WorldWideScience

Sample records for fine geological modelling

  1. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)

    1997-08-01

    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  2. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  3. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  4. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  5. Application of 3D Fine Geologic Modeling to the Construction of the Underground Natural Gas Storage%三维精细地质建模技术在储气库建设中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史军

    2011-01-01

    The capacity,effectively working gas volume and peak shaving capability of the underground natural gas storage are the important index in the design of underground natural gas storage,in which the capacity is the basis of other important index of underground natural gas storage and an important factor to design engineer.The calculation of capacity of underground natural gas storage is very critical,which plays an important role not only in the construction of underground natural gas storage,but also in the upstream natural gas development and downstream natural gas demand.In the study of underground natural gas storage of ES3 gas reservoir of Yong 21 block in Shengli oil field,based on the comprehensive analysis of drilling,seismic and logging data,the 3D fine geological model and the calculation of capacity are established with the 3D visual function module and integrated exploratory development module in Petrel software,which supplies a very firm base for the comprehensive evaluation of Yong 21 underground natural gas storage.%在综合分析钻井、地震、测井等资料的基础上,利用Petrel软件的三维可视化和勘探开发一体化功能模块,建立接近油藏实际地质特征的全三维精细地质模型,并进行库容量计算。

  6. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.

    2005-12-01

    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  7. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    indicating a high energy deposition environment. The geological model indicates more accentuate vertical lithological heterogeneity than a horizontal one as well as a decrease of the Colentina Formation thickness. (3) Intermediary deposits represented by silty-clay with fine sand intercalation indicating a mixed regime with limited lakes and dry lands. (4) Mostistea Formation made of sediments with a variety of grain size, from fine sand to coarse sand with small intercalations of gravels and scrap of woods. It was found that areas where the Intermediary deposits are less developed making the Colentina Formation in direct connection to Mostistea Formation. (5) Marly Complex composed by a succession of marls and clays with lenticular sandy intercalations indicating a fluvial-lacustrine environment. (6) Fratesti Strata made of sand and gravel which includes A, B and C Fratesti levels.

  8. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  9. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a functio...

  10. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  11. Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.

  12. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  13. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  14. 复杂断块油藏精细地质建模研究--以大65断块为例%Study on the Fine Geological Model of Complex Fault-Block Reservior:A Case Study of Da 65 Fault-Block for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 刘太勋; 王凯; 牛海瑞

    2016-01-01

    At present the accurate and quantitative characterization of fault-block reservoir is difficulty and research hotspot for reservoir geological modeling.Da 65 fault-block in DaWang Bei oilfield have the characteristics of complex reservoir structural, strong heterogeneity, large difference of block development effect.Based on the date from geological, well logging interpretation,core analysis,well drilling data,the seismic interpretation and so on,Da 65 fault-block fine structure mode was established according to the point-surface-body modeling steps.The sand body model was researched using the method of bounding surface restriction and deterministic modeling.And on this basis single well facies data of well log interpretation were used to construct the sedimentary microfacies mode using deterministic algorithm.Finally under the constraint of sedimentary microfacies,the reservoir parameter model was established by stochastic modeling technique.The fine 3D geological model of complex fault-block reservoir complete the quantitative characterization of structure and attributes,provide a reliable basis for accurate evaluation of the reservoir properties and potential,and also provide geological basis for later adjustment of reservoir development scheme.%针对大王北油田大65断块油藏构造复杂、非均质性强、不同断块开发效果差异大等特点,以地质、测井解释、岩心分析、钻井、地震解释等各方面资料为基础,首先按照点-面-体的建模步骤建立大65断块精细构造模型;通过界面约束法确定性建模方法建立砂体模型;在此基础上,以测井解释单井相数据为基准,采用确定性算法构建了沉积微相模型;并以相控随机建模技术为指导,建立了储层参数模型。大65断块复杂断块油藏精细三维地质模型的建立,实现构造和属性的空间定量表征,为准确评价储层性质及潜能提供了可靠依据,也为后期油藏开发方

  15. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology......, and the geologist’s job is to combine these sources of information with his or her own knowledge about lithology and geological structures and develop geological models. Large and data-rich geophysical surveys make this job extremely difficult. With a manual interpretation approach it is extremely time demanding...... and practically impossible to develop geological models that are consistent with all available data in an objective fashion. This thesis addresses these issues, and presents new methodologies and workflows, which are developed to assist the geologists in their work on developing plausible and reliable geological...

  16. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology......, and the geologist’s job is to combine these sources of information with his or her own knowledge about lithology and geological structures and develop geological models. Large and data-rich geophysical surveys make this job extremely difficult. With a manual interpretation approach it is extremely time demanding...... models. The work is manifested in two main directions. One direction focuses on how to fast and reliably be able to map geological boundary layers that uses all available geophysical data, treat all data consistently and at the same time treasure geological knowledge. For this purpose a methodology...

  17. Application of new geological modeling technology in secondary development in Daqing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. L.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, H. K.; Liu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The reconfiguration on underground geology system is one of the key techniques for secondary development in Daqing oil field. The geological modeling is the unique method to characterize new knowledge system of reservoir. The development history of maturing field is long. The structure of maturing field is complex and the distribution of oil remaining is highly scattered. The difficulty of adjustment and potential tapping is great. In viewing of demand for secondary development, the strategies and methods of geological modeling are proposed. According to the characteristics that many faults crosscut each other, the clue of fractional simulation—key horizon controlling—overall structural modeling is carried out to accurately and effectively build fine structural models. In order to approximate the real microfacies simulation effect, microfacies modeling technology of multiple iterations and geology tendency under vertical and lateral geology tendency constraint is used. And the attribute models could approximate the real parametric distribution. Moreover, in viewing of the key and potential reservoir sand, the countermeasure on configuration modeling by different stochastic simulation methods and step simulation is proposed to rapidly build geologic models. The geologic models are scientific and feasible. The above-mentioned countermeasures and methods have been used in secondary development of Daqing oilfield and the effect was well. This new technology presents directive sense.

  18. Critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposit, and skeletal elastic storage arrays of the SUB package of the Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the SUB package arrays for the model grid, critical head, thickness of fine-grained deposits, and skeletal-elastic-storage used in the...

  19. Climate model uncertainty vs. conceptual geological uncertainty in hydrological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Sonnenborg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Projections of climate change impact are associated with a cascade of uncertainties including CO2 emission scenario, climate model, downscaling and impact model. The relative importance of the individual uncertainty sources is expected to depend on several factors including the quantity that is projected. In the present study the impacts of climate model uncertainty and geological model uncertainty on hydraulic head, stream flow, travel time and capture zones are evaluated. Six versions of a physically based and distributed hydrological model, each containing a unique interpretation of the geological structure of the model area, are forced by 11 climate model projections. Each projection of future climate is a result of a GCM-RCM model combination (from the ENSEMBLES project forced by the same CO2 scenario (A1B. The changes from the reference period (1991–2010 to the future period (2081–2100 in projected hydrological variables are evaluated and the effects of geological model and climate model uncertainties are quantified. The results show that uncertainty propagation is context dependent. While the geological conceptualization is the dominating uncertainty source for projection of travel time and capture zones, the uncertainty on the climate models is more important for groundwater hydraulic heads and stream flow.

  20. Effects of the strategies of geological modelling and simulation on scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Gypsy formation in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used in a study in which three different geological models were developed using different criteria related to reducing the number of layers needed to represent a reservoir in reservoir simulation. To develop a lithofacies model, initial identification of lithofacies layers is needed. One approach in reducing the number of grid blocks needed in simulation study is to combine thinner layers represented by scaled petrophysical properties. The geological models in this study were based on channel identifiers, lithofacies and flow units. The strategies of geological modelling have a significant impact on scale-up. The use of lithofacies as a criterion provided the closes match to fine scale-results. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs.

  1. Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology: Microstructure of Fine-Grained Sediments from Mud to Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Sediment in Response to Periodic D eposition ............................................... 417 Charles Libicki and Keith W Bedford 46 Elasticity of Fine...Division, Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5004, USA CHARLES LIBICKI. Department of Civil Engineering, The...depositional waters" (Curtis, 1985, pp. 91-92). Diagencsi, of mineral phases and cementation operate over a Dunoyer De Segonzac (1970) pointed out that

  2. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  3. Modeling geologic history with balanced paleogeographic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, C.A.; Hay, W.W.

    1987-05-01

    Using the principles of uniformitarianism, mass balance, and sedimentary cycling, an erosion-sedimentation-tectonic model has been developed to produce paleogeographic maps to describe the geologic history of the northwest Gulf of Mexico and the Western Interior source areas. The initial inputs are (1) boundaries of the sedimentary system (source and sink); (2) present-day average elevation of 1/sup 0/ squares within the boundaries; and (3) a stratigraphic column for each 1/sup 0/ square. Paleotopography is calculated by an iterative process involving replacement of sediment to the source area and calculation of erosion and uplift rates. The maps are considered properly balanced when erosion of the predicted paleotopography over a given time interval yields the correct sediment volumes in the right places. As far back as the latest Cretaceous, the paleogeography predicted by the model is remarkably close to that suggested by other studies even though no external information on tectonics is supplied. For paleogeographies older than Campanian, input on tectonics outside the boundaries is required to generate realistic maps. The balanced paleogeographic maps are a new tool useful for exploring many aspects of basin development, including thermal history.

  4. On three-dimensional geological modeling and visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qiang; XU; Hua

    2004-01-01

    The technology of 3D geological modeling will bring about great changes in the methods of geological data acquiring, storing, processing and displaying. However, no perfect or convenient software systems have been developed up to now since the geologic data which reflect geological entities bear the feature of diversity, uncertainty and complexity. Some supervoxel models, mathematical models of fault and geometrical models of fold have been contrived so as to show the space geometric configuration of the complicated geologic structures.The application-oriented system architecture for 3D geological modeling is established; and a novel design concept based on spatial data processing is also proposed with the technology of solid modeling as its core and the application of models as its objective. Theories and methods for 3D geological modeling will hopefully be enriched and developed. In the light of these theories and methods, a feature-based navigation visualization technique is also put forward in the paper.By integrating geo-database, graphics libraries and KBS with 3D dynamic simulation systems,geologists will be able to capture the partial characteristics and whole structure embodied in the geological data in a direct-viewing, figurative and accurate manner.

  5. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Meulendijk, van der Michiel J.; Erp, van Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12 geologi

  6. Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma

    2014-05-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough

  7. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    We present the first 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence obtained from nonlinear force-free field simulations, with a detailed description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Through the use of a novel radiative transfer visualization technique for the Hα line such plasma-loaded magnetic field model produces synthetic images of the modeled prominence comparable with high-resolution observations. This allows us for the first time to use a single technique to consistently study, in both emission on the limb and absorption against the solar disk, the fine structures of prominences/filaments produced by a magnetic field model.

  8. Modeling the Geologic History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, A.; Allen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gale is an approximately 155 km diameter crater located on the martian dichotomy boundary (5 deg S 138 deg E). Gale is estimated to have formed 3.8 - 3.5 Gya, in the late Noachian or early Hesperian. Mt. Sharp, at the center of Gale Crater, is a crescent shaped sedimentary mound that rises 5.2 km above the crater floor. Gale is one of the few craters that has a peak reaching higher than the rim of the crater wall. The Curiosity rover is currently fighting to find its way across a dune field at the northwest base of the mound searching for evidence of habitability. This study used orbital images and topographic data to refine models for the geologic history of Mt. Sharp by analyzing its morphological features. In addition, it assessed the possibility of a peak ring in Gale. The presence of a peak ring can offer important information to how Mt. Sharp was formed and eroded early in Gale's history.

  9. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  10. Reservoir Stochastic Modeling Constrained by Quantitative Geological Conceptual Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of geologic constraints on reservoir stochastic modeling. By using the system science theory, two kinds of uncertainties, including random uncertainty and fuzzy uncertainty, are recognized. In order to improve the precision of stochastic modeling and reduce the uncertainty in realization, the fuzzy uncertainty should be stressed, and the "geological genesis-controlled modeling" is conducted under the guidance of a quantitative geological pattern. An example of the Pingqiao horizontal-well division of the Ansai Oilfield in the Ordos Basin is taken to expound the method of stochastic modeling.

  11. Geologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfman, S. E.; Howard, J. H.; Vonderhaar, S. P.

    1982-09-01

    One of the tasks under the Mexican-American cooperative agreement is the comprehensive geologic study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Using logs from over seventy deep wells as the basic source of information on the subsurface geology, a working model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is developed.

  12. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  13. Fine Tuning in Quintessence Models with Exponential Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, R; Jr., Urbano Lopes Franca; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2002-01-01

    We show that there still are reasonable regions of the parameter space of the simple exponential potential model for quintessence that are allowed by observational constraints. We find that the level of fine tuning that is required in this model is not too stringent.

  14. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Castro; Marcelo Eduardo Echegaray; Rosa Ana Rodríguez; Stella Maris Udaquiola

    2010-01-01

    Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was ...

  15. Statistical modelling of fine red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Castro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing wine is a very important economic activity in the province of San Juan in Argentina; it is therefore most important to predict production regarding the quantity of raw material needed. This work was aimed at obtaining a model relating kilograms of crushed grape to the litres of wine so produced. Such model will be used for predicting precise future values and confidence intervals for determined quantities of crushed grapes. Data from a vineyard in the province of San Juan was thus used in this work. The sampling coefficient of correlation was calculated and a dispersion diagram was then constructed; this indicated a li- neal relationship between the litres of wine obtained and the kilograms of crushed grape. Two lineal models were then adopted and variance analysis was carried out because the data came from normal populations having the same variance. The most appropriate model was obtained from this analysis; it was validated with experimental values, a good approach being obtained.

  16. Modeling downstream fining in sand-bed rivers. II: Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S.; Parker, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the model presented in the companion paper, Wright and Parker (2005) is applied to a generic river reach typical of a large, sand-bed river flowing into the ocean in order to investigate the mechanisms controlling longitudinal profile development and downstream fining. Three mechanisms which drive downstream fining are studied: a delta prograding into standing water, sea-level rise, and tectonic subsidence. Various rates of sea-level rise (typical of the late Holocene) and tectonic subsidence are modeled in order to quantify their effects on the degree of profile concavity and downstream fining. Also, several other physical mechanisms which may affect fining are studied, including the relative importance of the suspended versus bed load, the effect of the loss of sediment overbank, and the influence of the delta bottom slope. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to show that the grain-size distribution at the interface between the active layer and substrate has a significant effect on downstream fining. ?? 2005 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research.

  17. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  18. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Morel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed and will be implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  19. Two grid iteration with a conjugate gradient fine grid smoother applied to a groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, M.J.; Spence, A.; Cliffe, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    This talk is concerned with the efficient solution of Ax=b, where A is a large, sparse, symmetric positive definite matrix arising from a standard finite element discretisation of the groundwater flow problem {triangledown}{sm_bullet}(k{triangledown}p)=0. Here k is the coefficient of rock permeability in applications and is highly discontinuous. The discretisation is carried out using the Harwell NAMMU finite element package, using, for 2D, 9 node biquadratic rectangular elements, and 27 node biquadratics for 3D. The aim is to develop a robust technique for iterative solutions of 3D problems based on a regional groundwater flow model of a geological area with sharply varying hydrogeological properties. Numerical experiments with polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient methods on a 2D groundwater flow model were found to yield very poor results, converging very slowly. In order to utilise the fact that A comes from the discretisation of a PDE the authors try the two grid method as is well analysed from studies of multigrid methods, see for example {open_quotes}Multi-Grid Methods and Applications{close_quotes} by W. Hackbusch. Specifically they consider two discretisations resulting in stiffness matrices A{sub N} and A{sub n}, of size N and n respectively, where N > n, for both a model problem and the geological model. They perform a number of conjugate gradient steps on the fine grid, ie using A{sub N}, followed by an exact coarse grid solve, using A{sub n}, and then update the fine grid solution, the exact coarse grid solve being done using a frontal method factorisation of A{sub n}. Note that in the context of the standard two grid method this is equivalent to using conjugate gradients as a fine grid smoothing step. Experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the two grid iteration method over the polynomial preconditioned conjugate gradient method.

  20. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  1. Scale Problems in Geometric-Kinematic Modelling of Geological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siehl, Agemar; Thomsen, Andreas

    To reveal, to render and to handle complex geological objects and their history of structural development, appropriate geometric models have to be designed. Geological maps, sections, sketches of strain and stress patterns are such well-known analogous two-dimensional models. Normally, the set of observations and measurements supporting them is small in relation to the complexity of the real objects they derive from. Therefore, modelling needs guidance by additional expert knowledge to bridge empty spaces which are not supported by data. Generating digital models of geological objects has some substantial advantages compared to conventional methods, especially if they are supported by an efficient database management system. Consistent 3D models of some complexity can be created, and experiments with time-dependent geological geometries may help to restore coherent sequences of paleogeological states. In order to cope with the problems arising from the combined usage of 3D-geometry models of different scale and resolution within an information system on subsurface geology, geometrical objects need to be annotated with information on the context, within which the geometry model has been established and within which it is valid, and methods supporting storage and retrieval as well as manipulation of geometry at different scales must also take into account and handle such context information to achieve meaningful results. An example is given of a detailed structural study of an open pit lignite mine in the Lower Rhine Basin.

  2. Fine tuning in the standard model and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Andianov, A A

    1996-01-01

    The fine-tuning principles are examined to predict the top-quark and Higgs-boson masses. The modification of the Veltman condition based on the compensation of vacuum energies is developed. It is implemented in the Standard Model and in its minimal extension with two Higgs doublets and Left-Right symmetric Model. The top-quark and Higgs-boson couplings are fitted in the SM for the lowest ultraviolet scale where the fine-tuning can be stable under rescaling. It yields the low-energy values m_t \\simeq 175 GeV;\\quad m_H \\simeq 210 GeV. For the Two-Higgs and Left-Right Symmetric Models the fine-tuning principles yield the interval for top-quark mass, compatible with the modern experimental data. For the Left-Right Model the FT principles demand the existence of the right-handed Majorana neitrinos with masses of order of right-handed gauge bosons.

  3. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  4. Historical developments in marine geology and some aspects of fine-grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 29 Historical developments in Marine Geology and some aspects of fine- grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal Fan V. Purnachandra Rao National Institute of Oceanography.... The Andhra University, Waltair made pioneering investigations on the eastern continental margin of India in the early 1950s. However, the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE: 1961-1965) is an important landmark in the history of development...

  5. 3D Geologic Model of the Southern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, J. L.; Myers, S. C.

    2006-12-01

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5° to -112.6°, latitude 34.5° to 39.8°, and a depth from the surface to 150 km below sea level. Hence, the model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by geologic and geophysical studies, and the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 8 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas we scanned and hand digitized geologic maps for California and Utah. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and constrain the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m resolution DEM elsewhere. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface-wave studies. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used the Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) software to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is an integer index representing the geologic unit. For regional seismic simulations we convert this realistic geologic model into elastic parameters. Upper crustal units are treated as seismically homogeneous

  6. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  7. Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.

  8. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  9. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  10. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  11. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  12. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show th

  13. Designing and implementing a geologic information system using a spatiotemporal ontology model for a geologic map of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaehong; Nam, Kwang Woo; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2012-11-01

    A geologic information system was utilized for geologic mapping in Korea using a spatiotemporal ontology model. Five steps were required to make the GIS representation of the geologic map information. The first step was to limit the geologic mapping to Korean area. The second step was to extract the rock units with spatial objects from the geologic map and the geologic time units with temporal objects. The third step was to standardize the geologic terms in Korean and English for both the spatial and temporal objects. The fourth step was to conceptualize the classified objects in the geologic map units and the formation of guidelines for the specification of a spatiotemporal ontology model. Finally, we constructed a spatiotemporal retrieval system and an ontology system related to the geologic map of Korea, which were applied to the spatiotemporal ontology model. The spatiotemporal ontology model was defined as a sophisticated model that provides for the evolution from a data base to a knowledge base. This ontology model can be conceptualized as a well-defined set of terms used for expressing spatial objects in rock units and temporal objects in geologic time units, as well as a system of contents and structures. In addition, it includes symbology units such as color and pattern symbols mapped one-to-one with the spatiotemporal concepts. The existing information retrieval services provide information that is limited to the user's knowledge, whereas our geologic ontology system provides a broad range of information in graphical form, including locations and interrelationships. In this way, the information can be upgraded to the level of knowledge. A geologic term tree was designed, based on the existing classification schemes, with the goal of creating an accessible internet source.

  14. Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

  15. Methodology of High Accuracy and Resolution 3D Geological Model Generation and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴键; 曹代勇; 邓爱居; 李东津; 蒋涛; 翟光华

    2004-01-01

    By generating a high accuracy and high resolution geological model in Liuchu oil field, the technique of geological modeling is expanded and involved in primary geological study, making the sand bodies and reservoir be easily described in detail. The 3D visualization and 3D interactive editing of geological structure model are the key for modeling procedure. And a high accuracy and resolution geological model has been well applied in optimizing the production scheme.

  16. Fine-structure constant constraints on Bekenstein-type models

    CERN Document Server

    Leal, P M M; Ventura, L B

    2014-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of dimensionless fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$, are an area of much increased recent activity, following some indications of possible spacetime variations at the few parts per million level. Here we obtain updated constraints on the Bekenstein-Sandvik-Barrow-Magueijo model, which is arguably the simplest model allowing for $\\alpha$ variations. Recent accurate spectroscopic measurements allow us to improve previous constraints by about an order of magnitude. We briefly comment on the dependence of the results on the data sample, as well as on the improvements expected from future facilities.

  17. Engineering models of high speed penetration into geological shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dor, Gabi; Dubinsky, Anatoly; Elperin, Tov

    2014-03-01

    The survey is dedicated to approximate empirical and analytical models which were suggested for describing high-speed penetration into geological shields. This review differs from the previously published reviews on this topic in the following respects: (i) includes a large number of models; (ii) describes models suggested during recent years; (iii) much attention is given to models which have been originally published in Russian and are not well known in the West. References list includes 81 items.

  18. Geological modelling of mineral deposits for prediction in mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, E. J.

    Accurate prediction of the shape, location, size and properties of the solid rock materials to be extracted during mining is essential for reliable technical and financial planning. This is achieved through geological modelling of the three-dimensional (3D) shape and properties of the materials present in mineral deposits, and the presentation of results in a form which is accessible to mine planning engineers. In recent years the application of interactive graphics software, offering 3D database handling, modelling and visualisation, has greatly enhanced the options available for predicting the subsurface limits and characteristics of mineral deposits. A review of conventional 3D geological interpretation methods, and the model struc- tures and modelling methods used in reserve estimation and mine planning software packages, illustrates the importance of such approaches in the modern mining industry. Despite the widespread introduction and acceptance of computer hardware and software in mining applications, in recent years, there has been little fundamental change in the way in which geology is used in orebody modelling for predictive purposes. Selected areas of current research, aimed at tackling issues such as the use of orientation data, quantification of morphological differences, incorporation of geological age relationships, multi-resolution models and the application of virtual reality hardware and software, are discussed.

  19. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  20. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  1. Assessment of a geological model by surface wave analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, R.; Capizzi, P.; Avellone, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Siragusa, R.; Luzio, D.

    2017-02-01

    A set of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) measurements, carried out in the Altavilla Milicia (Sicily) area, is analyzed to test a geological model of the area. Statistical techniques have been used in different stages of the data analysis, to optimize the reliability of the information extracted from geophysical measurements. In particular, cluster analysis algorithms have been implemented to select the time windows of the microseismic signal to be used for calculating the spectral ratio H/V and to identify sets of spectral ratio peaks likely caused by the same underground structures. Using results of reflection seismic lines, typical values of P-wave and S-wave velocity were estimated for each geological formation present in the area. These were used to narrow down the research space of parameters for the HVSR interpretation. MASW profiles have been carried out close to each HVSR measuring point, provided the parameters of the shallower layers for the HVSR models. MASW inversion has been constrained by extrapolating thicknesses from a known stratigraphic sequence. Preliminary 1D seismic models were obtained by adding deeper layers to models that resulted from MASW inversion. These justify the peaks of the HVSR curves due to layers deeper than MASW investigation depth. Furthermore, much deeper layers were included in the HVSR model, as suggested by geological setting and stratigraphic sequence. This choice was made considering that these latter layers do not generate other HVSR peaks and do not significantly affect the misfit. The starting models have been used to limit the starting research space for a more accurate interpretation, made considering the noise as a superposition of Rayleigh and Love waves. Results allowed to recognize four main seismic layers and to associate them to the main stratigraphic successions. The lateral correlation of seismic velocity models, joined with tectonic evidences

  2. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  3. A Partial Differential Inequality in Geological Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert EYMARD; Thierry GALLOU(E)T

    2007-01-01

    Sedimentation and erosion processes in sedimentary basins can be modeled by a parabolic equation with a limiter on the fluxes and a constraint on the time variation. This limiter happens to satisfy a stationary scalar hyperbolic inequality, within a constraint, for which the authors prove the existence and the uniqueness of the solution. Actually, this solution is shown to be the maximal element of a convenient convex set of functions. The existence proof is obtained thanks to the use of a numerical scheme.

  4. The South Atlantic in the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Stevens

    Full Text Available The geographical area covered by the Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM includes that part of the South Atlantic south of 24°S. A description of the dynamics and thermodynamics of this region of the model is presented. Both the mean and eddy fields in the model are in good agreement with reality, although the magnitude of the transients is somewhat reduced. The heat flux is northward and in broad agreement with many other estimates. Agulhas eddies are formed by the model and propagate westward into the Atlantic providing a mechanism for fluxing heat from the Indian Ocean. The confluence of the Brazil and Falkland currents produces a strong front and a large amount of mesoscale activity. In the less stratified regions to the south, topographic steering of the Antarctic circumpolar current is important.

  5. Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.

  6. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.P. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release.

  7. Genetic approach to reconstruct complex regional geological setting of the Baltic basin in 3D geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovs, K.; Saks, T.; Ukass, J.; Jatnieks, J.

    2012-04-01

    Interpretation of geological structures in 3D geological models is a relatively new research topic that is already standardized in many geological branches. Due to its wide practical application, these models are indispensable and become one of the dominant interpretation methods in reducing geological uncertainties in many geology fields. Traditionally, geological concepts complement quantitative as much as qualitative data to obtain a model deemed acceptable, however, available data very often is insufficient and modeling methods primarily focus on spatial data but geological history usually is mostly neglected for the modeling of large sedimentary basins. A need to better integrate the long and often complex geological history and geological knowledge into modeling procedure is very acute to gain geological insight and improve the quality of geological models. During this research, 3D geological model of the Baltic basin (BB) was created. Because of its complex regional geological setting - wide range of the data sources with multiple scales, resolution and density as well as its various source formats, the study area provides a challenge for the 3D geological modeling. In order to create 3D regional geometrical model for the study area algorithmic genetic approach for model geometry reconstruction was applied. The genetic approach is based on the assumption that post-depositional deformation produce no significant change in sedimentary strata volume, assuming that the strata thickness and its length in a cross sectional plane remains unchanged except as a result of erosion. Assuming that the tectonic deformation occurred in sequential cycles and subsequent tectonic stage strata is separated by regional unconformity as is the case of the BB, there is an opportunity for algorithmic approach in reconstructing these conditions by sequentially reconstructing the layer original thickness. Layer thicknesses were sliced along fault lines, where applicable layer

  8. Age constraints and fine tuning in VAMP models

    CERN Document Server

    Franca, U; Franca, Urbano; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2004-01-01

    VAMP (VAriable-Mass Particles) scenarios, in which the mass of the cold dark matter particles is a function of the scalar field responsible for the present acceleration of the universe, have been proposed as a solution to the cosmic coincidence problem, since in the attractor regime both dark energy and dark matter scale in the same way. We have calculated the age of the universe for an ensemble of models in this scenario obtaining $t_0 = 15.2^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$ Gyr, which is in poor agreement with the recent results obtained by the WMAP satellite. We show that observational constraints, particularly the age of the universe, require a strong fine tuning in the model. We conclude that VAMP models have difficulties to simultaneously account for the observed age of the universe and the current value of the dark energy equation of state.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of fine sediment models using heterogeneous data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, A. M. Yousif; Bhattacharya, B.; El Serafy, G. Y.; van Kessel, T.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    Sediments play an important role in many aquatic systems. Their transportation and deposition has significant implication on morphology, navigability and water quality. Understanding the dynamics of sediment transportation in time and space is therefore important in drawing interventions and making management decisions. This research is related to the fine sediment dynamics in the Dutch coastal zone, which is subject to human interference through constructions, fishing, navigation, sand mining, etc. These activities do affect the natural flow of sediments and sometimes lead to environmental concerns or affect the siltation rates in harbours and fairways. Numerical models are widely used in studying fine sediment processes. Accuracy of numerical models depends upon the estimation of model parameters through calibration. Studying the model uncertainty related to these parameters is important in improving the spatio-temporal prediction of suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations, and determining the limits of their accuracy. This research deals with the analysis of a 3D numerical model of North Sea covering the Dutch coast using the Delft3D modelling tool (developed at Deltares, The Netherlands). The methodology in this research was divided into three main phases. The first phase focused on analysing the performance of the numerical model in simulating SPM concentrations near the Dutch coast by comparing the model predictions with SPM concentrations estimated from NASA's MODIS sensors at different time scales. The second phase focused on carrying out a sensitivity analysis of model parameters. Four model parameters were identified for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis: the sedimentation velocity, the critical shear stress above which re-suspension occurs, the shields shear stress for re-suspension pick-up, and the re-suspension pick-up factor. By adopting different values of these parameters the numerical model was run and a comparison between the

  10. Fine Tuning in the Holographic Minimal Composite Higgs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Archer, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    In the minimal composite Higgs model (MCHM), the size of the Higgs mass and vacuum expectation value is determined, via the Higgs potential, by the size of operators that violate the global SO(5) symmetry. In 5D holographic realisations of this model, this translates into the inclusion of brane localised operators. However, the inclusion of all such operators results in a large and under-constrained parameter space. In this paper we study the level of fine-tuning involved in such a parameter space, focusing on the MCHM${}_5$. It is demonstrated that the gauge contribution to the Higgs potential can be suppressed by brane localised kinetic terms, but this is correlated with an enhancement to the S parameter. The fermion contribution, on the other hand, can be enhanced or suppressed. However this does not significantly improve the level of fine tunings, since the Higgs squared term, in the potential, requires a cancellation between the fermion and gauge contributions. Although we focus on the MCHM${}_5$, the fe...

  11. Component-based Topological Data Model for Three-dimensional Geology Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Enke; WU Lixin; WU Yuhua; JU Tianyi

    2005-01-01

    On the study of the basic characteristics of geological objects and the special requirement for computing 3D geological model, this paper gives an object-oriented 3D topologic data model.In this model, the geological objects are divided into four object classes: point, line, area and volume.The volume class is further divided into four subclasses: the composite volume, the complex volume, the simple volume and the component.Twelve kinds of topological relations and the related data structures are designed for the geological objects.

  12. Improved storage efficiency through geologic modeling and reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Covatch, G.L.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through partnerships with industry, is demonstrating the importance of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. The geologic modeling and reservoir simulation study for the Natural Fuel Gas Supply Corporation CRADA was completed in September 1995. The results of this study were presented at the 1995 Society of Petroleum Engineers` (SPE) Eastern Regional Meeting. Although there has been no field verification of the modeling results, the study has shown the potential advantages and cost savings opportunities of using horizontal wells for storage enhancement. The geologic modeling for the Equitrans` CRADA was completed in September 1995 and was also presented at the 1995 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. The reservoir modeling of past field performance was completed in November 1996 and prediction runs are currently being made to investigate the potential of offering either a 10 day or 30 day peaking service in addition to the existing 110 day base load service. Initial results have shown that peaking services can be provided through remediation of well damage and by drilling either several new vertical wells or one new horizontal well. The geologic modeling for the Northern Indiana Public Service Company CRADA was completed in November 1996 with a horizontal well being completed in January 1997. Based on well test results, the well will significantly enhance gas deliverability from the field and will allow the utilization of gas from an area of the storage field that was not accessible from their existing vertical wells. Results are presented from these three case studies.

  13. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-dimensional spatial and 1-dimensional temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological "deep time" analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep

  14. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-D spatial and 1-D temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological deep time analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep-time spatio

  15. 3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua

    2016-04-01

    We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and

  16. An Approach to Computer Modeling of Geological Faults in 3D and an Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Liang-feng; HE Zheng; PAN Xin; WU Xin-cai

    2006-01-01

    3D geological modeling, one of the most important applications in geosciences of 3D GIS, forms the basis and is a prerequisite for visualized representation and analysis of 3D geological data. Computer modeling of geological faults in 3D is currently a topical research area. Structural modeling techniques of complex geological entities containing reverse faults are discussed and a series of approaches are proposed. The geological concepts involved in computer modeling and visualization of geological fault in 3D are explained, the type of data of geological faults based on geological exploration is analyzed, and a normative database format for geological faults is designed. Two kinds of modeling approaches for faults are compared: a modeling technique of faults based on stratum recovery and a modeling technique of faults based on interpolation in subareas. A novel approach, called the Unified Modeling Technique for stratum and fault, is presented to solve the puzzling problems of reverse faults, syn-sedimentary faults and faults terminated within geological models. A case study of a fault model of bed rock in the Beijing Olympic Green District is presented in order to show the practical result of this method. The principle and the process of computer modeling of geological faults in 3D are discussed and a series of applied technical proposals established. It strengthens our profound comprehension of geological phenomena and the modeling approach, and establishes the basic techniques of 3D geological modeling for practical applications in the field of geosciences.

  17. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2017-03-29

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  18. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  19. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to interp

  20. Integrating Geophysics, Geology, and Hydrology for Enhanced Hydrogeological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical measurements are important for providing information on the geological structure to hydrological models. Regional scale surveys, where several watersheds are mapped at the same time using helicopter borne transient electromagnetic, results in a geophysical model with a very high lateral and vertical resolution of the geological layers. However, there is a bottleneck when it comes to integrating the information from the geophysical models into the hydrological model. This transformation is difficult, because there is not a simple relationship between the hydraulic conductivity needed for the hydrological model and the electrical conductivity measured by the geophysics. In 2012 the Danish Council for Strategic Research has funded a large research project focusing on the problem of integrating geophysical models into hydrological models. The project involves a number of Danish research institutions, consulting companies, a water supply company, as well as foreign partners, USGS (USA), TNO (Holland) and CSIRO (Australia). In the project we will: 1. Use statistical methods to describe the spatial correlation between the geophysical and the lithological/hydrological data; 2. Develop semi-automatic or automatic methods for transforming spatially sampled geophysical data into geological- and/or groundwater-model parameter fields; 3. Develop an inversion method for large-scale geophysical surveys in which the model space is concordant with the hydrological model space 4. Demonstrate the benefits of spatially distributed geophysical data for informing and updating groundwater models and increasing the predictive power of management scenarios. 5. Develop a new receiver system for Magnetic Resonance Sounding data and further enhance the resolution capability of data from the SkyTEM system. 6. In test areas in Denmark, Holland, USA and Australia we will use data from existing airborne geophysical data, hydrological and geological data and also collect new airborne

  1. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  3. Leverage and Delegation in Developing an Information Model for Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is an information model and XML encoding developed by a group of primarily geologic survey organizations under the auspices of the IUGS CGI. The scope of the core model broadly corresponds with information traditionally portrayed on a geologic map, viz. interpreted geology, some observations, the map legend and accompanying memoir. The development of GeoSciML has followed the methodology specified for an Application Schema defined by OGC and ISO 19100 series standards. This requires agreement within a community concerning their domain model, its formal representation using UML, documentation as a Feature Type Catalogue, with an XML Schema implementation generated from the model by applying a rule-based transformation. The framework and technology supports a modular governance process. Standard datatypes and GI components (geometry, the feature and coverage metamodels, metadata) are imported from the ISO framework. The observation and sampling model (including boreholes) is imported from OGC. The scale used for most scalar literal values (terms, codes, measures) allows for localization where necessary. Wildcards and abstract base- classes provide explicit extensibility points. Link attributes appear in a regular way in the encodings, allowing reference to external resources using URIs. The encoding is compatible with generic GI data-service interfaces (WFS, WMS, SOS). For maximum interoperability within a community, the interfaces may be specialised through domain-specified constraints (e.g. feature-types, scale and vocabulary bindings, query-models). Formalization using UML and XML allows use of standard validation and processing tools. Use of upper-level elements defined for generic GI application reduces the development effort and governance resonsibility, while maximising cross-domain interoperability. On the other hand, enabling specialization to be delegated in a controlled manner is essential to adoption across a range of subdisciplines and

  4. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  5. Framework system and research flow of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in 3D geological structure models has become a bottleneck that restricts the development and application of 3D geological modeling.In order to solve this problem during periods of accuracy assessment,error detection and dynamic correction in 3D geological structure models,we have reviewed the current situation and development trends in 3D geological modeling.The main context of uncertainty in 3D geological structure models is discussed.Major research issues and a general framework system of unce...

  6. Blending geological observations and convection models to reconstruct mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Bocher, Marie; Fournier, Alexandre; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the state of the Earth mantle and its temporal evolution is fundamental to a variety of disciplines in Earth Sciences, from the internal dynamics to its many expressions in the geological record (postglacial rebound, sea level change, ore deposit, tectonics or geomagnetic reversals). Mantle convection theory is the centerpiece to unravel the present and past state of the mantle. For the past 40 years considerable efforts have been made to improve the quality of numerical models of mantle convection. However, they are still sparsely used to estimate the convective history of the solid Earth, in comparison to ocean or atmospheric models for weather and climate prediction. The main shortcoming is their inability to successfully produce Earth-like seafloor spreading and continental drift self-consistently. Recent convection models have begun to successfully predict these processes. Such breakthrough opens the opportunity to retrieve the recent dynamics of the Earth's mantle by blending convection models together with advanced geological datasets. A proof of concept will be presented, consisting in a synthetic test based on a sequential data assimilation methodology.

  7. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  8. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  9. Development of a permanent geological environment model of Kazan city aimed to solve various engineering-geological problems (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, N.; Latypov, A.; Shevelev, A.; Khuzin, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article discusses the composition, structure and operation principles of a digital geological environment model for the urban area located in the valley of a large lowland river (the Volga). The model is implemented in ESRI (ArcView and ArcGis) and MapInfo software environments. The basis of the model is the data on the composition and physical and mechanical properties of soils, the information about ground waters and industrial loads. The model has been used to conduct zoning of soil conditions, groundwater aggressivity to the materials of underground structures. Also, the areas of existing and possible exogenous geological processes (flooding, karst, suffusion, erosion, landslides) have been identified. According to the model, it is offered to evaluate the stability of geological environment to human impact using typification on the soil conditions based on the pre-zoning of water content and the degree of drainage. A new monitoring system of dangerous exogenous geological processes has been developed, the impact of exogenous processes on the residential buildings has been estimated, and, also, the analysis and evaluation of geological risks have been performed. According to the data on the composition, density and water saturation of soils, the stability of the ground bases to a dynamic impact has been estimated.

  10. Analytical performance models for geologic repositories. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Fujita, A.; Kanki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Lung, H.; Ting, D.; Sato, Y.; Zavoshy, S.J.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents analytical solutions of the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides in geologic repositories. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the equations resulting from these analyses. The subjects treated in this report are: solubility-limited transport with transverse dispersion (chapter 2); transport of a radionuclide chain with nonequilibrium chemical reactions (chapter 3); advective transport in a two-dimensional flow field (chapter 4); radionuclide transport in fractured media (chapter 5); a mathematical model for EPA's analysis of generic repositories (chapter 6); and dissolution of radionuclides from solid waste (chapter 7). Volume 2 contains chapters 5, 6, and 7.

  11. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  12. Study on conglutination model for fine moist material during screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惜明; 邓凡政; 赵跃民; 朱红; 高庆宇

    2002-01-01

    All coal preparation in which fine coal is handled depends to some extent on the wettability of coal surface by water. The content of external water in fine moist material plays significant role on screening. This article probed into the causations why fine moist materials adhere to the screen deck on common vibrator in the process of screening. Although the wetting that results from interactions between the coal surface and water molecules that are determined by the composition of coal matrix (interrelated with coal rank) and heterogeneous constituents such as oxygen function groups, mineral impurities and pores have something to do with adhering, we found that the effect of wettability is not the key causation to agglomeration, in other words, water bridges among particles are the key causation to the fine moist materials adhesion. This paper also shows how the capillary adhesive forces forms and how to calculate and measure these forces.

  13. Mathematical models of thermal and chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C.-H.

    1985-12-01

    Semi-analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate thermal and chemical transport processes in geologic media. The work is divided into two parts: (1) development of semi-analytical models for the analysis of uncoupled isothermal and nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media, and (2) development of a high resolution numerical code to address coupled nonisothermal chemical transport in geologic media. A semi-analytical model is developed for well test data analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs. A simple approximate analytical solution for pressure buildup and drawdown tests is developed. Methods based on the approximate solution are developed for the evaluation of important reservoir properties. Type curves for nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media are developed to design injection systems for maximum energy in hydrothermal systems. An accurate finite difference method for the solution of a convection-diffusion type equation is developed. The method is incorporated in a two-dimensional code to investigate free convection in a porous slab and kinetic silica-water reactions in geothermal systems. A multicomponent model considering the variations of pressure, temperature and silica concentration is developed to interpret the evolution of geothermal systems during exploitation.

  14. A methodology for 3D modeling and visualization of geological objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Geological body structure is the product of the geological evolution in the time dimension, which is presented in 3D configuration in the natural world. However, many geologists still record and process their geological data using the 2D or 1D pattern, which results in the loss of a large quantity of spatial data. One of the reasons is that the current methods have limitations on how to express underground geological objects. To analyze and interpret geological models, we present a layer data model to organize different kinds of geological datasets. The data model implemented the unification expression and storage of geological data and geometric models. In addition, it is a method for visualizing large-scaled geological datasets through building multi-resolution geological models rapidly, which can meet the demand of the operation, analysis, and interpretation of 3D geological objects. It proves that our methodology is competent for 3D modeling and self-adaptive visualization of large geological objects and it is a good way to solve the problem of integration and share of geological spatial data.

  15. Towards Automatic and Topologically Consistent 3D Regional Geological Modeling from Boundaries and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data. This method could also be used in other fields of study, including mining geology and urban geotechnical investigations.

  16. A methodology for 3D modeling and visualization of geological objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG LiQiang; TAN YuMin; KANG ZhiZhong; RUI XiaoPing; ZHAO YuanYuan; LIU Liu

    2009-01-01

    Geological body structure is the product of the geological evolution in the time dimension, which is presented in 3D configuration in the natural world. However, many geologists still record and process their geological data using the 2D or 1D pattern, which results in the loss of a large quantity of spatial data. One of the reasons is that the current methods have limitations on how to express underground geological objects. To analyze and interpret geological models, we present a layer data model to or- ganize different kinds of geological datasets. The data model implemented the unification expression and storage of geological data and geometric models. In addition, it is a method for visualizing large-scaled geological datasets through building multi-resolution geological models rapidly, which can meet the demand of the operation, analysis, and interpretation of 3D geological objects. It proves that our methodology is competent for 3D modeling and self-adaptive visualization of large geological objects and It is a good way to solve the problem of integration and share of geological spatial data.

  17. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  18. Multiphase modeling of geologic carbon sequestration in saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A; Birkholzer, Jens T; Cihan, Abdullah; Leister, Evan C

    2015-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is being considered as a climate change mitigation option in many future energy scenarios. Mathematical modeling is routinely used to predict subsurface CO2 and resident brine migration for the design of injection operations, to demonstrate the permanence of CO2 storage, and to show that other subsurface resources will not be degraded. Many processes impact the migration of CO2 and brine, including multiphase flow dynamics, geochemistry, and geomechanics, along with the spatial distribution of parameters such as porosity and permeability. In this article, we review a set of multiphase modeling approaches with different levels of conceptual complexity that have been used to model GCS. Model complexity ranges from coupled multiprocess models to simplified vertical equilibrium (VE) models and macroscopic invasion percolation models. The goal of this article is to give a framework of conceptual model complexity, and to show the types of modeling approaches that have been used to address specific GCS questions. Application of the modeling approaches is shown using five ongoing or proposed CO2 injection sites. For the selected sites, the majority of GCS models follow a simplified multiphase approach, especially for questions related to injection and local-scale heterogeneity. Coupled multiprocess models are only applied in one case where geomechanics have a strong impact on the flow. Owing to their computational efficiency, VE models tend to be applied at large scales. A macroscopic invasion percolation approach was used to predict the CO2 migration at one site to examine details of CO2 migration under the caprock.

  19. Facilitating Fine Grained Data Provenance using Temporal Data Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, M.R.; Wombacher, Andreas; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2010-01-01

    E-science applications use fine grained data provenance to maintain the reproducibility of scientific results, i.e., for each processed data tuple, the source data used to process the tuple as well as the used approach is documented. Since most of the e-science applications perform on-line

  20. A review of the quantification and communication of uncertainty associated with geological framework models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Digital Geological Framework Models show geology in three dimensions, they can most easily be thought of as 3D geological maps. The volume of the model is divided into distinct geological units using a suitable rock classification in the same way that geological maps are. Like geological maps the models are generic and many are intended to be fit for any geoscience purpose. Over the last decade many Geological Survey Organisations (GSO's) worldwide have begun to communicate their geological understanding of the subsurface through Geological Framework Models and themed derivatives, and the traditional printed geological map has been increasingly phased out. Building Geological Framework Models entails the assembly of all the known geospatial information into a single workspace for interpretation. The calculated models are commonly displayed as either a stack of geological surfaces or boundaries (unit tops, bases, unconformities) or as solid calculated blocks of 3D geology with the unit volumes infilled in with colour or symbols. The studied volume however must be completely populated so decisions on the subsurface distribution of units must be made even where considerable uncertainty exists There is naturally uncertainty associated with any Geological Framework Model and this is composed of two main components; the uncertainty in the geospatial data used to constrain the model, and the uncertainty related to the model construction, this includes factors such as choice of modeller(s), choice of software(s), and modelling workflow. Uncertainty is the inverse of confidence, reliability or certainty, other closely related terms include risk commonly used in preference to uncertainty where financial or safety matters are presented and probability used as a statistical measure of uncertainty. We can consider uncertainty in geological framework models to be of two main types: Uncertainty in the geospatial data used to constrain the model; this differs with the distinct

  1. Regional Integrated Meteorological Forecasting and Warning Model for Geological Hazards Based on Logistic Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; YANG Chi; ZHANG Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Information model is adopted to integrate factors of various geosciences to estimate the susceptibility of geological hazards. Further combining the dynamic rainfall observations, Logistic regression is used for modeling the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences, upon which hierarchical warnings for rainfall-induced geological hazards are produced. The forecasting and warning model takes numerical precipitation forecasts on grid points as its dynamic input, forecasts the probabilities of geological hazard occurrences on the same grid, and translates the results into likelihoods in the form of a 5-level hierarchy. Validation of the model with observational data for the year 2004 shows that 80% of the geological hazards of the year have been identified as "likely enough to release warning messages". The model can satisfy the requirements of an operational warning system, thus is an effective way to improve the meteorological warnings for geological hazards.

  2. Usage of ensemble geothermal models to consider geological uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Steiner, Sarah; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The usage of geothermal energy for instance by borehole heat exchangers (BHE) is a promising concept for a sustainable supply of heat for buildings. BHE are closed pipe systems, in which a fluid is circulating. Heat from the surrounding rocks is transferred to the fluid purely by conduction. The fluid carries the heat to the surface, where it can be utilized. Larger arrays of BHE require typically previous numerical models. Motivations are the design of the system (number and depth of the required BHE) but also regulatory reasons. Especially such regulatory operating permissions often require maximum realistic models. Although such realistic models are possible in many cases with today's codes and computer resources, they are often expensive in terms of time and effort. A particular problem is the knowledge about the accuracy of the achieved results. An issue, which is often neglected while dealing with highly complex models, is the quantification of parameter uncertainties as a consequence of the natural heterogeneity of the geological subsurface. Experience has shown, that these heterogeneities can lead to wrong forecasts. But also variations in the technical realization and especially of the operational parameters (which are mainly a consequence of the regional climate) can lead to strong variations in the simulation results. Instead of one very detailed single forecast model, it should be considered, to model numerous more simple models. By varying parameters, the presumed subsurface uncertainties, but also the uncertainties in the presumed operational parameters can be reflected. Finally not only one single result should be reported, but instead the range of possible solutions and their respective probabilities. In meteorology such an approach is well known as ensemble-modeling. The concept is demonstrated at a real world data set and discussed.

  3. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  4. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  5. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, O.; Martin, T. [Service de Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium). Faculte Polytechnique de Mons

    2008-03-15

    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geoloigical context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations.

  6. Measurements and models of reactive transport in geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Hansen, Scott K.; Scher, Harvey

    2016-12-01

    Reactive chemical transport plays a key role in geological media across scales, from pore scale to aquifer scale. Systems can be altered by changes in solution chemistry and a wide variety of chemical transformations, including precipitation/dissolution reactions that cause feedbacks that directly affect the flow and transport regime. The combination of these processes with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport in heterogeneous media leads to a rich spectrum of complex dynamics. The principal challenge in modeling reactive transport is to account for the subtle effects of fluctuations in the flow field and species concentrations; spatial or temporal averaging generally suppresses these effects. Moreover, it is critical to ground model conceptualizations and test model outputs against laboratory experiments and field measurements. This review emphasizes the integration of these aspects, considering carefully designed and controlled experiments at both laboratory and field scales, in the context of development and solution of reactive transport models based on continuum-scale and particle tracking approaches. We first discuss laboratory experiments and field measurements that define the scope of the phenomena and provide data for model comparison. We continue by surveying models involving advection-dispersion-reaction equation and continuous time random walk formulations. The integration of measurements and models is then examined, considering a series of case studies in different frameworks. We delineate the underlying assumptions, and strengths and weaknesses, of these analyses, and the role of probabilistic effects. We also show the key importance of quantifying the spreading and mixing of reactive species, recognizing the role of small-scale physical and chemical fluctuations that control the initiation of reactions.

  7. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  8. Emergent Models for Teaching Geology and Geophysics Using Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.

    2008-12-01

    A significant limitation of Google Earth is that, whereas maps draped over the terrain may be made semi- transparent, the terrain itself is always opaque. It is not possible to see into the earth's interior - a region of particular interest to geologists and geophysicists. Furthermore, learning difficulties undoubtedly result for students because internal features of the Earth are not visible to them. At Fall AGU 2007, we showed how blocks of the earth's sub-surface could be made to emerge from the Google Earth terrain model so as to reveal crustal cross sections using either hand-drawn sketches or real data from geoseismic transects. We have refined these models to include surface topography on the tops of blocks and have produced a set of emergent cross sections representing various tectonic settings, including divergent and convergent margins, deep mantle plumes, and paleo-tectonic reconstructions. Comparing our models with typical sketches from textbooks reveals large disparities between cartoon representations of plate tectonics and real geometries from present plate configurations. Key discrepancies include substantial vertical exaggeration in cartoon models and mostly non-orthogonal collisional plate boundaries in the real world. These differences likely hinder understanding and lead to persistent misconceptions for students. With the support of the NSF CCLI program, we plan to recruit a cohort of instructors at 2- and 4-year colleges to participate in workshops in which sub-surface sketchup models will be generated in hands-on demonstrations. Participants will test the effectiveness of emergent models as learning objects in real classroom settings and compare the relative merits of Google Earth illustrations based on spatially-accurate research data versus cartoon representations of geological structures.

  9. 3D subsurface geological modeling using GIS, remote sensing, and boreholes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, Katerina; Konstantopoulou, Maria; Kyriou, Aggeliki; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Depountis, Nikolaos

    2016-08-01

    The current paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes and the 1:5000 engineering geological maps were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. The study is located at the North part of Peloponnese along the new national road.

  10. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  11. Doubly stochastic Poisson process models for precipitation at fine time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nadarajah I.; Onof, Christian; Xie, Dichao

    2012-09-01

    This paper considers a class of stochastic point process models, based on doubly stochastic Poisson processes, in the modelling of rainfall. We examine the application of this class of models, a neglected alternative to the widely-known Poisson cluster models, in the analysis of fine time-scale rainfall intensity. These models are mainly used to analyse tipping-bucket raingauge data from a single site but an extension to multiple sites is illustrated which reveals the potential of this class of models to study the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation at fine time-scales.

  12. Oil cracking to gases: Kinetic modeling and geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui; WANG Zhaoming; XIAO Zhongyao; LI Xianqing; XIAO Xianming

    2006-01-01

    ATriassic oil sample from LN14 of Tarim Basin was pyrolyzed using the sealed gold tubes at 200-620℃ under a constant pressure of 50 MPa.The gaseous and residual soluble hydrocarbons were analyzed. The results show that the cracking of oil to gas can be divided into two distinct stages: the primary generation of total C1-5 gases from liquid oil characterized by the dominance of C2-5 hydrocarbons and the secondary or further cracking of C2-5gases to methane and carbon-rich matters leading to the progressive dryness of gases. Based on the experimental data, the kinetic parameters were determined for the primary generation and secondary cracking of oil cracking gases and extrapolated to geological conditions to predict the thermal stability and cracking extent of crude oil. Finally, an evolution model for the thermal destruction of crude oil was proposed and its implications to the migration and accumulation of oil cracking gases were discussed.

  13. Estimation of Geologic Storage Capacity of Carbon Dioxide in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea Using Integrated Three-Dimensional Geologic Formation Modeling and Thermo-Hydrological Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic

  14. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091383 Cui Yiwen(First Geology and Mineral Resources Prospecting Team of Qinghai Province,Ping’an 810600,China);Zhang Liling Quaternary Three-Dimensional Model of Geological Structures of Changchun City(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22 -1099/P,27(2),2008,p.125-130,10 illus.,4 tables,14 refs.,with English abstract)

  16. Review of strategies for handling geological uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Steen; Sonnenborg, Torben O.;

    2012-01-01

    The geologically related uncertainty in groundwater modeling originates from two main sources: geological structures and hydraulic parameter values within these structures. Within a geological structural element the parameter values will always exhibit local scale heterogeneity, which can...... be accounted for, but is often neglected, in assessments of prediction uncertainties. Strategies for assessing prediction uncertainty due to geologically related uncertainty may be divided into three main categories, accounting for uncertainty due to: (a) the geological structure; (b) effective model...... parameters; and (c) model parameters including local scale heterogeneity. The most common methodologies for uncertainty assessments within each of these categories, such as multiple modeling, Monte Carlo analysis, regression analysis and moment equation approach, are briefly described with emphasis...

  17. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines (vol 34, pg 278, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, O.; Martin, T. [Service de Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geological context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations. This is a correction from the paper in the March 2008 issue (volume 34, part 3, pages 278-290).

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  19. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  20. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...... estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums...

  1. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. [AEGIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes.

  2. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  3. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  4. 3D subsurface modelling reveals the shallow geology of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, J.; Bakker, M.A.W.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Dambrink, R.M.; Harting, R.

    2015-01-01

    Amsterdam is situated on the coastal-deltaic plain of the western Netherlands. Its geographical position brought the city prosperity, but also created huge challenges associated with heterogeneous and often adverse ground conditions. This paper explores the geology of Amsterdam to a depth of c. 100

  5. Wire frame: A reliable approach to build sealed engineering geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nengxiong; Tian, Hong

    2009-08-01

    The technique of 3D geological modeling (3DGM) is an effective tool for representing complex geological objects. In order to improve the accuracy of geological models applied in numerical simulation methods such as finite elements and finite differences, we can use 3DGM as a modeling tool. To do this, however, 3DGM must provide the ability to model geological and artificial objects in a unified way, and its geological model must be seamless for mesh generation. We present the concept of a sealed engineering geological model (SEGM), and describe its topological representation. Three kinds of conditions: geometric continuity, topological consistency and geological consistency, which must be satisfied by SEGM, are discussed in detail. A new method for constructing an SEGM based on a wire frame is proposed. It includes three main components: wire frame construction, interface modification and reconstruction, and block tracing. Building a unitary wire frame, which is composed of many simple arcs and connects all interfaces seamlessly, is the key of this method. An algorithm, involving two intersections computations and partition of simple arcs, is proposed for building a wire frame. Additionally, we also propose a local iterative algorithm for computing fault traces. As an example, we build an SEGM for the dam area of a hydraulic engineering project in the HuNan province of China.

  6. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  7. Microbial and Organic Fine Particle Transport Dynamics in Streams - a Combined Experimental and Stochastic Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jen; Davies-Colley, Rob; Stott, Rebecca; Sukias, James; Nagels, John; Sharp, Alice; Packman, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    Transport dynamics of microbial cells and organic fine particles are important to stream ecology and biogeochemistry. Cells and particles continuously deposit and resuspend during downstream transport owing to a variety of processes including gravitational settling, interactions with in-stream structures or biofilms at the sediment-water interface, and hyporheic exchange and filtration within underlying sediments. Deposited cells and particles are also resuspended following increases in streamflow. Fine particle retention influences biogeochemical processing of substrates and nutrients (C, N, P), while remobilization of pathogenic microbes during flood events presents a hazard to downstream uses such as water supplies and recreation. We are conducting studies to gain insights into the dynamics of fine particles and microbes in streams, with a campaign of experiments and modeling. The results improve understanding of fine sediment transport, carbon cycling, nutrient spiraling, and microbial hazards in streams. We developed a stochastic model to describe the transport and retention of fine particles and microbes in rivers that accounts for hyporheic exchange and transport through porewaters, reversible filtration within the streambed, and microbial inactivation in the water column and subsurface. This model framework is an advance over previous work in that it incorporates detailed transport and retention processes that are amenable to measurement. Solute, particle, and microbial transport were observed both locally within sediment and at the whole-stream scale. A multi-tracer whole-stream injection experiment compared the transport and retention of a conservative solute, fluorescent fine particles, and the fecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli. Retention occurred within both the underlying sediment bed and stands of submerged macrophytes. The results demonstrate that the combination of local measurements, whole-stream tracer experiments, and advanced modeling

  8. Modeling fine-scale geological heterogeneity-examples of sand lenses in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Comunian, Alessandro; Oriani, Fabio;

    2013-01-01

    Sand lenses at various spatial scales are recognized to add heterogeneity to glacial sediments. They have high hydraulic conductivities relative to the surrounding till matrix and may affect the advective transport of water and contaminants in clayey till settings. Sand lenses were investigated o...

  9. Internal model control of a fast steering mirror for electro-optical fine tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop advanced control methods to improve the bandwidth and tracking precision of the electro-optical fine tracking system using a fast steering mirror (FSM). FSM is the most important part in this control system. The model of FSM is established at the beginning of this paper. Compared with the electro-optical fine tracking system with ground based platform, the electro-optical fine tracking system with movement based platform must be a wide bandwidth and a robustness system. An advanced control method based on internal model control law is developed for electro-optical fine tracking system. The IMC is an advanced algorithm. Theoretically, it can eliminate disturbance completely and make sure output equals to input even there is model error. Moreover, it separates process to the system dynamic characteristic and the object perturbation. Compared with the PID controller, the controller is simpler and the parameter regulation is more convenient and the system is more robust. In addition, we design an improved structure based on classic IMC. The tracking error of the two-port control system is much better than which of the classic IMC. The simulation results indicate that the electro-optical control system based on the internal model control algorithm is very effective. It shows a better performance at the tracing precision and the disturbance suppresses. Thus a new method is provided for the high-performance electro-optical fine tracking system.

  10. Integration of geology and reservoir engineering to produce reservoir simulation model at Cabin Creek Field, Cedar Creek Anticline, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterson, R.; DiMarco, M.J.; Sodersten, S.S. [Shell Western E& P Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Because of its mature stage of development, a key aspect of continued economic development of the Cedar Creek Anticline (CCA), Montana (STOOIP > 2 billion barrels with over 360 MMstb produced) is the Identification of remaining pods of high S{sub o} within the original field boundaries. Present economic conditions make it essential to select drillsites with high probabilities of success and high prognoses flow rates in these remaking high S. area. Integration of a well-constrained geologic model and reservoir simulation pinpointed remaining pods of oil in a 3-m thick, subvertically fractured, dolomitic limestone reservoir of the Carboniferous Mission Canyon Formation in the Cabin Creek Field of the CCA This resulted in a successful high-flow-rate horizontal well (initial rate >800 BOPD) whose oil production was accurately predicted by a 3-D reservoir simulation. The model has 53,750 gridblocks each of which Is 60 by 60 m. The effect of the natural-fracture network was constrained with the k{sub v}/k{sub h} (vertical to horizontal permeability ratio). The simulation covered a 40-yr. production period. Gross production was Input as a constraint; oil and water rates were matched. Adjustments to absolute permeability, aquifer volume and relative water permeability were required to obtain a match between observed and simulated production rates. The model was fine tuned by matching the production of individual wells in areas with a high remaining S{sub o}. This project demonstrated that (1) interplay of geology and reservoir engineering provided a better reservoir model than could have been done individually, (2) simulation work identified horizontal drilling and recompletion candidates, with one successful horizontal well completed to date, and (3) use of the reservoir simulator for field-scale modeling In conjunction with a well-refined geologic synthesis can successfully pinpoint undeveloped reserves at CCA.

  11. Integration of geology and reservoir engineering to produce reservoir simulation model at Cabin Creek Field, Cedar Creek Anticline, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterson, R.; DiMarco, M.J.; Sodersten, S.S. (Shell Western E P Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Because of its mature stage of development, a key aspect of continued economic development of the Cedar Creek Anticline (CCA), Montana (STOOIP > 2 billion barrels with over 360 MMstb produced) is the Identification of remaining pods of high S[sub o] within the original field boundaries. Present economic conditions make it essential to select drillsites with high probabilities of success and high prognoses flow rates in these remaking high S. area. Integration of a well-constrained geologic model and reservoir simulation pinpointed remaining pods of oil in a 3-m thick, subvertically fractured, dolomitic limestone reservoir of the Carboniferous Mission Canyon Formation in the Cabin Creek Field of the CCA This resulted in a successful high-flow-rate horizontal well (initial rate >800 BOPD) whose oil production was accurately predicted by a 3-D reservoir simulation. The model has 53,750 gridblocks each of which Is 60 by 60 m. The effect of the natural-fracture network was constrained with the k[sub v]/k[sub h] (vertical to horizontal permeability ratio). The simulation covered a 40-yr. production period. Gross production was Input as a constraint; oil and water rates were matched. Adjustments to absolute permeability, aquifer volume and relative water permeability were required to obtain a match between observed and simulated production rates. The model was fine tuned by matching the production of individual wells in areas with a high remaining S[sub o]. This project demonstrated that (1) interplay of geology and reservoir engineering provided a better reservoir model than could have been done individually, (2) simulation work identified horizontal drilling and recompletion candidates, with one successful horizontal well completed to date, and (3) use of the reservoir simulator for field-scale modeling In conjunction with a well-refined geologic synthesis can successfully pinpoint undeveloped reserves at CCA.

  12. Fine-Grained Energy Modeling for the Source Code of a Mobile Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an energy model for source code is to lay a foundation for the application of energy-aware programming techniques. State of the art solutions are based on source-line energy information. In this paper, we present an approach to constructing a fine-grained energy model which is able...

  13. A MODEL FOR FINE PARTICLE AGGLOMERATION IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED ABSORBERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for fine particle agglomeration in circulating fluidized bed absorbers (CFBAS) has been developed. It can model the influence of different factors on agglomeration, such as the geometry of CFBAs, superficial gas velocity, initial particle size distribution, and type of ag...

  14. Saturation Concentrations of Suspended Fine Sediment: Computations with the Prandtl Mixing-Length Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1998-01-01

    Adopting a 1DV numerical model including the standard k-eps turbulence model, Winterwerp et al. (1999) calculated a saturation concentration for an initially uniform distribution of fine sediment concentration in steady flow. At concentrations exceeding the saturation concentration the concentration

  15. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  16. Rasterizing geological models for parallel finite difference simulation using seismic simulation as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Björn; Hellwig, Olaf; Linke, Maik; Görz, Ines; Buske, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    3D geological underground models are often presented by vector data, such as triangulated networks representing boundaries of geological bodies and geological structures. Since models are to be used for numerical simulations based on the finite difference method, they have to be converted into a representation discretizing the full volume of the model into hexahedral cells. Often the simulations require a high grid resolution and are done using parallel computing. The storage of such a high-resolution raster model would require a large amount of storage space and it is difficult to create such a model using the standard geomodelling packages. Since the raster representation is only required for the calculation, but not for the geometry description, we present an algorithm and concept for rasterizing geological models on the fly for the use in finite difference codes that are parallelized by domain decomposition. As a proof of concept we implemented a rasterizer library and integrated it into seismic simulation software that is run as parallel code on a UNIX cluster using the Message Passing Interface. We can thus run the simulation with realistic and complicated surface-based geological models that are created using 3D geomodelling software, instead of using a simplified representation of the geological subsurface using mathematical functions or geometric primitives. We tested this set-up using an example model that we provide along with the implemented library.

  17. Forward and Inverse Modelling of Lithospheric Deformation on Geological Timescales

    OpenAIRE

    Kaus, B. J. P.; A A Popov; Baumann, T. S.; Püsök, A. E.; Bauville, A.; Fernandez, N.; Collignon, M.

    2016-01-01

    Geological processes such as mountain belt formation, subduction of tectonic plates and the development of sedimentary basins occur on a million-year timescale and involve rocks that have nonlinear visco-elasto-plastic material properties and experienced very large deformations. In order to simulate such processes in 3D, we developed a scalable parallel code, LaMEM, that employs a staggered finite difference discretisation combined with a marker and cell approach. Here, we describe the numeri...

  18. Fine-tuning problem in renormalized perturbation theory: Spontaneously-broken gauge models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.E. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-04-28

    We study the stability of tree-level gauge hierarchies at higher orders in renormalized perturbation theory, in a model with spontaneously-broken gauge symmetries. We confirm previous results indicating that if the model is renormalized using BPHZ, then the tree-level hierarchy is not upset by the radiative corrections. Consequently, no fine-tuning of the initial parameters is required to maintain it, in contrast to the result obtained using Dimensional Renormalization. This verifies the conclusion that the need for fine-tuning, when it arises, is an artifact of the application of a certain class of renormalization schemes.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  20. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  1. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M

  2. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (atmosphere and mantle systems, and did not contribute significantly to the sedimentary records. 2/ These continents evolved under the possibly episodic drive of plate tectonic processes, and certainly also under the drive of the density inversion imposed by the greenstone/TTG stratigraphy. Thébaud and Rey (2013) emphasized that sagduction was able to drive crustal-scale deformation in the interior of continents, away from plate margins. Since this process occurred on flooded continents, an infinite fluid reservoir was available to feed crustal-scale hydrothermal circulations promoting the formation of craton-wide metal deposits in the interior of continents

  3. Parallelization of fine-scale computation in Agile Multiscale Modelling Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioł, Piotr; Michalik, Kazimierz

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, multiscale modelling of material behavior is an extensively developed area. An important obstacle against its wide application is high computational demands. Among others, the parallelization of multiscale computations is a promising solution. Heterogeneous multiscale models are good candidates for parallelization, since communication between sub-models is limited. In this paper, the possibility of parallelization of multiscale models based on Agile Multiscale Methodology framework is discussed. A sequential, FEM based macroscopic model has been combined with concurrently computed fine-scale models, employing a MatCalc thermodynamic simulator. The main issues, being investigated in this work are: (i) the speed-up of multiscale models with special focus on fine-scale computations and (ii) on decreasing the quality of computations enforced by parallel execution. Speed-up has been evaluated on the basis of Amdahl's law equations. The problem of `delay error', rising from the parallel execution of fine scale sub-models, controlled by the sequential macroscopic sub-model is discussed. Some technical aspects of combining third-party commercial modelling software with an in-house multiscale framework and a MPI library are also discussed.

  4. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of th

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041748 Chen Liang (China University of Geosciences, Nanjing , Jiangsu); Meng Gao-tou Application of Information Model on Geological Hazards Investigating and Zoning of Counties and Cities: Taking Xianju County, Zhejiang Province as an Example (Hydroge-ology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 49 - 52, 4 illus. , 2 tables, 6 refs. ) Key words: geologic hazards, information systems

  6. Modeling geologically abrupt climate changes in the Miocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Haupt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gradual cooling of the Cenozoic, including the Miocene epoch, was punctuated by many geologically abrupt warming and cooling episodes – strong deviations from the cooling trend with time span of ten to hundred thousands of years. Our working hypothesis is that some of those warming episodes at least partially might have been caused by dynamics of the emerging Antarctic Ice Sheet, which, in turn, might have caused strong changes of sea surface salinity in the Miocene Southern Ocean. Feasibility of this hypothesis is explored in a series of coupled ocean-atmosphere computer experiments. The results suggest that relatively small and geologically short-lived changes in freshwater balance in the Southern Ocean could have significantly contributed to at least two prominent warming episodes in the Miocene. Importantly, the experiments also suggest that the Southern Ocean was more sensitive to the salinity changes in the Miocene than today, which can attributed to the opening of the Central American Isthmus as a major difference between the Miocene and the present-day ocean-sea geometry.

  7. Alternative 3D Modeling Approaches Based on Complex Multi-Source Geological Data Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明超; 韩彦青; 缪正建; 高伟

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complex nature of multi-source geological data, it is difficult to rebuild every geological struc-ture through a single 3D modeling method. The multi-source data interpretation method put forward in this analysis is based on a database-driven pattern and focuses on the discrete and irregular features of geological data. The geological data from a variety of sources covering a range of accuracy, resolution, quantity and quality are classified and inte-grated according to their reliability and consistency for 3D modeling. The new interpolation-approximation fitting construction algorithm of geological surfaces with the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) technique is then pre-sented. The NURBS technique can retain the balance among the requirements for accuracy, surface continuity and data storage of geological structures. Finally, four alternative 3D modeling approaches are demonstrated with reference to some examples, which are selected according to the data quantity and accuracy specification. The proposed approaches offer flexible modeling patterns for different practical engineering demands.

  8. A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1987-03-01

    Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Geological Model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation Reservoir in Liuzan Oilfield, Eastern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new geological model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation reservoir in the Liuzan Oilfield, eastern Hebei Province was constructed by using modern reservoir modeling technology as sequence stratigraphy and conditional simulation combined with traditional geological analysis. The model consists of a stratigraphic framework model, a structural model, a sedimentary model and a reservoir model. The study shows that the reservoir is a relatively integrated nose structure, whose strata can be divided into 4 sets of parasequence, 12 parasequences. The submerged branched channel of fan delta front is the favorable microfacies, which controls the geometric shape and physical properties of reservoir sandstone. Oil is distributed in premium reservoir sandstones at structural high positions. According to the new geological model, not only the geological contradictions appearing during oil field development are resolved, but also the oil-bearing area is enlarged by 2.7km2 and geological reserves increased by 156.9 million tons. The production capacity of the Liuzan Oilfield is increased by 0.27 million tons per year.

  10. A New Method of Multi-Scale Geologic Modeling and Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Bai; Zhan Liu; Lanfa Liu; Roger Mason; Binghu Huang

    2014-01-01

    A new method of multi-scale modeling and display of geologic data is introduced to pro-vide information with appropriate detail levels for different types of research. The multi-scale display mode employs a model extending existing 2D methods into 3D space. Geologic models with different scales are organized by segmenting data into orthogonal blocks. A flow diagram illustrates an octree method for upscaling between blocks with different scales. Upscaling data from the smallest unit cells takes into account their average size and the Burgers vector when there are mismatches. A geocellular model of the Chengdao Reservoir of the Shengli Oilfield, China is taken as an illustrative case, showing that the methods proposed can construct a multi-scale geologic model correctly and display data from the multi-scale model effectively in 3D.

  11. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  12. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil and the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO GALVÃO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  13. Processing-optimised imaging of analog geological models by electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Alemán, C.; Espíndola-Carmona, A.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Orozco Del Castillo, MG

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique is applied in monitoring internal deformation of geological analog models, which are used to study structural deformation mechanisms, in particular for simulating migration and emplacement of allochtonous salt bodies. A rectangular ECT sensor was used for internal visualization of analog geologic deformation. The monitoring of analog models consists in the reconstruction of permittivity images from the capacitance measurements obtained by introducing the model inside the ECT sensor. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used as a reconstruction method, and is optimized by taking full advantage of some special features in a linearized version of this inverse approach. As a second part of this work our SA image reconstruction algorithm is applied to synthetic models, where its performance is evaluated in comparison to other commonly used algorithms such as linear back-projection and iterative Landweber methods. Finally, the SA method is applied to visualise two simple geological analog models. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of the quality of the reconstructed images, as interfaces corresponding to main geological units in the analog model were clearly distinguishable in them. We found reliable results quite useful for real time non-invasive monitoring of internal deformation of analog geological models.

  14. Geological, isothermal, and isobaric 3-D model construction in early stage of geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, M. P.; Suryantini; Catigtig, D.; Regandara, R.; Asnin, S. N.; Pratama, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    Construction of geology, thermal anomaly and pressure distribution of a geothermal system in the early stage of exploration where data is limited is described using a 3-D software, Leapfrog Geothermal. The geological 3-D model was developed from a topographic map (derived from DEM data), geological map and literature studies reported in an early geological survey. The isothermal 3-D model was constructed using reservoir temperature estimation from geothermometry calculated from chemical analyses on surface manifestations, available shallow gradient temperature hole data and the normal gradient temperature (3°C/100m) for a nonthermal area. The isobaric 3-D model was built using hydrostatic pressure where the hydrostatic pressure is determined by the product of the fluid density, acceleration due to gravity, and depth. Fluid density is given by saturated liquid density as a function of temperature. There are some constraints on the modelling result such as (1) within the predicted reservoir, the geothermal gradient is not constant but continues to increase, thus, creating an anomalously high temperature at depth, and (2) the lithology model is made by interpolating and extrapolating cross-sections whereas usually only two to three geology sections were available for this study. Hence, the modeller must understand the geology. An additional cross section was developed by the modeller which may not be as suitable as the geologist constructed sections. The results of this study can be combined with geophysical data such as gravity, geomagnetic, micro-tremor and resistivity data. The combination of geological, geochemical, isothermal, isobaric and geophysical data could be used in (1) estimating the geometry and size of the geothermal reservoir, (2) predicting the depth of top reservoir, and (3) creating well prognosis for exploration and production wells.

  15. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  16. A 3D geological model for the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Massif (Colombia): Assessment of geological uncertainty using a stochastic approach based on Bézier curve design

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garcia, Javier; Jessell, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Massif (RTVM) is an active volcanic complex in the Northern Andes, and understanding its geological structure is critical for hazard mitigation and guiding future geothermal exploration. However, the sparsity of data available to constrain the interpretation of this volcanic system hinders the application of standard 3D modelling techniques. Furthermore, some features related to the volcanic system are not entirely understood, such as the connectivity between the plutons present in its basement (i.e. Manizales Stock, El Bosque Batholith). We have developed a methodology where two independent working hypotheses were formulated and modelled independently (i.e. a case where both plutons constitute distinct bodies, and an alternative case where they form one single batholith). A Monte Carlo approach was used to characterise the geological uncertainty in each case. Bézier curve design was used to represent geological contacts on input cross sections. Systematic variations in the control points of these curves allows us to generate multiple realisations of geological interfaces, resulting in stochastic models that were grouped into suites used to apply quantitative estimators of uncertainty. This process results in a geological representation based on fuzzy logic and in maps of model uncertainty distribution. The results are consistent with expected regions of high uncertainty near under-constrained geological contacts, while the non-unique nature of the conceptual model indicates that the dominant source of uncertainty in the area is the nature of the batholith structure.

  17. Constraints on field theoretical models for variation of the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.

    2005-02-01

    Recent theoretical ideas and observational claims suggest that the fine structure constant α may be variable. We examine a spectrum of models in which α is a function of a scalar field. Specifically, we consider three scenarios: oscillating α, monotonic time variation of α, and time-independent α that is spatially varying. We examine the constraints imposed upon these theories by cosmological observations, particle detector experiments, and “fifth force” experiments. These constraints are very strong on models involving oscillation but cannot compete with bounds from the Oklo subnuclear reactor on models with monotonic timelike variation of α. One particular model with spatial variation is consistent with all current experimental and observational measurements, including those from two seemingly conflicting measurements of the fine structure constant using the many multiplet method on absorption lines.

  18. FINE-GRAINED DISTRIBUTED MULTIMEDIA SYNCHRONIZA- TION MODEL--ENHANCED FUZZY-TIMING PETRI NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩莹洁; 孙永强; 吴哲辉

    2001-01-01

    A fine-grained distributed multimedia synchronization model--Enhanced Fuzzy timing Petri Net was proposed which is good at modeling indeterminacy and fuzzy. To satisfy the need of maximum tolerable jitter, the sufficient conditions are given in intra-object synchronization. Method to find a proper granularity in inter-object synchronization is also given to satisfy skew. Exceptions are detected and corrected as early as possible using restricted blocking method.

  19. Time variation of the fine structure constant in the early universe and the Bekenstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Mosquera, Mercedes E; Landau, Susana J; Vucetich, Hector

    2007-01-01

    We use observational primordial abundances of $\\De$, $\\Het$, $\\He$ and $\\Li$, recent data from the Cosmic Microwave Background and the 2dFGRS power spectrum, to put limits on the variation of the fine structure constant in the early universe. Furthermore, we use these constraints together with other astronomical and geophysical bounds from the late universe to test Bekenstein's model for the variation of $\\alpha$. The model is not able to fit all observational and experimental data.

  20. Fine Surveying and 3D Modeling Approach for Wooden Ancient Architecture via Multiple Laser Scanner Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiple terrestrial laser scanner (TLS integration approach is proposed for the fine surveying and 3D modeling of ancient wooden architecture in an ancient building complex of Wudang Mountains, which is located in very steep surroundings making it difficult to access. Three-level TLS with a scalable measurement distance and accuracy is presented for data collection to compensate for data missed because of mutual sheltering and scanning view limitations. A multi-scale data fusion approach is proposed for data registration and filtering of the different scales and separated 3D data. A point projection algorithm together with point cloud slice tools is designed for fine surveying to generate all types of architecture maps, such as plan drawings, facade drawings, section drawings, and doors and windows drawings. The section drawings together with slicing point cloud are presented for the deformation analysis of the building structure. Along with fine drawings and laser scanning data, the 3D models of the ancient architecture components are built for digital management and visualization. Results show that the proposed approach can achieve fine surveying and 3D documentation of the ancient architecture within 3 mm accuracy. In addition, the defects of scanning view and mutual sheltering can overcome to obtain the complete and exact structure in detail.

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050726 Cheng Jiabai (Survey Team of Huabei Geological Exploration Bureau, Sanhe 065201, China); Zhao Yuanyi Prospecting Hypothesis and Verification (Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research, ISSN 1001-1412, CN12-1131/P, 19(2), 2004, p. 122-129, 2 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: prospecting model

  2. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  3. A machine learning approach to the potential-field method for implicit modeling of geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ítalo Gomes; Kumaira, Sissa; Guadagnin, Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Implicit modeling has experienced a rise in popularity over the last decade due to its advantages in terms of speed and reproducibility in comparison with manual digitization of geological structures. The potential-field method consists in interpolating a scalar function that indicates to which side of a geological boundary a given point belongs to, based on cokriging of point data and structural orientations. This work proposes a vector potential-field solution from a machine learning perspective, recasting the problem as multi-class classification, which alleviates some of the original method's assumptions. The potentials related to each geological class are interpreted in a compositional data framework. Variogram modeling is avoided through the use of maximum likelihood to train the model, and an uncertainty measure is introduced. The methodology was applied to the modeling of a sample dataset provided with the software Move™. The calculations were implemented in the R language and 3D visualizations were prepared with the rgl package.

  4. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2004-02-01

    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  5. The fine tuning of the cosmological constant in a conformal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pankaj; Kashyap, Gopal; Mitra, Subhadip

    2015-10-01

    We consider a conformal model involving two real scalar fields in which the conformal symmetry is broken by a soft mechanism and is not anomalous. One of these scalar fields is representative of the standard model Higgs. The model predicts exactly zero cosmological constant. In the simplest version of the model, some of the couplings need to be fine-tuned to very small values. We formulate the problem of fine tuning of these couplings. We argue that the problem arises since we require a soft mechanism to break conformal symmetry. The symmetry breaking is possible only if the scalar fields do not evolve significantly over the time scale of the Universe. Ignoring contributions due to quantum gravity, we present two solutions to this fine tuning problem. We argue that the problem is solved if the classical value of one of the scalar fields is super-Planckian, i.e. takes a value much larger than the Planck mass. The second solution involves introduction of a strongly coupled hidden sector that we call hypercolor. In this case, the conformal invariance is broken dynamically and triggers the breakdown of the electroweak symmetry. We argue that our analysis applies also to the case of the standard model Higgs multiplet.

  6. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Ning; Song, Cheng-Yun; Li, Zhi-Yong; Cai, Han-Peng; Yao, Xing-Miao; Hu, Guang-Min

    2016-09-01

    3D modeling of geological bodies based on 3D seismic data is used to define the shape and volume of the bodies, which then can be directly applied to reservoir prediction, reserve estimation, and exploration. However, multiattributes are not effectively used in 3D modeling. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for building of 3D model of geological anomalies based on the segmentation of multiattribute fusion. First, we divide the seismic attributes into edge- and region-based seismic attributes. Then, the segmentation model incorporating the edge- and region-based models is constructed within the levelset-based framework. Finally, the marching cubes algorithm is adopted to extract the zero level set based on the segmentation results and build the 3D model of the geological anomaly. Combining the edge-and region-based attributes to build the segmentation model, we satisfy the independence requirement and avoid the problem of insufficient data of single seismic attribute in capturing the boundaries of geological anomalies. We apply the proposed method to seismic data from the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China and obtain 3D models of caves and channels. Compared with 3D models obtained based on single seismic attributes, the results are better agreement with reality.

  7. Setting up The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service for EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Sylvain; Häner, Rainer; Pedersen, Mikael; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Robida, François

    2017-04-01

    Geological data and models are key assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed as an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, borehole associated observations (borehole log data, groundwater level, groundwater quality…) and archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geological models (3D, 4D), geohazards, geophysical data such as active seismic data and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals. The services will be implemented based on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). We present the implementation of the thematic core services for geology and modelling, including scheduling of the development of the different components. The activity with the OGC groups already started in 2016 through an ad-hoc meeting on Borehole and 3D/4D and the way both will be interlinked will also be introduced. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will

  8. 3D Geological Modeling and Visualization of Rock Masses Based on Google Earth: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong

    2013-01-01

    Google Earth (GE) has become a powerful tool for geological modeling and visualization. An interesting and useful feature of GE, Google Street View, can allow the GE users to view geological structure such as layers of rock masses at a field site. In this paper, we introduce a practical solution for building 3D geological models for rock masses based on the data acquired by use with GE. A real study case at Haut-Barr, France is presented to demonstrate our solution. We first locate the position of Haut-Barr in GE, and then determine the shape and scale of the rock masses in the study area, and thirdly acquire the layout of layers of rock masses in the Google Street View, and finally create the approximate 3D geological models by extruding and intersecting. The generated 3D geological models can simply reflect the basic structure of the rock masses at Haut-Barr, and can be used for visualizing the rock bodies interactively.

  9. Rational Characterization Complex Geology Model——Macro Velocity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongWei

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of migration velocity construction is always a key problem of the image quality of pre-stack depth migration. The velocity model construction process is a process from an unknown to unknown iteration procedure and involves three important steps -- model building, migration and model modification. It is necessary to rationally describe the velocity model, according to the complexity of the problem. Taking the Marmousi model as a study object, We established some standards for a rational description of the velocity model on the basis of different velocity space scales, analysis varieties of travel time, and image quality. It is considered that for any given seismic data gathered in the migration velocity model the space wavelength of velocity, which should be expressed in variation of space wavelength of various frequency contents, appears in the seismic data. Some space wavelengths, which are necessary for a description of the model velocity field, are also varying with the layer complexity. For a simple layer velocity structure it is sufficient to apply a simple velocity model (the space wavelength is large enough), whereas, for a complicated layer velocity structure it is necessary to take a velocity model of a more precise scale. In fact, when we establish a velocity model, it is difficult to describe the velocity model at a full space scale, so it is important to limit the space scale of the velocity model according to the complexity of a layer structure and establish a rational macro velocity model.

  10. Modeling the injection of gas-liquid jets into fluidized bed of fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryiapadi, S.; Berutti, F.; Briens, C.; Hulet, C. [Western Ontario University, Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineeering, London, ON (Canada); Griffith, P. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2003-08-01

    A simplified momentum-based approach to calculate the solid entrainment rate into a gas-liquid jet injected into a fluidized bed is described. The model is verified by a recently developed experimental technique. The paper also addresses correction factors to the initial momentum calculated from the homogenous model. The solids entrainment rates predicted by the model were found to be very close to experimentally obtained values. It is suggested that the model can be usefully employed in characterizing the behaviour of gas-liquid jets injected into fluidized beds of fine particles. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Constraining spatial variations of the fine-structure constant in symmetron models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, A. M. M.; Martinelli, M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a methodology to test models with spatial variations of the fine-structure constant α, based on the calculation of the angular power spectrum of these measurements. This methodology enables comparisons of observations and theoretical models through their predictions on the statistics of the α variation. Here we apply it to the case of symmetron models. We find no indications of deviations from the standard behavior, with current data providing an upper limit to the strength of the symmetron coupling to gravity (log ⁡β2 constrain the model when also the symmetry breaking scale factor aSSB is free to vary.

  12. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    Groundwater modeling plays an essential role in modern subsurface hydrology research. It’s generally recognized that simulations and predictions by groundwater models are associated with uncertainties that originate from various sources. The two major uncertainty sources are related to model...... parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...

  13. Modeling Fiber Fineness, Maturity, and Micronaire in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-qing; ZHOU Zhi-guo; MENG Ya-li; CHEN Bing-lin; WANG You-hua

    2013-01-01

    Crop performance is determined by the combined effects of the genotype of the crop and the environmental conditions of the production system. This study was undertaken to develop a dynamic model for simulating environmental (temperature and solar radiation) and N supply effects on fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire. Three different experiments involving genotypes, sowing dates, and N fertilization rates were conducted to support model development and model evaluation. The growth and development duration of fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire were scaled by using physiological development time of secondary wall synthesis (PDTSWSP), which was determined based on the constant ratio of SWSP/BMP. PTP (product of relative thermal effectiveness (RTE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), MJ m-2) and subtending leaf N content per unit area (NA, g m-2) and critical subtending leaf N content per unit area (CNA, g m-2) of cotton boll were calculated or simulated to evaluate effects of temperature and radiation, and N supply. Besides, the interactions among temperature, radiation and N supply were also explained by piecewise function. The overall performance of the model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets from three field experiments with two sowing dates, three or five flowering dates and three or four N fertilization rates for three subsequent years (2005, 2007, and 2009) at three ecological locations. The average RMSE and RE for fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire predictions were 372 m g-1 and 5.0%, 0.11 m g-1 and 11.4%, 0.3 m g-1 and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a good fit between the simulated and observed data. It appears that the model can give a reliable prediction for fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire formation under various growing conditions.

  14. Numerical Model for Ultra-fine Particles in the Absence and Presence of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James A.

    2009-06-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultra-fine particles (0.1-1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, soot from forest fires, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical inhalation applications. We have a developed a numerical model which captures the dominant physical interactions which control the behavior of these systems. The adhesive interactions between the particles use the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction. The elastic restoring forces are modeled by the Hertz's contact model, and require details of material properties such as the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. Commencing with a three dimensional gas of ultra-fine particles, the absence of gravity does not produce any noticeable clustering. The presence of gravity initially generates a large population of clusters with small number of particles, as the particles settle. The initial population of small clusters or single particles which have settled decrease with time as more particles, or clusters, agglomerate with one another. Our final results show clusters containing 10 to 100 particles, with a larger population of small clusters. We present details of the model, and some preliminary results which demonstrate the influence of the particle surface properties on the clustering dynamics of these systems, in the absence and presence of gravity (M. Dutt, J. A. Elliott, et al. in press).

  15. Stochastic simulation by image quilting of process-based geological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffimann, Júlio; Scheidt, Celine; Barfod, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    . In this work, we further develop image quilting as a method for 3D stochastic simulation capable of mimicking the realism of process-based geological models with minimal modeling effort (i.e. parameter tuning) and at the same time condition them to a variety of data. In particular, we develop a new...

  16. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2003-02-01

    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  17. Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulder, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  19. A Novel Approach to Fine-Tuned Supersymmetric Standard Models -- Case of Non-Universal Higgs Masses model

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Discarding the prejudice about fine tuning, we propose a novel and efficient approach to identify relevant regions of fundamental parameter space in supersymmetric models with some amount of fine tuning. The essential idea is the mapping of experimental constraints at a low energy scale, rather than the parameter sets, to those of the fundamental parameter space. Applying this method to the non-universal Higgs masses model, we identify a new interesting superparticle mass pattern where some of the first two generation squarks are light whilst the stops are kept heavy as 6TeV. Furthermore, as another application of this method, we show that the discrepancy of the muon anomalous magnetic dipole moment can be filled by a supersymmetric contribution within the 1 {\\sigma} level of the experimental and theoretical errors, which was overlooked by the previous studies due to the required terrible fine tuning.

  20. Fine Extruding Deformation and Modeling Optimization of Die Cavityin Special-Shaped Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Hongyuan; Zhu Hengjun

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of Conformal Mapping theory, using approaches of numerical trigonometric interpolation and vector normal convergence, region function of three-dimension deforming, surface function of die cavity, and mapping function between the plastic flow model and the axis-symmetry model were set up respectively for fine extruding special-shaped products with different arc radius ri. Then the stream function and both fields of velocity and strain ratio are inferred for special-shaped plastic deformation; meanwhile, with the help of Upper-Bound principle, the parameter of die cavity gets optimized. Taking square-shaped and hexagon-shaped products with different arc radius ri as examples,the velocity field gets analyzed, the parameter of die cavity is optimized and the die cavity gets depicted as well. Consequently, above study provides theoretical support for achieving the technical goal of CAD/CAM integration in die cavity of fine extrusion.

  1. Fine needle aspiration biopsy to reestablish cell culture in an animal model of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Zelia Maria da Silva; Marshall,Jean-Claude; Souza Filho,João Pessoa de; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Burnier, Jr.,Miguel Noel

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To access the reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in harvesting a sufficient amount of viable melanoma cells to establish a cell culture and maintain a melanoma cell line from an animal model of uveal melanoma. METHODS: For this study, fifteen male New Zealand albino rabbits had their right eye surgically inoculated with uveal melanoma cell line 92.1. The animals were immunosupressed with cyclosporine A using a dose schedule previously published. The animals were followed fo...

  2. Development of an invasive species distribution model with fine-resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Chunyuan; Wang, Le

    2014-08-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) is recognized as one of the most aggressively invasive species throughout the Western United States. Mapping its suitable habitat is of paramount importance to effective management, and thus, becomes a high priority for conservation practitioners. In previous studies, species distribution models (SDMs) have been applied to predicting the suitable habitats of saltcedar at national scale, but at coarser spatial resolution (1 km). Although such studies achieved some success, they are lacking of capability to accommodate fine-scale resolution environmental variables, and therefore, fail to uncover detailed spatial pattern of habitats. The objective of this study was to develop a remote sensing driven SDM so as to characterize suitable habitats of saltcedar at very fine spatial scale (30 m). We exploited several fine-scale environmental predictors through remote sensing images, and utilized the logistic regression model to analyze the species-habitat relationship by identifying influential factors with subset selection criteria. We also incorporated the spatial autocorrelation with regression kriging method. Our results indicated that the model incorporating spatial autocorrelation achieved a higher accuracy than that of regression only model. Among 10 environmental variables, the distance to the river and the phenological attributes summarized by the harmonic analysis were regarded as the most significant in predicting the invasive potential of saltcedar. We conclude that remote sensing driven SDM has potential to identify the suitable habitat of saltcedar at a fine scale and locate appropriate areas at high risk of saltcedar infestation, which could benefit the early control and proactive management strategies to a large extent.

  3. The HIGGS Boson Mass at 2 Loops in the Finely Tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binger, M

    2004-09-08

    The mass of the Higgs boson in the finely tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model is calculated. All 1 loop threshold effects are included, in addition to the full RG running of the Higgs quartic coupling through 2 loops. The 2 loop corrections are very small, typically less than 1GeV. The 1 loop threshold corrections to the top yukawa coupling and the Higgs mass generally push the Higgs mass down a few GeV.

  4. A Method for Creating a Three Dimensional Model from Published Geologic Maps and Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    This brief report presents a relatively inexpensive and rapid method for creating a 3D model of geology from published quadrangle-scale maps and cross sections using Google Earth and Google SketchUp software. An example from the Green Mountains of Vermont, USA, is used to illustrate the step by step methods used to create such a model. A second example is provided from the Jebel Saghro region of the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco. The report was published to help enhance the public?s ability to use and visualize geologic map data.

  5. Modelling iron clay interactions in deep geological disposal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Perronnet, M.; Jullien, M.

    In the context of deep geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes, the interactions between iron and clay-rich materials may lead to adverse transformations of clay minerals with a potential loss of confining properties such as swelling and capacity to exchange cations. Such transformations have been experimentally observed at temperatures starting at ca. 80 °C, where smectites contained in a mixture of bentonite and iron powder are transformed into iron-rich serpentine-type minerals. The reaction-transport code CRUNCH is used to investigate the iron-clay interactions at 50 °C over a period of 10,000 years, which are the conditions considered here to represent the mean temperature value and the expected timescale for the corrosion stage. The aim is to predict the nature and quantity of corrosion product, calculate the chemistry of water (essentially the pH) and the mineralogical transformation in the system containing the canister, an optional engineered barrier (bentonite) and the host-rock (argillite). The results of the calculations show that at the interface with the canister, where steel corrosion occurs, the iron is partly immobilized by the precipitation of iron oxides (essentially magnetite) and small amounts of siderite. The pH stabilizes at high values, between 10 and 11, at this location. In the bentonite or the argillite in contact with the container, the primary clay minerals are destabilized and iron-rich serpentine-like minerals precipitate as observed in the experiments (cronstedtite and berthierine). These minerals show low cation exchange and swelling capacities. The results also show that the interactions between iron and clay may lead to significant porosity changes in the system. A reduction of the porosity is predicted at the surface of the steel canister, due to the precipitation of iron oxides. Porosity increase is predicted in the clay material due to the dissolution of the primary clay minerals. The effect of these porosity

  6. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  7. Construction of 3-D geologic framework and textural models for Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of water supply in Cuyama Valley, a rural agricultural area in Santa Barbara County, California, in the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges of California. Continued groundwater withdrawals and associated water-resource management concerns have prompted an evaluation of the hydrogeology and water availability for the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works. As a part of the overall groundwater evaluation, this report documents the construction of a digital three-dimensional geologic framework model of the groundwater basin suitable for use within a numerical hydrologic-flow model. The report also includes an analysis of the spatial variability of lithology and grain size, which forms the geologic basis for estimating aquifer hydraulic properties. The geologic framework was constructed as a digital representation of the interpreted geometry and thickness of the principal stratigraphic units within the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, which include younger alluvium, older alluvium, and the Morales Formation, and underlying consolidated bedrock. The framework model was constructed by creating gridded surfaces representing the altitude of the top of each stratigraphic unit from various input data, including lithologic and electric logs from oil and gas wells and water wells, cross sections, and geologic maps. Sediment grain-size data were analyzed in both two and three dimensions to help define textural variations in the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin and identify areas with similar geologic materials that potentially have fairly uniform hydraulic properties. Sediment grain size was used to construct three-dimensional textural models that employed simple interpolation between drill holes and two-dimensional textural models for each stratigraphic unit that incorporated spatial structure of the textural data.

  8. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vielzeuf, P.E., E-mail: pvielzeuf@ifae.es [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Martinelli, M., E-mail: martinelli@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Calabrese, E., E-mail: erminia.calabrese@astro.ox.ac.uk [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pandolfi, S., E-mail: stefania@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-04-09

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  9. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P; Martinelli, M; Calabrese, E; Pandolfi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent $\\alpha$ measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying $\\alpha$. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive $\\alpha$ measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  10. Evolution of the fine-structure constant in runaway dilaton models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.A.P. Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant α in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent α measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying α. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, together with more sensitive α measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

  11. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan

    2006-07-08

    This semi-annual progress report includes our latest research on deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}-in-Water (C/W) emulsions stabilized by pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}). We describe a practical system that could be employed for the release of a dense C/W emulsion. The heart of the system is a Kenics-type static mixer. The testing and evaluation of a static mixer in the NETL High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility was described in the previous semi-annual report. The release system could be deployed from a floating platform over the open ocean, or at the end of an off-shore pipe laying on the continental slope. Because the emulsion is much denser than ambient seawater, modeling shows that upon release the plume will sink much deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration time for CO{sub 2}. When released in the open ocean, a plume containing the output of a 500 MW{sub el} coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as much because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the sloping seabed. Furthermore, the plume is slightly alkaline, not acidic. The disadvantage is that the creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5-0.75 weight ratio of limestone to CO{sub 2}. While pulverized limestone with particle size appropriate for creating C/W emulsions can be purchased for $38 per ton, it is shown in this report that it may be more economic to purchase raw limestone from quarries and pulverize it in situ using grinding mills. In this case the major cost elements are the capital and operating costs of the grinding mills, resulting in a total cost of about $11 per ton of pulverized limestone, including the cost of raw material and shipping. Because we need approximately 0.75 ton of pulverized limestone per ton of liquid CO2 to create a stable

  12. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Remediation is time consuming and expensive and it is often difficult to identify the original source of the contamination that would otherwise give indications to its extent and composition. Moreover, as cities grew, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...... of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling, can minimize...

  13. Geological maps and models: are we certain how uncertain they are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Waters, Colin; McEvoy, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    Geological maps and latterly 3D models provide the spatial framework for geology at diverse scales or resolutions. As demands continue to rise for sustainable use of the subsurface, use of these maps and models is informing decisions on management of natural resources, hazards and environmental change. Inaccuracies and uncertainties in geological maps and models can impact substantially on the perception, assessment and management of opportunities and the associated risks . Lithostratigraphical classification schemes predominate, and are used in most geological mapping and modelling. The definition of unit boundaries, as 2D lines or 3D surfaces is the prime objective. The intervening area or volume is rarely described other than by its bulk attributes, those relating to the whole unit. Where sufficient data exist on the spatial and/or statistical distribution of properties it can be gridded or voxelated with integrity. Here we only discuss the uncertainty involved in defining the boundary conditions. The primary uncertainty of any geological map or model is the accuracy of the geological boundaries, i.e. tops, bases, limits, fault intersections etc. Traditionally these have been depicted on BGS maps using three line styles that reflect the uncertainty of the boundary, e.g. observed, inferred, conjectural. Most geological maps tend to neglect the subsurface expression (subcrops etc). Models could also be built with subsurface geological boundaries (as digital node strings) tagged with levels of uncertainty; initial experience suggests three levels may again be practicable. Once tagged these values could be used to autogenerate uncertainty plots. Whilst maps are predominantly explicit and based upon evidence and the conceptual the understanding of the geologist, models of this type are less common and tend to be restricted to certain software methodologies. Many modelling packages are implicit, being driven by simple statistical interpolation or complex algorithms

  14. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. A.; Vivanco, M. G.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and Gonzalez et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  15. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of Pb, Cd, As and Ni air concentration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Vivanco, M.

    2015-07-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic and nickel are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. Human health and ecosystems can be damaged by high atmospheric levels of these metals, since they can be introduced in organisms via inhalation or ingestion. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT modelling group (Madrid, Spain). Vivanco et al. (2011) and González et al. (2012) showed an evaluation of the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. In these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Nevertheless there is some observational evidence of the presence of some metals also in the coarse fraction. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fraction has been done. Measurements of metal concentration in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 recorded in Spain were used to obtain the new metal particle distribution size. On the other hand, natural emissions, not considered in the above mentioned studies, were implemented in the model, by considering metal emissions associated to dust resuspensiont. An evaluation of the new version is presented and discussed for two domains in Spain, centered on Barcelona and Huelva respectively. (Author)

  16. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  17. Three-Dimensional Geologic Framework Model for a Karst Aquifer System, Hasty and Western Grove Quadrangles, Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.; Mott, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding ground-water flow in a karst aquifer benefits from a detailed conception of the three-dimensional (3D) geologic framework. Traditional two-dimensional products, such as geologic maps, cross-sections, and structure contour maps, convey a mental picture of the area but a stronger conceptualization can be achieved by constructing a digital 3D representation of the stratigraphic and structural geologic features. In this study, a 3D geologic model was created to better understand a karst aquifer system in the Buffalo National River watershed in northern Arkansas. The model was constructed based on data obtained from recent, detailed geologic mapping for the Hasty and Western Grove 7.5-minute quadrangles. The resulting model represents 11 stratigraphic zones of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age. As a result of the highly dissected topography, stratigraphic and structural control from geologic contacts and interpreted structure contours were sufficient for effectively modeling the faults and folds in the model area. Combined with recent dye-tracing studies, the 3D framework model is useful for visualizing the various geologic features and for analyzing the potential control they exert on the ground-water flow regime. Evaluation of the model, by comparison to published maps and cross-sections, indicates that the model accurately reproduces both the surface geology and subsurface geologic features of the area.

  18. Fine needle aspiration biopsy to reestablish cell culture in an animal model of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Zelia Maria da Silva; Marshall, Jean-Claude; Souza Filho, João Pessoa; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao; Burnier Jr, Miguel Noel

    2009-01-01

    To access the reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in harvesting a sufficient amount of viable melanoma cells to establish a cell culture and maintain a melanoma cell line from an animal model of uveal melanoma. For this study, fifteen male New Zealand albino rabbits had their right eye surgically inoculated with uveal melanoma cell line 92.1. The animals were immunosupressed with cyclosporine A using a dose schedule previously published. The animals were followed for 12 weeks. Intraocular tumor growth was monitored weekly by indirect ophthalmoscopy. After the fourth week, one animal was sacrificed per week preceded by fine-needle aspiration biopsy using a sharp 25-gauge, 1-inch long needle. Two separate aspirates were made from different areas of the tumor. Each aspirate was flushed to a separate cell culture media and sent for cell culture. The cells were frozen after two weeks when there were at least 1 million cells, which is enough to maintain a cell line. Cells were defrosted for HMB-45 immuno-stains to confirm the melanoma origin. Cell growth was observed from the samples harvested from 11 out of the 15 animals inoculated with uveal melanoma. All cell cultures, after defrost, immunoassayed positive for HMB-45. Fine needle aspiration biopsy seems to be a reliable method to harvest cells from solid intraocular melanomas in an animal model, to establish cell culture and to maintain a melanoma cell line.

  19. Effect of Multipoint Heterogeneity on Nonlinear Transformations for Geological Modeling: Porosity-Permeability Relations Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J A Vargas-Guzmán

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of statistical expected values for transformations is performed in this study to quantify the effect of heterogeneity on spatial geological modeling and evaluations. Algebraic transformations are frequently applied to data from logging to allow for the modeling of geological properties. Transformations may be powers, products, and exponential operations which are commonly used in well-known relations (e.g., porosity-permeability transforms). The results of this study show that correct computations must account for residual transformation terms which arise due to lack of independence among heterogeneous geological properties. In the case of an exponential porosity-permeability transform, the values may be positive. This proves that a simple exponential model back-transformed from linear regression underestimates permeability. In the case of transformations involving two or more properties, residual terms may represent the contribution of heterogeneous components which occur when properties vary together, regardless of a pair-wise linear independence. A consequence of power- and product-transform models is that regression equationswithin those transformations need corrections via residual cumulants. A generalization of this result isthat transformations of multivariate spatial attributes require multiple-point random variable relations. This analysis provides practical solutions leading to a methodology for nonlinear modeling using correct back transformations in geology.

  20. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  1. Geological and hydrological visualization models for Digital Earth representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents techniques and interactive models for multi-dimensional analyses and geospatial visualization in virtual globes based on three application examples: (1) earthquakes around the world, (2) groundwater well levels in Texas, and (3) geothermal subsurface heat indexes in Texas. While studies are known that represent multi-dimensional geospatial data points, we develop and suggest multi-dimensional models for virtual globes using KML and KMZ (compressed KML files) with a complete and static time series data set. The benefit of this approach for the user is the ability to view and analyze time-based correlations interactively over the entire time span in one instance, which is not possible with animated (dynamic) models. The methods embedded in our models include: (a) depth layered cueing within subsurface Earth visualization for a better orientation when maneuvering below the ground, (b) a technique with Ternary Visual Shape Logic (TVSL) as a quick indicator of change over time, and (c) different visual representations of multiple dimensions for the addressed case study examples. The models can be applied to a variety of problems in different disciplines, especially to support decision-making processes.

  2. The three-dimensional regional geological model of the Mura-Zala Basin, northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Šram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mura-Zala sedimentary Basin is a Neogene basin with many competing geopotentials, spanning parts of Slovenia, Austria, Croatia and Hungary. Here we present the 3D regional geological model of the Slovenian part of the Mura-Zala Basin, which was developed to integrate the latest information on the geological structure of NE Slovenia and to publish the model in an open-access mode for easier and faster assessment of geopotentials. This was achieved through the harmonisation of the legacy geological models, the reinterpretation of 145 borehole logs, the construction of the 3D numerical geological model in JewelSuiteTM, and delivering it into a 3D-Explorer environment. The model comprises nine lithostratigraphical units. The Pre-Neogene basement rocks are covered by the Haloze Formation; the Špilje Formation – Badenian and Sarmatian; the Lendava Formation – turbidites and slope; the Mura Formation – delta front and delta plain; and the alluvial Ptuj-Grad Formation. The model has two principal shortcomings, related to currently unavailable seismic reflction data faults were not implemented, and the Quaternary formations were not delimited. The model is useful for regional-scale studies and may reduce geological risks related to exploration in NE Slovenia. It will also support a better assessment of geopotentials and a more feasible approach to their development, and, eventually, will enable the harmonized management of our subsurface in 3D space. This can be achieved using the 3D-Explorer platform which enables the creation of arbitrary vertical cross-sections, horizontal slices and virtual boreholes.

  3. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  4. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  5. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  6. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demo

  7. Anisotropic Beam Model for the Spectral Observations of Radio Burst Fine Structures on 1998 April 15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fine structure consisting of three almost equidistant frequency bands was observed in the high frequency part of a solar burst on 1998 April 15 by the spectrometer of Beijing Astronomical Observatory in the range 2.6-3.8 GHz. A model for this event based on beam-anisotropic instability in the solar corona is presented. Longitudinal plasma waves are excited at cyclotron resonance and then transformed into radio emission at their second harmonic. The model is in accordance with the observations if we suppose a magnetic field strength in the region of emission generation of about 200 G.

  8. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  9. High Temperature Flow Response Modeling of Ultra-Fine Grained Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vahid Sajadifar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the mechanical behavior modeling of commercial purity titanium subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD during post-SPD compression, at temperatures of 600-900 °C and at strain rates of 0.001-0.1 s−1. The flow response of the ultra-fine grained microstructure is modeled using the modified Johnson-Cook model as a predictive tool, aiding high temperature forming applications. It was seen that the model was satisfactory at all deformation conditions except for the deformation temperature of 600 °C. In order to improve the predictive capability, the model was extended with a corrective term for predictions at temperatures below 700 °C. The accuracy of the model was displayed with reasonable agreement, resulting in error levels of less than 5% at all deformation temperatures.

  10. Mathematical modeling of atmospheric fine particle-associated primary organic compound concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric transport model has been used to explore the relationship between source emissions and ambient air quality for individual particle phase organic compounds present in primary aerosol source emissions. An inventory of fine particulate organic compound emissions was assembled for the Los Angeles area in the year 1982. Sources characterized included noncatalyst- and catalyst-equipped autos, diesel trucks, paved road dust, tire wear, brake lining dust, meat cooking operations, industrial oil-fired boilers, roofing tar pots, natural gas combustion in residential homes, cigarette smoke, fireplaces burning oak and pine wood, and plant leaf abrasion products. These primary fine particle source emissions were supplied to a computer-based model that simulates atmospheric transport, dispersion, and dry deposition based on the time series of hourly wind observations and mixing depths. Monthly average fine particle organic compound concentrations that would prevail if the primary organic aerosol were transported without chemical reaction were computed for more than 100 organic compounds within an 80 km × 80 km modeling area centered over Los Angeles. The monthly average compound concentrations predicted by the transport model were compared to atmospheric measurements made at monitoring sites within the study area during 1982. The predicted seasonal variation and absolute values of the concentrations of the more stable compounds are found to be in reasonable agreement with the ambient observations. While model predictions for the higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are in agreement with ambient observations, lower molecular weight PAH show much higher predicted than measured atmospheric concentrations in the particle phase, indicating atmospheric decay by chemical reactions or evaporation from the particle phase. The atmospheric concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic polycarboxylic acids greatly exceed the contributions that

  11. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  12. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  13. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  14. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...... was analyzed using both a traditional two-point based geostatistical approach and multiple-point geostatistics (MPS). Our results documented that model structure is as important as model parameter regarding groundwater modeling uncertainty. Under certain circumstances the inaccuracy on model structure can...

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072288 Hong Quan(Ningbo Institute for Engineering Investigation,Ningbo 315012,China)Design of Information Management System for Engineering Investigation Maps Based on C/S Model(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.86-90,2 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:information systems,engineering geological map

  16. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  17. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING. II. PROMINENCE EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-20

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  18. Time Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant in a Two-Field Quintessence Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, M C; Santos, N M C

    2004-01-01

    We examine the variation of the fine structure constant in the context of a two-field quintessence model. We find that, for solutions that lead to a transient late period of accelerated expansion, it is possible to fit the data arising from quasar spectra and comply with the bounds on the variation of $\\alpha$ from the Oklo reactor, meteorite analysis, atomic clock measurements, Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. That is more difficult if we consider solutions corresponding to a late period of permanent accelerated expansion.

  19. Time evolution of the fine structure constant in a two-field quintessence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, M. C.; Bertolami, O.; Santos, N. M.

    2004-11-01

    We examine the variation of the fine structure constant in the context of a two-field quintessence model. We find that, for solutions that lead to a transient late period of accelerated expansion, it is possible to fit the data arising from quasar spectra and comply with the bounds on the variation of α from the Oklo reactor, meteorite analysis, atomic clock measurements, cosmic microwave background radiation, and big bang nucleosynthesis. That is more difficult if we consider solutions corresponding to a late period of permanent accelerated expansion.

  20. Modeling of Long-Term Fate of Mobilized Fines due to Dam-Embankment Interfacial Dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, L. G.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Transverse cracks in embankment dams can develop as a result of post-construction settlements, earthquake deformations, or anthropogenic loads such as emplaced explosives. During these dislocations, fine particles are released from the damaged zones and can create unwanted inertial erosion and piping through the transverse cracks. These processes are equally critical to the overall stability of the dam. We present numerical results related to the problem of the fluid flow, transport, and filtration of particulates from damaged zones between the concrete sections of a gravity dam and the embankment wraparound sections. The model solves simultaneously the flow, attachment, and washout of fine particles within a wraparound heterogeneous porous media. We used a state-of-the-art finite element method with adaptive mesh refinement to capture 1) the interface between water dense with fines and clear water, and 2) the non-linearity of the free surface itself. A few scenarios of sediment entrapment in the filter layers of a gravity dam were considered. Several parameterizations of the filtration model and constitutive laws of soil behavior were also investigated. Through these analyses, we concluded that the attachment kinetic isotherm is the key function of the model. More parametric studies need to be conducted to assess the sensitivity of the kinetic isotherm parameters on the overall stability of the embankment. These kinetic parameters can be obtained, for example, through numerical micro- and meso-scale studies. It is worth mentioning that the current model, for the more realistic non-linear kinetic isotherms, has predicted a self-rehabilitation of the breached core with retention of 50% of the mobilized fines using a very conservative filtration length. A more realistic value should exceed the assumed one, resulting in a retention exceeding 50%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  1. Modeling plant species distributions under future climates: how fine scale do climate projections need to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet; Davis, Frank W; Ikegami, Makihiko; Syphard, Alexandra D; Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L; Hannah, Lee

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that species distribution models (SDMs) based on fine-scale climate data may provide markedly different estimates of climate-change impacts than coarse-scale models. However, these studies disagree in their conclusions of how scale influences projected species distributions. In rugged terrain, coarse-scale climate grids may not capture topographically controlled climate variation at the scale that constitutes microhabitat or refugia for some species. Although finer scale data are therefore considered to better reflect climatic conditions experienced by species, there have been few formal analyses of how modeled distributions differ with scale. We modeled distributions for 52 plant species endemic to the California Floristic Province of different life forms and range sizes under recent and future climate across a 2000-fold range of spatial scales (0.008-16 km(2) ). We produced unique current and future climate datasets by separately downscaling 4 km climate models to three finer resolutions based on 800, 270, and 90 m digital elevation models and deriving bioclimatic predictors from them. As climate-data resolution became coarser, SDMs predicted larger habitat area with diminishing spatial congruence between fine- and coarse-scale predictions. These trends were most pronounced at the coarsest resolutions and depended on climate scenario and species' range size. On average, SDMs projected onto 4 km climate data predicted 42% more stable habitat (the amount of spatial overlap between predicted current and future climatically suitable habitat) compared with 800 m data. We found only modest agreement between areas predicted to be stable by 90 m models generalized to 4 km grids compared with areas classified as stable based on 4 km models, suggesting that some climate refugia captured at finer scales may be missed using coarser scale data. These differences in projected locations of habitat change may have more serious implications than net

  2. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  3. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  4. Exploration criteria for mineral target mapping based on 3D geological modeling in the Taebaek mineralized belt in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H. J.; Kihm, Y. H.; Cho, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We constructed a three-dimensional (3D) geological model based on a 1:50,000-scaled geologic map and determined the exploration criteria for skarn deposit target mapping in the Taebaek mineralized belt. All available geological and geophysical data were compiled in a 3D computing environment using GOCAD software. Twenty-four stratigraphic horizons and more than 100 fault surfaces are defined in the 3D geological model. The primary geological criteria for skarn mineralization in the Taebaek mineralized belt included the presence of an NE-oriented strike-slip fault, key stratigraphic horizons, and a high magnetic susceptibility anomaly based on 3D inversion of magnetic data. The 3D geological criteria were extracted from the 3D geological model for skarn deposit target mapping in the belt. The distance values of the three criteria (NE strike-slip fault, limestone horizon, and area of high magnetic susceptibility) were divided into four classes based on cutoff values determined by experts. The weight values for all of the geological criteria and the score value for each class of the distance criteria were also estimated based on expert knowledge. The weights and scores of geological criteria derived from expert knowledge serve as useful guides for target mapping in the Taebaek mineralized belt.

  5. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng

    2009-01-01

    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  6. Advantages and limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling for cultural heritage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Developments in collection and digitisation of geoarchaeological data now allow geoscientists to develop meaningful 3D spatial models of the subsurface. Geological models of the subsurface have been constructed for regional (urban) areas to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning on a regional scale. Risk assessment at the smaller scale of archaeological sites, for example for in-situ preservation, not only requires delimitation of cultural deposits with respect to natural geological formations, but also systematic collection, interpretation and visualisation of intra-formational geoarchaeological information. The Norwegian Standard for archaeological monitoring of cultural deposits (2009) provides the framework for systematic data collection, interpretation and monitoring over time. It enables an objective evaluation of variations between e.g. preservation state and environmental preservation conditions, a.o. based on soil moisture content, groundwater level and quality variations, and temperature variations within cultural deposits. The standard allows comparison of conditions both within and between archaeological sites. The inclusion of this monitoring data within a geological model of the site results in an integrated geoarchaeological model that can be used for both ground prediction and risk assessment with respect to for example in-situ preservation. However, archaeological sites and their surroundings, particularly in urban areas, are often characterised by large heterogeneities and a complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic deposits. At a certain level of complexity and spatial scale, modelling efforts will go beyond the advantages that can be gained. This presentation examines the advantages and the limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling at small scale urban archaeological sites for cultural heritage management.

  7. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    and maximum entropy modeling to assess whether different sampling (expert versus systematic surveys) may affect AOO estimates based on habitat suitability maps, and the differences between such measurements and traditional coarse-grid methods. Fine-scale models performed robustly and were not influenced...... by survey protocols, providing similar habitat suitability outputs with high spatial agreement. Model-based estimates of potential AOO were significantly smaller than AOO measures obtained from coarse-scale grids, even if the first were obtained from conservative thresholds based on the Minimal Predicted...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...

  8. Incorporating Geological Effects in Modeling of Revegetation Strategies for Salt-Affected Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke; Bell; Hobbs; George

    1999-07-01

    / This paper synthesizes results of research into the impact that major faults have on dryland salinity and the development of revegetation treatments in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Currently, landscape planning does not routinely incorporate geology, but this research shows that faults can have a dramatic impact on land and stream salinization and on the effectiveness of revegetation treatments, and evidence exists that other geological features can have a similar influence. This research shows that faults can be identified from airborne magnetic data, they can be assigned a characteristic hydraulic conductivity based on simple borehole tests, and four other geological features that are expected to affect land and stream salinity could be identified in airborne geophysical data. A geological theme map could then be created to which characteristic hydraulic conductivities could be assigned for use in computer groundwater models to improve prediction of the effectiveness of revegetation treatments and thus enhance the landscape planning process. The work highlights the difficulties of using standard sampling and statistical techniques to investigate regional phenomena and presents an integrated approach combining small-scale sampling with broad-scale observations to provide input into a modeling exercise. It is suggested that such approaches are vital if landscape- and regional-scale processes are to be understood and managed. The way in which the problem is perceived (holistically or piecemeal) affects the way treatments are designed and their effectiveness: past approaches have failed to integrate the various scales and processes involved. Effective solutions require an integrated holistic response.KEY WORDS: Dryland salinity; Geology; Landscape; Revegetation integrationhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n1p99.html

  9. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2014-11-10

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative program involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by coordinated cytokine and growth factor actions. We investigated the mechanisms underlying Adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn-/- mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn-/- mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to IL-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Adiponectin fine-tuning of liver regeneration dynamics revealed through cellular network modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Jason M; Cook, Daniel; Aksamitiene, Edita; Swarup, Aditi; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Hoek, Jan B

    2015-01-15

    Following partial hepatectomy, the liver initiates a regenerative programme involving hepatocyte priming and replication driven by the coordinated actions of cytokine and growth factors. We investigated the mechanisms underlying adiponectin's (Adn) regulation of liver regeneration through modulation of these mediators. Adn(-/-) mice showed delayed onset of hepatocyte replication, but accelerated cell cycle progression relative to wild-type mice, suggesting Adn has multiple effects fine-tuning the kinetics of liver regeneration. We developed a computational model describing the molecular and physiological kinetics of liver regeneration in Adn(-/-) mice. We employed this computational model to evaluate the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Our analysis predicted that Adn is required for an efficient early cytokine response to partial hepatectomy, but is inhibitory to later growth factor actions. Consistent with this prediction, Adn knockout reduced hepatocyte responses to interleukin-6 during the priming phase, but enhanced growth factor levels through peak hepatocyte replication. By contrast, supraphysiological concentrations of Adn resulting from rosiglitazone treatment suppressed regeneration by reducing growth factor levels during S phase, consistent with computational predictions. Together, these results revealed that Adn fine-tunes the progression of liver regeneration through dynamically modulating molecular mediator networks and cellular interactions within the liver.

  11. Application of Hapke photometric model to three geologic surfaces using PARABOLA bidirectional reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Deering, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) was conducted in July and September of 1989 to collect data with both ground and airborne instrumentation. A major objective of GRSFE was to collect data which could be used to test radiative transfer models for the extraction of composition and textural surface properties from remotely acquired data. Reported here are the initial results from an application of the Hapke photometric model, using data from the Portable Apparatus for Remote Acquisition of Bidirectional Observations of Land and Atmosphere (PARABOLA), a ground based radiometer with three spectral channels. PARABOLA data was collected in the Lunar Crater Volcanic Field in Nevada, specifically from the region of Lunar Lake, a playa. The Hapke model was found to be inadequate for three relatively common geologic surfaces (a clay-rich, hard packed surface with decimeter sized mudcracks; a cobble site, similar to a playa site, but strewn with basaltic cobbles and pebbles; and a surface mantled basalt lava flow). The model is not at fault; rather, the complexity of most geologic surfaces is not accounted for in the initial assumptions.

  12. Integrating coarse-scale uncertain soil moisture data into a fine-scale hydrological modelling scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vernieuwe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In a hydrological modelling scenario, often the modeller is confronted with external data, such as remotely-sensed soil moisture observations, that become available to update the model output. However, the scale triplet (spacing, extent and support of these data is often inconsistent with that of the model. Furthermore, the external data can be cursed with epistemic uncertainty. Hence, a method is needed that not only integrates the external data into the model, but that also takes into account the difference in scale and the uncertainty of the observations. In this paper, a synthetic hydrological modelling scenario is set up in which a high-resolution distributed hydrological model is run over an agricultural field. At regular time steps, coarse-scale field-averaged soil moisture data, described by means of possibility distributions (epistemic uncertainty, are retrieved by synthetic aperture radar and assimilated into the model. A method is presented that allows to integrate the coarse-scale possibility distribution of soil moisture content data with the fine-scale model-based soil moisture data. To this end, a scaling relationship between field-averaged soil moisture content data and its corresponding standard deviation is employed.

  13. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  14. Knowledge, transparency, refutability, and consequences: Using models to evaluate geologic repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Ye, M.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Arabi, M.; Lu, D.

    2012-04-01

    Current knowledge of a geologic repository includes knowledge about data and their errors; knowledge about possible physical, chemical, and biological processes, and their interactions; knowledge about possible hydrologic and geologic frameworks; knowledge about past and future changes in system dynamics and characteristics; and knowledge about potential future development and use of the repository. Model development and analysis methods ideally integrate all of this knowledge, produce the transparency and refutability acknowledged as necessary to useful models of any environmental system; and provide clear understanding of consequences for the geologic repository, including quantification of uncertainty. Yet many model development and analysis methods fail to achieve this goal. For example, many methods fail to properly account for data error and spend many model runs exploring unrealistic error assumptions that are rarely clearly presented to modelers and model users. Many methods expend huge computer resources to address nearly pathologic model nonlinearities which are often programming and numerical artifacts that fail to represent the intended system behavior. Finally, many methods are unfamiliar to people using model results so that transparency and refutability is not achieved by those most in need of understanding likely consequences. This work suggests that ideas for including data error (including epistemic error) in model development and analysis, referred to as error-based weighting, and ideas about addressing nonlinearity, referred to as robust models, can be used to greatly improve model transparency and refutability, and achieve greater and more defensible long-term understanding of system dynamics and consequences for geologic repositories. This talk will discuss error-based weighting and robust models, and outline a model development and analysis approach that uses 10s to 100s of model runs instead of the 1,000s to 100,000s of runs required by many

  15. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  16. Experimental research on engineering geological mechanical model of strip mining below thin bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sui, W. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Earth Science

    2004-03-15

    With respect to thin bedrock strata found in Taiping coal mining area of Yanzhou, mechanism and controlling factors of overlying strata and ground movement deformation induced by strip mining under the condition of thin bedrock were studied by means of engineering geological model test. The destruction process, forms, and ranges of overlying strata and the rules of ground movement were revealed, providing a theoretical basis for engineering practice. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  18. Automated grid generation from models of complex geologic structure and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, C.; Trease, H.; Cherry, T.

    1996-04-01

    The construction of computational grids which accurately reflect complex geologic structure and stratigraphy for flow and transport models poses a formidable task. With an understanding of stratigraphy, material properties and boundary and initial conditions, the task of incorporating this data into a numerical model can be difficult and time consuming. Most GIS tools for representing complex geologic volumes and surfaces are not designed for producing optimal grids for flow and transport computation. We have developed a tool, GEOMESH, for generating finite element grids that maintain the geometric integrity of input volumes, surfaces, and geologic data and produce an optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grid that can be used for flow and transport computations. GEOMESH also satisfies the constraint that the geometric coupling coefficients of the grid are positive for all elements. GEOMESH generates grids for two dimensional cross sections, three dimensional regional models, represents faults and fractures, and has the capability of including finer grids representing tunnels and well bores into grids. GEOMESH also permits adaptive grid refinement in three dimensions. The tools to glue, merge and insert grids together demonstrate how complex grids can be built from simpler pieces. The resulting grid can be utilized by unstructured finite element or integrated finite difference computational physics codes.

  19. GS3: A Knowledge Management Architecture for Collaborative Geologic Sequestration Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian; Black, Gary D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Wurstner, Signe K.; Hui, Peter SY

    2010-01-10

    Modern scientific enterprises are inherently knowledge-intensive. In general, scientific studies in domains such as groundwater, climate, and other environmental modeling as well as fundamental research in chemistry, physics, and biology require the acquisition and manipulation of large amounts of experimental and field data in order to create inputs for large-scale computational simulations. The results of these simulations must then be analyzed, leading to refinements of inputs and models and further simulations. In this paper we describe our efforts in creating a knowledge management platform to support collaborative, wide-scale studies in the area of geologic sequestration. The platform, known as GS3 (Geologic Sequestration Software Suite), exploits and integrates off-the-shelf software components including semantic wikis, content management systems and open source middleware to create the core architecture. We then extend the wiki environment to support the capture of provenance, the ability to incorporate various analysis tools, and the ability to launch simulations on supercomputers. The paper describes the key components of GS3 and demonstrates its use through illustrative examples. We conclude by assessing the suitability of our approach for geologic sequestration modeling and generalization to other scientific problem domains

  20. U.S. Geological Survey: A synopsis of Three-dimensional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Linda J.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Phelps, Geoff A.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a multidisciplinary agency that provides assessments of natural resources (geological, hydrological, biological), the disturbances that affect those resources, and the disturbances that affect the built environment, natural landscapes, and human society. Until now, USGS map products have been generated and distributed primarily as 2-D maps, occasionally providing cross sections or overlays, but rarely allowing the ability to characterize and understand 3-D systems, how they change over time (4-D), and how they interact. And yet, technological advances in monitoring natural resources and the environment, the ever-increasing diversity of information needed for holistic assessments, and the intrinsic 3-D/4-D nature of the information obtained increases our need to generate, verify, analyze, interpret, confirm, store, and distribute its scientific information and products using 3-D/4-D visualization, analysis, modeling tools, and information frameworks. Today, USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D tools to (1) visualize and interpret geological information, (2) verify the data, and (3) verify their interpretations and models. 3-D/4-D visualization can be a powerful quality control tool in the analysis of large, multidimensional data sets. USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D technology for 3-D surface (i.e., 2.5-D) visualization as well as for 3-D volumetric analyses. Examples of geological mapping in 3-D include characterization of the subsurface for resource assessments, such as aquifer characterization in the central United States, and for input into process models, such as seismic hazards in the western United States.

  1. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The charge-spot technique for modeling the static electric forces acting between charged fine particles entails treating electric charges on individual particles as small sets of discrete point charges, located near their surfaces. This is in contrast to existing models, which assume a single charge per particle. The charge-spot technique more accurately describes the forces, torques, and moments that act on triboelectrically charged particles, especially image-charge forces acting near conducting surfaces. The discrete element method (DEM) simulation uses a truncation range to limit the number of near-neighbor charge spots via a shifted and truncated potential Coulomb interaction. The model can be readily adapted to account for induced dipoles in uncharged particles (and thus dielectrophoretic forces) by allowing two charge spots of opposite signs to be created in response to an external electric field. To account for virtual overlap during contacts, the model can be set to automatically scale down the effective charge in proportion to the amount of virtual overlap of the charge spots. This can be accomplished by mimicking the behavior of two real overlapping spherical charge clouds, or with other approximate forms. The charge-spot method much more closely resembles real non-uniform surface charge distributions that result from tribocharging than simpler approaches, which just assign a single total charge to a particle. With the charge-spot model, a single particle may have a zero net charge, but still have both positive and negative charge spots, which could produce substantial forces on the particle when it is close to other charges, when it is in an external electric field, or when near a conducting surface. Since the charge-spot model can contain any number of charges per particle, can be used with only one or two charge spots per particle for simulating charging from solar wind bombardment, or with several charge spots for simulating triboelectric charging

  2. Evaluation of Species Distribution Model Algorithms For Fine-Scale Container Breeding Mosquito Risk Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchikian, C.; Sangermano, F.; Kendell, D.; Livdahl, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present work evaluates the use of species distribution model (SDM) algorithms to classify high density of small container Aedes mosquitoes at a fine scale, in the Bermuda islands. Weekly ovitrap data collected by the Health Department of Bermuda (UK) for the years 2006 and 2007 were used for the models. The models evaluated included the following algorithms: Bioclim, Domain, GARP, logistic regression, and MaxEnt. Models were evaluated according to performance and robustness. The area Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate each model’s performance, and robustness was assessed considering the spatial correlation between classification risks for the two datasets. Relative to the other algorithms, logistic regression was the best model for classifying high risk areas, and the maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) presented the second best performance. We report the importance of covariables for these two models, and discuss the utility of SDMs for vector control efforts and the potential for the development of scripts that automate the task of creating risk assessment maps. PMID:21198711

  3. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind

    2017-05-01

    A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.

  4. The variation of the fine structure constant: testing the dipole model with thermonuclear supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Negrelli, Carolina; Berro, Enrique García

    2014-01-01

    The large-number hypothesis conjectures that fundamental constants may vary. Accordingly, the spacetime variation of fundamental constants has been an active subject of research for decades. Recently, using data obtained with large telescopes a phenomenological model in which the fine structure constant might vary spatially has been proposed. We test whether this hypothetical spatial variation of {\\alpha}, which follows a dipole law, is compatible with the data of distant thermonuclear supernovae. Unlike previous works, in our calculations we consider not only the variation of the luminosity distance when a varying {\\alpha} is adopted, but we also take into account the variation of the peak luminosity of Type Ia supernovae resulting from a variation of {\\alpha}. This is done using an empirical relation for the peak bolometric magnitude of thermonuclear supernovae that correctly reproduces the results of detailed numerical simulations. We find that there is no significant difference between the several phenome...

  5. Modeling the potential area of occupancy at fine resolution may reduce uncertainty in species range estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Draper, David; Nogues, David Bravo

    2012-01-01

    resolution. To illustrate the ability of fine-resolution species distribution models for obtaining new measures of species ranges and their impact in conservation planning, we estimate the potential AOO of an endangered species in alpine environments. We use field occurrences of relict Empetrum nigrum......Area of Occupancy (AOO), is a measure of species geographical ranges commonly used for species red listing. In most cases, AOO is estimated using reported localities of species distributions at coarse grain resolution, providing measures subjected to uncertainties of data quality and spatial...... Area (MPA). As defined here, the potential AOO provides spatially-explicit measures of species ranges which are permanent in the time and scarcely affected by sampling bias. The overestimation of these measures may be reduced using higher thresholds of habitat suitability, but standard rules as the MPA...

  6. GIS Modeling of Solar Neighborhood Potential at a Fine Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a 3D geographic information systems (GIS modeling approach at a fine spatiotemporal resolution to assess solar potential for the development of smart net-zero energy communities. It is important to be able to accurately identify the key areas on the facades and rooftops of buildings that receive maximum solar radiation, in order to prevent losses in solar gain due to obstructions from surrounding buildings and topographic features. A model was created in ArcGIS, in order to efficiently compute and iterate the hourly solar modeling and mapping process over a simulated year. The methodology was tested on a case study area located in southern Ontario, where two different 3D models of the site plan were analyzed. The accuracy of the work depends on the resolution and sky size of the input model. Future work is needed in order to create an efficient iterative function to speed the extraction process of the pixelated solar radiation data.

  7. Geologic and geophysical models for Osage County, Oklahoma, with implications for groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Smith, David V.; Pantea, Michael P.; Becker, Carol J.

    2016-06-16

    This report summarizes a three-dimensional (3-D) geologic model that was constructed to provide a framework to investigate groundwater resources of the Osage Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. This report also presents an analysis of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey that assessed the spatial variation of electrical resistivity to depths as great as 300 meters in the subsurface. The report and model provide support for a countywide assessment of groundwater resources, emphasizing the Upper Pennsylvanian rock units in the shallow subsurface of central and eastern Osage County having electrical resistivity properties that may indicate aquifers.

  8. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5 and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088; lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113; lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092; lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088 and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106. The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes.

  9. Stochastic simulation by image quilting of process-based geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Júlio; Scheidt, Céline; Barfod, Adrian; Caers, Jef

    2017-09-01

    Process-based modeling offers a way to represent realistic geological heterogeneity in subsurface models. The main limitation lies in conditioning such models to data. Multiple-point geostatistics can use these process-based models as training images and address the data conditioning problem. In this work, we further develop image quilting as a method for 3D stochastic simulation capable of mimicking the realism of process-based geological models with minimal modeling effort (i.e. parameter tuning) and at the same time condition them to a variety of data. In particular, we develop a new probabilistic data aggregation method for image quilting that bypasses traditional ad-hoc weighting of auxiliary variables. In addition, we propose a novel criterion for template design in image quilting that generalizes the entropy plot for continuous training images. The criterion is based on the new concept of voxel reuse-a stochastic and quilting-aware function of the training image. We compare our proposed method with other established simulation methods on a set of process-based training images of varying complexity, including a real-case example of stochastic simulation of the buried-valley groundwater system in Denmark.

  10. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-15

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto

  11. 3D Geologic Modeling. The example of the Farim-Saliquinhé Phosphates Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António; Charifo, Gilberto; Almeida, José

    2010-05-01

    The construction of three-dimensional geologic models representing both the structure and properties inherent to each geological unit is nowadays possible due to the computational development of the last decades. The 3D Geologic Modeling (3DGM) is very efficient for storage, display and transfer of geoscience information, and is a key tool in the oil industry in particular for the reservoir characterization and modeling; its use in other geosciences areas has been growing in recent years but is still scarce. In the present work we show a 3D geologic model of the phosphates mineralization of Farim-Saliquinhé (Guinea-Bissau) as a first example of the work being developed in the research center CICEGe (FCT-UNL) by its novel research group on 3DGM, and to demonstrate the usefulness of this kind of geologic models, built with appropriate software, in order to better represent, study, characterize and visualize a geologic case study. The phosphates mineralization of Farim-Saliquinhé (Guinea-Bissau) is a sedimentary deposit located near Saliquinhé, Farim and the Rio Cachéu. The deposit is composed by two members: 1) FPB, an early Middle to Upper Lutetian calcareous-phosphate member; 2) FPA, an upper member of descarbonatized phosphate. Micritic limestones are underlying the mineralized layers, while dolomitic limestones, the FPO phosphate interval, and a younger sandy clayey cover are overlying the phosphatic members (BRGM, 1983; Prian et al., 1987). This work is based on geologic and geochemical data from 69 vertical boreholes carried out by BRGM in the 80s (completed with topographic data). This survey covered an area of about 10x5 km and was aimed to determine the geometry and the reserves of the FPA and FPB phosphate mineralization. The 3D geologic model was developed in gOcad software, which uses a distinctive interpolation method to build the geometry of objects, the DSI - discrete smooth interpolation. The 3D geologic model was built on the BRGM's study area

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  14. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  15. MODFLOW-2000 model scenarios simulating proposed groundwater pumpage near Monocks Corner, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An existing three-dimensional model (MODFLOW-2000) by Petkewich and Campbell was modified to simulate potential changes in groundwater-level conditions caused by...

  16. An innovative computer design for modeling forest landscape change in very large spatial extents with fine resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Frank R. Thompson; Yangjian. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Although forest landscape models (FLMs) have benefited greatly from ongoing advances of computer technology and software engineering, computing capacity remains a bottleneck in the design and development of FLMs. Computer memory overhead and run time efficiency are primary limiting factors when applying forest landscape models to simulate large landscapes with fine...

  17. Regularized kernel PCA for the efficient parameterization of complex geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hai X.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2016-10-01

    The use of geological parameterization procedures enables high-fidelity geomodels to be represented in terms of relatively few variables. Such parameterizations are particularly useful when the subspace representation is constructed to implicitly capture the key geological features that appear in prior geostatistical realizations. In this case, the parameterization can be used very effectively within a data assimilation framework. In this paper, we extend and apply geological parameterization techniques based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) for the representation of complex geomodels characterized by non-Gaussian spatial statistics. KPCA involves the application of PCA in a high-dimensional feature space and the subsequent reverse mapping of the feature-space model back to physical space. This reverse mapping, referred to as the pre-image problem, can be challenging because it (formally) involves a nonlinear minimization. In this work, a new explicit pre-image procedure, which avoids many of the problems with existing approaches, is introduced. To achieve (ensemble-level) flow responses in close agreement with those from reference geostatistical realizations, a bound-constrained, regularized version of KPCA, referred to as R-KPCA, is also introduced. R-KPCA can be viewed as a post-processing of realizations generated using KPCA. The R-KPCA representation is incorporated into an adjoint-gradient-based data assimilation procedure, and its use for history matching a complex deltaic fan system is demonstrated. Matlab code for the KPCA and R-KPCA procedures is provided online as Supplementary Material.

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  19. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  20. A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

    2005-06-01

    The Blantyre City Area is part of the African savanna in southern Malawi. Sedimentological, geomorphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were conducted to create a lithofacies terrain model. The project involves mapping, cross-sectioning, grain size, heavy mineral analysis, XRD and the study of sedimentary textures under the petrographic microscope. These classical techniques were combined with GIS-based field and office works. The combined efforts led to 2-D maps and 3-D block diagrams that illustrate the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of the landscape in southern Malawi during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The results obtained through integrated geomorphological-sedimentological studies form the basis for land management (planning of residential areas, waste disposal sites, assessment of bearing capacity of rocks), geohazard prediction (delineation of high risk zones in terms of mass flow and inundation) and the evaluation of high-place (ceramic raw materials) and high-unit value (placers of precious metals and gemstones) mineral commodities in the study area. The study addresses regional and general aspects alike. In regional terms, the study aimed at unraveling the evolution of landforms at the southern end of the East African Rift System during the most recent parts of the geological past. Four stages of peneplanation were established in the working area. Planation was active from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (stage I: early to mid-Cretaceous, stage II: early Tertiary, stage III: early to mid-Tertiary, stage IV: mid- to late Tertiary). During the most recent parts of the Quaternary, strong fluvial incision was triggered by the base-level lowering of the Shire River. Geomorphological alteration of the landscape goes along with a phyllosilicate-sesquioxide transformation from minerals indicative of more acidic meteoric fluids (e.g., gibbsite, kaolinite) to those typical of more alkaline conditions (e.g. smectite, vermiculite

  1. Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Kumar, Navanit; Zhang, Yingqi; Jordan, Preston; Pan, Lehua; Granvold, Patrick; Chow, Fotini K.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a framework for assessing the leakage risk of geologic carbon sequestration sites. This framework, known as the Certification Framework (CF), emphasizes wells and faults as the primary potential leakage conduits. Vulnerable resources are grouped into compartments, and impacts due to leakage are quantified by the leakage flux or concentrations that could potentially occur in compartments under various scenarios. The CF utilizes several model components to simulate leakage scenarios. One model component is a catalog of results of reservoir simulations that can be queried to estimate plume travel distances and times, rather than requiring CF users to run new reservoir simulations for each case. Other model components developed for the CF and described here include fault characterization using fault-population statistics; fault connection probability using fuzzy rules; well-flow modeling with a drift-flux model implemented in TOUGH2; and atmospheric dense-gas dispersion using a mesoscale weather prediction code.

  2. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Calder, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin covering almost 725,000 square kilometers of seafloor from the New England Seamounts in the north to the Blake Basin in the south is compiled from existing multibeam bathymetric data for marine geological investigations. Although other terrain models of the same area are extant, they are produced from either satellite-derived bathymetry at coarse resolution (ETOPO1), or use older bathymetric data collected by using a combination of single beam and multibeam sonars (Coastal Relief Model). The new multibeam data used to produce this terrain model have been edited by using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined 100-meter resolution grid. The final grid provides the largest high-resolution, seamless terrain model of the Atlantic margin..

  3. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  4. Solution of population balance equations in applications with fine particles: Mathematical modeling and numerical schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Laurent, F.; Fox, R. O.; Massot, M.

    2016-11-01

    The accurate description and robust simulation, at relatively low cost, of global quantities (e.g. number density or volume fraction) as well as the size distribution of a population of fine particles in a carrier fluid is still a major challenge for many applications. For this purpose, two types of methods are investigated for solving the population balance equation with aggregation, continuous particle size change (growth and size reduction), and nucleation: the extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) based on the work of Yuan et al. [52] and a hybrid method (TSM) between the sectional and moment methods, considering two moments per section based on the work of Laurent et al. [30]. For both methods, the closure employs a continuous reconstruction of the number density function of the particles from its moments, thus allowing evaluation of all the unclosed terms in the moment equations, including the negative flux due to the disappearance of particles. Here, new robust and efficient algorithms are developed for this reconstruction step and two kinds of reconstruction are tested for each method. Moreover, robust and accurate numerical methods are developed, ensuring the realizability of the moments. The robustness is ensured with efficient and tractable algorithms despite the numerous couplings and various algebraic constraints thanks to a tailored overall strategy. EQMOM and TSM are compared to a sectional method for various simple but relevant test cases, showing their ability to describe accurately the fine-particle population with a much lower number of variables. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the modeling and numerical choices, and their potential for the simulation of real-world applications.

  5. GIS-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Valigi, Daniela; Santangelo, Michele; Bucci, Francesco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    We use the model r.slope.stability to explore the chances and challenges of physically-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology over broad areas and not on individual slopes. The model is developed as a C and python-based raster module within the GRASS GIS software. It makes use of a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977) and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a digital elevation model and a set of thematic layers (lithological classes and related geotechnical parameters), the model evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. The bottoms of soil or bedrock layers can also be considered as potential slip surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each pixel, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. The r.slope.stability model can be executed both in a soil class-based mode, where the input data are mainly structured according to horizontally defined soil classes, and in a layer-based mode, where the data are structured according to a potentially large number of layers. Here, we test the model for the layer-based mode, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geologic structures. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. According to field observations in this area, morpho-structural settings (i.e., the orientation and dip of the geological layers) play a crucial role for the distribution of the deep-seated landslides. We have prepared a lithological model based on aerial photointerpretation, field survey and surface information on the

  6. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  7. Time variation of the fine structure constant α from realistic models of Oklo reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, C. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Lamoreaux, S. K.

    2006-11-01

    The topic of whether the fundamental constants of nature vary with time has been a subject of great interest since Dirac originally proposed the possibility that GN˜1/tuniverse. Recent observations of absorption spectra lines from distant quasars appeared to indicate a possible increase in the fine structure constant α over ten billion years. Contrarily, analyses of the time evolution of α from Oklo natural nuclear reactor data have yielded inconsistent results, some indicating a decrease over two billion years while others indicated no change. We have used known Oklo reactor epithermal spectral indices as criteria for selecting realistic reactor models. Reactors RZ2 and RZ10 were modeled with MCNP and the resulting neutron spectra were used to calculate the change in the ^149Sm capture cross section as a function of a possible shift in the energy of the 97.3-meV resonance. Our study resolves the contradictory situation with previous Oklo α-results. Our suggested 2 σ bound on a possible time variation of α over two billion years is stringent: -0.11 <=δαα <=0.24, in units of 10-7, but model dependent in that it assumes only α has varied over time.

  8. Numerical modeling of drying and consolidation of fine sediments and tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meulen, J.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and processing of many mineral ores result in the generation of large volumes of fine-grained residue or tailings. These fine sediments are deposited as a slurry with very high water contents and lose water after deposition due to self-weight consolidation. When the surface is exposed

  9. Modelling biogeochemical-stratigraphic dynamics of clinoform successions over geological timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Jakob Fosselius; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    An understanding of the processes-dynamics governing the development of submarine fine grained clinoforms relies often on correlation of proxies (grain-size trends, spectral gamma, microfossils, TOC, d13C etc.) to more proximal settings where relative sea-level changes are more easily detected...... are investigated with our novel dynamic biogeochemical-stratigraphic model which explicitly calculates sediment and biogeochemical tracer erosion and deposition over multi-kilo-years. In the model organic and uranium enrichment in the distal clinoform develops as a transgressive nature. As a result part...... the dynamic biogeochemical-stratigraphic models to our global carbon-nutrient cycle model will permit investigation of how marine productivity indicators and d13C can be use to refine the interpretations of submarine clinoform development and as correlation tools....

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140556Tang Hongxu(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Zhu Jing Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Based on GAMBIT(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.61-65,2illus.,7refs.)Key words:debris flows,three-dimensional models,ARCGIS,GAMBIT,C language

  11. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151343Chen Jianping(China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Yu Miao Method and Practice of 3DGeological Modeling at Key Metallogenic Belt with Large and Medium Scale(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,88(6),2014,p.1187-1195,9illus.,22refs.)Key words:geological modeling,metallogenic

  12. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jourde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas – called acquisition kernels – and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.

  13. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary basin Berzdof-Radomierzyce in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: Numerical modeling, Paradigm GOCAD, Berzdorf basin (Germany), Radomierzyce basin (Poland), Upper Lusatia. The accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) models depends on their data density and quality. Regions with a complex geology can be a challenge to model, especially if detailed models are required to support a further economic exploitation of a region. In this research, a 3D model was created based on the region's complicated geological condition. The focus area, the Berzdorf - Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish - German border to the south of the city of Görlitz - Zgorzelec, is such a region. The basin is divided by the volcanic threshold into the western part (Berzdorf basin) and its eastern extension (Radomierzyce basin). The connection between both parts is the so called "lignite bridge". The deposit in the Berzdorf has been exploited from 1830 until 1997. In contrast, the Radomierzyce deposit has never been exploited and is still considered as a prospective deposit for the operating Turów coal mine, which is located only around 15 km from the deposit. To represent the geology of the area a 3D modeling of the transboundary deposit was carried out. Moreover, some strategies to overcome numerical interpolation instability of the geological model with many faults were developed. Due to the large amount of data and its compatibility with other software the 3D geomodeling software Paradigm GOCAD was used. A total number of 10,102 boreholes, 60 cross sections and geological maps converted into digital format - were implemented into the model. The data density of the German part of the area of interest was much higher than the data density of the Polish part. The results demonstrate a good fit between the modeled surfaces and the real geological conditions. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to borehole data and geological cross sections. Furthermore, simplification of the model does not decrease the

  14. New approach to assess sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics: Fine-tuning mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Isabel; Dorado, Jesús; Morrell, Jane; Gosálvez, Jaime; Crespo, Francisco; Jiménez, Juan M; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) has been proved to be an important parameter in order to predict in vitro the potential fertility of a semen sample. Colloid centrifugation could be a suitable technique to select those donkey sperm more resistant to DNA fragmentation after thawing. Previous studies have shown that to elucidate the latent damage of the DNA molecule, sDF should be assessed dynamically, where the rate of fragmentation between treatments indicates how resistant the DNA is to iatrogenic damage. The rate of fragmentation is calculated using the slope of a linear regression equation. However, it has not been studied if sDF dynamics fit this model. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different after-thawing centrifugation protocols on sperm DNA fragmentation and elucidate the most accurate mathematical model (linear regression, exponential or polynomial) for DNA fragmentation over time in frozen-thawed donkey semen. After submitting post-thaw semen samples to no centrifugation (UDC), sperm washing (SW) or single layer centrifugation (SLC) protocols, sDF values after 6 h of incubation were significantly lower in SLC samples than in SW or UDC. Coefficient of determination (R(2)) values were significantly higher for a second order polynomial model than for linear or exponential. The highest values for acceleration of fragmentation (aSDF) were obtained for SW, followed by SLC and UDC. SLC after thawing seems to preserve longer DNA longevity in comparison to UDC and SW. Moreover, the fine-tuning of models has shown that sDF dynamics in frozen-thawed donkey semen fit a second order polynomial model, which implies that fragmentation rate is not constant and fragmentation acceleration must be taken into account to elucidate hidden damage in the DNA molecule.

  15. Dynamic magnetization models for soft ferromagnetic materials with coarse and fine domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirka, S.E., E-mail: zirka@email.dp.ua [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Moroz, Y.I. [Department of Physics and Technology, Dnepropetrovsk National University, Gagarin 72, 49050 Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chwastek, K. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. AK 17, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Zurek, S. [Megger Instruments Ltd., Archcliffe Road, Dover, Kent, CT17 9EN (United Kingdom); Harrison, R.G. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    We consider dynamic models, both numerical and analytical, that reproduce the magnetization field H(B) and the energy loss in ferromagnetic sheet materials with different domain structures. Conventional non-oriented (NO) and grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels are chosen as typical representatives of fine-domain and coarse-domain materials. The commonly-accepted loss separation procedures in these materials are critically analyzed. The use of a well-known simplified (“classical”) expression for the eddy-current loss is identified as the primary source of mistaken evaluations of excess loss in NO steel, in which the loss components can only be evaluated using the Maxwell (penetration) equation. The situation is quite different in GO steel, in which the loss separation is uncertain, but the total dynamic loss is several times higher than that explained by any version (numerical or analytical) of the classical approach. To illustrate the uncertainty of the loss separation in GO steel, we show that the magnetization field, and thus the total loss, in this material can be represented with equal accuracy using either the existing three-component approach or our proposed two-component technique, which makes no distinction between classical eddy-current and excess fields and losses. - Highlights: • Critical analysis of a ferromagnetic-material loss-separation principle. • This is to warn materials-science engineers about the inaccuracies resulting from this principle. • A transient model having a single dynamic component is proposed.

  16. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noticed that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  17. Numerical Modelling and Geological Interpretation of Geothermal Fields in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, Simeon; Trapov, Georgi; Dimovski, Stefan; Vasilev, Atanas; Stoyanov, Velislav; Kostadinov, Evgeni

    2013-04-01

    A numerical solution to the thermal conductivity equation was carried out along three profiles; the Varna-Sukhumi profile and two transverse profiles. The purpose of this paper is a more detailed study of the distribution in depth of the thermal field in the light of the latest geological and geophysical data concerning the age and structure of the sedimentary rocks and the Black Sea basement. Specified seismic and tomographic data about the sedimentary formation and the region basement were obtained and employed in order to precise the results obtained from the previous studies. Calculations were carried out along a geological profile using real properties of sedimentary rocks and basement and they have shown that the regional variation of temperature along the Moho plane varies from 420 to 754° ?. The heat flow along the same plane varies from 15-20 t? 29-41 mW /m2. The part of the heat flow that is caused by radiogenic sources amounts to 17-30 mW/m2. The modelling results are presented as sections that illustrate the distribution of temperature and heat flow in depth. This article is initiated by the fact that between 1st January 2009 and 12th December 2011, Project # 226592, entitled "UP-GRADE BLACK SEA SCIENTIFIC NETWORK", was worked out as part of the Seventh Framework Program (FP7). A team from the University of Mining and Geology, Sofia, took part in the project developing a geothermal database for the Black Sea basin. Part of the data was employed for the modeling of then geothermal field along the Varna-Sukhumi Profile. A catalogue is being prepared that is going to comprise all geothermal data of the Black Sea that are available so far and that amount more than 750 at present. The authors wish to thank the Project Management for the provided opportunity to work on this problem. The numerical modelling the analysis and interpretation of geothermal data will contribute to the study of the geological evolution of the lithosphere of the Black Sea depression.

  18. Value of information estimation using geologic representative models; Estimativa de valor de informacao usando modelos geologicos representativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Alexandre M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Santos. Gerencia de Reservatorio], e-mail: amxavier@petrobras.com.br; Ligero, Eliana L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios], e-mail: eligero@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-12-15

    Petroleum field development occurs under geological, economic, technological and political uncertainties. Risk proceeding from geological uncertainties can be mitigated from additional information or operational flexibility. In petroleum field development, especially offshore fields, where investment and information costs are high and flexibility is low, it is necessary to use a probabilistic methodology in the decision analysis, mainly in the production strategy definition. The employment of probabilistic methodologies in risk analysis require some simplifications due to the complexity of the process, high number of decision possibilities and high cost of flow simulation - the tool used to evaluate alternatives. A possible simplification is the geological representative models, which are models that are able to represent reservoir geological uncertainties. In a risk methodology, the GRM models are used to integrate the geological, economic, technological and production strategies . A methodology to determine the Value of Information has been developed and it is based on the geological representative models in order to minimize the risks involved in the project. The methodology has been validated and applied to an offshore field. (author)

  19. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  1. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  2. Model for the fine structure of zero field steps in long Josephson tunnel junctions and its comparison with experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, Paola; Monaco, R.; Ustinov, A. V.

    1996-01-01

    The single fluxon dynamics in the resonant regime has been investigated on high-quality low-loss Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb window Josephson tunnel junctions. A new model accounting for the fine structure of zero field steps in linear junctions is proposed. Depending on the fluxon velocity and on the junction...... simulations, and experiments. The presence of the idle region has been proved to play a determinant role for the occurrence of the fine structure. ©1996 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Cluster model calculation of N near K-edge energy-loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A cluster model is used to calculate electron energy-loss fine structures in crystal. The multiple-scattering self-consistent-field method is employed in the calculation. Our theoretical results of N near K-edge energy loss fine structures in hexagonal GaN crystal are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Future possible experiments in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) are discussed and proposed because our theoretical work can provide clear assignments for transmitted electrons with different energy losses.

  4. The role of fine-scale anatomical structure in the dynamics of reentry in computational models of the rabbit ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot

    2012-09-15

    Fine-scale anatomical structures in the heart may play an important role in sustaining cardiac arrhythmias. However, the extent of this role and how it may differ between species are not fully understood. In this study we used computational modelling to assess the impact of anatomy upon arrhythmia maintenance in the rabbit ventricles. Specifically, we quantified the dynamics of excitation wavefronts during episodes of simulated tachyarrhythmias and fibrillatory arrhythmias, defined as being respectively characterised by relatively low and high spatio-temporal disorganisation.Two computational models were used: a highly anatomically detailed MR-derived rabbit ventricular model (representing vasculature, endocardial structures) and a simplified equivalent model, constructed from the same MR-data but lacking such fine-scale anatomical features. During tachyarrhythmias, anatomically complex and simplified models showed very similar dynamics; however, during fibrillatory arrhythmias, as activation wavelength decreased, the presence of fine-scale anatomical details appeared to marginally increase disorganisation of wavefronts during arrhythmias in the complex model. Although a small amount of clustering of reentrant rotor centres (filaments) around endocardial structures was witnessed in follow-up analysis (which slightly increased during fibrillation as rotor size decreased), this was significantly less than previously reported in large animals. Importantly, no anchoring of reentrant rotors was visibly identifiable in arrhythmia movies. These differences between tachy- and fibrillatory arrhythmias suggest that the relative size of reentrant rotors with respect to anatomical obstacles governs the influence of fine-scale anatomy in the maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias in the rabbit. In conclusion, our simulations suggest that fine-scale anatomical features play little apparent role in the maintenance of tachyarrhythmias in the rabbit ventricles and, contrary to

  5. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  6. An interpretation model of GPR point data in tunnel geological prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-yao; Li, Bao-qi; Guo, Yuan-shu; Wang, Teng-na; Zhu, Ya

    2017-02-01

    GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) point data plays an absolutely necessary role in the tunnel geological prediction. However, the research work on the GPR point data is very little and the results does not meet the actual requirements of the project. In this paper, a GPR point data interpretation model which is based on WD (Wigner distribution) and deep CNN (convolutional neural network) is proposed. Firstly, the GPR point data is transformed by WD to get the map of time-frequency joint distribution; Secondly, the joint distribution maps are classified by deep CNN. The approximate location of geological target is determined by observing the time frequency map in parallel; Finally, the GPR point data is interpreted according to the classification results and position information from the map. The simulation results show that classification accuracy of the test dataset (include 1200 GPR point data) is 91.83% at the 200 iteration. Our model has the advantages of high accuracy and fast training speed, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of tunnel construction and excavation plan.

  7. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  8. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  9. Variational fine-grained data assimilation schemes for atmospheric chemistry transport and transformation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Alexey; Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The paper concerns data assimilation problem for an atmospheric chemistry transport and transformation models. Data assimilation is carried out within variation approach on a single time step of the approximated model. A control function is introduced into the model source term (emission rate) to provide flexibility to adjust to data. This function is evaluated as the minimum of the target functional combining control function norm to a misfit between measured and model-simulated analog of data. This provides a flow-dependent and physically-plausible structure of the resulting analysis and reduces the need to calculate model error covariance matrices that are sought within conventional approach to data assimilation. Extension of the atmospheric transport model with a chemical transformations module influences data assimilation algorithms performance. This influence is investigated with numerical experiments for different meteorological conditions altering convection-diffusion processes characteristics, namely strong, medium and low wind conditions. To study the impact of transformation and data assimilation, we compare results for a convection-diffusion model (without data assimilation), convection-diffusion with assimilation, convection-diffusion-reaction (without data assimilation) and convection-diffusion-reaction-assimilation models. Both high dimensionalities of the atmospheric chemistry models and a real-time mode of operation demand for computational efficiency of the algorithms. Computational issues with complicated models can be solved by using a splitting technique. As the result a model is presented as a set of relatively independent simple models equipped with a kind of coupling procedure. With regard to data assimilation two approaches can be identified. In a fine-grained approach data assimilation is carried out on the separate splitting stages [1,2] independently on shared measurement data. The same situation arises when constructing a hybrid model

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  11. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re

  13. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  14. Fine structure of the entanglement entropy in the O(2) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuzhi; Zou, Haiyuan; Xie, Z. Y.; Meurice, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We compare two calculations of the particle density in the superfluid phase of the O(2) model with a chemical potential μ in 1+1 dimensions. The first relies on exact blocking formulas from the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) formulation of the transfer matrix. The second is a worm algorithm. We show that the particle number distributions obtained with the two methods agree well. We use the TRG method to calculate the thermal entropy and the entanglement entropy. We describe the particle density, the two entropies and the topology of the world lines as we increase μ to go across the superfluid phase between the first two Mott insulating phases. For a sufficiently large temporal size, this process reveals an interesting fine structure: the average particle number and the winding number of most of the world lines in the Euclidean time direction increase by one unit at a time. At each step, the thermal entropy develops a peak and the entanglement entropy increases until we reach half-filling and then decreases in a way that approximately mirrors the ascent. This suggests an approximate fermionic picture.

  15. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynska, Michael R; King, Julian A; Murphy, Michael T; Bainbridge, Matthew B; Flambaum, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of $0.4 \\leq z_{abs} \\leq 2.3$ observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=\\left(0.22\\pm0.23\\right)\\times10^{-5}$, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ measurements, th...

  16. Properties and Modeling of Unresolved Fine Structure Loops Observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, David H; Warren, Harry P

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have discovered a new class of numerous low-lying dynamic loop structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. In this letter, we combine IRIS measurements of the properties of a sample of 108 UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations using the HYDRAD hydrodynamic model to examine whether the UFS are now truly spatially resolved in the sense of being individual structures rather than composed of multiple magnetic threads. We find that a simulation of an impulsively heated single strand can reproduce most of the observed properties suggesting that the UFS may be resolved, and the distribution of UFS widths implies that they are structured on a spatial scale of 133km on average. Spatial scales of a few hundred km appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal st...

  17. Exposure to fine airborne particulate matters induces hepatic fibrosis in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Xuebao; Wang, Jiemei; Dandekar, Aditya; Kim, Hyunbae; Qiu, Yining; Xu, Xiaohua; Cui, Yuqi; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung Chi; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, featured by the accumulation of excessive extracellular matrix in liver tissue, is associated with metabolic disease and cancer. Inhalation exposure to airborne particulate matter in fine ranges (PM2.5) correlates with pulmonary dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrogenesis. Both inhalation exposure of mice and in vitro exposure of specialized cells to PM2.5 were performed to elucidate the effect of PM2.5 exposure on hepatic fibrosis. Histological examinations, gene expression analyses, and genetic animal models were utilized to determine the effect and mechanism by which PM2.5 exposure promotes hepatic fibrosis. Inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient PM2.5 induces hepatic fibrosis in mice under the normal chow or high-fat diet. Mice after PM2.5 exposure displayed increased expression of collagens in liver tissues. Exposure to PM2.5 led to activation of the transforming growth factor β-SMAD3 signaling, suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and expression of collagens in hepatic stellate cells. NADPH oxidase plays a critical role in PM2.5-induced liver fibrogenesis. Exposure to PM2.5 exerts discernible effects on promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. NADPH oxidase mediates the effects of PM2.5 exposure on promoting hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchandani, Prakash; Long, Yoann; Pirovano, Guido; Balzarini, Alessandra; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Source apportionment modeling provides valuable information on the contributions of different source sectors and/or source regions to ozone (O3) or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. This information can be useful in designing air quality management strategies and in understanding the potential benefits of reducing emissions from a particular source category. The Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) offers unique source attribution tools, called the Ozone and Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT), which track source contributions. We present results from a CAMx source attribution modeling study for a summer month and a winter month using a recently evaluated European CAMx modeling database developed for Phase 3 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The contributions of several source sectors (including model boundary conditions of chemical species representing transport of emissions from outside the modeling domain as well as initial conditions of these species) to O3 or PM2.5 concentrations in Europe were calculated using OSAT and PSAT, respectively. A 1-week spin-up period was used to reduce the influence of initial conditions. Evaluation focused on 16 major cities and on identifying source sectors that contributed above 5 %. Boundary conditions have a large impact on summer and winter ozone in Europe and on summer PM2.5, but they are only a minor contributor to winter PM2.5. Biogenic emissions are important for summer ozone and PM2.5. The important anthropogenic sectors for summer ozone are transportation (both on-road and non-road), energy production and conversion, and industry. In two of the 16 cities, solvent and product also contributed above 5 % to summertime ozone. For summertime PM2.5, the important anthropogenic source sectors are energy, transportation, industry, and agriculture. Residential wood combustion is an important anthropogenic sector in winter for PM2.5 over

  19. Developing a geological 3D model for the Tanour and Rasoun spring catchment area using ArcGIS and GOCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Benhsinat, Mohamed; Wagner, Bianca; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Key words: Karst, 3D model, GOCAD, ArcGIS, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs (around 75 km northwest of the capital city of Amman in Jordan) are used as main local water supply for the surrounding villages. Carbonate rocks are the predominant rock type in the study area (Upper Cretaceous age). The karstification degree is moderate to high, with the availability of different karst features like dolines, caves, dry valleys, and highly fractured rocks. During the last years, the water supply from these springs had to be disconnected for several times due to microbial contamination and waste water pollution from local olive oil mills. For better understanding of the geological and the hydrogeological setting of the study area, in addition to the delineation of the groundwater catchment area for Tanour and Rasoun springs, a geological 3D model of the main geological formations within the study area was established using ArcGIS and GOCAD. The model is based on geological maps and well data; it was established for seven geological layers that act as prominent aquifers and aquicludes. ArcGIS software was used for data preparation, processing and interpolation of varying thickness, while GOCAD used for geometrical modeling steps. After the completion of the first modeling steps, major faults are included. Then the subsurface catchments will be delineated and compared with the superficial watersheds. The model still under development and open for further development.

  20. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110727 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Wang Daode The Evolvement Models and Progress of Research on Formation of Ca-,Al-Rich inclusions in Chondrites (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952/P, 56(3), 2010, p.374-383, 2 illus., 1 table, 72 refs.)Key words: chondrites Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. The formation models of CAIs include gas-soild condensation, crystallization from melting or partial melting and high-temperature evaporating residues. The latest study shows similar distribution patterns of the petrographic types and sizes of CAIs in various chondrites. The petrographic characters argue that CAIs in various chemical groups of chondrites formed under similar processes and conditions probably in a same region in the solar nebula.

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092028 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters,Chinese Armed Police Forces,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Borrowed Model Method and Application in Metallogenic Prognosis(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,44(4),2008,p.60-63,1 illus.,2 tables,8 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:prediction of deposits,geological model20092029 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China)Application Study on Artificial Neural Network Method in Deformation Prediction for Foundation Pit(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(5),2008,p.38-40,43,1 illus.,6 tables,8 refs.,

  2. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  3. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park; Modelo geologico 3D de la estructura en sinforme de Monfrague: un valor anadido al patrimonio geologico del Parque Nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-07-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  4. QTPV Data Model and Algorithm and Its Application to Geological Exploration Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Penggen; SHI Wenzhong; GONG Jianya; ZHOU Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    3D spatial data model and simulating are the core of 3D GIS can be adopted in different domains. A data model based on Quasi Tri-Prism Volume (QTPV) has been proposed. QTPV definition and its special cases have been discussed. Using QTPV and its special cases, irregular natural geological bodies and regular subsurface engineering can be described efficiently. The proposed model is composed of five primitives and six objects. Data structures and topological relationship of the fives primitives and three objects describing stratigraphy are designed in detail. Some schemes are designed for the QTPV modelling of stratigraphy and subsurface engineering according to modelling data. The model manipulation method of QTPV cutting by an arbitrary plane is discussed. Using VC++6.0 programming language integrated with SQL database and OpenGL graphic library under windows environment, a system prototype 3DGeoMV has been developed. The experiment result shows that the QTPV model is feasible and efficient in modelling subsurface engineering.

  5. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  6. A user interface for the Kansas Geological Survey slug test model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esling, Steven P; Keller, John E

    2009-01-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) developed a semianalytical solution for slug tests that incorporates the effects of partial penetration, anisotropy, and the presence of variable conductivity well skins. The solution can simulate either confined or unconfined conditions. The original model, written in FORTRAN, has a text-based interface with rigid input requirements and limited output options. We re-created the main routine for the KGS model as a Visual Basic macro that runs in most versions of Microsoft Excel and built a simple-to-use Excel spreadsheet interface that automatically displays the graphical results of the test. A comparison of the output from the original FORTRAN code to that of the new Excel spreadsheet version for three cases produced identical results.

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041769 Fang Rui (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wu Jichun Design and Implementation of New Spatial Database of Groundwa-ter (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 33 -36, 4 illus. , 1 table, 8 refs. ) Key words: groundwater, data basesBased on system of relational database, a data model of groundwater spatial information

  8. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141850 Chen Dongyue(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen Jianping On 3D Ore Prospecting Modeling of Comprehensive Information for Huangshaping Polymetallic Deposit(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,37(3),2013,p.489-495,12 illus.,12 refs.) Key words:polymetallic ores,data bases,Hunan Province

  9. Cognitive 3D geological voxel modelling based on AEM and seismic data - a case from the southern part of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Flemming; Møller, Rasmus R.; Sandersen, Peter B. E.; Høyer, Anne-Sophie

    2013-04-01

    The highly complex composition of the Quaternary and Tertiary near-surface deposits in Denmark is a challenging environment for 3D modelling. Geological elements like cross-cutting buried valleys, faults, glaciotectonic thrusts and folds, delta units and erosional unconformities are vital to identify and include in 3D geological models, but at the same time they all add to the complexity of the geological picture. Borehole data are rarely sufficient for the modelling; instead much more laterally dense data are needed. Airborne electromagnetic techniques therefore serve as perfect tools for providing an overview and spatial distribution of the geological elements and their composition. Such airborne surveys are perfectly supplemented by seismic data in order to map the stratigraphic framework within a model area. Translating airborne electromagnetic data to geology is a complicated task that requires a significant amount of geophysical and geological insight. It is necessary to implement thorough geological background knowledge in the interpretations while at the same time identify and acknowledge the inherent limitations of the method. In an area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark a combination of an airborne transient electromagnetic survey (3200 line km performed with the SkyTEM system) and a 38 km high-resolution 2D seismic survey has proven very successful for mapping geological elements like the above-mentioned. Although the south-westernmost part of the study area is saturated with saltwater and the TEM data therefore are influenced by increased electrical conductivity, the geology is still revealed here. Geological interpretations are supported by a high number of pre-existing seismic sections originating from hydrocarbon exploration and borehole data, though most of the borehole data and several of the seismic sections have very poor quality. A couple of new 300-m deep exploration boreholes have been drilled in order to obtain

  10. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  11. Observations and modeling of the fine structure of loops in the transition region and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David

    2017-08-01

    The physical dimensions of loops hold important clues to the coronal heating process. Theoretical arguments universally indicate that coronal heating should operate on very small spatial scales and loops should be unresolvable by current instrumentation. There are a number of observational results, however, that suggest that coronal loops are organized on spatial scales of several hundred km. For example, recent observations from IRIS have discovered a new class of low-lying dynamic loops structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFS) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. Here we show that the properties of the UFS (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) are consistent with 1-D non-equilibrium ionization simulations of an impulsively heated single strand, suggesting that they are resolved, and that the distribution of UFS widths implies that like coronal loops they are also structured on a spatial scale of a few hundred km. Spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal structures, but it is unclear whether the true distribution of loop widths is normalized around this scale, or whether it extends to much smaller scales - perhaps by a power-law - below the resolution of current instruments. We have extended our previous modeling of the cross-field intensity profiles of coronal loops observed by EIS and AIA, to investigate what the modeled profiles would look like at Hi-C resolution, what they would look like if loops are composed only of temperatures and densities, and the intensity profiles from the power-law simulations are dominated by emission from the largest strands.

  12. A Numerical Modeling Study of Effect of Heterogeneity on Capillary Trapping of Geologically Sequestrated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.; Trevisan, L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneities at multiple scales influence migration and trapping of geologically sequestrated CO2 during injection and post-injection periods. Understanding of small-scale processes is crucial to device upscaling methodologies for incorporating them into macroscopic-scale models. The upscaled models are in turn used to get insights into the complex field-scale processes involved in the migration of supercritical CO2. Theoretical research based on numerical model analysis presented in this study focuses on capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous small-scale and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments with surrogate fluids, presented in a companion presentation (Treviso et al., 2011). An improved understanding of pore-scale and larger scale processes on capillary entrapment may be achieved by combining pore-scale and macroscopic-scale modeling approaches. Capillarity controlled entrapped non-wetting phase saturation in macroscopic-scale models is generally either provided as an input parameter after laboratory scale measurements or estimated empirically. A particle trajectory modeling approach with pore-scale physics included is used to gain insights to development of physically-based models for the capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The particle trajectory modeling generates functional relationships between phase saturation, entrapped phase saturation, hydraulic properties of the medium, and velocity of injected phase, which eventually are planned to be used for developing macroscopic scale models of capillary entrapment. The predictions of entrapped fluid saturation from the particle trajectory model are verified with measurements from the small scale experimental test systems. Macroscopic two-phase flow modeling approach with existing and modified constitutive models is tested by comparisons with both small-scale and intermediate-scale experimental results. T2VOC module based on TOUGH2 is used to simulate two

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  14. A 1D model for tides waves and fine sediment in short tidal basins—Application to the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Bram Christiaan; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2013-12-01

    In order to simulate the dynamics of fine sediments in short tidal basins, like the Wadden Sea basins, a 1D cross-sectional averaged model is constructed to simulate tidal flow, depth-limited waves, and fine sediment transport. The key for this 1D model lies in the definition of the geometry (width and depth as function of the streamwise coordinate). The geometry is computed by implementing the water level and flow data, from a 2D flow simulation, and the hypsometric curve in the continuity equation. By means of a finite volume method, the shallow-water equations and sediment transport equations are solved. The bed shear stress consists of the sum of shear stresses by waves and flow, in which the waves are computed with a depth-limited growth equation for wave height and wave frequency. A new formulation for erosion of fines from a sandy bed is proposed in the transport equation for fine sediment. It is shown by comparison with 2D simulations and field measurements that a 1D schematization gives a proper representation of the dynamics in short tidal basins.

  15. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, and (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region, however, require a distinctive parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geology can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. Using this geologically-based parameter transfer scheme, our model predictions for all watersheds capture dominant historic streamflow patterns, and are sufficiently accurate to resolve geo-climatic differences in how these different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  16. Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Media: Gravity-Driven Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G. S.; Smith, D. H.; Ferer, M.

    2002-05-01

    Carbon capture with storage in geologic media has the potential to sequester a significant amount of anthropogenically-produced carbon dioxide in the upcoming decades. Underground injection of gas is already a common practice in the oil and gas industry, and injection into deep brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO2. However, before these become viable means of sequestration on a large scale, a number of questions must be answered about the ability of brine and oil fields to retain the CO2 that has been stored there. The primary methods of release of carbon dioxide from many geologic formations likely will be gravity-driven percolation. We have developed a pore-level numerical model that can be used to study the invasion of a non-wetting fluid (CO2) into a porous medium filled with wetting fluid (brine). The model incorporates a distribution of "pore-throat" radii, the formation wettability (i.e., the gas-liquid-solid contact angle), the interfacial tension between the fluids, the fluid viscosities and densities, and all other parameters that appear in the capillary pressure or the capillary, Bond, or fluid-trapping numbers. For this work, the model has been used to study gravity-driven flow upward out of brine-saturated formations (which is very similar to the downward infiltration of DNAPLs into water-saturated porous media). Results are presented which show how leakage rates depend on the amount of carbon dioxide sequestered and the average pore size of the overlying formations, as well as the density of CO2 (which will change with the depth of the formation).

  17. Modelling CO2 flow in naturally fractured geological media using MINC and multiple subregion upscaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger; Helmig, Rainer; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 represents one viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Potential leakage of CO2 storage can occur through networks of interconnected fractures. The geometrical complexity of these networks is often very high involving fractures occurring at various scales and having hierarchical structures. Such multiphase flow systems are usually hard to solve with a discrete fracture modelling (DFM) approach. Therefore, continuum fracture models assuming average properties are usually preferred. The multiple interacting continua (MINC) model is an extension of the classic double porosity model (Warren and Root, 1963) which accounts for the non-linear behaviour of the matrix-fracture interactions. For CO2 storage applications the transient representation of the inter-porosity two phase flow plays an important role. This study tests the accuracy and computational efficiency of the MINC method complemented with the multiple sub-region (MSR) upscaling procedure versus the DFM. The two phase flow MINC simulator is implemented in the free-open source numerical toolbox DuMux (www.dumux.org). The MSR (Gong et al., 2009) determines the inter-porosity terms by solving simplified local single-phase flow problems. The DFM is considered as the reference solution. The numerical examples consider a quasi-1D reservoir with a quadratic fracture system , a five-spot radial symmetric reservoir, and a completely random generated fracture system. Keywords: MINC, upscaling, two-phase flow, fractured porous media, discrete fracture model, continuum fracture model

  18. Parameter and model uncertainty in a life-table model for fine particles (PM2.5: a statistical modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantunen Matti J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimation of health impacts involves often uncertain input variables and assumptions which have to be incorporated into the model structure. These uncertainties may have significant effects on the results obtained with model, and, thus, on decision making. Fine particles (PM2.5 are believed to cause major health impacts, and, consequently, uncertainties in their health impact assessment have clear relevance to policy-making. We studied the effects of various uncertain input variables by building a life-table model for fine particles. Methods Life-expectancy of the Helsinki metropolitan area population and the change in life-expectancy due to fine particle exposures were predicted using a life-table model. A number of parameter and model uncertainties were estimated. Sensitivity analysis for input variables was performed by calculating rank-order correlations between input and output variables. The studied model uncertainties were (i plausibility of mortality outcomes and (ii lag, and parameter uncertainties (iii exposure-response coefficients for different mortality outcomes, and (iv exposure estimates for different age groups. The monetary value of the years-of-life-lost and the relative importance of the uncertainties related to monetary valuation were predicted to compare the relative importance of the monetary valuation on the health effect uncertainties. Results The magnitude of the health effects costs depended mostly on discount rate, exposure-response coefficient, and plausibility of the cardiopulmonary mortality. Other mortality outcomes (lung cancer, other non-accidental and infant mortality and lag had only minor impact on the output. The results highlight the importance of the uncertainties associated with cardiopulmonary mortality in the fine particle impact assessment when compared with other uncertainties. Conclusion When estimating life-expectancy, the estimates used for cardiopulmonary exposure

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andy

    2017-03-16

    Simulations of future climate suggest profiles of temperature and precipitation may differ significantly from those in the past. These changes in climate will likely lead to changes in the hydrologic cycle. As such, natural resource managers are in need of tools that can provide estimates of key components of the hydrologic cycle, uncertainty associated with the estimates, and limitations associated with the climate forcing data used to estimate these components. To help address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) provides a user friendly interface to deliver hydrologic and meteorological variables for monthly historic and potential future climatic conditions across the continental United States.

  20. A five dimensional model of varying effective gravitational and fine structure constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbelek, J. P.; Lachièze-Rey, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the reported time variation of the fine structure constant alpha is due to a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. We predict such a coupling from a very simple effective theory of physical interactions, under the form of an improved version of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that it precisely leads to a variation of the effective fine structure constant with cosmic conditions, and thus with cosmic time. The comparison with the recent data from distant quasars absorption line spectra gives a good agreement; moreover, this may reconcile the claimed results on alpha with the upper limit from the Oklo naturel Uranium fission reactor.

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  2. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  4. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  5. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raia, Pasquale; Toivonen, Jaakko

    2015-12-01

    The path of species diversification is commonly observed by inspecting the fossil record. Yet, how species diversity changes at geological timescales relate to lower-level processes remains poorly understood. Here we use mathematical models of spatially structured populations to show that natural selection and gradual environmental change give rise to discontinuous phenotype changes that can be connected to speciation and extinction at the macroevolutionary level. In our model, new phenotypes arise in the middle of the environmental gradient, while newly appearing environments are filled by existing phenotypes shifting their adaptive optima. Slow environmental change leads to loss of phenotypes in the middle of the extant environmental range, whereas fast change causes extinction at one extreme of the environmental range. We compared our model predictions against a well-known yet partially unexplained pattern of intense hoofed mammal diversification associated with grassland expansion during the Late Miocene. We additionally used the model outcomes to cast new insight into Cope's law of the unspecialized. Our general finding is that the rate of environmental change determines where generation and loss of diversity occur in the phenotypic and physical spaces.

  6. Global Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations and Trends Inferred from Satellite Observations, Modeling, and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Boys, Brian; Philip, Sajeev; Lee, Colin; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal

    2014-05-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmentally-related cause of premature mortality worldwide. However, ground-level PM2.5 monitors remain sparse in many regions of the world. Satellite remote sensing from MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS yields a powerful global data source to address this issue. Global modeling (GEOS-Chem) plays a critical role in relating these observations to ground-level concentrations. The resultant satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 indicate dramatic variation around the world, with implications for global public health. A new ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances in combining satellite remote sensing, global modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of global population exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  8. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  9. Application of ground-based LIDAR for fine-scale forest fuel modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Louise Loudermilk; Abhinav Singhania; Juan C. Fernandez; J. Kevin Hiers; Joseph J. O' Brien; Wendell P. Cropper Jr.; K. Clint Slatton; Robert J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Frequent (1 to 5 year) low intensity fire regimes of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the Southeastern United States create a continuous fuelbed of understory grasses, forbs, flammable pine needle litter, with interstitial hardwood shrubs. Measuring the spatial heterogeneity of these fine-fuels can be difficult, requiring intensive field...

  10. Fine Scale Modeling and Forecasts of Upper Atmospheric Turbulence for Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    nonequilibrium layer dynamics at fine scales, Phys. Scr . 89 (22pp) 098001 (2014). Observation and simulation of wave breaking in the southern hemispheric...physics, turbulent mixing , rotation, ... Qm = /^d^m^ ^m = ^v’^c’^/’ -• ^rc the couplcd mixing ratios of water vapor, cloud, ice, etc. e^=6[\\^{R^lR

  11. A Modeling Framework for Improved Characterization of Near-Road Exposure at Fine Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffic-related air pollutants could cause adverse health impact to communities near roadways. To estimate the population risk and locate "hotspots" in the near-road environment, quantifying the exposure at a fine spatial resolution is essential. A new state-of-the-art ...

  12. MEASURING AND MODELING OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BEARING PAD MADE OF PLASTIC MATRIX AND FINE BRONZE ELASTIC SPRINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the normal PTFE plastic and strengthened PTFE plastic for bearing pad are measured. The mechanical properties of the composite material for bearing pad, which is made of the aforementioned plastics as matrix reinforced by fine bronze elastic springs, are modeled and relaxation modulus of the material are presented. The difference between these two kinds of PTFE is studied. The results show that the complex modulus of PTFE plastics for bearing pad is higher than that of normal PTFE plastics.

  13. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  14. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  15. Health impact assessment of particulate pollution in Tallinn using fine spatial resolution and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Veljo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health impact assessments (HIA use information on exposure, baseline mortality/morbidity and exposure-response functions from epidemiological studies in order to quantify the health impacts of existing situations and/or alternative scenarios. The aim of this study was to improve HIA methods for air pollution studies in situations where exposures can be estimated using GIS with high spatial resolution and dispersion modeling approaches. Methods Tallinn was divided into 84 sections according to neighborhoods, with a total population of approx. 390 000 persons. Actual baseline rates for total mortality and hospitalization with cardiovascular and respiratory diagnosis were identified. The exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 from local emissions was defined as the modeled annual levels. The model validation and morbidity assessment were based on 2006 PM10 or PM2.5 levels at 3 monitoring stations. The exposure-response coefficients used were for total mortality 6.2% (95% CI 1.6–11% per 10 μg/m3 increase of annual mean PM2.5 concentration and for the assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations 1.14% (95% CI 0.62–1.67% and 0.73% (95% CI 0.47–0.93% per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10. The direct costs related to morbidity were calculated according to hospital treatment expenses in 2005 and the cost of premature deaths using the concept of Value of Life Year (VOLY. Results The annual population-weighted-modeled exposure to locally emitted PM2.5 in Tallinn was 11.6 μg/m3. Our analysis showed that it corresponds to 296 (95% CI 76528 premature deaths resulting in 3859 (95% CI 10236636 Years of Life Lost (YLL per year. The average decrease in life-expectancy at birth per resident of Tallinn was estimated to be 0.64 (95% CI 0.17–1.10 years. While in the polluted city centre this may reach 1.17 years, in the least polluted neighborhoods it remains between 0.1 and 0.3 years. When dividing the YLL by the number of

  16. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  17. Assessing the performance of a riparian vegetation model in a river with a low slope and fine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Kelum; Asaeda, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Riparian ecosystems are threatened worldwide, necessitating conservation strategies. Numerical models tailored for specific geographic areas have been developed as management support tools. However, few models are suitable for multiple river conditions, and developing these models or evaluating their suitability has become an emerging topic. The dynamic riparian vegetation model (DRIPVEM) is a numerical model developed for steep and gravelly Japanese rivers, where it has been successfully tested. Our objective was to assess the performance of DRIPVEM in a river with a low slope and fine sediment, similar to the characteristics of continental rivers. A reach of the Hii River was selected for testing the model's ability to predict the distribution of Salix spp. (willow) and herbs, as well as herb biomass and tree age. The model was calibrated based on field investigations of a selected river section. Simulation of the studied reach was carried out for the past five decades, depending on data availability. Non-parametric tests were used to compare the simulated and observed results. The simulated and observed vegetation distribution maps agreed fairly well and the sensitivity of the model for simulation of trees, herbs and bare areas was greater than 0.6. The kappa coefficients of agreement values were 0.48 and 0.49, indicating fair agreement. Moreover, the simulated biomass and tree age agreed well with observation. We conclude that the DRIPVEM simulated the observed conditions in the Hii River well, indicating that the model is applicable to rivers characterized by low slope and fine sediment grain size.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  19. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ishiguro, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Nuclear Energy System Incorporated, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, T. [Japan Gas Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Little, R. [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  20. A general gridding, discretization, and coarsening methodology for modeling flow in porous formations with discrete geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive framework for modeling flow in porous media containing thin, discrete features, which could be high-permeability fractures or low-permeability deformation bands, is presented. The key steps of the methodology are mesh generation, fine-grid discretization, upscaling, and coarse-grid discretization. Our specialized gridding technique combines a set of intersecting triangulated surfaces by constructing approximate intersections using existing edges. This procedure creates a conforming mesh of all surfaces, which defines the internal boundaries for the volumetric mesh. The flow equations are discretized on this conforming fine mesh using an optimized two-point flux finite-volume approximation. The resulting discrete model is represented by a list of control-volumes with associated positions and pore-volumes, and a list of cell-to-cell connections with associated transmissibilities. Coarse models are then constructed by the aggregation of fine-grid cells, and the transmissibilities between adjacent coarse cells are obtained using flow-based upscaling procedures. Through appropriate computation of fracture-matrix transmissibilities, a dual-continuum representation is obtained on the coarse scale in regions with connected fracture networks. The fine and coarse discrete models generated within the framework are compatible with any connectivity-based simulator. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated for several two- and three-dimensional examples. In particular, we consider gas production from naturally fractured low-permeability formations, and transport through complex fracture networks. In all cases, highly accurate solutions are obtained with significant model reduction.

  1. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  2. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111126Ji Honglei(Institute of Hydrogeol-ogy and Environmental Geology,CAGS,Shi-jiazhuang050061,China);Zhao Hua Pre-liminary Study of Re-OSL on Water-De-posited Sediments(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,32(2),2010,p.320-326,4illus.,1table,10refs.)Key words:stream sediments,opticalstimulated luminescence dating,HebeiProvinceAccording to measuring the natural TT-OSL signals of the fine-grained quartzfrom both fluvial and lacustrine sediments,the dose recovery experiment and the comparison of the multiple aliquots

  3. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories.

  4. A five dimensional model of varying effective gravitational and fine structure constants

    CERN Document Server

    Mbelek, J P

    2003-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the reported time variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ is due to a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation. We consider the coupling predicted by a very simple {\\sl effective} theory of physical interactions, under the form of an improved version of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that it is precisely expressed by a variation of the effective fine structure constant with cosmic conditions, and thus with cosmic time. We compare the predicted variation with the recent data from distant quasars absorption line spectra: we find a good agreement, which moreover reconcile the claimed results on $\\alpha$ with the upper limit from the Oklo naturel Uranium fission reactor.

  5. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  6. Three-Gorges Dam Fine Sediment Pollutant Transport: Turbulence SPH Model Simulation of Multi-Fluid Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Hui Pu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD constructed at the Yangtze River, China represents a revolutionary project to battle against the mage-scale flooding problems while improving the local economy at the same time. However, the large-scale fine-size sediment and pollutant material transport caused by the TGD operation are found to be inevitable and long-lasting. In this paper, a multi-fluid Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH model is used to simulate the multi-fluid flows similar to the fine sediment materials transport (in muddy flows and water flow mixing process. The SPH method is a mesh-free particle modeling approach that can treat the free surfaces and multi-interfaces in a straightforward manner. The proposed model is based on the universal multi-fluid flow equations and a unified pressure equation is used to account for the interaction arising from the different fluid components. A Sub-Particle-Scale (SPS turbulence model is included to address the turbulence effect generated during the flow process. The proposed model is used to investigate two cases of multi-fluid flows generated from the polluted flow intrusions into another fluid. The computations are found in good agreement with the practical situations. Sensitivity studies have also been carried out to evaluate the particle spatial resolution and turbulence modeling on the flow simulations. The proposed ISPH model could provide a promising tool to study the practical multi-fluid flows in the TGD operation environment.

  7. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  8. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  9. Examining the Evolution of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, Northern California, Using a 4-D Geologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, E.; Graymer, R. W.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Scheirer, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Retrodeformation of a three-dimensional geologic model allows us to explore the tectonic evolution of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault and adjacent rock bodies in the San Francisco Bay area. By using geological constraints to quantitatively retrodeform specific surfaces (e.g. unfolding paleohorizontal horizons, removing fault slip), we evaluate the geometric evolution of rock bodies and faults in the study volume and effectively create a four-dimensional model of the geology. The three-dimensional map is divided into fault-bounded blocks and subdivided into lithologic units. Surface geologic mapping provides the foundation for the model. Structural analysis and well data allow extrapolation to a few kilometers depth. Geometries of active faults are inferred from double-difference relocated earthquake hypocenters. Gravity and magnetic data provide constraints on the geometries of low density Cenozoic deposits on denser basement, highly magnetic marker units, and adjacent faults. Existing seismic refraction profiles constrain the geometries of rock bodies with different seismic velocities. Together these datasets and others allow us to construct a model of first-order geologic features in the upper ~15 km of the crust. Major features in the model include the active San Andreas Fault surface; the Pilarcitos Fault, an abandoned strand of the San Andreas; an active NE-vergent fold and thrust belt located E of the San Andreas Fault; regional relief on the basement surface; and several Cenozoic syntectonic basins. Retrodeformation of these features requires constraints from all available datasets (structure, geochronology, paleontology, etc.). Construction of the three-dimensional model and retrodeformation scenarios are non-unique, but significant insights follow from restricting the range of possible geologic histories. For example, we use the model to investigate how the crust responded to migration of the principal slip surface from the Pilarcitos Fault

  10. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  11. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  13. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  14. Catalog of fine-structured electron velocity distribution functions - Part 1: Antiparallel magnetic-field reconnection (Geospace Environmental Modeling case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.

    2017-09-01

    To understand the essential physics needed to reproduce magnetic reconnection events in 2.5-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we revisit the Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) setup. We set up a 2-D Harris current sheet (that also specifies the initial conditions) to evolve the reconnection of antiparallel magnetic fields. In contrast to the GEM setup, we use a much smaller initial perturbation to trigger the reconnection and evolve it more self-consistently. From PIC simulation data with high-quality particle statistics, we study a symmetric reconnection site, including separatrix layers, as well as the inflow and the outflow regions. The velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of electrons have a fine structure and vary strongly depending on their location within the reconnection setup. The goal is to start cataloging multidimensional fine-structured electron velocity distributions showing different reconnection processes in the Earth's magnetotail under various conditions. This will enable a direct comparison with observations from, e.g., the NASA Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission, to identify reconnection-related events. We find regions with strong non-gyrotropy also near the separatrix layer and provide a refined criterion to identify an electron diffusion region in the magnetotail. The good statistical significance of this work for relatively small analysis areas reveals the gradual changes within the fine structure of electron VDFs depending on their sampling site.

  15. Ecological Niche Modeling Identifies Fine-Scale Areas at High Risk of Dengue Fever in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most common and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed a serious threat to public health in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in the PRD is generally associated with known risk factors, fine scale assessments of areas at high risk for DF outbreaks are limited. We built five ecological niche models to identify such areas including a variety of climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic variables, as well as, in some models, extracted principal components. All the models we tested accurately identified the risk of DF, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC were greater than 0.8, but the model using all original variables was the most accurate (AUC = 0.906. Socioeconomic variables had a greater impact on this model (total contribution 55.27% than climatic and environmental variables (total contribution 44.93%. We found the highest risk of DF outbreaks on the border of Guangzhou and Foshan (in the central PRD, and in northern Zhongshan (in the southern PRD. Our fine-scale results may help health agencies to focus epidemic monitoring tightly on the areas at highest risk of DF outbreaks.

  16. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  17. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2014-12-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration.

  18. Landslide modeling and forecasting—recent progress by the u.s. geological survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Landslide studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are focused on two main objectives: scientific understanding and forecasting. The first objective is to gain better understanding of the physical processes involved in landslide initiation and movement. This objective is largely in support of the second objective, to develop predictive capabilities to answer the main hazard questions. Answers to the following six questions are needed to characterize the hazard from landslides: (1) Where will landslides occur? (2) What kind(s) of landslides will occur? (3) When will landslides occur? (4) How big will the landslides be? (5) How fast will the landslides travel? (6) How far will the landslides go? Although these questions are sometimes recast in different terms, such as frequency or recurrence rather than timing (when), the questions or their variants address the spatial, physical, and temporal aspects of landslide hazards. Efforts to develop modeling and forecasting capabilities by the USGS are primarily focused on specific landslide types that pose a high degree of hazard and show relatively high potential for predictability.

  19. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  20. Bayesian inversion of seismic attributes for geological facies using a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Curtis, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Markov chain Monte-Carlo (McMC) sampling generates correlated random samples such that their distribution would converge to the true distribution only as the number of samples tends to infinity. In practice, McMC is found to be slow to converge, convergence is not guaranteed to be achieved in finite time, and detection of convergence requires the use of subjective criteria. Although McMC has been used for decades as the algorithm of choice for inference in complex probability distributions, there is a need to seek alternative approaches, particularly in high dimensional problems. Walker & Curtis (2014) developed a method for Bayesian inversion of 2-D spatial data using an exact sampling alternative to McMC which always draws independent samples of the target distribution. Their method thus obviates the need for convergence and removes the concomitant bias exhibited by finite sample sets. Their algorithm is nevertheless computationally intensive and requires large memory. We propose a more efficient method for Bayesian inversion of categorical variables, such as geological facies that requires no sampling at all. The method is based on a 2-D Hidden Markov Model (2D-HMM) over a grid of cells where observations represent localized data constraining each cell. The data in our example application are seismic attributes such as P- and S-wave impedances and rock density; our categorical variables are the hidden states and represent the geological rock types in each cell-facies of distinct subsets of lithology and fluid combinations such as shale, brine-sand and gas-sand. The observations at each location are assumed to be generated from a random function of the hidden state (facies) at that location, and to be distributed according to a certain probability distribution that is independent of hidden states at other locations - an assumption referred to as `localized likelihoods'. The hidden state (facies) at a location cannot be determined solely by the observation at that

  1. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: jcr@geus.dk [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  3. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081307 Cao Xiping(Geological Museum of China,Beijing 100034)Discussion on the Digitization of Geological Specimen Information and Digital Geological Museum Construction(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,28(2),2007,p.205-208,1 illus.,1 table,4 refs.)

  5. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152086 Liu Lei(Shandong Zhengyuan Geo-logical Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Jinan 250101,China)Comparison of Gridding Effect of MapGIS Software(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160938Gao Xiaowei(Wuhan Center of Geo-logical Survey,China Geological Survey,Wuhan 430223,China);Wu Xiurong Two Types of Terrain and Regional Mineralization in Sumatra,Indonesia(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,34

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160276Jiang Hanbing(Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xi’an710054,China);Yang Hequn The Metallogenic Series Family of Geological Formation in Dunhuang Metallogenetic Belt(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,48(1),2015,p.63-71,2illus.,2tables,28refs.)

  10. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  11. Research on 3D Distribution of Meandering River Sand Body Using Sedimentary Facies Method and 3D Geological Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian; CAO Dai-yong

    2006-01-01

    Sedimentary facies study is an important method in describing the property and distribution of reservoir. 3D geological modeling is a powerful tool in 3D characterization of geological bodies. By combining the sedimentary facies study with 3D geological modeling to generate 3D sedimentary facies model, the 3D geometry and distribution feature of sand bodies can be more accurately characterized, particularly in 3D view. In Liuchu oilfield of Jizhong depression, the Ed2IV formation was recognized as meandering river deposition facies and five sedimentary facies were identified, which include point bar sand, levee, channel margin, abandoned channel and floodplain. All the 24 sand body facies in Ed2IV were mapped and the 3D sedimentary facies model established based on 2D facies maps. The result shows that the 3D sedimentary facies model is well matched for the research result of sedimentary facies. Being an extension of traditional sedimentary study, the 3D sedimentary facies model can be used to describe the 3D geometry and distribution orders of a single sand body more reliably and more accurately.

  12. Reasoning about geological space: Coupling 3D GeoModels and topological queries as an aid to spatial data selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Jacynthe; Bédard, Karine; Kirkwood, Donna; Lachance, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    Topological relationships between geological objects are of great interest for mining and petroleum exploration. Indeed, adjacency, inclusion and intersection are common relationships between geological objects such as faults, geological units, fractures, mineralized zones and reservoirs. However, in the context of 3D modeling, actual geometric data models used to store those objects are not designed to manage explicit topological relationships. For example, with Gocad© software, topological analyses are possible but they require a series of successive manipulations and are time consuming. This paper presents the development of a 3D topological query prototype, TQuery, compatible with Gocad© modeling platform. It allows the user to export Gocad© objects to a data storage model that regularizes the topological relationships between objects. The development of TQuery was oriented towards the use of volumetric objects that are composed of tetrahedrons. Exported data are then retrieved and used for 3D topological and spatial queries. One of the advantages of TQuery is that different types of objects can be queried at the same time without restricting the operations to voxel regions. TQuery allows the user to analyze data more quickly and efficiently and does not require a 3D modeling specialist to use it, which is particularly attractive in the context of a decision-making aid. The prototype was tested on a 3D GeoModel of a continental red-bed copper deposit in the Silurian Robitaille Formation (Transfiguration property, Québec, Canada).

  13. Workshop on geologic data requirements for radioactive waste management assessment models, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28--July 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    Exchange of information is needed among persons working in two broad categories of studies concerned with terminal storage of radioactive waste. These two categories are: (1) investigations of several types of geologic formations in a number of locations to determine suitability for use with various emplacement techniques, and (2) development of models for the ERDA, NRC, and EPA, for the general purpose of assessing the long term safety of terminal storage facilities. The Workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28-July 1, 1976, sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation and arranged by The University of New Mexico addressed this need. Presentations covered background topics of: geologic studies being made, methods for risk analysis, assessment models being developed, and descriptions of field observations of radionuclide migration. During vigorous discussion periods, a list of items to be jointly attacked by geologists and modelers was worked out.

  14. Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Lakshmi Planum is a highstanding plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus [1-6]. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 [7-10, 5,11] and Magellan data [12-14], resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling [10,15-18] due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction [19,11,20-29]. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50- 75N, 300-360E; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi. Material units: Eleven material units make up the V-7 quadrangle. (1) Tessera (t), exposed inside and outside Lakshmi appears to be the oldest material. (2) Densely lineated plains (pdl) postdate tessera and form one of the oldest units; patches occur outside Lakshmi Planum. (3) Ridged plains (pr) postdate pdl and occur outside Lakshmi. (4) Shield plains (psh) display abundant small shields

  15. 基于GIS的地质勘察信息模型研究%Geological Survey Research Information Model based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中成

    2015-01-01

    The main building GIS-based geological survey information model describes the GIS information model to analyze the design and application of geological survey information systems, and discusses the three-dimensional geological information related to the content model, aimed at strengthening the geological survey information model based on GIS build and improve the quality of geological survey work.%主要研究了基于GIS地质勘察信息模型的构建,介绍了GIS信息模型,分析了地质勘察信息系统的设计和应用,讨论了地质三维信息模型的相关内容,旨在加强基于GIS地质勘察信息模型的构建,提高地质勘察工作的质量。

  16. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments--a framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A; Christensen, Britt S B; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril; Sørensen, Kurt I; Therrien, Rene; Thirup, Christian; Viezzoli, Andrea

    2014-01-15

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30-50 m and 2m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  17. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071202 Bai Fu(Second Prospecting Insti- tute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re- sources,Lanzhou 730020,China);Ma Genxi Analysis of the Occurrence of the Geother- mal Resources in Lanzhou,Gansu Province (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,

  19. 三维地质建模技术及其在煤田构造中的应用%3D Geological Modeling Technology and Its Application on Coalfield Structural Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青元; 董前林; 贾会玲; 陈强; 马圆圆

    2014-01-01

    Subjects investigated, exploration methods and data of coal geological exploration are spatially three dimensional, propitious to manage through 3D geological modeling techniques. According to if the 3D geological modeling and coal geological exploration at a time, can divide coal geological exploration 3D geological modeling into two categories:one is in exploration, mainly depends on drill-ing data, used to construct 3D geological model prototype, generate coal floor contour maps, section sketches provide to geologist for fur-ther processing, construct fine 3D geological model;another is after exploration engineering completed, taking the prepped coal floor contour maps, sections as the main data sources construct fine 3D geological model. The fine 3D geological model can be used in coalmine design, digital mine construction. The application of 3D modeling techniques is propitious to coal geological structural re-search, mainly reflected in following aspects:the first, can carry out integrating and assimilating processing exploration data acquired from various means of geological survey, drilling, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, to upgrade consistency of information spac-es;the second, expression of geological structural elements should be intuitive and 3 dimensional, such as expression of fault not only can be a plane, but also can reflect mutual intersecting between fault and strata, as well as between faults, to make up insufficient of on-ly a line on plans and sections;the third, can carry out 3D linkage editing of plans and sections, to ensure their spatial consistency;the fourth, can block out on sections to determine coal seams correlation and faults intersecting schemes.%煤炭地质勘查的研究对象、勘探方法、数据资料在空间上都是三维的,适合于采用三维地质建模技术进行管理。根据三维地质建模与煤炭地质勘查是否同时,可将煤炭地质勘探三维地质建模分为两类,一类为勘探

  20. Fine orbit tuning to increase the accuracy of the gravity-field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, A.; Klokocnik, J.; Kostelecky, J.; Floberghagen, R.; Sebera, J.

    2010-12-01

    Fine orbit tuning will be presented as a tool to enhance the accuracy of the gravity-field parameters based on the data from satellite missions around the Earth or other planetary bodies. A slight variation in the satellite altitude of a few hundred metres or kilometres may dramatically change the pattern and density of the groundtracks, thus leading to a significant difference in the quality of the derived gravity-field parameters. This aspect is important not only to missions dedicated to the gravity-field mapping, but it can be applied to any planetary mission, whose orbital data may yield useful information on the particular gravity field. The geometry of satellite groundtracks is closely connected with the term orbital resonance or repeat orbit, which was intensively studied by the satellite geodesy community since the 1970s. In a systematic way, fine orbit tuning was first applied to altimetry missions for oceanographic purposes in the early 1990s, when it became clear that small changes in the satellite altitude might substantially influence the utility of the data from the onboard instruments. The monthly geopotential solutions from the GRACE mission (in orbit since 2002) displayed apparently worse precision in August-September 2004, which was later found to be caused by a sparser groundtrack pattern due to the passage of the GRACE satellites through the 61/4 orbit resonance. The lessons learned from GRACE were applied by ESA to its gravity field mission GOCE (in orbit since 2009). Here, the situation is different, as the GOCE onboard thrusters are capable of maintaining the satellite at a constant altitude. In order to fully use the measurement potential of the first space gradiometer ever flown, in the GOCE mission planning the influence of orbit geometry was taken into account, and a minimum 2-month repeat period for the orbit was specified. We analysed several orbital configurations of GOCE, as possible candidates for the gravity mapping phases. We

  1. Large, high-intensity fire events in Southern California shrublands: Debunking the fine-grain age patch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the fine-grain age patch model of fire regimes in southern California shrublands. Proponents contend that the historical condition was characterized by frequent small to moderate size, slow-moving smoldering fires, and that this regime has been disrupted by fire suppression activities that have caused unnatural fuel accumulation and anomalously large and catastrophic wildfires. A review of more than 100 19th-century newspaper reports reveals that large, high-intensity wildfires predate modern fire suppression policy, and extensive newspaper coverage plus first-hand accounts support the conclusion that the 1889 Santiago Canyon Fire was the largest fire in California history. Proponents of the fine-grain age patch model contend that even the very earliest 20th-century fires were the result of fire suppression disrupting natural fuel structure. We tested that hypothesis and found that, within the fire perimeters of two of the largest early fire events in 1919 and 1932, prior fire suppression activities were insufficient to have altered the natural fuel structure. Over the last 130 years there has been no significant change in the incidence of large fires greater than 10000 ha, consistent with the conclusion that fire suppression activities are not the cause of these fire events. Eight megafires (???50 000 ha) are recorded for the region, and half have occurred in the last five years. These burned through a mosaic of age classes, which raises doubts that accumulation of old age classes explains these events. Extreme drought is a plausible explanation for this recent rash of such events, and it is hypothesized that these are due to droughts that led to increased dead fine fuels that promoted the incidence of firebrands and spot fires. A major shortcoming of the fine-grain age patch model is that it requires age-dependent flammability of shrubland fuels, but seral stage chaparral is dominated by short-lived species that create a dense surface layer of fine

  2. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  3. Constructive epistemic modeling of groundwater flow with geological structure and boundary condition uncertainty under the Bayesian paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshall, Ahmed S.; Tsai, Frank T.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Constructive epistemic modeling is the idea that our understanding of a natural system through a scientific model is a mental construct that continually develops through learning about and from the model. Using hierarchical Bayesian model averaging (BMA), this study shows that segregating different uncertain model components through a BMA tree of posterior model probability, model prediction, within-model variance, between-model variance and total model variance serves as a learning tool. First, the BMA tree of posterior model probabilities permits the comparative evaluation of the candidate propositions of each uncertain model component. Second, systemic model dissection is imperative for understanding the individual contribution of each uncertain model component to the model prediction and variance. Third, the hierarchical representation of the between-model variance facilitates the prioritization of the contribution of each uncertain model component to the overall model uncertainty. We illustrate these concepts using the groundwater flow model of a siliciclastic aquifer-fault system. We consider four uncertain model components. With respect to geological structure uncertainty, we consider three methods for reconstructing the hydrofacies architecture of the aquifer-fault system, and two formation dips. We consider two uncertain boundary conditions, each having two candidate propositions. Through combinatorial design, these four uncertain model components with their candidate propositions result in 24 base models. The study shows that hierarchical BMA analysis helps in advancing knowledge about the model rather than forcing the model to fit a particularly understanding or merely averaging several candidate models.

  4. Joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data: A synthetic study using geologically realistic models from the Voisey's Bay deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-McAuslan, A.; Lelièvre, P. G.; Farquharson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic methods provide high resolving potential for use in mineral exploration. Unfortunately, complicated hard-rock geology can make seismic data processing and interpretation difficult. It may help to overcome these difficulties by jointly inverting seismic tomography data with gravity data. We investigated the viability of deterministic minimum-structure style joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data for the delineation of geological targets from the Voisey's Bay sulfide deposit in Labrador, Canada. These tests also assessed the potential of employing borehole gravity. A number of synthetic Earth models were created based on the geology of the Eastern Deeps zone of the Voisey's Bay deposit. These models were built on triangular (2D) and tetrahedral (3D) unstructured meshes, allowing for efficient generation of complicated, realistic geological structures. 2D models were based on conceptualized models of the Eastern Deeps. A detailed 3D model was built using information from extensive drilling. Single property and joint inversions were performed with seismic traveltimes and both ground-based and borehole gravity. There is a known relationship between seismic velocity and density for both silicate rocks and sulphide minerals for our study area; this lithological relationship was used to design an appropriate coupling strategy in the joint inversions. Joint inversions were able to successfully locate a buried high contrast target with a variety of survey designs. Experimentation with noise levels, mesh design, and various inversion parameters has lead to a better understanding of how to practically apply joint inversion of traveltimes and gravity data to this and similar exploration problems.

  5. Anne Fine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gaydon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Anne Fine with an introduction and aside on the role of children’s literature in our lives and development, and our adult perceptions of the suitability of childhood reading material.Since graduating from Warwick in 1968 with a BA in Politics and History, Anne Fine has written over fifty books for children and eight for adults, won the Carnegie Medal twice (for Goggle-Eyes in 1989 and Flour Babies in 1992, been a highly commended runner-up three times (for Bill’s New Frock in 1989, The Tulip Touch in 1996, and Up on Cloud Nine in 2002, been shortlisted for the Hans Christian Andersen Award (the highest recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children’s books, 1998, undertaken the positon of Children’s Laureate (2001-2003, and been awarded an OBE for her services to literature (2003. Warwick presented Fine with an Honorary Doctorate in 2005.Philip Gaydon’s interview with Anne Fine was recorded as part of the ‘Voices of the University’ oral history project, co-ordinated by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

  6. Subsurface geological modeling of Corrientes province (NE Argentina) and its relationships with the Guaraní Aquifer system function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Andrés; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Rossello, Eduardo; Vives, Luis; Rodríguez, Leticia

    2015-10-01

    From the integration results of geological and geophysical data, a subsurface geological model of the Corrientes province (Argentina) that allows visualizing its deep geological structure and how it affected the Guaraní Aquifer System (GAS) is presented. 44 boreholes, 21 geophysical surveys and 1366 depth data from a Bouguer gravity anomaly model have been used. The model was built from five layers easily distinguishable in the regional subsurface: basement, pre-GAS sediments (Paleozoic), GAS sediments (Triassic-Lower Cretaceous), basalts (Serra Geral Group, Lower Cretaceous) and post basaltic sediments. The resulting geometry shows a basement with a structural high, the Dorsal Asunción-Rio Grande, where the GAS and the basaltic layer are thinner and the Mesozoic sediments rise near the surface. It is an area prone to local recharge and regional discharge of the GAS and it is in line with the latest piezometry and groundwater chemical analysis. Furthermore, two important depocenters have been identified, Corrientes and Curuzú structural high blocks, with at least 3500 m of sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary deposits that suggest the existence of significant pre-carboniferous sediment units associated to ancient extensional structures of the early Paleozoic. The proposed model allows defining a lithostratigraphic column of Corrientes and gives new criteria to redraw the southwest limit of the GAS.

  7. Multiple data sets converge on a geologic structural model for Glass Buttes, Oregon geothermal prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P.; Martini, B.; Lide, C.; Boschmann, D.; Dilles, J. H.; Meigs, A.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic field work is being combined with multiple remote sensing and geophysical tools to model fault structure at the Glass Buttes geothermal prospect in central Oregon. Glass Buttes are a Pliocene volcanic center that sits near the junction of the Abert Rim and Brothers Fault Zones. West-northwest-striking faults, which typify the Brothers Fault Zone, bound Glass Buttes. Individual faults and fault intersections are anticipated to provide permeability for utility scale geothermal development in central Oregon. Existing temperature data reveal a maximum of 90° C measured at 600 m, with ~160° C/km bottom hole temperature gradient. High temperature surface alteration, abundant WNW-oriented faulting, and reported drilling mud losses indicate likely commercial temperatures and fracture-controlled permeability at depth. LiDAR, hyperspectral mineral mapping, and field mapping constrain near-surface structure and volcanic contacts; aeromagnetic data constrain surface to intermediate (<1000 m) structure; and gravity data constrain deeper structure (surface-2000 m). Data sets agree reasonably well in some areas, although gravity data reflect a few deep-seated faults more than the densely faulted surface structure. On the east side of the prospect, these interpreted faults trend ENE, nearly perpendicular to observed surface structures. To the north of Glass Buttes, a curvilinear gravity high and topographic low indicate that Glass Buttes sits on the southern end of a previously unidentified buried caldera or graben. Interpretation of subsurface and gravity data do not uniquely distinguish between these alternative interpretations. Exploratory drilling will target intersections of surface faults with deeper gravity-defined features.

  8. 三维地质结构模型中闭合地质块体的构建%Sealed Geological Block Modeling in 3D Geological Structural Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 潘懋; 吴耕宇; 刘殷; 李魁星

    2015-01-01

    In 3D geological modeling, the existing geological sealed block recognition algorithms were based on topology between cells of geological surfaces. These algorithms faced some obvious weaknesses such as topology data redundancy and high computational complexity. To solve these problems, with research objective of recog-nizing topological closed 3D geological blocks, this paper presented a topology model that is suitable for ex-pressing complex topological relationship between geological surfaces to separate geometry and topology of geological surfaces, and proposed a rapid construction process of this model. Geological sealed block is area sur-rounded by geological surfaces that are topological closed in the underground space; therefore, geological sealed block recognition is a topological problem in essence, not relating to geometry. From the perspective of this point, the defined topology model include topological node, topological border, topological facet, topological surface, and topological block. Its construction process follows four steps: search topological node in geological surfaces boundary; construct topological border; build topological facet composed of closed topological borders; search topological block in all topological facets. When searching geological sealed blocks, the built topology model transfers searching process from geometric space to topological space. The rapid construction process due to the only use of boundary information of geological surfaces during construction process of the topology model. Ex-perimental results show that this algorithm has a good performance of time complexity and can satisfy all kinds of relationship between complex geological surfaces because of the integrity of topology model in theory.%三维地质建模中现有地质闭合区块搜索算法基于网格单元间的拓扑进行拓扑搜索,面临着拓扑信息冗余、计算量大、计算复杂度高等缺点。针对这一问题,以搜索拓扑

  9. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The Tokyo Lowland is situated in a Neogene sedimentary basin near the triple junction of the North American, Pacific, and Philippine tectonic plates. The basin is filled with Neogene and Quaternary sediments up to a thickness of 3 km. In the upper 70 m of the basin, thick sequences of soft Holocene sediments occur which are assumed to have played a key role in the spatial variation of damage intensity during the 1923 Kanto earthquake (Magnitude 7.9 to 8.3). Historical records show this earthquake destroyed large parts of the Tokyo urban area which in that time was largely made up by wooden houses. Although the epicentre was 70 km to the southwest of Tokyo, severe damage occurred north of the city centre, presumably due to ground motion amplification in the soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface. In order to assess the presumed relation between the damage pattern of the 1923 earthquake and the occurrence of soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface, we constructed a 3D geological voxel model of the central part of the Tokyo Lowland. The model was constructed using a methodology originally developed for the lowlands of the Netherlands. The modelling workflow basically consists of three steps. First, some 10,000 borehole descriptions (gathered for geomechanical purposes), were subdivided into geological units that have uniform sediment characteristics, using both lithological and geomechanical (N-value) criteria. Second, 2D bounding surfaces were constructed, representing tops and bases of the geological units. These surfaces were used to place each voxel (100 by 100 by 1 m) within the correct geological unit. The N-values and lithological units in the borehole descriptions were subsequently used to perform a 3D stochastic interpolation of N-value and lithological class within each geological unit. Using a vertical voxel stack analysis, we were able to create a map showing the accumulated thickness of soft muds in the Holocene succession. A

  10. The Role and Practice of Property Optimisation to Help Evaluate 3D Geological Models using Gravity and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.

    2008-12-01

    As the shift from 2D to 3D geological mapping gathers strength and the number of multi-component potential field data sets increases, there is a need for greater sophistication in the gravity and magnetic modelling tools that can be used to help evaluate and refine the properties and geometry of the various units within these models. The hitherto standard approach of 2D forward modelling of selected cross-sections is progressively giving way to full 3D forward modelling. An example of a user-guided optimisation method to streamline what would otherwise be a time-consuming and frustrating manual iterative refinement process in 3D is presented. A combination of the density and magnetic properties assigned to each geological unit is derived such that the total calculated response best matches the supplied scalar, vector or tensor gravity and magnetic field observations, subject to specified levels of uncertainty (bounds) in the properties. Numerical optimisation is achieved with a standard linear least squares routine, subject to equality and bounds constraints. The user is presented with 3 standard options for every property, allowing the property values to be either (a) fixed, (b) free to vary within a specified range, or (c) free vary over a very broad range. Additionally, properties for a group of geological units can be linked so that they all return the same value. The parameterisation of density properties is relatively straight forward with a single property for each geological unit. Magnetic properties present more of a challenge. Three distinct scenarios are identified and a separate option can be selected for each geological unit. These assume (1) only induced susceptibility, (2) a combination of induced susceptibility and remanent magnetisation of know direction, or (3) a combination of induced susceptibility and remanent magnetisation of unknown direction. In this latter case, a solution is obtained for the total effective magnetisation in the form of 3

  11. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Fotini K.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the potential impacts of unexpected surface releases of CO{sub 2} is an essential part of risk assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have extended a mesoscale atmospheric model to model dense gas dispersion of CO{sub 2} leakage. The hazard from CO{sub 2} leakage is greatest in regions with topographic depressions where the dense gas can pool. Simulation of dispersion in idealized topographies shows that CO{sub 2} can persist even under high winds. Simulation of a variety of topographies, winds, and release conditions allows the generation of a catalog of simulation results that can be queried to estimate potential impacts at actual geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  12. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  13. Linking geological evidence from the Eurasian suture zones to a regional Indian Ocean plate tectonic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Aitchison, J.; Müller, R.; Whittaker, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a revised regional plate tectonic model for the Indian Ocean from the Late Jurassic to present, which assimilates both marine geophysical data constraining the seafloor spreading history as well as a variety of geological observations from the Eurasian collision zone. This model includes relative motion between Greater India, Sri Lanka, West Australia, East Antarctica, East Madagascar, the Seychelles and Argoland, a continental sliver which began migrating towards Eurasia in the Late Jurassic, forming the northern margins of Greater India and western Australia. Recently collected data offshore northwest Australia suggest that the majority of Greater India reached only halfway along the West Australian margin in an Early Mesozoic reconstruction, bounded by the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. The revised geometries and relative motion histories redefine the timing and nature of collisional events, as well as the history of back-arc basins and intra-oceanic arcs, such as the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc in northwest India and Pakistan. Abundant ophiolites have been identified throughout the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone, between the Indian-Himalaya and Tibet, several have boninitic compositions and almost all date to either the Mid Jurassic or late Early Cretaceous. Further evidence suggests that an intra-oceanic arc collided with Greater India before colliding with Eurasia. Our model features a transform boundary running north of East Africa, which initiated an oceanic arc following short-lived compression between the western and central Mesotethys in the Late Jurassic, coinciding with the initial motion of Argoland. The arc developed through extension and ophiolite generation until at least the mid-Cretaceous and consumed a narrow thinned sliver of West Argoland between ~120-65 Ma. The arc remained active in the same position until its eventual collision with Greater India ~55 Ma. The eastern portion of the intra-oceanic arc accreted to eastern Eurasia

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091993 Cao Wei(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Sheng Yu Grey Relation Projection Model for the Assessment of Permafrost Environment in Coal Mining Areas(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.111-115,2 tables,15 refs.)Key words:miming,frozen ground,environment impact statementsDue to the intense effect of coal mining activity on permafrost,the permafrost environment in coal mining areas is very frail.It is very important to assess the permafrost environment in coal mining areas.The permafrost environment is

  15. Remote Sensing Geological Exploration Model for Copper and Gold Deposits in the East Tianshan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shoulin; Fu Shuixing; LI Chunxia

    2004-01-01

    Based on the identification and enhancive processing of information about strata, structure, magmatite, and alteration in ore-concentrated area in the eastern Tianshan, an exploration mode of remote sensing geology is established.The mode covers basic images composed of TM (7, 4, 1), Munsell space transformation for recognizing rock type,directional matched filtering for enhancing structures, multi-layer separating and extracting weak alteration information. It will provide a rapid and effective method for geological mapping and metallogenic prediction in this region.

  16. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of

  17. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  18. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  19. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141912Cao Hui(State Key Laboratory for Continental Tectonics and Dynamics,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)Gravitational Collapse and Folding during Orogenesis:A Comparative Study of FIA Trends and Fold Axial Plane Traces(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(6),2013,p.1818-1828,9illus.,35refs.,with

  20. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071601 Yin Yanhong (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China); Sun Jiashi Discovery of Qingdao Iron Meteorite and Its Chemical Composition and Mineralogy (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(3), 2006, p.121-124, 3 illus., 2 tables, 9 refs.)Key words: iron meteorites, Shandong Province The Qingdao iron meteorite was found in May, 2004.

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072222 Cao Xiuding(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Qin Guoqing General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)Technology and Its Application in Geological Hazard Monitoring(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.69-72,76,2 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  4. Geologic constraints on kinematic models and age of formation of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    A wealth of new geologic and geophysical data now exist for the Amerasia Basin, but the details of its age and the nature/kinematics of events that resulted in its formation remain elusive. Basement rock ages, detrital zircon signatures of sedimentary rocks, and sediment dispersal systems have been used to show how parts of the southern margin(s) of the Amerasia Basin (Arctic Alaska-Chukotka, AAC) match their rifted margin counterparts on the Eurasia and Canada side of the Amerasia Basin. Thus we know the approximate finite translations needed to restore the paleogeography of the Arctic, but not the kinematics involved. Important features of the Amerasia Basin that need to be explained in a model for its opening are the age and extent of the high Arctic LIP, the linearity of the strip of continental crust represented by the Lomonosov Ridge, its right angle intersection with the Canadian Arctic margin, and the directional fault patterns mapped bathymetrically and seismically across the Alpha-Lomonosov Ridge and surrounding seafloor. Across AAC, post-Early Cretaceous oroclinal bends provide insight into strike-slip components of deformation involved in opening of the Amerasia Basin: The Chukchi syntax offsets the Brooks Range in a right-lateral sense from Wrangel Island along the Herald Arch; right-lateral motion of Arctic Alaska with respect to the Chukchi Borderland during opening of the Canada Basin; right-lateral shear in Chukotka during 100 Ma magmatism; the tight bend in the northern Verkhoyansk, result of Cretaceous right-lateral shear. The land-based relationships imply a post-Early Cretaceous, younger than Barremian (~130 Ma) age for onset of magmatism and extension related to rifting and formation of the Amerasia Basin. At least two stages of extension are documented, with older E-W extension characterizing the longitude of the New Siberian Islands to Pevek, Russian Arctic, (ca.125 Ma to 100 Ma), with younger N-S extension superimposed on this system (ca

  5. Geological and Geophysical Models Underneath Bucharest City Responsible for the Variability of Seismic Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Balan, S. F.; Arion, C.

    2012-04-01

    assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which are the basic data for equivalent linear modelling of the site; other geotechnical parameters measured in the laboratory on the rock samples will permit the nonlinear modelling of the site. Using the program SHAKE2000 and EERA we compute spectral acceleration functions at specific depths and transfer functions for the 1D models obtained from the in situ measurements. The acceleration response spectra correspond to the wave amplifications due to the package of sedimentary layers from 50 m depth (maximum depth) up to the surface, that are expected for a moderate real earthquake motion incident at the bottom of each 1D model. Because of the lack of outcropping bedrock in the Bucharest area, a seismic signal recorded in a borehole (PRI - 50 m depth; TEI- 78 m depth; INC - 140 m depth) at a moderate earthquake (Mw= 6), is used as input for the entire study area. 1D models obtained were tested in order to strengthen the importance of various input parameters in the obtained results. The results of the equivalent linear modeling with SHAKE2000 program for the 10 boreholes are presented and compared as graphs of spectral acceleration. The maximum values of the spectral accelerations occur around the 3 main the periods: T1 = 0.13 s; T2 = 0.2 s; T3 = 0.55 s. The highest values occured at the period T2 = 0.2 s, and they are between 0.22 g and 0.48 g. If we consider a comparison of the values at surface, they are between 0.22 g at Romanian Shooting Fed. (northern part of Bucharest) and 0.48 g (Ecologic Univ. in the central part of Bucharest).

  6. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  7. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  8. Mapping Model of Groundwater Catchment Area based on Geological Fault : Case Study in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudus, N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a naturally renewable resource because groundwater is an integral part of hydrological cycle. However, in reality, there are many limiting factors which influence its usage, in both quality and quantity, the provision ability of groundwater will decrease if its availability is exceeded. The problems of ground water potential in both quantity and quality are always related to its constituents' characteristics or its geological element where the groundwater resides. This present study aims at determining the groundwater catchment area based on the geological condition of an area so that groundwater recharge can be accomplished. In addition, it is necessary for groundwater catchment area to comply with the geological condition. The geologically unfit area will only result in land movement or landslide if it is used as groundwater catchment area. The results of geo-electricity analysis which was conducted in Semarang city showed that there are 3 faults; Sukorejo fault, Tinjomoyo fault and Jangli fault which will be explained in detail in the paper. Those faults intersect the underground water stream in Semarang from south to north towards the Java Sea. The majority of underground water stream in Semarang flows from south to north. In contrary, the results of the analysis showed that there are some points that become local basins such as in the south area and southwest of Semarang where flow direction is on the opposite direction. In addition, the results of the analysis showed that some coastal areas in Semarang have experienced salt water intrusion.

  9. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  10. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  11. Building the 3D Geological Model of Wall Rock of Salt Caverns Based on Integration Method of Multi-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongzhi, WANG; hui, WANG; Lixia, LIAO; Dongsen, LI

    2017-02-01

    In order to analyse the geological characteristics of salt rock and stability of salt caverns, rough three-dimensional (3D) models of salt rock stratum and the 3D models of salt caverns on study areas are built by 3D GIS spatial modeling technique. During implementing, multi-source data, such as basic geographic data, DEM, geological plane map, geological section map, engineering geological data, and sonar data are used. In this study, the 3D spatial analyzing and calculation methods, such as 3D GIS intersection detection method in three-dimensional space, Boolean operations between three-dimensional space entities, three-dimensional space grid discretization, are used to build 3D models on wall rock of salt caverns. Our methods can provide effective calculation models for numerical simulation and analysis of the creep characteristics of wall rock in salt caverns.

  12. Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr.

    Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields.

    The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification.

    We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole

  13. Ocean acidification in the Meso- vs. Cenozoic: lessons from modeling about the geological expression of paleo-ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Kirtland Turner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid climatic and biotic events putatively associated with ocean acidification are scattered throughout the Meso-Cenozoic. Many of these rapid perturbations, variably referred to as hyperthermals (Paleogene) and oceanic anoxic events or mass extinction events (Mesozoic), share a number of characteristic features, including some combination of negative carbon isotopic excursion, global warming, and a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Comparisons between ocean acidification events over the last ~250 Ma are, however, problematic because the types of marine geological archives and carbon reservoirs that can be interrogated are fundamentally different for early Mesozoic vs. late Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Many Mesozoic events are known primarily or exclusively from geological outcrops of relatively shallow water deposits, whereas the more recent Paleogene hyperthermal events have been chiefly identified from deep sea records. In addition, these earlier events are superimposed on an ocean with a fundamentally different carbonate buffering capacity, as calcifying plankton (which created the deep-sea carbonate sink) originate in the mid-Mesozoic. Here, we use both Earth system modeling and reaction transport sediment modeling to explore the ways in which comparable ocean acidification-inducing climate perturbations might manifest in the Mesozoic vs. the Cenozoic geological record. We examine the role of the deep-sea carbonate sink in the expression of ocean acidification, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of surface ocean pH and carbonate saturation state. These results critically inform interpretations of ocean acidification prior to the mid-Mesozoic advent of calcifying plankton and expectations about the recording of these events in geological outcrop.

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131925 Chen Ning(State Key Laboratory of Geological Hazards Prevention,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Yunsheng Features and Chains Genesis Analysis of Earthquake Geo-Hazards in Yuzi Stream of Wenchuan County(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(3),2012,p.340-349,4

  18. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131382 Chen Tao(Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Liu Yugang The Activity Age of Tarwan Fault and Genesis of the Topographic Scarp(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,34(3),

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090651 Chen Boyang(Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Research,Fuzhou 350011,China) Bio-Geochemical Characteristics of High and Low-Incidence Area of Stomach Cancer in the Coastal Area of Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,27(1),2008,p.29-36,3 tables,6 refs.)

  20. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040862 Chen Zhihua (Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei); Guan Xuefeng Development of DBMS for Environmental Geologic Hazards on WebGIS (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 20-24, 3 illus. , 9 refs. )

  1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050576 Li Sanzhong (College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003,China) ; Zhou Lihong Cenozoic Faulting and Basin Formation in the Eastern North China Plate (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN 0256 - 1492, CN37 -1117/P, 24(3), 2004, p. 57-66, 5 illus. , 33 refs. ) Key words: tectonic framework, North China

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  3. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131358 Li Jianzhong (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources , School of Earth Sciences and Resources , China University of Geosciences , Beijing 100083 , China); Cui Jing Geological Application of Mult-Idimensional Data Visualization Based on Geometric Coordinate Method (Earth Science Frontiers

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041944 Chen Yuchuan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) ; Xue Chunli Discussion on the Regional Mineralizing Pedigree of the Ore Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 520-535, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 43 refs. ,

  7. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  8. Geology, composition, and physicochemical model of sparry magnesite deposits of the Southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenin, M. T.; Kol'tsov, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The metasomatic nature of magnesite formation, sequence and timing of geological processes, and solution sources have been established by comprehensive geological and geochemical study of the typical Satka and Ismakaevo deposits of sparry magnesite in the South Ural province. The hydrothermal metasomatic formation of magnesite is related to injection of high-Mg evaporite brine into heated carbonate rocks within permeable rift zones. The numerical physicochemical simulation of solution-rock interaction allowed us to determine the necessary prerequisites for sparry magnesite formation: the occurrence of marine salt solutions with a high Mg/Ca ratio and heating of solutions before or during their interaction with host carbonate rocks. The contribution of compositionally various solution sources, the temperature variation regime, proportions of CO2 and H2S concentrations in solution created specific features of particular deposits.

  9. Fine tails reclamation research and development program : wet landscape water quality model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, J. R.

    1993-07-01

    The 1992/93 wet landscape simulation model development project was summarized. The project included several tasks: (1)the development of a probabilistic version of the model; (2)the completion of a literature review; the completion of a comparative analysis of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of experimental pits; (3)the updating of the experimental pit model; (4)the development of a secondary production model; (5)the implementation of a food-chain model to simulate accumulation of contaminants; and (6)the completion of a preliminary evaluation of contaminant fate and transport for the wet landscape system. Each task was detailed and included as an appendix to the consultant`s report. As a result of the project, there is now a probabilistic water quality model configured for a wet landscape reclamation scenario. Second productivity modelling capabilities have been integrated to the model, as well as linkages with a food chain model and an off-site river model. The other tasks will be undertaken during succeeding years of the project. 1 ref.

  10. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  11. Zenith total delay study of a mesoscale convective system : GPS observations and fine-scale modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurull, I.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Rius, A.

    2002-01-01

    Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) observations and model calculations are used to analyze a mesoscale convective system which yielded a large amount of precipitation over a short period of time in the north-western Mediterranean. ZTD observations are derived from the GPS signal delay whereas the ZTD model re

  12. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  13. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  14. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  15. Integrating Diverse Geophysical and Geological Data to Construct Multi-Dimensional Earth Models: The Open Earth Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, C.; Keller, R.; Wallet, B.; Crosby, C.; Moreland, J.; Nadeau, D.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, many large geoscientific efforts (e.g., EarthScope, Continental Dynamics, and GeoSwath) have emphasized that a crucial need in advancing our understanding of the structure and evolution of the continents is high-resolution, 3-D models of lithospheric structure. In addition, the geoscience community recognizes that our ultimate goal is the addition of the dimension of time to make the problem 4-D. Adding the dimension of time is a complex problem that is strongly dependent on the integration of a variety of geological data into our analyses (e.g., geochronology, paleontology, stratigraphy, pressure-time histories, structural geology, paleogeography, etc.). The geoscience community also recognizes that solutions to the scientific and societal questions that they seek to answer require innovative integration of many types of data so that many physical properties (x, y, z, P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, electrical conductivity, etc.) are measured and included in 3-D models. The problem is, therefore, truly multidimensional in nature. We are developing an Open Earth Framework (OEF) as an open data model for integration of such multidimensional Earth Sciences data. In our work and interactions with the community on building and visualizing complex earth models, several issues have emerged on which there is consensus. First of all, integration efforts should work from the surface down because we have the most data there (e.g., geologic maps, remote sensing data such as LIDAR and ASTER, digital elevation models, gravity and magnetic measurements, etc.) and because the complex conditions near surface always have a potential to mask deeper features. Secondly since we cannot expect uniform coverage of a variety of high-resolution data in anything but special circumstances, a data integration effort should first establish a regional context using lower resolution (and usually wide coverage) data and then proceed to modeling the data sets with the highest

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  17. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072338 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Survey,Guiyang,Guizhou 550005,China);Zhang Zhen Treatment of Discovery on Ductile Shear Belts in Yiwu,Xingjiang Province and Its Ore-Forming Geology Process(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,23(4),2006,p.286-291,295,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:ductile shear zones,metallogenesis,XinjiangOf ductile shear belts,deformation fabric considerably developed in Yiwu,

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND INTENSIFICATION OF CONDENSATION GRAVITY FINE AIR FILTER OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shitov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. A problem of mathematical modeling and intensification of operation of the flow thermal diffusion chamber of the condensation gravity filter as one of the most efficient air filter is solved.Results and conclusions. This paper presents an example of the practical application of the model of heat and mass exchange in the thermodiffusion chamber as the main operating element of condensation gravity filter for high-performance air purification due to the generation of supersaturation fields with controlled properties. A criterion for quantitative assessment of purification efficiency in the form of breakthrough function is developed. The typical results of numerical modeling of the operation of the condensation gravity-type filter are presented for the most common case in practice. The possibility of intensification of the filter operation either at the stage of use or at the stage of design is shown based on the proposed approach, obtained models, and calculations.

  19. Adaptive modelling of long-distance wave propagation and fine-scale flooding during the Tohoku tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Popinet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami is simulated using the quadtree-adaptive Saint-Venant solver implemented within the Gerris Flow Solver. The spatial resolution is adapted dynamically from 250 m in flooded areas up to 250 km for the areas at rest. Wave fronts are tracked at a resolution of 1.8 km in deep water. The simulation domain extends over 73° of both latitude and longitude and covers a significant part of the north-west Pacific. The initial wave elevation is obtained from a source model derived using seismic data only. Accurate long-distance wave prediction is demonstrated through comparison with DART buoys timeseries and GLOSS tide gauges records. The model also accurately predicts fine-scale flooding compared to both satellite and survey data. Adaptive mesh refinement leads to orders-of-magnitude gains in computational efficiency compared to non-adaptive methods. The study confirms that consistent source models for tsunami initiation can be obtained from seismic data only. However, while the observed extreme wave elevations are reproduced by the model, they are located further south than in the surveyed data. Comparisons with inshore wave buoys data indicate that this may be due to an incomplete understanding of the local wave generation mechanisms.

  20. Artificial neural network models for prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations in Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellali, M R; Abderrahim, H; Hamou, A; Nebatti, A; Janovec, J

    2016-07-01

    Neural network (NN) models were evaluated for the prediction of suspended particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 10-μm (PM10) concentrations. The model evaluation work considered the sequential hourly concentration time series of PM10, which were measured at El Hamma station in Algiers. Artificial neural network models were developed using a combination of meteorological and time-scale as input variables. The results were rather satisfactory, with values of the coefficient of correlation (R (2)) for independent test sets ranging between 0.60 and 0.85 and values of the index of agreement (IA) between 0.87 and 0.96. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the normalized mean squared error (NMSE), the absolute relative percentage error (ARPE), the fractional bias (FB), and the fractional variance (FS) were calculated to assess the performance of the model. It was seen that the overall performance of model 3 was better than models 1 and 2.

  1. Extreme Wave Simulation due to Typhoon Bolaven based on locally Enhanced Fine-Mesh Unstructured Grid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Byung Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    The performance of an integrally coupled wave-tide-surge model using the unstructured mesh system has been tested for the typhoon Bolaven which is regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade with wind gusts measured up to 50 m/s, causing serious damages with 19 victims. Use of the unstructured mesh in coastal sea regions of marginal scale allows all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed; the physics of wave-circulation interactions can be then correctly resolved. The model covers the whole Yellow and East China Seas with locally refined meshes near the regions of Gageo Island (offshore southwestern corner of the Korean Peninsula) and south of Jeju Island (Gangjeong and Seogwipo ports). The wind and pressure fields during the passage of typhoon Bolaven are generated by the blending method. Generally the numerical atmospheric model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the strength of typhoons due to dynamic and resolution restrictions. In this study we could achieve an improved conservation of the typhoon strength by blending the Holland typhoon model result by the empirical formula onto the ambient meteorological fields of NCEP dataset. The model results are compared with the observations and the model performance is then evaluated. The computed wave spectrums for one and two dimensions are compared with the observation in Ieodo station. Results show that the wind wave significantly enhances the current intensity and surge elevation, addressing that to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect in the wave-tide-surge coupled model is important for the accurate prediction of current and sea surface elevation as well as extreme waves in shallow coastal sea regions. The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting and forecasting the wave-tide-surges in marine environments with complex coastlines, shallow water depth and fine sediment.

  2. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  3. Polygon boundary describing the source surveys used to build the Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin of 100-meter resolution compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (Esri Shapefile, Geographic WGS 84 Coordinate System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric Terrain Models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  4. Polygon Boundary Describing the Source Surveys Used to Build the Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeastern Caribbean Region Compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (PRBATHSOURCE, Esri Shapefile, Geographic projection WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  5. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin (100-meter resolution) compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (32-bit GeoTIFF, MERCATOR Projection, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing technologies...

  6. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeastern Caribbean Region Compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey From Multibeam Bathymetric Data Collected Between 2002 and 2013 (PRBATHOFR150, Esri Binary Grid, UTM19, WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in technologies of acquiring and...

  7. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin (100-meter resolution) compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (32-bit GeoTIFF, MERCATOR Projection, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing technologies...

  8. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin (100-meter resolution) compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (32-bit GeoTIFF, MERCATOR Projection, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  9. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeastern Caribbean Region Compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey From Multibeam Bathymetric Data Collected Between 2002 and 2013 (PRBATHOFR150, Esri Binary Grid, UTM19, WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in technologies of acquiring and...

  10. Polygon Boundary Describing the Source Surveys Used to Build the Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeastern Caribbean Region Compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (PRBATHSOURCE, Esri Shapefile, Geographic projection WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  11. An Improved, Downscaled, Fine Model for Simulation of Daily Weather States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhihong; DING Yuguo; ZHENG Chunyu; CHEN Weilin

    2011-01-01

    In this study,changes in daily weather states were treated as a complex Markov chain process,based on a continuous-time watershed model (soil water assessment tool,SWAT) developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S.Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS).A finer classification using total cloud amount for dry states was adopted,and dry days were classified into three states:clear,cloudy,and overcast (rain free). Multistate transition models for dry- and wet-day series were constructed to comprehensively downscale the simulation of regional daily climatic states.The results show that the finer,improved,downscaled model overcame the oversimplified treatment of a two-weather state model and is free of the shortcomings of a multistate model that neglects finer classification of dry days (i.e.,finer classification was applied only to wet days).As a result,overall simulation of weather states based on the SWAT greatly improved,and the improvement in simulating daily temperature and radiation was especially significant.

  12. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  13. A workflow for transferring heterogeneous complex geological models to consistent finite element models and application to a deep geothermal reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Geological models are the prerequisite of exploring possible use of the subsurface and evaluating induced impacts. Subsurface geological models often show strong complexity in geometry and hydraulic connectivity because of their heterogeneous nature. In order to model that complexity, the corner point grid approach has been applied by geologists for decades. The corner point grid utilizes a set of hexahedral blocks to represent geological formations. Due to the appearance of eroded geological layers, some edges of those blocks may be collapsed and the blocks thus degenerate. This leads to the inconsistency and the impossibility of using the corner point grid directly with a finite element based simulator. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a workflow for transferring heterogeneous geological models to consistent finite element models. In the corner point grid, the hexahedral blocks without collapsed edges are converted to hexahedral elements directly. But if they degenerate, each block is divided into prism, pyramid and tetrahedral elements based on individual degenerated situation. This approach consistently converts any degenerated corner point grid to a consistent hybrid finite element mesh. Along with the above converting scheme, the corresponding heterogeneous geological data, e.g. permeability and porosity, can be transferred as well. Moreover, well trajectories designed in the corner point grid can be resampled to the nodes in the finite element mesh, which represents the location for source terms along the well path. As a proof of concept, we implement the workflow in the framework of transferring models from Petrel to the finite element OpenGeoSys simulator. As application scenario we choose a deep geothermal reservoir operation in the North German Basin. A well doublet is defined in a saline aquifer in the Rhaetian formation, which has a depth of roughly 4000 m. The geometric model shows all kinds of degenerated blocks due to eroded layers and the

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  16. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112745Cheng Shurang(Geological survey of Shanxi Province,Xi’an 710065,China); Zhang Lin Grade Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Pattern Recognition of Comprehensive Anomalies of Geophysics and

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  20. Enhancing Fine Motor Skills of Wards with Special Needs Using Cluster Model of Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Bukkambudhi, Ananda

    2010-01-01

    Technology offers great potential to overcome physical barriers of human race. This paper presents the methods of enhanced learning applicable to children having special needs using better human-computer interaction. The Audio-Visual (AV) effects that the graphic tools or animations help in achieving better learning, understanding, remembering and performance from such students. The 3L-R Cluster Program Model enable them to look into pictures and animated objects while listening to the related audio. It also motivates them to do the FMS development activities like drawing, coloring, tracing etc., certain types of games in the clustered model will help the children to improve concentration, thinking, reasoning, cognitive skills and the eye-to hand co-ordination. Here we introduced a novel cluster model along with the methodology described which provides an ample exposure to the effectiveness of the training. Classify the students with similar problems or disability and the associated curriculum of modified tea...

  1. Engineering Geological Model of the Contact between Two Petrographic and Stratigraphic Units along the Zagreb-Split Highway, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Tomislav; Mlinar, Željko; Grgec, Damir

    The highway route Zagreb-Split, section through Lika region, was designed along the valley of the River Gacka. In this section the highway level line often crosses or goes along the contact zone between two lithological types. The significant differences of rock mass properties of two types would represent the geotechnical problem. The type of contact was also not known as well as the possible weathering degree. Investigation results showed no significant difference in characteristics between Cretaceous limestones and Eocene- Oligocene breccias. Using the results of comprehensive investigations engineering geologi- cal model was made.

  2. Spatiotemporal modeling with temporal-invariant variogram subgroups to estimate fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Short-term exposure estimation of daily air pollution levels incorporating geographic information system (GIS) into spatiotemporal modeling remains a great challenge for assessing corresponding acute adverse health effects. Due to daily meteorological effects on the dispersion of pollutants, explanatory spatial covariables and their coefficients may not be the same as in classical land-use regression (LUR) modeling for long-term exposure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage spatiotemporal model for daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration prediction: first, daily nonlinear temporal trends are estimated through a generalized additive model, and second, GIS covariates are used to predict spatial variation in the temporal trend-removed residuals. To account for spatial dependence on meteorological conditions, the dates of the study period are divided by the sill of the daily empirical variogram into approximately temporal-invariant subgroups. Within each subgroup, daily PM2.5 estimations are obtained by combining the temporal and spatial parts of the estimations from the two stages. The proposed method is applied to the modeling of spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations observed at 18 ambient air monitoring stations in Taipei metropolitan area during 2006-2008. The results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations decreased whereas the relative humidity and wind speed increased with the sill subgroups, which may be due to the effects of daily meteorological conditions on the dispersions of the particles. Also, the covariates and their coefficients of the LUR models varied with subgroups and had in general higher adjusted R-squares and smaller root mean square errors in prediction than those of a single overall LUR model.

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072933 Bie Jun(Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Huang Haijun Ground Subsidence of the Modern Yellow River Delta and Its Causes(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,28(4),2006,p.29-35,5 illus.,13 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:land subsidence,Yellow River Delta

  7. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  9. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  10. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  11. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  12. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072528 Chen Yuchuan(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing,100037);Pei Rongfu On Minerogenetic(Metallogenetic)Series:Third Discussion(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,80(10),2006,p.1501-1508,3illus.,1 table,57 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic series20072529 Pei Rongfu(Institute of Mineral Resources,CAGS,Beijing 100037);Mei Yanxiong Event Geology Stimulati

  16. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  17. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  18. Coupling fine particle and bedload transport in gravel-bedded streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsu; Hunt, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine particles in the silt- and clay-size range are important determinants of surface water quality. Since fine particle loading rates are not unique functions of stream discharge this limits the utility of the available models for water quality assessment. Data from 38 minimally developed watersheds within the United States Geological Survey stream gauging network in California, USA reveal three lines of evidence that fine particle release is coupled with bedload transport. First, there is a transition in fine particle loading rate as a function of discharge for gravel-bedded sediments that does not appear when the sediment bed is composed of sand, cobbles, boulders, or bedrock. Second, the discharge at the transition in the loading rate is correlated with the initiation of gravel mobilization. Third, high frequency particle concentration and discharge data are dominated by clockwise hysteresis where rising limb discharges generally have higher concentrations than falling limb discharges. These three observations across multiple watersheds lead to a conceptual model that fine particles accumulate within the sediment bed at discharges less than the transition and then the gravel bed fluidizes with fine particle release at discharges above the transition discharge. While these observations were individually recognized in the literature, this analysis provides a consistent conceptual model based on the coupling of fine particle dynamics with filtration at low discharges and gravel bed fluidization at higher discharges.

  19. Receptive field self-organization in a model of the fine structure in v1 cortical columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    We study a dynamical model of processing and learning in the visual cortex, which reflects the anatomy of V1 cortical columns and properties of their neuronal receptive fields. Based on recent results on the fine-scale structure of columns in V1, we model the activity dynamics in subpopulations of excitatory neurons and their interaction with systems of inhibitory neurons. We find that a dynamical model based on these aspects of columnar anatomy can give rise to specific types of computations that result in self-organization of afferents to the column. For a given type of input, self-organization reliably extracts the basic input components represented by neuronal receptive fields. Self-organization is very noise tolerant and can robustly be applied to different types of input. To quantitatively analyze the system's component extraction capabilities, we use two standard benchmarks: the bars test and natural images. In the bars test, the system shows the highest noise robustness reported so far. If natural image patches are used as input, self-organization results in Gabor-like receptive fields. In quantitative comparison with in vivo measurements, we find that the obtained receptive fields capture statistical properties of V1 simple cells that algorithms such as independent component analysis or sparse coding do not reproduce.

  20. Pressure-Dependent Anharmonic Correlated Einstein Model Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Debye-Waller Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    A pressure-dependent anharmonic correlated Einstein model is derived for extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) Debye-Waller factors (DWFs), which are presented in terms of cumulant expansion up to the third order. The model is based on quantum thermodynamic perturbation theory and includes anharmonic effects based on empirical potentials. Explicit analytical expressions of the pressure-dependent changes in the interatomic distance, anharmonic effective potential, thermodynamic parameters, first, second, and third EXAFS cumulants, and thermal expansion coefficient have been derived. This model avoids the use of extensive full lattice dynamical calculations, yet provides good and reasonable agreement of numerical results for Cu with experimental results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and pressure-dependent EXAFS. Significant pressure effects are shown by the decrease in the pressure-induced changes in the interatomic distance, EXAFS cumulants and thermal expansion coefficient, as well as by the increase in the pressure-induced changes in the interatomic effective potential, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency, and temperature.

  1. Quantizing the Complexity of the Western United States Fault System with Geodetically and Geologically Constrained Block Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. L.; Meade, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic observations of interseismic deformation provide constraints on miroplate rotations, earthquake cycle processes, slip partitioning, and the geometric complexity of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. Paleoseismological observations in the western United States provide a complimentary dataset of Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These measurements may be integrated and interpreted using block models, in which the upper crust is divided into microplates bounded by mapped faults, with slip rates defined by the differential relative motions of adjacent microplates. The number and geometry of microplates are typically defined with boundaries representing a limited sub-set of the large number of potentially seismogenic faults. An alternative approach is to include large number of potentially active faults in a dense array of microplates, and then deterministically estimate the boundaries at which strain is localized, while simultaneously satisfying interseismic geodetic and geologic observations. This approach is possible through the application of total variation regularization (TVR) which simultaneously minimizes the L2 norm of data residuals and the L1 norm of the variation in the estimated state vector. Applied to three-dimensional spherical block models, TVR reduces the total variation between estimated rotation vectors, creating groups of microplates that rotate together as larger blocks, and localizing fault slip on the boundaries of these larger blocks. Here we consider a suite of block models containing 3-137 microplates, where active block boundaries have been determined by TVR optimization constrained by both interseismic GPS velocities and geologic slip rate estimates.

  2. 3D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Imen; Gibson, Helen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Negro, François; Rachid, Khanfir; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of this study was to create a 3D geological and structural model of the Kasserine Aquifer System (KAS) in central Tunisia and its natural extension into north-east Algeria. This was achieved using an implicit 3D method, which honors prior geological data for both formation boundaries and faults. A current model is presented which provides defendable predictions for the spatial distribution of geology and water resources in aquifers throughout the model-domain. This work has allowed validation of regional scale geology and fault networks in the KAS, and has facilitated the first-ever estimations of groundwater resources in this region by a 3D method. The model enables a preliminary assessment of the hydraulic significance of the major faults by evaluating their influence and role on groundwater flow within and between four compartments of the multi-layered, KAS hydrogeological system. Thus a representative hydrogeological model of the study area is constructed. The possible dual nature of faults in the KAS is discussed in the context that some faults appear to be acting both as barriers to horizontal groundwater flow, and simultaneously as conduits for vertical flow. Also discussed is the possibility that two flow directions occur within the KAS, at a small syncline area of near Feriana. In summary, this work evaluates the influence of aquifer connectivity and the role of faults and geology in groundwater flow within the KAS aquifer system. The current KAS geological model can now be used to guide groundwater managers on the best placement for drilling to test and further refine the understanding of the groundwater system, including the faults connectivity. As more geological data become available, the current model can be easily edited and re-computed to provide an updated model ready for the next stage of investigation by numerical flow modeling.

  3. THM Coupled Modeling in Near Field of an Assumed HLW Deep Geological Disposal Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhenyao; Li Guoding; Li Shushen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most suitable ways under study for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is isolation in deep geological repositories. It is very important to research the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes associated with an HLW disposal repository. Non-linear coupled equations, which are used to describe the THM coupled process and are suited to saturated-unsaturated porous media, are presented in this paper. A numerical method to solve these equations is put forward, and a finite element code is developed. This code is suited to the plane strain or axis-symmetry problem. Then this code is used to simulate the THM coupled process in the near field of an ideal disposal repository. The temperature vs. time, hydraulic head vs. time and stress vs. time results show that, in this assumed condition, the impact of temperature is very long (over 10 000 a) and the impact of the water head is short (about 90 d). Since the stress is induced by temperature and hydraulic head in this condition, the impact time of stress is the same as that of temperature. The results show that THM coupled processes are very important in the safety analysis of an HLW deep geological disposal repository.

  4. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic