air pollution occur while commuting. These events can result in potentially adverse health effects. We present a quantification of the exposure of car passengers and cyclists to particulate matter (PM). We have simultaneously measured concentrations (PNC, PM2.5 and PM10) and ventilatory parameters (minute ventilation (VE), breathing frequency and tidal volume) in three Belgian locations (Brussels, Louvain-la-Neuve and Mol) for 55 persons (38 male and 17 female). Subjects were first driven by car and then cycled along identical routes in a pairwise design. Concentrations and lung deposition of PNC and PM mass were compared between biking trips and car trips. Mean bicycle/car ratios for PNC and PM are close to 1 and rarely significant. The size and magnitude of the differences in concentrations depend on the location which confirms similar inconsistencies reported in literature. On the other hand, the results from this study demonstrate that bicycle/car differences for inhaled quantities and lung deposited dose are large and consistent across locations. These differences are caused by increased VE in cyclists which significantly increases their exposure to traffic exhaust. The VE while riding a bicycle is 4.3 times higher compared to car passengers. This aspect has been ignored or severely underestimated in previous studies. Integrated health risk evaluations of transport modes or cycling policies should therefore use exposure estimates rather than concentrations.

  18. Effects of metal-rich particulate matter exposure on exogenous and endogenous viral sequence methylation in healthy steel-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercorio, Roberta; Bonzini, Matteo; Angelici, Laura; Iodice, Simona; Delbue, Serena; Mariani, Jacopo; Apostoli, Pietro; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2017-11-01

    Inhaled particles have been shown to produce systemic changes in DNA methylation. Global hypomethylation has been associated to viral sequence reactivation, possibly linked to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways occurring after exposure. This observation provides a rationale to investigate viral sequence (both exogenous and endogenous) methylation in association to metal-rich particulate matter exposure. To verify this hypothesis, we chose the Wp promoter of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-Wp) and the promoter of the human-endogenous-retrovirus w (HERV-w), respectively as a paradigm of an exogenous and an endogenous retroviral sequence, to be investigated by bisulfite PCR Pyrosequencing. We enrolled 63 male workers in an electric furnace steel plant, exposed to high level of metal-rich particulate matter. Comparing samples obtained in the first day of a work week (time 0-baseline, after 2 days off work) and the samples obtained after 3 days of work (time 1-post exposure), the mean methylation of EBV-Wp was significantly higher at baseline compared to post-exposure (mean baseline = 56.7%5mC; mean post-exposure = 47.9%5mC; p-value = 0.009), whereas the mean methylation of HERV-w did not significantly differ. Individual exposure to inhalable particles and metals was estimated based on measures in all working areas and time spent by the study subjects in each area. In a regression model adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking, PM and metal components had a positive association with EBV-Wp methylation (i.e. PM10: β = 5.99, p-value < 0.038; nickel: β = 17.82, p-value = 0.02; arsenic: β = 13.59, p-value < 0.015). The difference observed comparing baseline and post-exposure samples may be suggestive of a rapid change in EBV methylation induced by air particles, while correlation between EBV methylation and PM/metal exposure may represent a more stable adaptive mechanism. Future studies investigating a larger panel of viral sequences could better elucidate

  19. Workplace exposure to traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, M; DIez, S; Alastuey, A; Querol, X; Reche, C

    2011-01-01

    Workplace exposure to traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates was determined at a chemical research facility. Sub-micron particles were monitored by means of a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and a laser spectrometer (GRIMM 1107), providing 10-minute black carbon (BC) concentrations and 15-minute PM 1 concentrations, respectively, over a 4-month period (22/03/2010 - 28/07/2010). BC levels were simultaneously monitored during 1-day periods using a handheld aethalometer (Magee AE51), with excellent agreement between both techniques (MAAP and AE51, r 2 = 0.96, y = 0.84x).The studied laboratory is located on the 5th floor of an 8-storey building in an urban background environment in Barcelona, Spain. The laboratory was not in use during the study period, and both of its doors were kept open at all times in order to ensure air circulation between the study laboratory and the remaining offices and laboratories on the same floor (where workers were exposed). Windows were kept closed at all times. Indoor BC and PM 1 concentrations were compared with ambient BC and PM 1 levels from an outdoor monitoring station located at 1 (1.76 to 1.02), suggesting that it is necessary to monitor the variability of penetration factors as a function of time. BC emission sources in the workplace still need to be determined, but could be related to printer/photocopier toner emissions and laboratory work. Potential contamination due to the monitoring instruments (pumps) was discarded through the analysis of daily indoor BC cycles.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  1. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  2. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  3. Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Hertel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times....... Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12–54%) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant’s bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation......, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions We identified several sources of fine PM in infants’ bedrooms...

  4. Exposure assessment and modeling of particulate matter for asthmatic children using personal nephelometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Delfino, Ralph J.; Floro, Joshua N.; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Samimi, Behzad S.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Allen, Ryan W.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    It has been shown that acute exposures to particulate matter (PM) may exacerbate asthma in children. However, most epidemiological studies have relied on time-integrated PM measurements taken at a centrally located stationary monitoring sites. In this article, we characterized children's short-term personal exposures to PM 2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters size-selective inlet was used to estimate real-time PM 2.5 concentrations on 20 asthmatic children, inside and outside of their residences, and at a central site. The personal and indoor pDRs were operated passively, while the home outdoor and central site instruments were operated actively. The subjects received 29.2% of their exposures at school, even though they only spent 16.4% of their time there. More precise personal clouds were estimated for the home-indoor and home-outdoor microenvironments where PM concentrations were measured. The personal cloud increased with increasing activity levels and was higher during outdoor activities than during indoor activities. We built models to predict personal PM exposures based on either microenvironmental or central-site PM 2.5 measurements, and evaluated the modeled exposures against the actual personal measurements. A multiple regression model with central site PM concentration as the main predictor had a better prediction power ( R2=0.41) than a three-microenvironmental model ( R2=0.11). We further constructed a source-specific exposure model utilizing the time-space-activity information and the particle infiltration efficiencies (mean=0.72±0.15) calculated from a recursive mass balance model. It was estimated that the mean hourly personal exposures resulting from ambient, indoor-generated, and personal activity PM 2.5 were 11.1, 5.5, and 10.0 μg/m 3, respectively, when the modeling error was minimized. The high PM 2.5 exposure to personal activities reported in our study is likely due to children's more active lifestyle as compared with older adult subjects in

  5. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  6. Coolability of oxidized particulate debris bed accumulated in horizontal narrow gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Narabayashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    When LOCA occurs in a nuclear reactor system, the coolability of the core would be kept as reported at a series of presentations in ICONE14. Therefore the probability of the core meltdown is negligible small. However, from the view point of defense in depth, it is necessary to be sure that the coolability of the bottom of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is maintained even if a part of the core should melt and a substantial amount of debris should be deposited on the lower plenum. We carried out an experimental study in order to observe the coolability of particulate core-metal debris bed with 12 mm thickness accompanied with rapid heat generation because of oxidization, which was reported at ICONE14. The coolability was assured by a small amount of coolant supply because of high capillary force of oxidized fine particulate debris produced. In the present study, we examined the coolability of particulate debris bed deposited in narrower gap of 1 mm or 5 mm that coolant supply is hard. The particulate debris beds were piled up on the stainless steel sheet with 0.1 mm thickness, which was used to measure the bottom temperatures of particulate debris bed by using a thermo-video camera. We set up a heat supply section with heat input of 2.1 kW, which simulates the hard debris bed deposited on the particulate debris bed as reported for the TMI-2 accident. We measured the temperatures of the bottom surface of the heat supply section and the heat fluxes released into debris bed as well as the temperatures at the bottom of debris bed on the stainless steel sheet. It is found that when only the upper surface of particulate debris bed is in the film boiling, capillary force causes coolant supply to the particulate debris bed. Therefore, in the condition of thicker gap with small particulate debris, coolability of debris bed is improved. We find out that smaller particulate debris is moved by vapor movement. As a result, the area that high capillary force is caused because of

  7. NewIn-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuqing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was prepared using a new in-situ synthesis method of remelting and dilution technique. And measurements were performed on the composites. The results of x ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that TiC particulates were synthesized during the sintering process, and they retained in magnesium matrix composites after the remelting and dilution processing. From the microstructure characterization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, we could see that fine TiC particulates distributed uniformly in the matrix material.

  8. MicroRNAs are associated with blood-pressure effects of exposure to particulate matter: Results from a mediated moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Valeria; Favero, Chiara; Dioni, Laura; Iodice, Simona; Battaglia, Cristina; Angelici, Laura; Vigna, Luisella; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with increased blood pressure (BP), a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship, we investigated whether the effects of particulate matter of less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on BP are mediated by microRNAs. We recruited 90 obese individuals and we assessed their PM10 exposure 24 and 48h before the recruitment day. We performed multivariate linear regression models to investigate the effects of PM10 on BP. Using the TaqMan® Low-Density Array, we experimentally evaluated and technically validated the expression levels of 377 human miRNAs in peripheral blood. We developed a mediated moderation analysis to estimate the proportion of PM10 effects on BP that was mediated by miRNA expression. PM10 exposure 24 and 48h before the recruitment day was associated with increased systolic BP (β=1.22mmHg, P=0.019; β=1.24mmHg, P=0.019, respectively) and diastolic BP (β=0.67mmHg, P=0.044; β=0.91mmHg, P=0.007, respectively). We identified nine miRNAs associated with PM10 levels 48h after exposure. A conditional indirect effect (CIE=-0.1431) of PM10 on diastolic BP, which was mediated by microRNA-101, was found in individuals with lower values of mean body mass index. Our data provide evidence that miRNAs are a molecular mechanism underlying the BP-related effects of air pollution exposure, and indicate miR-101 as epigenetic mechanism to be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating population exposure to power plant emissions using CALPUFF: a case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Hammitt, J.K.; Evans, J.S. [Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures and increased mortality and morbidity risk. Power plants are significant emitters of precursor gases of fine particulate matter. To evaluate the public health risk posed by power plants, it is necessary to evaluate population exposure to different pollutants. The concept of intake fraction (the fraction of a pollutant emitted that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population) has been proposed to provide a simple summary measure of the relationship between emissions and exposure. Currently available intake fraction estimates from developing countries used models that look only at the near field impacts, which may not capture the full impact of a pollution source. This case study demonstrated how the intake fraction of power plant emissions in China can be calculated using a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model-CALPUFF. We found that the intake fraction of primary fine particles is roughly on the order of 10{sup -5}, while the intake fractions of sulfur dioxide, sulfate and nitrate are on the order of 10{sup -6}. These estimates are an order of magnitude higher than the US estimates. We also tested how sensitive the results were to key assumptions within the model. The size distribution of primary particles has a large impact on the intake fraction for primary particles while the background ammonia concentration is an important factor influencing the intake fraction of nitrate. The background ozone concentration has a moderate impact on the intake fraction of sulfate and nitrate. Our analysis shows that this approach is applicable to a developing country and it provides reasonable population exposure estimates. (author)

  10. Quantification of Health Effects Related to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and Particulate Matter Exposure. Report from the Nordic Expert Meeting Oslo, 15-17 October, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Krzyzanowski, M. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The Nordic Council of Ministers founded a workshop of European and Nordic experts to assess the current literature and develop dose-response functions for the criteria air quality indicators of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and particulate matter. This is the report from the workshop held in Oslo on October 15-17, 1995. Estimates of exposure-response relationships are needed to assess the health impact of environmental factors. Based on available research evidence, the relationships for the common air pollutants - particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide - were reviewed. The Meeting concluded by quantifying exposure-response relationships for particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and ozone; the relationship for NO{sub 2} was not quantified. The Meeting also identified other exposure-response relationships considered to be substantiated, but for which the available data did not provide sufficient background to quantify the risk. The reported concentration-response associations relate to short-term changes in risk due to changes in levels of pollutants. For chronic effects of prolonged exposures the data were judged to be insufficient for quantification. 211 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  12. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  13. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-10-01

    In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Prolonged exposure to particulate chromate inhibits RAD51 nuclear import mediator proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-09-15

    Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a human lung carcinogen and a human health concern. The induction of structural chromosome instability is considered to be a driving mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Homologous recombination repair protects against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome damage, due to its highly accurate repair of Cr(VI)-induced DNA double strand breaks. However, recent studies demonstrate Cr(VI) inhibits homologous recombination repair through the misregulation of RAD51. RAD51 is an essential protein in HR repair that facilitates the search for a homologous sequence. Recent studies show prolonged Cr(VI) exposure prevents proper RAD51 subcellular localization, causing it to accumulate in the cytoplasm. Since nuclear import of RAD51 is crucial to its function, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) on the RAD51 nuclear import mediators, RAD51C and BRCA2. We show acute (24h) Cr(VI) exposure induces the proper localization of RAD51C and BRCA2. In contrast, prolonged (120h) exposure increased the cytoplasmic localization of both proteins, although RAD51C localization was more severely impaired. These results correlate temporally with the previously reported Cr(VI)-induced RAD51 cytoplasmic accumulation. In addition, we found Cr(VI) does not inhibit interaction between RAD51 and its nuclear import mediators. Altogether, our results suggest prolonged Cr(VI) exposure inhibits the nuclear import of RAD51C, and to a lesser extent, BRCA2, which results in the cytoplasmic accumulation of RAD51. Cr(VI)-induced inhibition of nuclear import may play a key role in its carcinogenic mechanism since the nuclear import of many tumor suppressor proteins and DNA repair proteins is crucial to their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among older US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-08-15

    Existing research on the adverse health effects of exposure to pollution has devoted relatively little attention to the potential impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive function in older adults. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and cognitive function in older adults. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study, a large, nationally representative sample of US adults aged 50 years or older. We linked participant data with 2000 US Census tract data and 2004 census tract-level annual average PM2.5 concentrations. Older adults living in areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations had worse cognitive function (β = -0.26, 95% confidence interval: -0.47, -0.05) even after adjustment for community- and individual-level social and economic characteristics. Results suggest that the association is strongest for the episodic memory component of cognitive function. This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults. Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for reducing age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter respiratory disease remain inconsistent. The short-term, population-based association between the respiratory clinic visits of children and PM2.5 exposure levels were investigated by considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. This analysis was separately performed on three respiratory disease categories that were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance database, which includes 41 districts in the Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  18. The measurement of the charging properties of fine particulate materials in pneumatic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Chelu, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This document describes a programme of work that was designed to develop an improved understanding of the electrostatic charging properties of particulate materials with a view to applying this knowledge to the measurement of particulate concentrations in air-solid suspensions. An extensive literature review has been carried out. Some eighty published works were found and these concentrated on indirect charge measurement, the measurement of the two-phase pipe flow parameters, and on finding suitable models to explain tile work function given to insulators during metal to insulator contact. These areas are covered well in the field of electrostatics but data currently available in the area of programme of work being described here is very, limited, and so it is proposed that this research project will aim to improve such understanding. A test facility was developed to provide information from the flow of a particulate material under known conditions (particle velocity, suspension density). This test facility utilised three sensing probes, each with discrete charge amplifier units, at specific locations: one at the beginning and two further down the pipeline being utilised. Hence, the charging tendencies of any material were observed using this facility. The results obtained from this facility show the charging tendency of three particulate materials under various flow conditions. Signal processing techniques were developed to infer the suspension density for each flow condition and to estimate average particle velocity. Further analysis of the data resulted in tile derivation of a power spectral estimate for some of the flow conditions. This estimate was considered with the particle size distribution, as well as the estimate of tile average particle velocity, and there is a linkage. The main material selected for this programme was aluminium hydroxide. This was tested at environmental temperatures of 19 and 30 deg. C with relative humidity (RH) levels of 35, 45, and

  19. Temporal variations of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chris C; Thurston, George D; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Khoder, Mamdouh; Mohorjy, Abdullah M; Alkhalaf, Abdulrahman K; Brocato, Jason; Chen, Lung Chi; Costa, Max

    2018-02-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (aerodynamic diameter Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over 1 yr, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM 2.5 (21.9 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (107.8 μg/m 3 ) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM 2.5 (10 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (20 μg/m 3 ), respectively. Similar to other Middle Eastern locales, PM 2.5-10 is the prevailing mass component of atmospheric particulate matter at Jeddah, accounting for approximately 80% of the PM 10 mass. Considerations of enrichment factors, absolute principal component analysis (APCA), concentration roses, and backward trajectories identified the following source categories for both PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 : (1) soil/road dust, (2) incineration, and (3) traffic; and for PM 2.5 only, (4) residual oil burning. Soil/road dust accounted for a major portion of both the PM 2.5 (27%) and PM 2.5-10 (77%) mass, and the largest source contributor for PM 2.5 was from residual oil burning (63%). Temporal variations of PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 were observed, with the elevated concentration levels observed for mass during the spring (due to increased dust storm frequency) and on weekdays (due to increased traffic). The predominant role of windblown soil and road dust in both the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 masses in this city may have implications regarding the toxicity of these particles versus those in the Western world where most PM health assessments have been made in the past. These results support the need for region-specific epidemiological investigations to be conducted and considered in future PM standard setting. Temporal variations of fine and coarse PM mass, elemental constituents, and sources were examined in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the first time. The main source

  20. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  1. Placental promoter methylation of DNA repair genes and prenatal exposure to particulate air pollution: an ENVIRONAGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Y Neven, MSc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked with risk of carcinogenesis. Damage to repair pathways might have long-term adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the association of prenatal exposure to air pollution with placental mutation rate and the DNA methylation of key placental DNA repair genes. Methods: This cohort study used data from the ongoing ENVironmental Influence ON early AGEing (ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, which enrols pairs of mothers and neonates (singleton births only at the East-Limburg Hospital (Genk, Belgium. Placental DNA samples were collected after birth. We used bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing to investigate the mutation rate of Alu (a marker for overall DNA mutation and DNA methylation in the promoter genes of key DNA repair and tumour suppressor genes (APEX1, OGG1, PARP1, ERCC1, ERCC4, p53, and DAPK1. We used a high-resolution air pollution model to estimate exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5, black carbon, and NO2 over the entire pregnancy on the basis of maternal address. Alu mutation was analysed with a linear regression model, and methylation values of the selected genes were analysed in mixed-effects models. Effect estimates are presented as the relative percentage change in methylation for an ambient air pollution increment of one IQR (ie, the difference between the first and third quartiles of exposure in the entire cohort. Findings: 500 biobanked placental DNA samples were randomly selected from 814 pairs of mothers and neonates who were recruited to the cohort between Feb 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2014, of which 463 samples met the pyrosequencing quality control criteria. IQR exposure increments were 3·84 μg/m3 for PM2·5, 0·36 μg/m3 for black carbon, and 5·34 μg/m3 for NO2. Among these samples, increased Alu mutation rate was associated with greater exposure to PM2·5 (r=0·26, p<0·0001 and black carbon (r=0·33, p<0·0001, but not NO2

  2. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control

  3. Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Friel, Brenda; Snelgrove, Vicki

    2012-11-01

    To measure levels of fine particulate matter in the rear passenger area of cars where smoking does and does not take place during typical real-life car journeys. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was used as a marker of secondhand smoke and was measured and logged every minute of each car journey undertaken by smoking and non-smoking study participants. The monitoring instrument was located at breathing zone height in the rear seating area of each car. Participants were asked to carry out their normal driving and smoking behaviours over a 3-day period. 17 subjects (14 smokers) completed a total of 104 journeys (63 smoking journeys). Journeys averaged 27 min (range 5-70 min). PM(2.5) levels averaged 85 and 7.4 μg/m(3) during smoking and non-smoking car journeys, respectively. During smoking journeys, peak PM(2.5) concentrations averaged 385 μg/m(3), with one journey measuring over 880 μg/m(3). PM(2.5) concentrations were strongly linked to rate of smoking (cigarettes per minute). Use of forced ventilation and opening of car windows were very common during smoking journeys, but PM(2.5) concentrations were still found to exceed WHO indoor air quality guidance (25 μg/m(3)) at some point in the measurement period during all smoking journeys. PM(2.5) concentrations in cars where smoking takes place are high and greatly exceed international indoor air quality guidance values. Children exposed to these levels of fine particulate are likely to suffer ill-health effects. There are increasing numbers of countries legislating against smoking in cars and such measures may be appropriate to prevent the exposure of children to these high levels of secondhand smoke.

  4. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-01-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy and Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid(trademark) filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  5. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  6. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  8. Sex-specific associations between particulate matter exposure and gene expression in independent discovery and validation cohorts of middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Methods: Microarray analyses were performed in 98...... healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of eight sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women...

  9. Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S. Attributable Burden and Economic Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Malecha, Patrick; Attina, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) rates (11.4% in 2013) in the United States remain high and are a substantial cause of morbidity. Studies of prenatal exposure have associated particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and other ambient air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes; yet, to our knowledge, burden and costs of PM2.5-attributable PTB have not been estimated in the United States. We aimed to estimate burden of PTB in the United States and economic costs attributable to PM2.5 exposure in 2010. Annual deciles of PM2.5 were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We converted PTB odds ratio (OR), identified in a previous meta-analysis (1.15 per 10 μg/m3 for our base case, 1.07-1.16 for low- and high-end scenarios) to relative risk (RRs), to obtain an estimate that better represents the true relative risk. A reference level (RL) of 8.8 μg/m3 was applied. We then used the RR estimates and county-level PTB prevalence to quantify PM2.5-attributable PTB. Direct medical costs were obtained from the 2007 Institute of Medicine report, and lost economic productivity (LEP) was estimated using a meta-analysis of PTB-associated IQ loss, and well-established relationships of IQ loss with LEP. All costs were calculated using 2010 dollars. An estimated 3.32% of PTBs nationally (corresponding to 15,808 PTBs) in 2010 could be attributed to PM2.5 (PM2.5 > 8.8 μg/m3). Attributable PTBs cost were estimated at $5.09 billion [sensitivity analysis (SA): $2.43-9.66 B], of which $760 million were spent for medical care (SA: $362 M-1.44 B). The estimated PM2.5 attributable fraction (AF) of PTB was highest in urban counties, with highest AFs in the Ohio Valley and the southern United States. PM2.5 may contribute substantially to burden and costs of PTB in the United States, and considerable health and economic benefits could be achieved through environmental regulatory interventions that reduce PM2.5 exposure in pregnancy. Citation: Trasande L, Malecha P, Attina TM. 2016

  10. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant ...

  11. An evaluation of the impact of flooring types on exposures to fine and coarse particles within the residential micro-environment using CONTAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell, Lisa; Qian, Jing; Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Mondal, Sumona; Ferro, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Typical resuspension activities within the home, such as walking, have been estimated to contribute up to 25% of personal exposures to PM10. Chamber studies have shown that for moderate walking intensities, flooring type can impact the rate at which particles are re-entrained into the air. For this study, the impact of residential flooring type on incremental average daily (24 h) time-averaged exposure was investigated. Distributions of incremental time-averaged daily exposures to fine and coarse PM while walking within the residential micro-environment were predicted using CONTAM, the multizone airflow and contaminant transport program of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Knowledge of when and where a person was walking was determined by randomly selecting 490 daily diaries from the EPA's consolidated human activity database (CHAD). On the basis of the results of this study, residential flooring type can significantly impact incremental time-averaged daily exposures to coarse and fine particles (α=0.05, P<0.05, N=490, Kruskal-Wallis test) with high-density cut pile carpeting resulting in the highest exposures. From this study, resuspension from walking within the residential micro-environment contributed 6-72% of time-averaged daily exposures to PM10.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  13. A novel high efficiency fine particulate and mercury control device. Final report for the Department of Energy Contract Number DE-FG02-95ER81968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-05

    This Phase II SBIR program was conducted to demonstrate the ability of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) of flyash to cause particle agglomeration and consequent reduction in the quantity of fine particulate emissions from the system. Another objective was to show that carbon addition to the bed would result in the removal of mercury compounds from the flue gas at carbon utilization levels significantly better than duct injection of activated carbon. The pilot-scale testing was carried out in 1997. The pilot-scale fluid bed reactor was a 1000 CFM system, drawing gas from a slipstream of the exhaust of a 325 MW coal-fired boiler. Flue gas for the pilot unit was drawn downstream of the air preheater and returned to the same unit. Particle agglomeration testing was carried out for which the parameters of gas flow rate and water evaporation rate were varied, and the particle size distribution leaving the fluid bed system was monitored. The bed was able to cause a reduction in total particulate concentration by a factor of 10 and in fine particulate concentration by a factor of 5, and it was found that the best agglomeration of particles was obtained with simultaneous water spray evaporation. Tests were then carried out in which activated carbon was added to the fluid bed for mercury adsorption. Carbon addition in the bed was shown to yield both higher Hg removal and higher carbon utilization than normal carbon addition with the bed. The fluid bed fly ash alone, without the injection of activated carbon, will capture 50% of the inlet Hg vapor. A total of 80% removal of Hg vapor is achieved with the addition to the bed of 1000 g iodine impregnated activated carbon per gram of inlet Hg. The ability of the fluid bed to capture SO{sub 2} and HCl was also evaluated, using hydrated lime added to the bed. It was found that the fluid bed alone, without lime injection, removed 16% of the SO{sub 2}. Complete utilization of hydrated lime is achieved for SO{sub 2} removal at mole

  14. INJECTING FASTENING LOESS SOILS GROZNY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUCH AS «MIKRODUR»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-A. Y. Murtazaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the actual problem of development and implementation of effective ways to increase the bearing capacity of foundations of buildings and structures by impregnating the soil very finely dispersed binders such as "Mikrodur", turning it into a constructive element of the structure.The article shows that the use of a fine binder improves impervious properties strengthened by arrays, resistance to aggressive influences, hardening in a negative temperature, the strength development, etc. 

  15. Aircraft measurements to characterize polluted winter boundary layers: Overview of twin otter flights during the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Matter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. S.; Baasandorj, M.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Fibiger, D. L.; Moravek, A.; Clark, J. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Mitchell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution is a significant public health concern. In many regions of the U.S., Europe and Asia, wintertime particulate matter concentrations exceed national and / or international air quality standards. Winter air pollution also represents a scientific challenge because these events occur during stagnation events in shallow, vertically stratified boundary layers whose composition is difficult to probe from surface level measurements. Chemical processes responsible for the conversion of primary emissions to secondary pollutants such as ammonium nitrate aerosol vary with height above ground level. Sources of oxidants are poorly understood and may result from both local chemical production and mixing between shallow inversion layers and background air. During the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in January - February 2017, the NOAA twin otter executed 23 research flights with a payload designed to characterize the formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in three mountain valleys of northern Utah (Salt Lake, Cache, and Utah). These valleys are subject to periodic episodes of winter aerosol pollution well in excess of U.S. national ambient air quality standards. This presentation will describe the measurement strategy of the twin otter flights to address the specific features of aerosol pollution within winter boundary layer of this region. This strategy is relevant to understanding the broader issue of winter air pollution in other regions and potentially to the design of future studies. The presentation will summarize findings from UWFPS related to boundary layer structure, emissions and chemical processes responsible for ammonium nitrate aerosol in this region.

  16. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and breast cancer incidence in the Danish nurse cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ravnskjær, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1...... the 3-year running mean of each pollutant and breast cancer incidence using a time-varying Cox regression. RESULTS: We found no association between breast cancer and PM2.5 (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.99; 0.94-1.10 per interquartile range of 3.3 µg/m3), PM10 (1.02; 0.94-1.10 per 2.9 µg/m3......) or NO2 (0.99; 0.93-1.05 per 7.4 µg/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is not associated with breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Exposure to air pollution in adulthood does not increase the risk of breast cancer, but more data on the effects of early exposure, before first birth, are needed....

  17. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  18. Analytical solutions for the trajectories and thermal histories of unforced particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Dilute suspensions of finely dispersed particulates are found in many engineering applications. This article shows that the nonlinear equations of motion and heat transfer for the particles may be solved analytically for certain realistic drag and heat transfer functions under idealized conditions. Some applications are discussed

  19. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  20. Role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in the neurotoxicity of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hongying; Feng, Yan; Liang, Fan; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Ren; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidative stress-mediated neurocytotoxicity and DNA hydroxymethylation abnormalities involved in neuronal pathology of PM 2.5 . • PM 2.5 particles and toxic compounds adsorbed on the particle caused different types of neurocytotoxicity. • DNA hydroxymethylation abnormalities participated in PM 2.5 -induced impairments in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies have implicated fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the influences of different components remain largely elusive. Here, we extended our previous work to investigate the role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal pathology of PM 2.5 . We found PM 2.5 and its extracts (water-soluble extracts, organic extracts and carbon core component) differentially caused cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and the cell proliferation inhibition in neuronal cells. These effects were mechanistically related to each other and oxidative stress, suggesting PM 2.5 and toxic compounds adsorbed on the particles may cause different types of brain damages. In addition, PM 2.5 and its organic extracts increased global DNA hydroxymethylation and gene-specific DNA hydroxymethylation of neuronal genes, and subsequently interfered with their mRNA expression. The impairments in neuronal progression characterized with decreased length of neurite and reduced mRNA expression of neuronal markers and synaptic markers. The blocking effects of antioxidants demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress-mediated hydroxymethylation abnormalities in PM 2.5 -induced defects in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Our results first revealed the role of oxidative stress-mediated abnormal DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal impairments of PM 2.5 , and thoroughly evaluated the neurocytotoxicity of different components.

  1. Bioengineering towards self-assembly of particulate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-12-01

    There is an unmet demand for safe and efficient vaccines for prevention of various infectious diseases. Subunit vaccines comprise selected pathogen specific antigens are a safe alternative to whole organism vaccines. However they often lack immunogenicity. Natural and synthetic self-assembling polymers and proteins will be reviewed in view their use to encapsulate and/or display antigens to serve as immunogenic antigen carriers for induction of protective immunity. Recent advances made in in vivo assembly of antigen-displaying polyester inclusions will be a focus. Particulate vaccines are inherently immunogenic due to enhanced uptake by antigen presenting cells which process antigens mediating adaptive immune responses. Bioengineering approaches enable the design of tailor-made particulate vaccines to fine tune immune responses towards protective immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Particulate Matter Resuspension in Mississippi Bight Evaluated with CONCORDE's Synthesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S. J.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Pan, C.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Greer, A. T.; Church, I.; Wiggert, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The CONsortium for oil spill exposure pathways in COastal River-Dominated Ecosystems (CONCORDE) was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. During CONCORDE's spring 2016 field campaign, the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) on the R/V Point Sur and the Scanfish on the R/V Pelican comprehensively characterized the physical and biological structure in the region. Increased suspended particulate matter was observed by the ISIIS, with concentrations at depth sufficient to completely occlude the in situ images of planktonic organisms. Data was also collected on the continental shelf during the spring cruise by the RU31 glider in the proximity of the Mississippi River Delta, east of the ISIIS / Scanfish transects. Backscatter and salinity observed by the Scanfish and glider showed elevated suspended particulate matter and increased salinity, suggesting a linkage to shoreward advection from the continental shelf of oceanic waters that are sufficiently energetic to drive sediment resuspension. As part of the CONCORDE research effort, a four-dimensional biogeochemical/lower trophic level synthesis model for Mississippi Sound and Bight has been developed, based on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System. This study utilizes CONCORDE's synthesis model to investigate the physical forcing mechanisms affecting the increased suspended particulate matter concentration observed in the Mississippi Bight during spring 2016, and advection pathways between estuarine and shelf waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results show that episodic, advection-driven resuspension is a critical aspect controlling suspended sediment distributions in Mississippi Bight, which has implications for observed spatio-temporal patterns of planktonic species.

  3. Response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles from traffic: experimental controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dormans Jan AMA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, this experimental study has explored the role of two distinct size fractions: ultrafine (3 to 3613 μg/m3 for fCAP and from 269μg/m3 to 556 μg/m3 for u+fCAP. Results Ammonium, nitrate, and sulphate ions accounted for 56 ± 16% of the total fCAP mass concentrations, but only 17 ± 6% of the u+fCAP mass concentrations. Unambiguous particle uptake in alveolar macrophages was only seen after u+fCAP exposures. Neither fCAP nor u+fCAP induced significant changes of cytotoxicity or inflammation in the lung. However, markers of oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde were affected by both fCAP and u+fCAP exposure, although not always significantly. Additional analysis revealed heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels that followed a nonmonotonic function with an optimum at around 600 μg/m3 for fCAP. As a systemic response, exposure to u+fCAP and fCAP resulted in significant decreases of the white blood cell concentrations. Conclusion Minor pulmonary and systemic effects are observed after both fine and ultrafine + fine PM exposure. These effects do not linearly correlate with the CAP mass. A greater component of traffic CAP and/or a larger proportion ultrafine PM does not strengthen the absolute effects.

  4. Programming of mouse obesity by maternal exposure to concentrated ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie; Wang, Xiaoke; Hu, Ziying; Zhou, Huifen; Xu, Yanyi; Qiu, Lianglin; Qin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yuhao; Ying, Zhekang

    2017-06-23

    Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM 2.5 ) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. To determine if maternal exposure to PM 2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM 2.5 (CAP) during pre-conception, pregnancy, and lactation, and the developmental and metabolic responses of offspring were assessed. The growth trajectory of offspring revealed that maternal exposure to CAP significantly decreased offspring birth weight but increased body weight of adult male but not female offspring, and the latter was expressed as increased adiposity. These adult male offspring had increased food intake, but were sensitive to exogenous leptin. Their hypothalamic expression of Socs3 and Pomc, two target genes of leptin, was not changed, and the hypothalamic expression of NPY, an orexigenic peptide that is inhibited by leptin, was significantly increased. These decreases in central anorexigenic signaling were accompanied by reduced plasma leptin and its expression in adipose tissues, the primary source of circulating leptin. In contrast, maternal exposure did not significantly change any of these indexes in adult female offspring. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that the leptin promoter methylation of adipocytes was significantly increased in CAP-exposed male but not female offspring. Our data indicate that maternal exposure to ambient PM 2.5 programs obesity in male offspring probably through alterations in the methylation of the promoter region of the leptin gene.

  5. Exposure levels of farmers and veterinarians to particulate matter and gases uring operational tasks in pig-fattening houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Van Ransbeeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to assess particulate matter (PM exposure levels for both the farmer and the veterinarian during different operational tasks in pig-fattening houses, and to estimate their exposure levels on a daily working basis (time-weighted average (TWA. The measured PM fractions were: inhalable and respirable PM, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. The effects of pig age, pen floor type (conventional or low emission surface and cleaning of the pens on the personal PM exposure were also investigated. Indoor concentrations of NH[sub]3[/sub], CH[sub]4[/sub], and CO[sub]2[/sub] were additionally measured during some operational tasks. The results showed that personal exposure levels can become extremely high during some operational tasks performed by the farmer or veterinarian. The highest concentration levels were observed during feed shovelling and blood sampling, the lowest during the weighing of the pigs. For the farmer, the estimated TWA exposure levels of inhalable and respirable PM were 6.0 and 0.29 mg m[sup] -3[/sup] , respectively. These exposure levels for the veterinarian were, respectively, 10.6 and 0.74 mg m[sup] -3[/sup] . The PM concentration levels were mainly determined by the performed operational tasks. There was no significant effect of pig age, pen floor type, nor cleaning of the pens on the personal exposure levels.

  6. Coupling Solute and Fine Particle Transport with Sand Bed Morphodynamics within a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Ortiz, C. P.; Schumer, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Packman, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Fine suspended particles are typically considered to pass through streams and rivers as wash load without interacting with the bed, however experiments have demonstrated that hyporheic flow causes advective exchange of fine particles with the stream bed, yielding accumulation of fine particle deposits within the bed. Ultimately, understanding river morphodynamics and ecosystem dynamics requires coupling both fine particle and solute transport with bed morphodynamics. To better understand the coupling between these processes we analyze a novel dataset from a controlled field experiment conducted on Clear Run, a 2nd order sand bed stream located within the North Carolina coastal plain. Data include concentrations of continuously injected conservative solutes and fine particulate tracers measured at various depths within the stream bed, overhead time lapse images of bed forms, stream discharge, and geomorphological surveys of the stream. We use image analysis of bed morphodynamics to assess exchange, retention, and remobilization of solutes and fine particles during constant discharge and a short duration experimental flood. From the images, we extract a time series of bedform elevations and scour depths for the duration of the experiment. The high-resolution timeseries of bed elevation enables us to assess coupling of bed morphodynamics with both the solute and fine particle flux during steady state mobile bedforms prior to the flood and to changing bedforms during the flood. These data allow the application of a stochastic modeling framework relating bed elevation fluctuations to fine particle residence times. This combined experimental and modeling approach ultimately informs our ability to predict not only the fate of fine particulate matter but also associated nutrient and carbon dynamics within streams and rivers.

  7. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter respiration rate and NSC [soluble sugars (SS) and starch] concentrations, were investigated on 2-year-old Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment of fine particulate matters emitted from the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Fei; Lou, Wenhao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-15

    Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology. For light diesel oil, marine heavy diesel oil, 93 octane petrol and 97 octane petrol diesel oil, the emission factors of FPMs were 3.05±0.29, 3.21±0.54, 2.36±0.33, and 2.28±0.25g/kg fuel, respectively. And the emission factors for the "16 US EPA" PAHs of FPM were 0.45±0.20, 0.80±0.22, 1.00±0.20, and 1.05±0.19mg/g FPMs, respectively. Fe is the most abundant metal in these FPMs, and the emission factors of FPMs were 2.58±1.70, 4.45±0.11, 8.18±0.58, and 9.24±0.17mg/g FPMs, respectively. We ranked the cytotoxicity of the FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>97 octane petrol>93 octane petrol>light diesel oil, and the genotoxicity of FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>light diesel oil>93 octane petrol>97 octane petrol. Significant correlations were found between PAH concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results demonstrated that fuels exhaust FPMs have strong association with ROS activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. These results indicated that fuels exhaust FPMs pose a potentially serious health, and emphasized the importance of assessing the health risks posed by the particulate pollutants in vehicle exhausts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations just before and right after the driving tests were also determined. Data were collected under three driving conditions (i.e. no mitigation (NM), window closed (WC), and window closed plus using high efficiency cabin air filters (WC+HECA)) for each taxi and driver. The results show that, compared to NM, the WC+HECA reduced in-cabin PM2.5 and UFP concentrations, by 37% and 47% respectively (p health.

  10. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Robert A; Sloan, Chantel D; Cooper, Victoria C; Robinson, Daniel R; Hendrickson, Nathan R; McCord, Tyler A; Johnston, James D

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  11. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Cooper, Victoria C.; Robinson, Daniel R.; Hendrickson, Nathan R.; McCord, Tyler A.; Johnston, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters’ daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak “rush hour” times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure. PMID:29121096

  12. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Chaney

    Full Text Available Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr and walking (16.8 μg/hr, and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr. Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  13. Computing transient exposure to indoor pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarski, P.C.; Parker, G.B.

    1983-03-01

    A computer code, CORRAL, is used to compute the transient levels of gases and respirable particulates in a residence. Predictions of time-varying exposure to radon (from the outside air, soil and well water) and respirable particulates (from outside air, wood stove operation and cigarette smoke) for a mother and child over 24 hours are made. Average 24-hour radon exposures are 13 times background (0.75 pCi/l) for the child and 4.5 times background for the mother. Average 24-hour respirable particulate exposures are 5.6 times background (100 μg/m 3 ) for the mother and 4.2 times background for the child. The controlling parameters examined are source location, flow rates between rooms, air infiltration rate and lifestyle. The first three are shown to influence the formation of local pockets of high concentration of radon and particulates, and the last parameter shows that lifestyle patterns ultimately govern individual exposure to these pockets of high concentrations. The code is useful for examination of mitigation measures to reduce exposure and examination of the effects that the controlling parameters have on exposure to indoor pollutants

  14. Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter causes postnatal immunological dysfunction in mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Xinru; Liu, Chaobin; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Song, Yanfeng; Wang, Qin; Wang, Ping; Hu, Dian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the ontogeny and development of the fetal immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) on immune function in postnatal offspring. Pregnant female ICR mice were intralaryngopharyngeally administered with 30 μl of phosphate buffered solution (the control group) or resuspended PM of Standard Reference Material 1649a at 0.09 (low), 0.28 (medium), 1.85 (high) or 6.92 (overdose) μg/μl once every three days from day 0 to 18 of pregnancy (n = 8–10). Offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 30. Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ levels in plasma and splenocytes, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and expressions of GATA-3 and T-bet mRNA in the spleen were tested. The spleen and thymus were histopathologically examined. The offspring of the medium, high and overdose PM-exposed dams showed significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation. Decreased interferon-γ and increased interleukin-4 levels in the blood and splenocytes, and lowered T-bet and elevated GATA-3 mRNA expressions were found in the spleen in the medium, high and overdose groups when compared with the control or low dose group (P < 0.05). Histopathology revealed prominent tissue damage in the spleen and thymus in the overdose group. These results suggest that exposure of pregnant mice to PM modulates the fetal immune system, resulting in postnatal immune dysfunction by exacerbation of Thl/Th2 deviation. This deviation is associated with altered T-bet and GATA-3 gene expressions

  15. Individual-Level Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter Chemical Components and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Based on 2 Advanced Exposure Prediction Models in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; Larson, Timothy V.; Adar, Sara D.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Polak, Joseph F.; Vedal, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to outdoor particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The chemical composition of PM2.5 that may be most responsible for producing these associations has not been identified. We assessed cross-sectional associations between long-term concentrations of PM2.5 and 4 of its chemical components (sulfur, silicon, elemental carbon, and organic carbon (OC)) and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium, between 2000 and 2002 among 5,488 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants residing in 6 US metropolitan areas. Long-term concentrations of PM2.5 components at participants' homes were predicted using both city-specific spatiotemporal models and a national spatial model. The estimated differences in CIMT associated with interquartile-range increases in sulfur, silicon, and OC predictions from the spatiotemporal model were 0.022 mm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.014, 0.031), 0.006 mm (95% CI: 0.000, 0.012), and 0.026 mm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.034), respectively. Findings were generally similar using the national spatial model predictions but were often sensitive to adjustment for city. We did not find strong evidence of associations with coronary artery calcium. Long-term concentrations of sulfur and OC, and possibly silicon, were associated with CIMT using 2 distinct exposure prediction modeling approaches. PMID:25164422

  16. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  17. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Actual problems of exposure risk assessment of finely dispersed aerosols and aerosols of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sevalnev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study – analysis of the scientific literature on generalization of the data on domestic and foreign experience in risk assessment due to exposure to finely dispersed aerosols and aerosols of nanoparticles (NPs. The article summarizes data of long-term studies on the effect of nanomaterials and nanoparticles on the quality of human habitat and health. The domestic and foreign experience of harm health assessment, safety of new types of nanomaterials for the environment and work-related conditions have been analyzed. There are numerous studies of foreign and domestic scientists on the biological activity of nanoparticles and their effect on experimental animals, namely, on the specificity of their effect on various organs and systems of the body. Classification of nanomaterials, depending on their chemical composition, is presented. Attention is paid to the problems of nanosafety, namely, to the evaluation of nanotoxicity of substances and to the definition of the concept of a “dose” for nanoparticles. The data on the presence of finely dispersed and ultra-fine particles in the atmospheric air, which increase risk of respiratory system diseases among residents of large megacities, is given. There is special importance on assessing work conditions and occupational risks in production and use of materials which contain nanoparticles as well as in production processes with formation of the fine dust and nanoparticles indicated in the article. Due to the lack of a clear system for assessing health risks related to the action of nanoparticles, lack of common criteria of harmfulness and maximum allowable concentrations for most nanoparticles and uniform methods of their control, it is suggested to strictly adhere to protective measures in contact with nanomaterials and active improvement of nanosecurity measures. Conclusions. High toxicity and health hazards of finely dispersed and ultra-fine particles confirm need to control their

  19. INAA for the characterization of airborne particulate matter from the industrial area of Islamabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Daud, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    Air particulate matter (PM) was collected in two size fractions using stacked filter units (SFUs) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) from the industrial area of Islamabad. Nucleopore polycarbonate filters were used for collecting from Oct 98 to Jun 99 the particulate matter in coarse and fine size fractions. The samples were characterized by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). About 33 elements were quantified using different irradiation and counting protocols. (author)

  20. An overview of particulate emissions from residential biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, E. D.; Alves, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Residential biomass burning has been pointed out as one of the largest sources of fine particles in the global troposphere with serious impacts on air quality, climate and human health. Quantitative estimations of the contribution of this source to the atmospheric particulate matter levels are hard to obtain, because emission factors vary greatly with wood type, combustion equipment and operating conditions. Updated information should improve not only regional and global biomass burning emission inventories, but also the input for atmospheric models. In this work, an extensive tabulation of particulate matter emission factors obtained worldwide is presented and critically evaluated. Existing quantifications and the suitability of specific organic markers to assign the input of residential biomass combustion to the ambient carbonaceous aerosol are also discussed. Based on these organic markers or other tracers, estimates of the contribution of this sector to observed particulate levels by receptor models for different regions around the world are compiled. Key areas requiring future research are highlighted and briefly discussed.

  1. Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in China in 2013 using a source-oriented chemical transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihao; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Lin; Wang, Peng; Wu, Li; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Lu, Li; Liu, Xuejun; Liao, Hong; Hu, Jianlin

    2017-12-01

    China has been suffering high levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). Designing effective PM 2.5 control strategies requires information about the contributions of different sources. In this study, a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to quantitatively estimate the contributions of different source sectors to PM 2.5 in China. Emissions of primary PM 2.5 and gas pollutants of SO 2 , NO x , and NH 3 , which are precursors of particulate sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA, major PM 2.5 components in China), from eight source categories (power plants, residential sources, industries, transportation, open burning, sea salt, windblown dust and agriculture) were separately tracked to determine their contributions to PM 2.5 in 2013. Industrial sector is the largest source of SNA in Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing, followed by agriculture and power plants. Residential emissions are also important sources of SNA, especially in winter when severe pollution events often occur. Nationally, the contributions of different source sectors to annual total PM 2.5 from high to low are industries, residential sources, agriculture, power plants, transportation, windblown dust, open burning and sea salt. Provincially, residential sources and industries are the major anthropogenic sources of primary PM 2.5 , while industries, agriculture, power plants and transportation are important for SNA in most provinces. For total PM 2.5 , residential and industrial emissions are the top two sources, with a combined contribution of 40-50% in most provinces. The contributions of power plants and agriculture to total PM 2.5 are about 10%, respectively. Secondary organic aerosol accounts for about 10% of annual PM 2.5 in most provinces, with higher contributions in southern provinces such as Yunnan (26%), Hainan (25%) and Taiwan (21%). Windblown dust is an important source in western provinces such as Xizang (55% of total PM 2.5 ), Qinghai (74%), Xinjiang (59

  2. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  3. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment.

  4. Association between particulate matter 2.5 and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Wu, Shaowen; Zhao, Haiping; Qiu, Hongyan; Fu, Yang; Li, Xingming; He, Yan

    2017-09-01

    The present meta-analysis was carried out to assess the association between exposure to the level of atmospheric particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5; fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and type 2 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science databases to obtain articles according to the responding literature search strategies. Among a total of 279 identified articles, 55 were reviewed in depth, of which 10 articles (11 cohort studies) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only cohort studies that disclosed the association between PM2.5 and type 2 diabetes mellitus or GDM were included in this article. A fixed-effects model was selected if P > 0.1 and I 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes mellitus and GDM). The relative risk was used to estimate the association between PM2.5 and diabetes mellitus. The positive associations between PM2.5 and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus were found in the long-term exposure period (relative risk 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.43), which showed that with every 10-μg/m 3 increase in PM2.5, the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus would increase by 25% in the long-term exposure. Although the significant associations were not identified between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and GDM in the first trimester, the second trimester and the entire pregnancy periods, we could conclude that maternal exposure to PM2.5 in the entire pregnancy period would be more likely to lead to developing GDM (relative risk 1.162, 95% confidence interval 0.806-1.675) than the other two periods. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 would be more likely to lead to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, but more studies would be required to confirm the association between PM2.5 and GDM. It might be a wise to take effective measures to reduce PM2.5 exposure in vulnerable populations, especially for pregnant women. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation

  5. An approach to assess the Particulate Matter exposure for the population living around a cement plant: modelling indoor air and particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Mari, Montse; Kumar, Vikas [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta, E-mail: marta.schuhmacher@urv.cat [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we studied the exposure to three size fractions of outdoor particulate matter (PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, and PM{sub 1}) collected in an area influenced by a cement plant. For that purpose, three groups of population were evaluated (children, adults and retired) in two seasons (summer and winter). Outdoor measured PM concentrations, as well as physiological parameters and activity patterns of the three groups of population were used as input data in two different models. The first one was an indoor air quality model, used to elucidate indoor PM concentrations in different microenvironments. The second one was a dosimetry model, used to evaluate the internal exposure and the distribution of the different PM fractions in the respiratory tract. Results from the indoor air quality model showed that special attention must be paid to the finest particles, since they penetrate indoors in a greater degree. Highest pulmonary doses for the three PM sizes were reported for retired people, being this a result of the high amount of time in outdoor environments exercising lightly. For children, the exposure was mainly influenced by the time they also spend outdoors, but in this case due to heavy intensity activities. It was noticed that deposition of fine particles was more significant in the pulmonary regions of children and retired people in comparison with adults, which has implications in the expected adverse health effects for those vulnerable groups of population. - Highlights: • PM deposition in the respiratory tract was evaluated for three population groups. • Activity patterns and different microenvironments were used in our calculation. • Outdoor activities are the main contributors to PM deposited mass. • Children experienced the highest deposition dose in the pulmonary region. • Retired registered the highest deposited mass in the respiratory tract as a whole.

  6. An approach to assess the Particulate Matter exposure for the population living around a cement plant: modelling indoor air and particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; Mari, Montse; Kumar, Vikas; Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied the exposure to three size fractions of outdoor particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ) collected in an area influenced by a cement plant. For that purpose, three groups of population were evaluated (children, adults and retired) in two seasons (summer and winter). Outdoor measured PM concentrations, as well as physiological parameters and activity patterns of the three groups of population were used as input data in two different models. The first one was an indoor air quality model, used to elucidate indoor PM concentrations in different microenvironments. The second one was a dosimetry model, used to evaluate the internal exposure and the distribution of the different PM fractions in the respiratory tract. Results from the indoor air quality model showed that special attention must be paid to the finest particles, since they penetrate indoors in a greater degree. Highest pulmonary doses for the three PM sizes were reported for retired people, being this a result of the high amount of time in outdoor environments exercising lightly. For children, the exposure was mainly influenced by the time they also spend outdoors, but in this case due to heavy intensity activities. It was noticed that deposition of fine particles was more significant in the pulmonary regions of children and retired people in comparison with adults, which has implications in the expected adverse health effects for those vulnerable groups of population. - Highlights: • PM deposition in the respiratory tract was evaluated for three population groups. • Activity patterns and different microenvironments were used in our calculation. • Outdoor activities are the main contributors to PM deposited mass. • Children experienced the highest deposition dose in the pulmonary region. • Retired registered the highest deposited mass in the respiratory tract as a whole.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  8. Black carbon concentrations in California vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle diesel exhaust particulate matter exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.; Rodes, Charles E.

    This research assessed in-vehicle exposures to black carbon (BC) as an indicator of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures. Approximately 50 h of real-time Aethalometer BC measurements were made inside vehicles driven on freeway and arterial loops in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Video tapes of the driver's view were transcribed to record the traffic conditions, vehicles followed, and vehicle occupant observations, and these results were tested for their associations with BC concentration. In-vehicle BC concentrations were highest when directly following diesel-powered vehicles, particularly those with low exhaust pipe locations. The lowest BC concentrations were observed while following gasoline-powered passenger cars, on average no different than not following any vehicle. Because diesel vehicles were over-sampled in the field study, results were not representative of real-world driving. To calculate representative exposures, in-vehicle BC concentrations were grouped by the type of vehicle followed, for each road type and congestion level. These groupings were then re-sampled stochastically, in proportion to the fraction of statewide vehicle miles traveled (VMT) under each of those conditions. The approximately 6% of time spent following diesel vehicles led to 23% of the in-vehicle BC exposure, while the remaining exposure was due to elevated roadway BC concentrations. In-vehicle BC exposures averaged 6 μg m -3 in Los Angeles and the Bay Area, the regions with the highest congestion and the majority of the state's VMT. The statewide average in-vehicle BC exposure was 4 μg m -3, corresponding to DPM concentrations of 7-23 μg m -3, depending on the Aethalometer response to elemental carbon (EC) and the EC fraction of the DPM. In-vehicle contributions to overall DPM exposures ranged from approximately 30% to 55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide population basis. Thus, although time spent in vehicles was only 1.5 h day -1 on average, vehicles may be the most

  9. Impact of Agricultural Emission Reductions on Fine Particulate Matter and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Tsimpidi, A.; Karydis, V.; De Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2017-12-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, South and East Asia. Hypothetical reduction of agricultural emission of 50%, 66% and 100% have been simulated and compared with the reference simulation. The simulations results reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, and this effect can almost be exclusively explain by the reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions, released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases, although the relative reduction is very low (below 13% for a full removal of agricultural emissions) . Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically and an ammonia limited regions of aerosol growth is reached. Further, our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It is calculated that ammonia emission controls could reduce the particle pH up to 1.5 pH-units in East Asia during winter, and more than 1.7 pH-units in South Asia, theoretically assuming complete agricultural emission removal, which could have repercussions for the reactive uptake of gases from the gas phase and the outgassing of relative weak acids. It is finally shown that a 50% reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30%, 19% , 8% and 3% over North America, Europe and South Asia and East Asia, respectively

  10. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  11. Racial isolation and exposure to airborne particulate matter and ozone in understudied US populations: Environmental justice applications of downscaled numerical model output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bell, Michelle L; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are increasingly focused on combined exposures to social and environmental stressors, especially given how often these stressors tend to co-locate. Such exposures are equally relevant in urban and rural areas and may accrue disproportionately to particular communities or specific subpopulations. To estimate relationships between racial isolation (RI), a measure of the extent to which minority racial/ethnic group members are exposed to only one another, and long-term particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of poverty. RI is associated with higher 5year estimated PM2.5 concentrations in urban, suburban, and rural census tracts, adding to evidence that segregation is broadly associated with disparate air pollution exposures. Disproportionate burdens to adverse exposures such as air pollution may be a pathway to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-19

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM 2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and the risk of respiratory tract diseases, using relevant articles extracted from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. In results, of the 1,126 articles originally identified, 35 (3.1%) were included in this meta-analysis. PM 2.5 was found to be associated with respiratory tract diseases. After subdivision by age group, respiratory tract disease, and continent, PM 2.5 was strongly associated with respiratory tract diseases in children, in persons with cough, lower respiratory illness, and wheezing, and in individuals from North America, Europe, and Asia. The risk of respiratory tract diseases was greater for exposure to traffic-related than non-traffic-related air pollution. In children, the pooled relative risk (RR) represented significant increases in wheezing (8.2%), cough (7.5%), and lower respiratory illness (15.3%). The pooled RRs in children were 1.091 (95%CI: 1.049, 1.135) for exposure to respiratory tract diseases, especially in children exposed to high concentrations of PM 2.5 .

  13. Differential pulmonary and cardiac effects of pulmonary exposure to a panel of particulate matter-associated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenborn, J. Grace; Schladweiler, Mette J.; Richards, Judy H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2009-01-01

    Biological mechanisms underlying the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased cardiovascular health effects are under investigation. Water-soluble metals reaching systemic circulation following pulmonary exposure are likely exerting a direct effect. However, it is unclear whether specific PM-associated metals may be driving this. We hypothesized that exposure to equimolar amounts of five individual PM-associated metals would cause differential pulmonary and cardiac effects. We exposed male WKY rats (14 weeks old) via a single intratracheal instillation (IT) to saline or 1 μmol/kg body weight of zinc, nickel, vanadium, copper, or iron in sulfate form. Responses were analyzed 4, 24, 48, or 96 h after exposure. Pulmonary effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of total cells, macrophages, neutrophils, protein, albumin, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and n-acetyl glucosaminidase. Copper induced earlier pulmonary injury/inflammation, while zinc and nickel produced later effects. Vanadium or iron exposure induced minimal pulmonary injury/inflammation. Zinc, nickel, or copper increased serum cholesterol, red blood cells, and white blood cells at different time points. IT of nickel and copper increased expression of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in the lung. Zinc, nickel, vanadium, and iron increased hepatic MT-1 expression. No significant changes in zinc transporter-1 (ZnT-1) expression were noted in the lung or liver; however, zinc increased cardiac ZnT-1 at 24 h, indicating a possible zinc-specific cardiac effect. Nickel exposure induced an increase in cardiac ferritin 96 h after IT. This data set demonstrating metal-specific cardiotoxicity is important in linking metal-enriched anthropogenic PM sources with adverse health effects.

  14. Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed burning in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed burnings conducted at two pine-dominated forest areas in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed burnings. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed burnings than from fireplace wood and laboratory open burning studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open burning. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the burns using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on average 27 +/- 5% lower.

  15. Characterisation of particulate exposure during fireworks displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Alexandre; Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Fournier, Michel; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona; Mathieu, David; Servranckx, René; D'amours, Réal; Malo, Alain; Brook, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the level and content of exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5) among persons who attend fireworks displays and those who live nearby. An evaluation of the levels of PM 2.5 and their elemental content was carried out during the nine launches of the 2007 Montréal International Fireworks Competition. For each event, a prediction of the location of the firework plume was obtained from the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) of the Meteorological Service of Canada. PM 2.5 was measured continuously with a photometer (Sidepak™, TSI) within the predicted plume location ("predicted sites"), and integrated samples were collected using portable personal samplers. An additional sampler was located on a nearby roof ("fixed site"). The elemental composition of the collected PM 2.5 samples from the "predicted sites" was determined using both a non-destructive energy dispersive ED-XRF method and an ICP-MS method with a near-total microwave-assisted acid digestion. The elemental composition of the "fixed site" samples was determined by the ICP-MS with the near-total digestion method. The highest PM 2.5 levels reached nearly 10 000 μg m -3, roughly 1000 times background levels. Elements such as K, Cl, Al, Mg and Ti were markedly higher in plume-exposed filters. This study shows that 1) persons in the plume and in close proximity to the launch site may be exposed to extremely high levels of PM 2.5 for the duration of the display and, 2) that the plume contains specific elements for which little is known of their acute cardio-respiratory toxicity.

  16. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  17. The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and schizophrenia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-04-23

    Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM 2.5 concentrations and scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) of schizophrenia patients at admission, with a lag of up to 7 days. During the study period, there were 1193 schizophrenia cases. The odds ratio (OR) for a BPRS score ≥ 50 at admission was 1.05 [95% confidence interval 1.00-1.10] and the effect of PM 2.5 concentration was significant for lag period of 2 days. The ORs associated with PM 2.5 concentration increased substantially for patients over 65 years of age. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was associated with exacerbation of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that protection for several days should be considered for controlling PM 2.5 -related schizophrenia, especially among elderly patients.

  18. Aerosol measurement: the use of optical light scattering for the determination of particulate size distribution, and particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Hans; Eatough, Delbert J

    2009-01-01

    The GRIMM model 1.107 monitor is designed to measure particle size distribution and particulate mass based on a light scattering measurement of individual particles in the sampled air. The design and operation of the instrument are described. Protocols used to convert the measured size number distribution to a mass concentration consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocols for measuring particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microm (PM10) and less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter are described. The performance of the resulting continuous monitor has been evaluated by comparing GRIMM monitor PM2.5 measurements with results obtained by the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co. (R&P) filter dynamic measurement system (FDMS). Data were obtained during month-long studies in Rubidoux, CA, in July 2003 and in Fresno, CA, in December 2003. The results indicate that the GRIMM monitor does respond to total PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile components, giving results comparable to the FDMS. The data also indicate that the monitor can be used to estimate water content of the fine particles. However, if the inlet to the monitor is heated, then the instrument measures only the nonvolatile material, more comparable to results obtained with a conventional heated filter tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor. A recent modification of the model 180, with a Nafion dryer at the inlet, measures total PM2.5 including the nonvolatile and semi-volatile components, but excluding fine particulate water. Model 180 was in agreement with FDMS data obtained in Lindon, UT, during January through February 2007.

  19. The Impact of Multipollutant Clusters on the Association Between Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Microvascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Petter L; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Austin, Elena; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R; Koutrakis, Petros; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vita, Joseph A; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Hamburg, Naomi M; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies including the Framingham Heart Study have suggested associations between single components of air pollution and vascular function; however, underlying mixtures of air pollution may have distinct associations with vascular function. We used a k-means approach to construct five distinct pollution mixtures from elemental analyses of particle filters, air pollution monitoring data, and meteorology. Exposure was modeled as an interaction between fine particle mass (PM2.5), and concurrent pollution cluster. Outcome variables were two measures of microvascular function in the fingertip in the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts from 2003 to 2008. In 1,720 participants, associations between PM2.5 and baseline pulse amplitude tonometry differed by air pollution cluster (interaction P value 0.009). Higher PM2.5 on days with low mass concentrations but high proportion of ultrafine particles from traffic was associated with 18% (95% confidence interval: 4.6%, 33%) higher baseline pulse amplitude per 5 μg/m and days with high contributions of oil and wood combustion with 16% (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 34%) higher baseline pulse amplitude. We observed no variation in associations of PM2.5 with hyperemic response to ischemia observed across air pollution clusters. PM2.5 exposure from air pollution mixtures with large contributions of local ultrafine particles from traffic, heating oil, and wood combustion was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude but not hyperemic response. Our findings suggest little association between acute exposure to air pollution clusters reflective of select sources and hyperemic response to ischemia, but possible associations with excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially deleterious microvascular consequences.

  20. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  1. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...

  2. ST Depression, Arrhythmia, Vagal Dominance, and Reduced Cardiac MicroRNA in Particulate-exposed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, investigators demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals and adverse health effects. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a waste product of fossil fuel combustion from boilers, is rich in the transition metals Fe, Ni, and V, and when relea...

  3. Prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations using aerosol optical depth retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Lee, Hyung Joo; Kostinski, Alex; Kotlov, Tanya; Koutrakis, Petros

    2012-09-01

    Although ground-level PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm) monitoring sites provide accurate measurements, their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate location- and/or subject-specific exposures to PM2.5. In this study, the authors apply a mixed-effects model approach to aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to predict PM2.5 concentrations within the New England area of the United States. With this approach, it is possible to control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles, and ground surface reflectance. The model-predicted PM2.5 mass concentration are highly correlated with the actual observations, R2 = 0.92. Therefore, adjustment for the daily variability in AOD-PM2.5 relationship allows obtaining spatially resolved PM2.5 concentration data that can be of great value to future exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. The authors demonstrated how AOD can be used reliably to predict daily PM2.5 mass concentrations, providing determination of their spatial and temporal variability. Promising results are found by adjusting for daily variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, without the need to account for a wide variety of individual additional parameters. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to PM2.5 and their health effects. Higher 4 x 4-km resolution GOES AOD retrievals comparing with the conventional MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 10-km product has the potential to capture PM2.5 variability within the urban domain.

  4. Climate Change and Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, sixteen percent of children lived in counties exceeding the annual fine particulate matter standard. Exposure to higher levels of ambient particulate matter and ozone may increase school absences and hospital admissions due to respiratory illness.

  5. Hazard identification of particulate matter on vasomotor dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lone; Vesterdal, Lise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    and inflammatory pathways. We have assessed the effect of exposure to particulate matter on progression of atherosclerosis and vasomotor function in humans, animals, and ex vivo experimental systems. The type of particles that have been tested in these systems encompass TiO(2), carbon black, fullerene C(60...... of particulate matter....

  6. Validity of a traffic air pollutant dispersion model to assess exposure to fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, Aude; Reungoat, Patrice; Raherison, Chantal

    2009-08-01

    Fine particles (PM(2.5)) are an important component of air pollution. Epidemiological studies have shown health effects due to ambient air particles, particularly allergies in children. Since the main difficulty is to determine exposure to such pollution, traffic air pollutant (TAP) dispersions models have been developed to improve the estimation of individual exposure levels. One such model, the ExTra index, has been validated for nitrogen oxide concentrations but not for other pollutants. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the ExTra index to assess PM(2.5) exposure. We compared PM(2.5) concentrations calculated by the ExTra index to reference measures (passive samplers situated under the covered part of the playground), in 15 schools in Bordeaux, in 2000. First, we collected the input data required by the ExTra index: background and local pollution depending on traffic, meteorology and topography. Second, the ExTra index was calculated for each school. Statistical analysis consisted of a graphic description; then, we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient. Concentrations calculated with the ExTra index and the reference method were similar. The ExTra index underestimated exposure by 2.2 microg m(-3) on average compared to the reference method. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.85 and its 95% confidence interval was [0.62; 0.95]. The results suggest that the ExTra index provides an assessment of PM(2.5) exposure similar to that of the reference method. Although caution is required in interpreting these results owing to the small number of sites, the ExTra index could be a useful epidemiological tool for reconstructing individual exposure, an important challenge in epidemiology.

  7. Exposure of miners to diesel exhaust particulates in underground nonmetal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H J; Borak, J; Hall, T; Sirianni, G; Chemerynski, S

    2002-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine worker exposures in seven underground nonmetal mines and to examine the precision of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5040 sampling and analytical method for diesel exhaust that has recently been adopted for compliance monitoring by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Approximately 1000 air samples using cyclones were taken on workers and in areas throughout the mines. Results indicated that worker exposures were consistently above the MSHA final limit of 160 micrograms/m3 (time-weighted average; TWA) for total carbon as determined by the NIOSH 5040 method and greater than the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLV limit of 20 micrograms/m3 (TWA) for elemental carbon. A number of difficulties were documented when sampling for diesel exhaust using organic carbon: high and variable blank values from filters, a high variability (+/- 20%) from duplicate punches from the same sampling filter, a consistent positive interference (+26%) when open-faced monitors were sampled side-by-side with cyclones, poor correlation (r 2 = 0.38) to elemental carbon levels, and an interference from limestone that could not be adequately corrected by acid-washing of filters. The sampling and analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was approximately 11% for elemental carbon, 17% for organic carbon, and 11% for total carbon. An hypothesis is presented and supported with data that gaseous organic carbon constituents of diesel exhaust adsorb onto not only the submicron elemental carbon particles found in diesel exhaust, but also mining ore dusts. Such mining dusts are mostly nonrespirable and should not be considered equivalent to submicron diesel particulates in their potential for adverse pulmonary effects. It is recommended that size-selective sampling be employed, rather than open-faced monitoring, when using the NIOSH 5040 method.

  8. An evaluation of a pre-charging pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control. Project quarterly report, December 1, 1989--February 28, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this test program is the performance and economic evaluation of a pre charged-pulse jet filter as the principal particulate control device for a commercial or industrial scale coal fired combustor. Performance factors that will be considered are the effects of particle charge, air/cloth ratio, fabric types, percent humidity and inlet particulate loading on fine particle collection efficiency, and pressure drop. Economic factors that will be considered are capital costs, energy and other operating costs, and maintenance costs. The program will result in a recommendation regarding the relative suitability of the pre charged pulse-jet filter for small combustor particulate control, as compared to other control devices. Fine particle control capability, ease of operation, and overall economics will be taken into consideration in making comparisons.

  9. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in situ measurements during short intensive and longer-term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE chemistry transport models. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions constituted less than 20 % in winter and 40 % in summer of carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly small for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e., from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only being partially responsible for its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  10. In-situ, satellite measurement and model evidence for a~dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-03-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns and from additional one year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in-situ measurements during short intensive and longer term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only controlling part of its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  11. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM 10 ) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM 10 . New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM 10 /saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM 10 exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM 10 impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM 10 increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM 10 . Taken together, statins protect against PM 10 -induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM 10 ) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal macrophages, lipid accumulation, and

  12. Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjie; Han, In-Kyu; Hu, Min; Shao, Min; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that DNA oxidative damage be related to the chemical constituents of ambient particles. The purpose of this study was to examine whether particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinone-structure chemicals increase body burden of oxidative stress in human exposed to heavy traffic volume. We recruited two nonsmoking security guards who worked at a university campus gate near a heavily trafficked road. Each subject wore a personal air sampler for 24h per day to estimate exposures to 24 PAHs and anthraquinone (AnQ) in PM(2.5). Daily pre- and post-work shift spot urines were collected for 29d from each subject. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Additionally, using 19 organic tracers other than 24 PAHs and AnQ, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM: gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, cooking, natural gas and biomass burning. The relationship among urinary 8-OHdG, individual PAH, and AnQ was demonstrated as follows: the average urinary concentration of 8-OHdG was increased more than three times after 8-h work-shift than those before the work shift. All the 24 PAH and AnQ levels were positively and significantly associated with the post-work urinary 8-OHdG. The results from source apportionment suggest vehicular emission to be the dominant source of personal exposure to PM(2.5). Our finding indicates that personal air exposures to 24 individual PAHs and AnQ originating from traffic emissions are important in increasing oxidative burdens in human body. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The fine particle emissions of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlstroem, M.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this master's thesis was to define the fine particle (PM2.5, diameter under 2,5 μm) emissions of the energy production and to compare the calculated emission factors between different energy production concepts. The purpose was also to define what is known about fine particle emissions and what should still be studied/measured. The purpose was also to compare briefly the fine particle emissions of energy production and vehicle traffic, and their correlations to the fine particle concentrations of urban air. In the theory part of this work a literature survey was made about fine particles in energy production, especially how they form and how they are separated from the flue gas. In addition, the health effects caused by fine particles, and different measuring instruments were presented briefly. In the experimental part of this work, the aim was to find out the fine particle emissions of different energy production processes by calculating specific emission factors (mg/MJ fuel ) from powerplants' annual total particulate matter emissions (t/a), which were obtained from VAHTI-database system maintained by the Finnish Environmental Institute, and by evaluating the share of fine particles from total emissions with the help of existing measurement results. Only those energy production processes which produce significantly direct emissions of solid particles have been treated (pulverised combustion and oil burners from burner combustion, fluidized bed combustion processes, grate boilers, recovery boilers and diesel engines). The processes have been classified according to boiler type, size category, main fuel and also according to dust separation devices. To be able to compare different energy production processes, shared specific emission factor have been calculated for the similar subprocesses. The fine particle emissions depend strongest on the boiler size category and dust separation devices used. Spent fuel or combustion technique does not have

  14. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media