WorldWideScience

Sample records for finding cathode readouts

  1. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bo

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode ``pad`` readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  2. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bo.

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode pad'' readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 {mu}m rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass ({approximately}0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs.

  3. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions (2.0 < | | < 2.7). Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  4. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions $(2.0 < |eta| < 2.7)$. Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  5. Detector with a profile-based cathode and a two-coordinate pad-strip readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Kravchuk, N P; Korenchenko, A S; Khomutov, N V; Smirnov, V S; Chekhovskii, V A; Movchan, S A; Zyazyulya, F E

    2011-01-01

    A detector with a profile-based cathode and a pad-strip cathode readout system is experimentally investigated. Cathode pads arranged along each anode wire are diagonally interconnected and form strips that cross the detector at an angle with respect to the anode wire. Two coordinates from the cathodes and one from the anode wire allow identification of tracks in high multiplicity events with a single detector plane.

  6. A fast integrated readout system for a cathode pad photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M.; Lovell, M.; Chesi, E.; Racz, A.; Seguinot, J.; Ypsilantis, T.; Arnold, R.; Guyonnet, J. L.; Egger, J.; Gabathuler, K.

    1994-04-01

    A fast integrated electronic chain is presented to read out the cathode pad array of a multiwire photon detector for a fast RICH counter. Two VLSI circuits have been designed and produced. An analog eight channel, low noise, fast, bipolar, current preamplifier and discriminator chip serves as front-end electronics. It has an rms equivalent noise current of 10 nA (2000 e -), 50 MHz bandwidth with 10 mW of power consumption per channel. Two analogue chips are coupled to a digital 16 channels CMOS readout chip, operating at 20 MHz, that provides a pipelined delay of 1.3 μs and zero suppression with a power consumption of about 6 mW per channel. Readout of a 4000 pad sector requires 3-4 μs depending on the number of hit pads. The full RICH counter is made up of many of such sectors (the prototype has three fully equipped sectors), read out in parallel [1,2]. The minimum time to separate successive hits on the same pad is about 70 ns. The time skew of the full chain is about 15 ns.

  7. Array of virtual Frisch-grid CZT detectors with common cathode readout and pulse-height correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, E.U.; Fochuk, P.M.; Fuerstnau, M.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Jones, F.; Kim, K.; Kopach, O.V.; Taggart, R.; Yang, G.; Ye, Z.; Xu, L.; and James, R.B.

    2010-08-01

    We present our new results from testing 15-mm-long virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors with a common-cathode readout for correcting pulse-height distortions. The array employs parallelepiped-shaped CdZnTe (CZT) detectors of a large geometrical aspect ratio, with two planar contacts on the top and bottom surfaces (anode and cathode) and an additional shielding electrode on the crystal's sides to create the virtual Frisch-grid effect. We optimized the geometry of the device and improved its spectral response. We found that reducing to 5 mm the length of the shielding electrode placed next to the anode had no adverse effects on the device's performance. At the same time, this allowed corrections for electron loss by reading the cathode signals to obtain depth information.

  8. Study of a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Li-Ying; LI Qi-Te; Q. Faisal; GE Yu-Cheng; IU Hong-Tao; YE Yan-Lin

    2009-01-01

    The design principle for a multi-wire proportional chamber with a cathode strip and delay-line readout is described. A prototype chamber of a size of 10 cm ~ l0 cm was made together with the readout electronics circuit. A very clean signal with very low background noise was obtained by applying a transformer between the delay-line and the pre-amplifier in order to match the resistance. Along the anode wire direction a position resolution of less than 0.5 mm was achieved with a 55Fe-5.9 keV X ray source. The simple structure, large effective area and high position resolution allow the application of a gas chamber of this kind to many purposes.

  9. Anode and cathode readout electronics for cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers of the PIBETA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinnikov, V A; Khomutov, N V; Korenchenko, A S; Korenchenko, S M; Kuchinskij, N A; Sidorkin, V V

    2002-01-01

    The cathode amplifier is intended to amplify the positive current pulses from the cathode strips of proportional chambers and drive the 50 Ohm coaxial cable. The amplifier gain and the output voltage swing are matched for operation with the LeCroy 1882F ADC. The special feature of the anode system is the integration of the amplifying section, signal delay unit and digital section for the data outputting to computer in the common ADD-32 module (CAMAC). The 1M-wide ADD-32 module contains the electronics for 32 wires that makes it possible to place up to 672 data channels in the CAMAC crate with a standard bus. To amplify signals, Amp1 8.3 8-channel microcircuits are used. The output logic signals are delayed by 9-channel IDT72421 FIFO microcircuits that enables one to obtain a total signal delay of up to hundreds of microseconds and longer. The digital section of the system is based on ALTERA programmable logic arrays. This system with a total of 576 channels is used in the PIBETA experiment to study rare pion ...

  10. High-position-resolution scintillation neutron-imaging detector by crossed-fiber readout with novel centroid-finding method

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, M; Sakasai, K; Matsubayashi, M; Birumachi, A; Takahashi, H; Nakazawa, M

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at high-position-resolution and high-counting-rate neutron imaging, a novel centroid-finding method is proposed for a scintillation neutron-imaging detector with crossed-fiber readout. Crossed wavelength-shifting fibers are arranged on and under the scintillator. Luminescences generated in the scintillator are emitted and detected by a few fibers surrounding the incident point of a neutron. In the novel method, X and Y positions of the incident neutron are decided by coincidence of a central signal and neighboring signals, respectively. By fundamental experiments using a ZnS:Ag/ sup 6 LiF scintillator of 0.5-mm thickness and crossed wavelength-shifting fibers with a size of 0.5 x 0.5 mm sup 2 , it was confirmed that the position resolution is about 0.5 mm and the limitation of the neutron-counting rate is 320 kcps. (orig.)

  11. Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Darin; Andreev, Valeri; Apollinari, Giorgio; Baek, Yong Wook; Banicz, Karoly; Barashko, Victor; Barberis, Emanuela; Bartalini, Paolo; Bloch, Ingo; Boeriu, Oana; Bondar, Nikolai; Breedon, Richard; Bujak, Adam; Bylsma, Ben; Chen, Mingshui; Clare, Robert; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Cox, Peter Timothy; Denisov, Alexander; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Durkin, S; Eartly, David P; Ershov, Yuri; Ferguson, Thomas; Fortin, Dominique; Geurts, Frank J M; Gilmore, Jason; Golovtsov, Victor; Golutvin, Igor; Golyash, Alexander; Gu, Jianhui; Gutay, Laszlo; Hauser, Jay; He, Kang-Lin; Holbrook, Britt; Holmes, Daniel; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Ippolito, Nicole; Ivanov, Yasen; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Killewald, Phillip; Ko, Winston; Kotov, Khristian; Korytov, Andrey; Kozhevnikov, Yuri; Lanaro, Armando; Levchenko, Petr; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Jie; Loveless, Richard; Lusin, Sergei; Madorsky, Alexander; Matveev, Mikhail; Medved, Serguei; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Moisenz, Petr; Padley, Brian Paul; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pal, Imre; Perelygin, Victor; Petrunin, Anatoly; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Pivarsky, J; Prokofiev, O; Rakness, Gregory; Roberts, Jay; Roe, Adam; Safonov, Alexei; Schetkovsky, A; Schipunov, L; Schmitt, Michael; Sknar, Vladimir; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sulimov, Valentin; Sun, Han-Sheng; Sytnik, Valeri; Tchekhovski, V; Terentyev, Nikolay; Tripathi, Mani; Tucker, Jordan; Tumanov, Alexander; Uvarov, Lev; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Vasilev, S; Vavilov, Sergey; Velichko, Georgy; Volkov, Serguei; Von der Mey, Martin; Vorobev, I; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Wang, Dayong; Williams, Grayson; Yatsura, V; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhao, Wei-Ren; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhmakin, G; Zhu, Zian; Zilizi, Gyula

    2007-01-01

    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area ($< \\! 0.01$~m$^2$), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\\em in situ} over an area of $\\approx \\! 23$~m$^2$ as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~$99.93 \\pm 0.03\\%$. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within $800$~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input info...

  12. Monte Carlo studies on Cathode Strip/Pad Chambers for the ALICE Di-Muon Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzinger, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Willis, N.

    1996-04-01

    A general overview about the properties of Cathode Strip and Pad Chambers is given. Position finding methods are discussed and compared within Monte Carlo studies. Noise contributions and their minimization are discussed. Pad chambers allow a two-dimensional readout with spatial resolution of {sigma} < 100 {mu}m in direction parallel to the anode wire. The resolution normal to the anode wire depends mainly on the wire spacing. Special attention is paid on the double-hit resolution capability of the pad chamber. An outlook is given on the possible utilisation of Cathode Pad Chambers in the Di-Muon Arm of the ALICE detector at LHC. (author). 44 refs.

  13. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  14. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,P.; GRATCHEV,V.; KANDASAMY,A.; POLYCHRONAKOS,V.; TCHERNIATINE,V.; PARSONS,J.; SIPPACH,W.

    1999-09-25

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm{sup 2}/s.

  15. ME1/1 Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Erchov, Yu V; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Moissenz, P V; Moissenz, K P; Movchan, Sergey; Perelygin, Victor; Vassiliev, S E; Zarubin, Anatoli; Tchekhovski, V A

    2008-01-01

    The 76 innermost ME1/1 cathode strip chambers (CSC) of the CMS Experiment were designed and produced in Dubna. The chambers have been installed in the detector and commissioning has been completed. This paper describes the design of the CSCs, their main mechanical parameters and read-out electronics, and the results of tests with cosmic-ray muons.

  16. Cathodic arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Andre

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bia...

  17. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  18. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  19. Cathodic arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2003-10-29

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition has become the technology of choice for hard, wear and corrosion resistant coatings for a variety of applications. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions, and emerging high-tech applications are briefly reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas standout due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. Industrial processes often use cathodic arc plasma in reactive mode. In contrast, the science of arcs has focused on the case of vacuum arcs. Future research directions include closing the knowledge gap for reactive mode, large area coating, linear sources and filters, metal plasma immersion process, with application in high-tech and biomedical fields.

  20. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  1. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to un- derstand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\\sigma}/E $\\approx$ 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.

  2. Dual-readout Calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; Pedis, D.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; P. Genova; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.(INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia, Italy)

    2013-01-01

    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in n...

  3. Recovery of saturated video signals from vidicons by dynamic cathode biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.

    1991-05-01

    Vidicons used for imaging of pulsed or transient light sources must instantaneously record gray scale images on photoconductive targets. Typical targets, which store photocharge proportional to the varying light intensity in the optical image, have larger positive charge storage capacity than the negative charge available from the electron beam used for neutralizing the target during read-out. Therefore, the target has much higher dynamic range, typically 3 to 5 times larger than the beam. The result is that several scans of the target are required to obtain all the charge from a fully charged target. For applications where only one scan of the target is permissible, this can result in reading the target data in saturated form, with the loss of gray scale information. However, with dynamic rebiasing of the vidicon cathode, the data can be recovered unsaturated. This technique is extremely powerful because it allows instantaneous adjustment after the target has been exposed to light pulses but before the target is read out. In effect, a real time gain or sensitivity control function is implemented by the technique. Alternatively, the technique can be viewed as a means to dynamically select strategic portions of the vidicon transfer curve for immediate read-out, which otherwise would either be saturated if read out immediate read-out, which otherwise would either be saturated if read out immediately or would require several read-outs. Although only transient imaging applications (usually with single field read-out) are addressed, the technique should find application in conventional continuous read-write TV cameras. The principle of operation, associated circuitry, and examples of image retrieval are presented.

  4. The Readout Control Unit of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, J A; Musa, L

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector of the central barrel of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), being constructed at CERN, Geneva. It is a 88 m$^{3}$ cylinder filled with gas and divided into two drift regions by the central electrode located at its axial center. The readout chambers of the TPC are multi-wire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout. About 570 000 pads are read-out by an electronics chain of amplification, digitalization and pre-processing. One of the challenges in designing the TPC for ALICE is the design of Front End Electronics (FEE) to cope with the data rates and the channel occupancy. The Readout Control Unit (RCU), which is presented in this work, is designed to control and monitor the Front End Electronics, and to collect and ship data to the High Level Trigger and the Data Acquisition System, via the Detector Data Link (DDL - optical fibre). The RCU must be capable of reading out up to 200 Mbytes/s f...

  5. Timing and Readout Contorl in the LHCb Upgraded Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    In 2019, the LHCb experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade where its detectors electronics and entire readout system will be changed to read-out events at the full LHC rate of 40 MHz. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and readout control system for such upgrade is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the distribution of the clock, timing and synchronization information across the entire readout system using generic FTTH technology like Passive Optical Networks. Moreover the system will be responsible to generically control the Front-End electronics by transmitting configuration data and receiving monitoring data, offloading the software control system from the heavy task of manipulating complex protocols of thousands of Front-End electronics devices. The way in which this was implemented is here reviewed with a description of results from first implementations of the system, including usages in test-benches, implementation of techniques for timing distribution and latency control."

  6. Thermopile Area Array Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA/JPL thermopile detector linear arrays, wire bonded to Black Forest Engineering (BFE) CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs), have been utilized in NASA...

  7. Analysis of EMCCD and sCMOS readout noise models for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, detectors with sub-electron readout noise have been used very effectively in astronomical adaptive optics systems. Here, we compare readout noise models for the two key faint flux level detector technologies that are commonly used: EMCCD and scientific CMOS (sCMOS) detectors. We find that in almost all situations, EMCCD technology is advantageous, and that the commonly used simplified model for EMCCD readout is appropriate. We also find that the commonly used simple models for sCMOS readout noise are optimistic, and recommend that a proper treatment of the sCMOS rms readout noise probability distribution should be considered during instrument performance modelling and development.

  8. Nanotube cathodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  9. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  10. Analysis of cathode geometry to minimize cathode erosion in direct current microplasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Federica [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente, della Sicurezza, del Territorio, degli Alimenti e della Salute, Universita degli studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Ghezzi, Francesco; Caniello, Roberto; Grosso, Giovanni [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dellasega, David [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Microplasma jets are now widely used for deposition, etching, and materials processing. The present study focuses on the investigation of the influence of cathode geometry on deposition quality, for microplasma jet deposition systems in low vacuum. The interest here is understanding the influence of hydrogen on sputtering and/or evaporation of the electrodes. Samples obtained with two cathode geometries with tapered and rectangular cross-sections have been investigated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Samples obtained with a tapered-geometry cathode present heavy contamination, demonstrating cathode erosion, while samples obtained with a rectangular-cross-section cathode are free from contamination. These experimental characteristics were explained by modelling results showing a larger radial component of the electric field at the cathode inner wall of the tapered cathode. As a result, ion acceleration is larger, explaining the observed cathode erosion in this case. Results from the present investigation also show that the ratio of radial to axial field components is larger for the rectangular geometry case, thus, qualitatively explaining the presence of micro-hollow cathode discharge over a wide range of currents observed in this case. In the light of the above findings, the rectangular cathode geometry is considered to be more effective to achieve cleaner deposition.

  11. TPC-like readout for thermal neutron detection using a GEM-detector

    CERN Document Server

    Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Zeitelhack, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution of less than 200 um is challenging for thermal neutron detection. A novel readout scheme based on the time-projection-chamber (TPC) concept is used in a gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Thermal neutrons are captured in a single 2 um thick Boron-10 converter cathode and secondary Helium and Lithium ions are produced with a combined energy of 2.8 MeV. These ions have sufficient energy to form straight tracks of several mm length. With a time resolving 2-dimensional readout of 400 um pitch in both directions, based on APV25 chips, the ions are tracked and their respective origin in the cathode converter foil is reconstructed. Using an Ar-CO2 93:7% gas mixture, a resolution of 100 um (FWHM 235 um) has been observed with a triple GEM-detector setup at the Garching neutron source (FRMII) for neutrons of 4.7 Angstrom.

  12. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.

    2004-02-01

    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  13. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Duncan [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Detector Systems Branch, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Aslam, Shahid, E-mail: shahid.aslam-1@nasa.gov [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Systems Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Detector Systems Branch, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  14. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Poikela, T; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; De Gaspari, M; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; van Beuzekom, M; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 µm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures.

  15. Probing the Speed Limits of Transmon Dispersive Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Mondal, Mintu; Pechal, Marek; Wallraff, Andreas

    In circuit QED, faster and more accurate measurement of a qubit's state is necessary to achieve better feedback control, to accomplish more complex quantum algorithms and simulations, and to cross the threshold for fault tolerant quantum computing. In this talk, we discuss our experimental progress to minimize the time needed to readout the state of a dispersively coupled transmon qubit with high fidelity. We outline a signal-to-noise ratio model, illuminate the constraints and find optimal parameters for maximizing measurement speed, while maintaining high readout fidelity. Utilizing a Purcell Filter increases the generality of our results as it becomes possible to reach these speeds with a broader set of system parameters.

  16. Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; Bellm, Eric C.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Narita, Tomohiko

    2004-02-01

    Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of intereaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

  17. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2005-01-01

    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  18. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  19. Cathode heating mechanisms in pseudospark plasma switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerer, Timothy J.; Pak, Hoyoung; Kushner, Mark J.

    1992-10-01

    Pseudosparks, and the back-lighted thyratron (BLT) in particular, are finding increasing application as pulse power switches. An attractive feature of BLTs is that high current densities (≥ tens of kA cm-2) can be sustained from metal cathodes without auxiliary heating. The source of this current is believed to be electric-field-enhanced thermionic emission resulting from heating of the cathode by ion bombardment during commutation which ultimately melts the surface of the cathode. It is proposed that a photon-driven ionization mechanism in the interelectrode gap of the BLT is responsible for initiating the observed patterns of cathode surface melting and electron emission. A 21/2-dimensional computer model is presented that incorporates a photo-induced ionization mechanism to spread the plasma into the interelectrode gap. It predicts a melting of the cathode in a pattern similar to that which is experimentally observed, and predicts a rate of field-enhanced thermionic electron emission that is sufficient to explain the high BLT conduction current density. In the absence of these mechanisms, the model does not predict the observed large-area melting of the face of the cathode. The cathode heating rate during the BLT switching phase is maximum for operating parameters that are very close to the limit for which the switch will close (that is, the smallest possible pressure-electrode spacing product and smallest possible electrode holes).

  20. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  1. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  2. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  3. A data readout approach for physics experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xi-Ru; CAO Ping; GAO Li-Wei; ZHENG Jia-Jun

    2015-01-01

    With increasing physical event rates and the number of electronic channels,traditional readout schemes meet the challenge of improving readout speed caused by the limited bandwidth of the crate backplane.In this paper,a high-speed data readout method based on the Ethernet is presented to make each readout module capable of transmitting data to the DAQ.Features of exPlicitly parallel data transmitting and distributed network architecture give the readout system the advantage of adapting varying requirements of particle physics experiments.Furthermore,to guarantee the readout performance and flexibility,a standalone embedded CPU system is utilized for network protocol stack processing.To receive the customized data format and protocol from front-end electronics,a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used for logic reconfiguration.To optimize the interface and to improve the data throughput between CPU and FPGA,a sophisticated method based on SRAM is presented in this paper.For the purpose of evaluating this high-speed readout method,a simplified readout module is designed and implemented.Test results show that this module can support up to 70 Mbps data throughput from the readout module to DAQ.

  4. An improved reservoir oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Liao, Xianheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Qinglan

    2005-09-01

    A new type of reservoir oxide cathode has been developed in IECAS. The emission characteristics of the cathode are tested. The results show the new cathode has higher emission current density and better resistance to poisoning at same operating condition compared with those of conventional reservoir oxide cathode.

  5. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  6. Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, O.; Franch, N.; Canals, J.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Vilà, A.; Diéguez, A.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865 mm × 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L = 860 μm/0.2 μm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 μ W per channel.

  7. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Weßling; Hans J. Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C–C bond formation...

  9. Cathode materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Mohanty, Debasish, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Li, Jianlin, E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov; Wood, David L., E-mail: danielc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS6472 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  10. Cathode materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Claus; Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Wood, David L.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  11. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  12. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wojciech Wierba; on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed.

  13. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation. PMID:23564969

  14. Filtered cathodic arc source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  15. Upgrades to the CSC Cathode Strip Chamber Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, Cameron Bily

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) present challenges to efficient readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) of the CMS end cap muon detector. Upgrades to the electronics are targeted for the inner rings of CSCs in each station, which have the highest flux of particles. The upgrades comprise digital cathode front end boards for nearly deadtimeless and long trigger latency operating capability, new DAQ boards that transmit data from the detectors with higher-bandwidth links, and a new data concentrator/interface to the central DAQ system that can receive the higher input rates.

  16. Upgrades to the CSC Cathode Strip Chamber electronics for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, C.

    2017-01-01

    The luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) present challenges to efficient readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs, [1]) of the CMS end cap muon detector. Upgrades to the electronics are targeted for the inner rings of CSCs in each station, which have the highest flux of particles. The upgrades comprise digital cathode front end boards for nearly deadtimeless and long trigger latency operating capability, new DAQ boards that transmit data from the detectors with higher-bandwidth links, and a new data concentrator/interface to the central DAQ system that can receive the higher input rates.

  17. The Cathode Strip Chamber Data Acquisition System for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylsma, B G; Gilmore, J R; Gu, J H; Ling, T Y

    2007-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) [1] Data Acquisition (DAQ) system for the CMS [2] experiment at the LHC [3] will be described. The CSC system is large, consisting of 218K cathode channels and 183K anode channels. This leads to a substantial data rate of ~1.5GByte/s at LHC design luminosity (1034cm-2s-1) and the CMS first level trigger (L1A) rate of 100KHz. The DAQ system consists of three parts. The first part is on-chamber Cathode Front End Boards (CFEB)[4], which amplify, shape, store, and digitise chamber cathode signals, and Anode Front End Boards (AFEB)[5], which amplify, shape and discriminate chamber anode signals. The second part is the Peripheral Crate Data Acquisition Motherboards (DAQMB), which control the onchamber electronics and the readout of the chamber. The third part is the off-detector DAQ interface boards, which perform real time error checking, electronics reset requests and data concentration. It passes the resulting data to a CSC local DAQ farm, as well as CMS main DAQ [6]. All electron...

  18. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  19. Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a static, cathode-fed, 2000 psi, balanced-pressure Advanced Cathode Electrolyzer (ACE) based on PEM electrolysis technology. It...

  20. Highly Efficient Micro Cathode Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Company, Inc. proposes to develop a micro thermionic cathode that requires extremely low power and provides long lifetime. The basis for the cathode is a...

  1. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  2. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  4. Electrochemical cells and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarstad, P.M.; Untereker, D.F.; Meritt, D.R.

    1988-08-02

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprising anode and cathode means in operative relationship. The cathode means comprising a cathode material comprised of, at least in part: a halogen component selected from the group consisting of iodine, bromine, iodine bromide and mixtures thereof, and poly(ethylene oxide), at least in part.

  5. The use of segmented cathode of a drift tube for designing a track detector with a high rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A

    2013-01-01

    Detector rate capability is one of the main parameters for designing a new detector for high energy physics due to permanent rise of the beam luminosity of modern accelerators. One of the widely used detectors for particle track reconstruction is a straw detector based on drift tubes. The rate capability of such detectors is limited by the parameters of readout electronics. The traditional method of increasing detector rate capability is increasing their granularity (a number of readout channels) by reducing the straw diameter and/or by dividing the straw anode wire into two parts (for decreasing the rate per readout channel). A new method of designing straw detectors with a high rate capability is presented and tested. The method is based on dividing the straw cathode into parts and independent readout of each part.

  6. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  7. SOFC Cathode Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Bay, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    The transient response of SOFC oxygen cathodes shows a characteristic inductive hysteresis and correspondingly the impedance diagram combines one or two capacitive arcs with a low frequency inductive arc. These features are discussed on the basis of a three step reaction sequence taken from...

  8. Smart cathodic protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Leggedoor, J.; Schuten, G.; Sajna, S.; Kranjc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic protection delivers corrosion protection in concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments, e.g. in de-icing salt and marine climates. Working lives of a large number of CP systems are at least more than 13 years and probably more than 25 years, provided a minimum level of maintenan

  9. A new multi-grid type MSGC with pad readout

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, H; Yano, K; Fukuda, D; Nakazawa, M; Hasegawa, K

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a new multi-grid type MSGC has been proposed. Between the anode and the cathode, additional grid strips are placed in this new type of MSGC. Gaps between these strips are chosen to be around 10 mu m which assure efficient removal of surface charges which even do not need the lower surface resistivity and bare glass can be used up to 10 sup 6 cps/mm sup 2. Another feature of the MSGC is its high gain capability. Owing to the existence of other strips of lower potentials, the field strength around the opposing grid to the anode strip is not so high as conventional small gap detectors. Furthermore, the contribution of the surface streamer is greatly suppressed because the electric field parallel to the surface is screened by the intermediate grid electrodes. However, the existence of additional electrodes also screens all the electric field upper than the substrate and we cannot observe induced signals from backside of the substrate. To overcome the difficulty, we propose another signal readout method ...

  10. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  11. Imaging achievements with the Vernier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Worth, L B C; Tandy, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the Vernier anode, a high resolution and charge division image readout for microchannel plate detectors. It comprises a planar structure of insulated electrodes deposited on an insulating substrate. The charge cloud from an event is divided amongst all nine electrodes and the charge ratio uniquely determines the two-dimensional position coordinate of the charge centroid. We discuss the design of the anode pattern and describe the advantages offered by this readout. The cyclic variation of the electrode structure allows the image resolution to exceed the charge measurement resolution and enables the entire active area of the readout to be utilized. In addition, fixed pattern noise is greatly reduced. We present results demonstrating the position resolution and image linearity. A position resolution of 10 mu m FWHM is demonstrated and the overall imaging performance is shown to be limited by the microchannel plate pore spacing. We present measurements of the image distortions and describe techniques...

  12. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  13. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  14. Description of the TRT Readout Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Luehring, F C

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the TRT detector readout scheme. A description is provided of the data buffers used in the TRT readout chain: the single TRT channel output data format, the DTMROC output data buffer format, the TRT-ROD input FIFO data format, the TRT-ROD output buffer format, and the ROB output buffer data format. Also documented are the current designs for the TRT-ROD zero suppression and data compression schemes. A proposal is presented for ordering the data generated by individual TRT channels suitably for Level-2 triggering, Level-3 triggering and offline data processing.

  15. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzempek, P.; Panda Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC 〈 PANDASTTReadoutChip 〉) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  16. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  17. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  18. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W.H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this modific

  19. Liquid state machine with dendritically enhanced readout for low-power, neuromorphic VLSI implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhrajit; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Arindam

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe a new neuro-inspired, hardware-friendly readout stage for the liquid state machine (LSM), a popular model for reservoir computing. Compared to the parallel perceptron architecture trained by the p-delta algorithm, which is the state of the art in terms of performance of readout stages, our readout architecture and learning algorithm can attain better performance with significantly less synaptic resources making it attractive for VLSI implementation. Inspired by the nonlinear properties of dendrites in biological neurons, our readout stage incorporates neurons having multiple dendrites with a lumped nonlinearity (two compartment model). The number of synaptic connections on each branch is significantly lower than the total number of connections from the liquid neurons and the learning algorithm tries to find the best 'combination' of input connections on each branch to reduce the error. Hence, the learning involves network rewiring (NRW) of the readout network similar to structural plasticity observed in its biological counterparts. We show that compared to a single perceptron using analog weights, this architecture for the readout can attain, even by using the same number of binary valued synapses, up to 3.3 times less error for a two-class spike train classification problem and 2.4 times less error for an input rate approximation task. Even with 60 times larger synapses, a group of 60 parallel perceptrons cannot attain the performance of the proposed dendritically enhanced readout. An additional advantage of this method for hardware implementations is that the 'choice' of connectivity can be easily implemented exploiting address event representation (AER) protocols commonly used in current neuromorphic systems where the connection matrix is stored in memory. Also, due to the use of binary synapses, our proposed method is more robust against statistical variations.

  20. Architectural modeling of pixel readout chips Velopix and Timepix3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikela, T.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Plackett, R.; Wyllie, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; Zappon, F.; Zivkovic, V.; Brezina, C.; Desch, K.; Fang, X.; Kruth, A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine two digital architectures for front end pixel readout chips, Velopix and Timepix3. These readout chips are developed for tracking detectors in future high energy physics experiments. They must incorporate local intelligence in pixels for time-over-threshold measurement and sparse readout.

  1. Nanostructured lanthanum manganate composite cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Guo; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    that the (La1-xSrx)(y)MnO3 +/-delta (LSM) composite cathodes consist of a network of homogenously distributed LSM, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and pores. The individual grain size of LSM or YSZ is approximately 100 nm. The degree of contact between cathode and electrolyte is 39% on average. (c) 2005...

  2. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weßling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C–C bond formation with the introduction of two nitro groups in a 1,4-distance and the conversions of the nitro group by reduction to oximes and amines, the conversion into aldehydes and ketones via the Nef reaction and base catalyzed condensations at the acidic CH bond. Eight 1-aryl-2-nitro-1-propenes have been electrolyzed in an undivided electrolysis cell to afford 2,5-dinitro-3,4-diaryl hexanes in high yield. The 4-methoxy-, 4-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro- and 2,6-difluorophenyl group and furthermore the 2-furyl and 2-pyrrolyl group have been applied. The reaction is chemoselective as only the double bond but not the nitro group undergoes reaction, is regioselective as a ß,ß-coupling with regard to the nitro group and forms preferentially two out of six possible diastereomers as major products.

  3. Cathodic hydrodimerization of nitroolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weßling, Michael; Schäfer, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Nitroalkenes are easily accessible in high variety by condensation of aldehydes with aliphatic nitroalkanes. They belong to the group of activated alkenes that can be hydrodimerized by cathodic reduction. There are many olefins with different electron withdrawing groups used for cathodic hydrodimerization, but not much is known about the behaviour of the nitro group. Synthetic applications of this group could profit from the easy access to nitroolefins in large variety, the C-C bond formation with the introduction of two nitro groups in a 1,4-distance and the conversions of the nitro group by reduction to oximes and amines, the conversion into aldehydes and ketones via the Nef reaction and base catalyzed condensations at the acidic CH bond. Eight 1-aryl-2-nitro-1-propenes have been electrolyzed in an undivided electrolysis cell to afford 2,5-dinitro-3,4-diaryl hexanes in high yield. The 4-methoxy-, 4-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro- and 2,6-difluorophenyl group and furthermore the 2-furyl and 2-pyrrolyl group have been applied. The reaction is chemoselective as only the double bond but not the nitro group undergoes reaction, is regioselective as a ß,ß-coupling with regard to the nitro group and forms preferentially two out of six possible diastereomers as major products.

  4. Fiber and Crystals Dual Readout calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cascella, Michele; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-01-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R\\&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO$_{4}$ crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realising a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties ...

  5. Event loss rates and readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelling, M

    1998-01-01

    98-57 The LHCb experiment aims at a deadtimeless readout of B­events at a primary bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to achieve this goal, information from all events must be stored in a pipeline with latency matched to the time needed for the Level 0 trigger decision. Accepted events, which constitute only a small fraction of the total sample, are stored in a fifo of a certain depth and read out with a fixed clock rate. The fifo, also referred to as multi­event or derandomizing buffer, is needed in order to even out statistical fluctuations in the trigger rate. Apart from the length of the pipeline, which determines the maximum latency of the chip, the crucial parameter characterizing a readout chip is the fraction of triggers lost due to limitations of the chip's architecture. This note describes how the different design parameters and operation conditions determine the chip's performance.

  6. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M. [Purdue U.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  7. Compact lanthanum hexaboride hollow cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M; Watkins, Ronald M

    2010-08-01

    A compact lanthanum hexaboride hollow cathode has been developed for space applications where size and mass are important and research and industrial applications where access for implementation might be limited. The cathode design features a refractory metal cathode tube that is easily manufactured, mechanically captured orifice and end plates to eliminate expensive e-beam welding, graphite sleeves to provide a diffusion boundary to protect the LaB6 insert from chemical reactions with the refractory metal tube, and several heater designs to provide long life. The compact LaB(6) hollow cathode assembly including emitter, support tube, heater, and keeper electrode is less than 2 cm in diameter and has been fabricated in lengths of 6-15 cm for different applications. The cathode has been operated continuously at discharge currents of 5-60 A in xenon. Slightly larger diameter versions of this design have operated at up to 100 A of discharge current.

  8. New crystals for dual-readout calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A; Carosi, R; Ciapetti, G; Ferrari, R; Franchino, S; Fraternali, M; Gaudio, G; Hauptman, J; Incagli, M; Korzhik, M; Lacava, F; La Rotonda, L; Livan, M; Meoni, E; Nikl, M; Pinci, D; Policicchio, A; Popescu, S; Scuri, F; Sill, A; Vandelli, W; Vedda, A; Venturelli, T; Voena, C; Volobouev, I; Wigmans, R

    2009-01-01

    Lead tungstate crystals doped with small fractions of praesodynium or molybdenum have been tested in beams of high-energy electrons. The goal of these tests was to study the effects of such dopants on the capability to separate the signal components deriving from the Cherenkov and scintillation light generated by the beam particles. These studies were carried out in view of the possible application of such crystals in dual-readout calorimeters.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  10. Enhanced optomechanical readout using optical coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genes, Claudiu; Xuereb, André; Pupillo, Guido;

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to strongly enhance the readout sensitivity of the squared displacement of a mobile scatterer placed in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. We investigate the largely unexplored regime of cavity electrodynamics in which a highly reflective element positioned between the end mirrors of a sym...... in this generic “optical coalescence” phenomenon gives rise to an enhanced frequency shift of the peaks of the cavity transmission that can be exploited in optomechanics....

  11. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  12. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-04-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods.

  13. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sts@star.le.ac.uk; Whitford, Chris H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fraser, George W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Michael Atiyah Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods.

  14. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  15. Qubit readout with the Josephson Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeill, Guilhem

    Recent demonstrations of error correction in many qubit circuits, as well as efforts to build a logical qubit, have shown the need for a simple and scalable superconducting quantum bit (qubit) readout. Current solutions based on heterodyne detection and cryogenic amplification of microwave readout tones may prove difficult to scale, while photon counting presents an attractive alternative. However, the development of counters operating at these frequencies has proved technically challenging. In this thesis, we describe the development of the Josephson Photomultiplier (JPM), a microwave photon counting circuit. We discuss the JPM theoretically, and describe the fabrication of the JPM using standard thin film lithography techniques. We measure its properties as a microwave photon counter using a qubit as an in-situ calibrated source of photons. We measure a JPM quantum efficiency at the few percent level. We then use the JPM to perform readout of a transmon qubit in both the dispersive and bright regimes. We observe raw measurement fidelities of 35% and 62% respectively. We discuss how the JPM and measurement protocol could be further optimized to achieve fidelities in excess of 90%.

  16. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragone, A; /SLAC; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; /Brookhaven; Carini, G.A.; /BNL, NSLS; Herbst, R.; /SLAC; O' Connor, P.; /Brookhaven; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  17. Embedded controller for GEM detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dominik, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the embedded controller used for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector. The controller is based on the embedded Mini ITX mainboard, running the GNU/Linux operating system. The controller offers two interfaces to communicate with the FPGA based readout system. FPGA configuration and diagnostics is controlled via low speed USB based interface, while high-speed setup of the readout parameters and reception of the measured data is handled by the PCI Express (PCIe) interface. Hardware access is synchronized by the dedicated server written in C. Multiple clients may connect to this server via TCP/IP network, and different priority is assigned to individual clients. Specialized protocols have been implemented both for low level access on register level and for high level access with transfer of structured data with "msgpack" protocol. High level functionalities have been split between multiple TCP/IP servers for parallel operation. Status of the system may be checked, and basic maintenance may be performed via web interface, while the expert access is possible via SSH server. System was designed with reliability and flexibility in mind.

  18. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, R., E-mail: claus@slac.stanford.edu

    2016-07-11

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013–2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  19. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)696050; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R.T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A.J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Bartoldus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambe...

  20. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS CSC Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgrade during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chamber...

  1. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)664042

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf thr...

  2. Data encoding efficiency in pixel detector readout with charge information

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The minimum number of bits needed for lossless readout of a pixel detector is calculated, in the regime of interest for particle physics where only a small fraction of pixels have a non-zero value per frame. This permits a systematic comparison of the readout efficiency of different encoding implementations. The calculation is compared to the bits used for by the FE-I4 pixel readout chip of the ATLAS experiment.

  3. Data encoding efficiency in pixel detector readout with charge information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice, E-mail: mgs@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wang, Xinkang [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-04-11

    The average minimum number of bits needed for lossless readout of a pixel detector is calculated, in the regime of interest for particle physics where only a small fraction of pixels have a non-zero value per frame. This permits a systematic comparison of the readout efficiency of different encoding implementations. The calculation is compared to the number of bits used by the FE-I4 pixel readout chip of the ATLAS experiment.

  4. NIKEL_AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrion, O.; Benoit, A.; Bouly, J. L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Goupy, J.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  5. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism.

  6. Temporal variations of cathode performance in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells with different separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; Suor, Denis; Liu, Shumeng; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Zhichao

    2014-12-01

    An ideal separator is essential for efficient power production from air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, we use different kinds of membranes as separators, including Nafion 117 proton exchange membrane, polyethersulfone and poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes. Temporal variations of cathode performance are monitored during the experiment. Results show that MFCs with microfiltration membranes present higher power output but deterioration is still observed after about 600-h operation. With the utilization of appropriate separators (e.g., polyethersulfone membrane), biofouling, cation fouling and chemical scale fouling of the cathodes are alleviated while reaction fouling seems inevitable. Moreover, it is found that Coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) are also related to the cathode performance. Despite relatively high oxygen diffusivity (1.49 × 10-5 cm2 s-1), CE and EE of the MFC with 0.1 μm pore-size polyethersulfone membrane can reach 92.8% and 13.7%, respectively, when its average power density registers 403.5 mW m-2. This phenomenon might be attributed to the finding that the overall substrate consumption rate due to oxygen reduction and respiration is almost constant in the air-cathode MFCs. Oxygen leakage into the electrolyte can be inhibited due to the efficient oxygen reduction reaction on the surface of the cathode.

  7. Hollow Cathode With Multiple Radial Orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Improved hollow cathode serving as source of electrons has multiple radial orifices instead of single axial orifice. Distributes ion current more smoothly, over larger area. Prototype of high-current cathodes for ion engines in spacecraft. On Earth, cathodes used in large-diameter ion sources for industrial processing of materials. Radial orientation of orifices in new design causes current to be dispersed radially in vicinity of cathode. Advantageous where desireable to produce plasma more nearly uniform over wider region around cathode.

  8. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škorić, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: A verifier can check if received classical data were sent by the PUF holder. We call this modification QR-d or, in the case of the optical-PUF implementation, QSA-d. We discuss how QSA-d can be operated in a parallel way. We also present a protocol for authenticating quantum states.

  9. Mass-based readout for agglutination assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunara, Rumi; Godin, Michel; Knudsen, Scott M.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a mass-based readout for agglutination assays. The suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) is used to classify monomers and dimers that are formed during early stage aggregation, and to relate the total count to the analyte concentration. Using a model system of streptavidin functionalized microspheres and biotinylated antibody as the analyte, we obtain a dose-response curve over a concentration range of 0.63-630nM and show that the results are comparable to what has been previously achieved by image analysis and conventional flow cytometry.

  10. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  11. LHCb: A new Readout Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and the first hardware implementation of a new Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade. The system is based on FPGAs and bi-directional links for the control of the entire readout architecture. First results on the validation of the system are also given.

  12. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  13. Microhollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M.; Shi, W.; Bentley, R.

    2003-07-01

    By reducing the dimensions of hollow cathodes into the hundred micrometer range, stable, direct current, high (atmospheric) pressure glow discharges in rare gases, rare gas-halide mixtures and in air could be generated. The electron energy distribution in these microdischarges is non-Maxwellian, with a pronounced high-energy tail. The high electron energy together with the high gas density, which favors three-body collisions, is the reason for an efficient excimer generation in these microplasmas. Excimer efficiencies from 1% to 9% have been measured for argon, xenon, argon fluoride, and xenon chloride direct current excimer emitters, with a radiant excimer emittance of up to 2 W/cm2 for xenon. Adding small amounts of oxygen to argon has allowed us to generate vacuum ultraviolet line radiation at 130.5 nm with an efficiency approaching 1%. Pulsing xenon discharges with nanosecond electrical pulses has led to an increase in intensity to 15 W/cm2 and to a simultaneous increase in efficiency to more than 20%. Operating the discharges in an abnormal glow mode has allowed us to generate microdischarge arrays without individual ballast. Applications of these plasma arrays are excimer lamps and plasma reactors.

  14. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  15. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aldo Penzo; on behalf of 4th Concept and DREAM

    2007-12-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy).

  16. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  17. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  18. Performance of the Cathode Strip Chamber endcap muon detectors in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wulsin, H Wells

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of Run 1 of the LHC in 2012, the outermost ring has been added to the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) endcap muon detector, and the readout electronics of the innermost ring of CSCs have been upgraded to accommodate the larger luminosity and collision energy anticipated in Run 2. A major effort was required to build, install, and commission these new chambers and electronics. This talk summarizes the improvements made during this upgrade and presents the performance of the CSC detector during the early stages of Run 2.

  19. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  20. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  1. Studies with cathode drift chambers for the GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentchev, L.; Barbosa, F.; Berdnikov, V.; Butler, D.; Furletov, S.; Robison, L.; Zihlmann, B.

    2017-02-01

    A drift chamber system consisting of 24 1 m-diameter chambers with both cathode and wire readout (total of 12,672 channels) is operational in Hall D at Jefferson Lab (Virginia). Two cathode strip planes and one wire plane in each chamber register the same avalanche allowing the study of avalanche development, charge induction process, and strip resolution. We demonstrate a method for reconstructing the two-dimensional distribution of the avalanche ;center-of-gravity; position around the wire from an 55Fe source with resolutions down to 30 μm. We estimate the azimuthal extent of the avalanche around the wire as a function of the total charge for an Ar/CO2 gas mixture. By means of cluster counting using a modified 3 cm-gap chamber, we observe significant space charge effects within the same track, resulting in an extent of the avalanche along the wire.

  2. A novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixin; Hong, Yingping; Ge, Binger; Liang, Ting; Xiong, Jijun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors based on the inductively coupled inductor and cavity (LC) resonant circuits. The proposed system consists of a reader antenna inductively coupled to the sensor circuit, a readout circuit, and a personal computer (PC) post processing unit. The readout circuit generates a voltage signal representing the sensor's capacitance. The frequency of the reader antenna driving signal is a constant, which is equal to the sensor's resonant frequency at zero pressure. Based on mechanical and electrical modeling, the pressure sensor design based on the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology is conducted and discussed. The functionality and accuracy of the readout system are tested with a voltage-capacitance measurement system and demonstrated in a realistic pressure measurement environment, so that the overall performance and the feasibility of the readout system are proved.

  3. Towards third generation pixel readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@lbl.gov; Mekkaoui, A.; Ganani, D.

    2013-12-11

    We present concepts and prototyping results towards a third generation pixel readout chip. We consider the 130 nm feature size FE-I4 chip, in production for the ATLAS IBL upgrade, to be a second generation chip. A third generation chip would have to go significantly further. A possible direction is to make the IC design generic so that different experiments can configure it to meet significantly different requirements, without the need for everybody to develop their own ASIC from the ground up. In terms of target technology, a demonstrator 500-pixel matrix containing analog front ends only (no complex functionality), was designed and fabricated in 65 nm CMOS and irradiated with protons in December 2011 and May 2012.

  4. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  5. A Readout ASIC for CZT Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, L

    2008-01-01

    Spectrometers that can identify the energy of gamma radiation and determine the source isotope have until recently used low temperature semiconductors. These require cooling which makes their portability difficult. The material Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is now available which operates at room temperature and can be used to measure the energy of gamma radiation. In a compton camera configuration the direction of the radiation can also be determined. A read-out ASIC has been developed for such a system and features 100 channels of electronics, each with a charge amplifier, CR-RC shaper, and peak-hold. A 12 bit ADC converts the data which is sparsified before being read out. The energy, signal rise time, and timestamp of any hit channel is read out together with the data from all of its neighbours. The ASIC has a selectable lower dynamic range which could be used for lower energy interactions.

  6. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  7. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  8. High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

  9. Mechanistic Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, Eric [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under “real world” conditions is an issue for commercial deployment. In particular cathode exposure to moisture, CO2, Cr vapor (from interconnects and BOP), and particulates results in long-term performance degradation issues. Here, we have conducted a multi-faceted fundamental investigation of the effect of these contaminants on cathode performance degradation mechanisms in order to establish cathode composition/structures and operational conditions to enhance cathode durability.

  10. Novel Cathodes Prepared by Impregnation Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo Paz

    2006-09-30

    (1) We showed that similar results were obtained when using various LSM precursors to produce LSM-YSZ cathodes. (2) We showed that enhanced performance could be achieved by adding LSCo to LSMYSZ cathodes. (3) We have preliminary results showing that there is a slow deactivation with LSFYSZ cathodes.

  11. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  12. FFTS readout for large arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, S J C; Baselmans, J J A; Klein, B; Güsten, R

    2009-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have great potential for large very sensitive detector arrays for use in, for example, sub-mm imaging. Being intrinsically readout in the frequency domain, they are particularly suited for frequency domain multiplexing allowing $\\sim$1000s of devices to be readout with one pair of coaxial cables. However, this moves the complexity of the detector from the cryogenics to the warm electronics. We present here the concept and experimental demonstration of the use of Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FFTS) readout, showing no deterioration of the noise performance compared to low noise analog mixing while allowing high multiplexing ratios.

  13. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  14. A Multi-APD readout for EL detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lux, T; Illa, J; Jover, G; Martin, C; Rico, J; Sanchez, F

    2011-01-01

    Detectors with an electroluminesence readout show an excellence performance in respect of energy resolution making them interesting for various applications as X-ray detection, double beta and dark matter experiments, Compton and gamma cameras, etc. In the following the study of a readout based on avalanche photo diodes to detect directly the VUV photons is presented. Results of measurements with 5 APDs in xenon at pressures between 1 and 1.65 bar are shown indicating that such a readout can provide excellent energy and a moderate position resolution.

  15. Optical Interference Effects by Metal Cathode in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhao-Xin; WANG Li-Duo; QIU Yong

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of light intensities of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on the distance of emission zone to metal cathode is investigated numerically. The investigation is based on the half-space optical model that accounts for optical interference effects of metal cathode. We find that light intensities of OLEDs are functions of the distance of emission zone from the metal cathode because of the effect of interference of the metal cathode.This interference leads to an optimal location of emission zone in OLEDs for the maximum of light intensities.Optimal locations of emission zone are numerically shown in various emitting colour OLEDs with different metal cathodes and these results are expected to give insight into the preparation of high efficiency full colour or white light OLEDs.

  16. Microhollow Cathode Discharge Excimer Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.

    1999-11-01

    character. Reducing the diameter of the cathode hole in a hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of 100 μm has allowed us to extend the pressure range of stable, direct current hollow cathode gas discharges up to atmospheric pressure. The large concentration of high-energy electrons generated in the cathode fall, in combination with the high neutral gas density favors three-body processes such as excimer formation. Excimer emission in xenon discharges peaking at 172 nm, was observed with efficiencies between 6% and 9% at pressures of several hundred Torr. Typical forward voltages are 200 V at dc currents up to 8 mA. Pulsed operation allowed us to extend the current range to 80 mA with corresponding linear increase in optical power. Spatially resolved measurements showed that the source of the excimer radiation at atmospheric pressure and currents of less than 8 mA is confined to the cathode opening. The radiative emittance at 8 mA and atmospheric pressure is approximately 20 W/cm^2. With reduced pressure and increased current, respectively, the excimer source extends into the area outside the cathode hole. Besides in xenon, excimer emission in argon at a peak wavelength of 128 nm has been recorded. In addition to operating the discharge in rare gases, we have also explored its use as rare gas-halide excimer source. In a gas mixture containing 1% ArF we were able to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The spectra of the high-pressure ArF discharges are dominated by excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm. The excimer emission of a single ArF discharge at 700 Torr was measured as 150 mW at an efficiency of 3%. Parallel operation of these discharges by means of a resistive anode, which has recently been demonstrated for argon discharges, offers the possibility to use microhollow cathode discharge arrays as dc-excimer lamps, with estimated power densities exceeding 10 W/cm^2. abstract

  17. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Benton, S J; Amiri, M; Angilè, F E; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Doré, O P; Dowell, C D; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Gandilo, N N; Golwala, S R; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and powe...

  18. Optical readout of liquid argon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, N. J. C.; Lightfoot, P. K.; Barker, G. J.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Mavrokoridis, K.

    2011-07-01

    Reading out the charge from a very large liquid argon detector, such as proposed for next generation proton decay and long baseline neutrino detectors, represents a significant challenge. Current proposals suggest using wires in the liquid or a two-phase approach that can provide some gain via amplification in the gas phase. We present here work on an alternative new approach in which the charge is read out by optical means following generation of electroluminescence, such as in a THGEM (Thick Gas Electron Multiplier) mounted within the liquid. This has the potential for significant advantages by providing both simpler readout electronics and significant charge gain, without the need for the complexities of dual phase operation. Tests with a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) mounted above a THGEM, all submerged in liquid argon, have allowed first demonstration of the technique. Sensitivity to 5.9 keV 55Fe gamma events was observed with an estimated gain of 150 photoelectrons per drifted electron. We review the concepts and results.

  19. A CMOS readout circuit for microstrip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, B.; Fiorini, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present the design and the results of a CMOS analog channel for silicon microstrips detectors. The readout circuit was initially conceived for the outer layers of the SuperB silicon vertex tracker (SVT), but can serve more generally other microstrip-based detection systems. The strip detectors considered show a very high stray capacitance and high series resistance. Therefore, the noise optimization was the first priority design concern. A necessary compromise on the best peaking time to achieve an acceptable noise level together with efficiency and timing accuracy has been investigated. The ASIC is composed by a preamplifier, shaping amplifier and a Time over Threshold (T.o.T) block for the digitalization of the signals. The chosen shaping function is the third-order semi-Gaussian function implemented with complex poles. An inverter stage is employed in the analog channel in order to operate with signals delivered from both p and n strips. The circuit includes the possibility to select the peaking time of the shaper output from four values: 250 ns, 375 ns, 500 ns and 750 ns. In this way, the noise performances and the signal occupancy can be optimized according to the real background during the experiment. The ASIC prototype has been fabricated in the 130 nm IBM technology which is considered intrinsically radiation hard. The results of the experimental characterization of a produced prototype are satisfactorily matched with simulation.

  20. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  1. The NA48 LKr calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gianoli, A; Barr, C; Brodier-Yourstone, P; Buchholz, P; Ceccucci, Augusto; Cerri, C; Chlopik, A; Constantini, F; Fantechi, R; Formenti, F; Funk, W; Giudici, Sergio; Gorini, B; Guzik, J A; Hallgren, Björn I; Kozhevnikov, Yu; Iwansky, W; de La Taille, C; Lacourt, A; Laverrière, G C; Ljuslin, C; Mannelli, I; Martin-Chassard, G; Martini, M; Papi, A; Seguin-Moreau, N; Sozzi, M; Tarlé, J C; Velasco, M; Vossnack, O; Wahl, H; Ziolkowski, M

    2000-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS accelerator is making a measurement of the direct CP violation parameter epsilon '/ epsilon by comparing the four rates of decay of K/sub S/ and K/sub L/ into 2 pi /sup 0/ and pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/. To reconstruct the decays into 2 pi /sup 0/ the information from the almost 13500 channels of a quasi-homogeneous liquid krypton electromagnetic calorimeter is used. The readout electronics of the calorimeter has been designed to provide a dynamic range from a few MeV to about 50 GeV energy deposition per cell, and to sustain a high rate of incident particles. The system is made by cold charge preamplifiers (working at 120 degrees K), low-noise fast shapers followed by digitizer electronics at 40 MHz sampling rate that employs a gain switching technique to expand the dynamic range, where the gain can be selected for each sample individually (i.e. every 25 ns). To reduce the amount of data collected the system contains a zero suppression circuit based on halo expansion. (12 refs)...

  2. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, R.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doleźal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyś, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnićka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  3. Study for the LHCb upgrade read-out board

    CERN Document Server

    Cachemiche, J P; Hachon, F; Le Gac, R; Marin, F

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment envisages to upgrade its readout electronics in order to increase the readout rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. This electronics upgrade is very challenging, since readout boards will have to handle a higher number of serial links with an increased bandwidth. In addition, the new communication protocol (GBT) developed by the CERN micro-electronics group mixes data acquisition, slow control and clock distribution on the same link. To explore the feasibility of such a readout system, elementary building blocks have been studied. Their goals are multiple: understand signal integrity when using highly integrated high speed serial links running at 8 - 10 Gbits/s; test the implementation of the GBT protocol within FPGAs; understand advantages and limitations of commercial standard with a predefined interconnection topology; validate ideas on how to control easily such a system. We designed two boards compliant with the xTCA standard which meets an increasing interest in the physics community. The first...

  4. Test of High Time Resolution MRPC with Different Readout Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, S; Li, C; Heng, Y K; Qian, S; Chen, H F; Chen, T X; Dai, H L; Fan, H H; Liu, S B; Liu, S D; Jiang, X S; Shao, M; Tang, Z B; Zhang, H; Zhao, Z G

    2014-01-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  5. Readout scheme for the Baby-MIND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Cadoux, F; Favre, Y; Martinez, B; Nicola, L; Parsa, S; Rayner, M; Antonova, M; Fedotov, S; Izmaylov, A; Kleymenova, A; Khabibullin, M; Khotyantsev, A; Kudenko, Y; Likhacheva, V; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Ovsiannikova, T; Shaykhiev, A; Suvorov, S; Yershov, N; Tsenov, R

    2016-01-01

    A readout scheme has been designed for the plastic scintillator bars of the Baby-MIND detector modules. This spectrometer will measure momentum and identify the charge of 1 GeV/c muons with magnetized iron plates interleaved with detector modules. One challenge the detector aims to address is that of keeping high charge identification efficiencies for momenta below 1 GeV/c where multiple scattering in the iron plates degrades momentum resolution. A front-end board has been developed, with 3 CITIROC readout chips per board and up to 96 channels. Hamamatsu MPPCs type S12571-025C photosensors were chosen for readout of wavelength shifting fibers embedded in plastic scintillators. Procurement of the MPPCs has been carried out to instrument 3000 channels in total. Design choices and first results of this readout scheme are presented.

  6. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  7. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described.

  8. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, D C; Chiodini, G; Hoff, J; Kwan, S; Mekkaoui, A; Yarema, R; 10.1016/j.nima.2005.04.046

    2005-01-01

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  9. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  10. A high dynamic range readout unit for a calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-Long; WU Jian; CHANG Jin; LI Bing; FENG Chang-Qing; LI Xian-Li; WANG Xiao-Lian; XU Zi-Zong; GUO Jian-Hua; CAI Ming-Sheng; HU Yi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A high dynamic range readout system,consisting of a multi-dynode readout PMT and a VA32 chip,is presented.An LED system is set up to calibrate the relative gains between the dynodes,and the ADC counts per MIPs from dynode 7 are determined under cosmic-ray calibration.A dynamic range from 0.5 MIPs to 1 × 105 MIPs is achieved.

  11. Large Format Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays and Readout Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    a detector wafer with a transparent substrate; the arrays can therefore be bump bonded to CMOS readouts by the same process used for InP- based... bump bond to a more advanced 3D integration requires heterogeneous integration technique. We have demonstrated wafer bonding of InP detector arrays...digital CMOS readout circuits using bump bonding or 3D integration techniques. Silicon is the material of choice for ultraviolet, visible, and near

  12. Alibava : A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marco-Hernández, Ricardo; Casse, G; García, C; Greenall, A; Lacasta, C; Lozano, M; Martí i García, S; Martínez, R; Miñano, M; Pellegrini, G; Smith, N A; Ullán, M

    2007-01-01

    A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors is currently being developed. This system uses a front-end readout chip, which was developed for the LHC experiments. The system will be used to investigate the main properties of this type of sensors and their future applications. The system is divided in two parts: a daughter board and a mother board. The first one is a small board which contains two readout chips and has fan-ins and sensor support to interface the sensors. The last one is intended to process the analogue data that comes from the readout chips and from external trigger signals, to control the whole system and to communicate with a PC via USB. The core of this board is a FPGA that controls the readout chips, a 10 bit ADC, an integrated TDC and an USB controller. This board also contains the analogue electronics to process the data that comes from the readout chips. There is also provision for an external trigger input (e.g. scintillator trigger) and a 'synchronised' trigger output for ...

  13. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2002-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. This period has continued to address the problem of making dense 1/2 to 5 {micro}m thick dense layers on porous substrates (the cathode LSM). Our current status is that we are making structures of 2-5 cm{sup 2} in area, which consist of either dense YSZ or CGO infiltrated into a 2-5 {micro}m thick 50% porous layer made of either nanoncrystalline CGO or YSZ powder. This composite structure coats a macroporous cathode or anode; which serves as the structural element of the bi-layer structure. These structures are being tested as SOFC elements. A number of structures have been evaluated both as symmetrical and as button cell configuration. Results of this testing indicates that the cathodes contribute the most to cell losses for temperatures below 750 C. In this investigation different cathode materials were studied using impedance spectroscopy of symmetric cells and IV characteristics of anode supported fuel cells. Cathode materials studied included La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (LSCF), La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), Pr{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PSCF), Sm{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF), and Yb{sub .8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (SSCF). A new technique for filtering the Fourier transform of impedance data was used to increase the sensitivity of impedance analysis. By creating a filter specifically for impedance spectroscopy the resolution was increased. The filter was tailored to look for specific circuit elements like R//C, Warburg, or constant phase elements. As many as four peaks can be resolved using the filtering technique on symmetric cells. It may be possible to relate the different peaks to material parameters, like the oxygen exchange coefficient. The cathode grouped in order from lowest to highest ASR is

  14. Automation of fluorescent differential display with digital readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jonathan D; Cho, Yong-Jig; Fisher, Jeffrey S; Walden, Jamie C; Guo, Zhen; Liang, Peng

    2006-01-01

    Since its invention in 1992, differential display (DD) has become the most commonly used technique for identifying differentially expressed genes because of its many advantages over competing technologies such as DNA microarray, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), and subtractive hybridization. Despite the great impact of the method on biomedical research, there has been a lack of automation of DD technology to increase its throughput and accuracy for systematic gene expression analysis. Most of previous DD work has taken a "shot-gun" approach of identifying one gene at a time, with a limited number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reactions set up manually, giving DD a low-tech and low-throughput image. We have optimized the DD process with a new platform that incorporates fluorescent digital readout, automated liquid handling, and large-format gels capable of running entire 96-well plates. The resulting streamlined fluorescent DD (FDD) technology offers an unprecedented accuracy, sensitivity, and throughput in comprehensive and quantitative analysis of gene expression. These major improvements will allow researchers to find differentially expressed genes of interest, both known and novel, quickly and easily.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Zappasodi, Filippo; Cam, Etrugul; Bassetti, Claudio L; Uncini, Antonino

    2014-07-15

    Experimental focal brain ischemia generates in the penumbra recurrent depolarizations which spread across the injured cortex inducing infarct growth. Transcranial direct current stimulation can induce a lasting, polarity-specific, modulation of cortical excitability. To verify whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation could reduce the infarct size and the number of depolarizations, focal ischemia was induced in the rat by the 3 vessels occlusion technique. In the first experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal stimulation (alternating 15 min on and 15 min off) starting 45 min after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 4 h. In the second experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation with the same protocol but starting soon after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 6 h. In both experiments controls were 12 ischemic rats not receiving stimulation. Cathodal stimulation reduced the infarct volume in the first experiment by 20% (p=0.002) and in the second by 30% (p=0.003). The area of cerebral infarction was smaller in animals receiving cathodal stimulation in both experiments (p=0.005). Cathodal stimulation reduced the number of depolarizations (p=0.023) and infarct volume correlated with the number of depolarizations (p=0.048). Our findings indicate that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation exert a neuroprotective effect in the acute phase of stroke possibly decreasing the number of spreading depolarizations. These findings may have translational relevance and open a new avenue in neuroprotection of stroke in humans.

  16. Microhollow cathode discharge excimer lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Moselhy, Mohamed M.; Shi, Wenhui; Stark, Robert H.

    2000-05-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges are high-pressure, nonequilibrium gas discharges between a hollow cathode and a planar or hollow anode with electrode dimensions in the 100 μm range. The large concentration of high-energy electrons, in combination with the high-gas density favors excimer formation. Excimer emission was observed in xenon and argon, at wavelengths of 128 and 172 nm, respectively, and in argon fluoride and xenon chloride, at 193 and 308 nm. The radiant emittance of the excimer radiation was found to increase monotonically with pressure. However, due to the decrease in source size with pressure, the efficiency (ratio of excimer radiant power to input electrical power), has for xenon and argon fluoride a maximum at ˜400 Torr. The maximum efficiency is between 6% and 9% for xenon, and ˜2% for argon fluoride.

  17. Characterization of multicapillary dielectric cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleizer, J. Z.; Hadas, Y.; Yarmolich, D.; Felsteiner, J.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2007-04-01

    Parameters of the plasma and electron beam produced by a multicapillary cathode in a diode powered by a ˜200kV, ˜300ns pulse are presented. It was found that the source of electrons is the plasma ejected from the capillaries. Inside the capillaries this plasma obtains electron density and temperature of ˜8×1015cm-3 and ˜5eV, respectively. In the vicinity of the cathode, the density and temperature of the plasma electrons were found to be 2×1014cm-3 and 4.5eV, respectively, for electron current density of ˜40A/cm2. It was shown that the plasma expansion velocity is in the range of (1-2)×106cm/s for current density of >12A/cm2.

  18. Invited article: physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30,472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25,000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140,000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  19. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, J.; Guerfi, A.; Zaghib, K.; Striebel, K.A.

    2003-11-25

    The electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathodes with different carbon contents were studied to find out the role of carbon as conductive additive. LiFePO4 cathodes containing from 0 percent to 12 percent of conductive additive (carbon black or mixture of carbon black and graphite) were cycled at different C rates. The capacity of LiFePO4 cathode increased, as conductive additive content increased. Carbon increased the utilization of active material and the electrical conductivity of electrode, but decreased volumetric capacity of electrode.

  20. Effect of conductive additives in LiFePO4 cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathodes with different carbon contents were studied to find out the role of carbon as conductive additive. LiFePO4 cathodes containing from 0 percent to 12 percent of conductive additive (carbon black or mixture of carbon black and graphite) were cycled at different C rates. The capacity of LiFePO4 cathode increased, as conductive additive content increased. Carbon increased the utilization of active material and the electrical conductivity of e...

  1. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  2. A pulsed cathodic arc spacecraft propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P R C; Bilek, M M M; Tarrant, R N; McKenzie, D R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the use of a centre-triggered cathodic arc as a spacecraft propulsion system that uses an inert solid as a source of plasma. The cathodic vacuum arc produces almost fully ionized plasma with a high exhaust velocity (>10{sup 4} m s{sup -1}), giving a specific impulse competitive with other plasma or ion thrusters. A centre trigger design is employed that enables efficient use of cathode material and a high pulse-to-pulse repeatability. We compare three anode geometries, two pulse current profiles and two pulse durations for their effects on impulse generation, energy and cathode material usage efficiency. Impulse measurement is achieved through the use of a free-swinging pendulum target constructed from a polymer material. Measurements show that impulse is accurately controlled by varying cathode current. The cylindrical anode gave the highest energy efficiency. Cathode usage is optimized by choosing a sawtooth current profile. There is no requirement for an exhaust charge neutralization system.

  3. Sun powers Libya cathodic-protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currer, G.W.

    1982-03-22

    Well castings and part of the main 300-mile-long, 32-in diameter pipeline from Sarir to Tobruk are cathodically protected by solar power, which prevents galvanic action by applying an electric direct current of appropriate magnitude and polarity to the steel structures. They then act as cathodes and become the recipients of metallic ions. At each cathodic-protection station, the solar-generaor system consists of solar-panel arrays, electronic controls, and batteries.

  4. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith...dominate the metal’s cathodic behavior. Within an alkaline environment, we expect the following reduction reactions to be catalyzed on the oxide

  5. Novel concept of TDI readout circuit for LWIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunghyuck; Yoon, Nanyoung; Lee, Hee Chul; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2000-07-01

    Noise property is the prime consideration in readout circuit design. The output noise caused by the photon noise, which dominates total noise in BLIP detectors, is limited by the integration time that an element looks at a specific point in the scene. Large integration time leads to a low noise performance. Time-delay integration (TDI) is used to effectively increase the integration time and reduce the photon noise. However, it increases the number of dead pixels and requires large integration capacitors and low noise output stage of the readout circuit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a new concept of readout circuit, which performs background suppression, cell-to-cell background current non-uniformity compensation, and dead pixel correction using memory, ADC, DAC, and current copier cell. In simulation results, comparing with the conventional TDI readout circuit, the integration capacitor size can be reduced to 1/5 and trans-impedance gain can be increased by five times. Therefore, the new TDI readout circuit does not require large area and low noise output stage. And the error of skimming current is less than 2%, and the fixed pattern noise induced by cell-to-cell background current variation is reduced to less than 1%.

  6. Time resolution of a photomultiplier readout system for space application

    CERN Document Server

    Commichau, Sebastian Caspar; Capell, M; Commichau, Volker; Flügge, G; Hangarter, K; Lebedev, A; Mnich, J; Röser, U; Viertel, G M; Von Gunten, H P

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a readout system for the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) is studied. The detector is proposed as part of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment, an experiment to fly on the International Space Station (ISS) beginning of 2005. The SRD is designed to detect the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons (TeV energy range) produced in the earth's magnetic field. For the planned array of scintillators and photomultipliers a readout system is chosen, which is compact, space qualified and has a low- power consumption. The low-power chip APV, originally designed for the CMS experiment at LHC (CERN), is foreseen for the readout. To overcome the diffuse background from photons and charged particles the SRD readout must have a time resolution better than 10 ns. The intrinsic time resolution (sigma from Gauss fit) of the APV25-S0 was found to be 0.46 +or- 0.01 and 0.68 +or-0.02 ns for the APVM. whereas the time resolution of the photomultiplier-APV readout system was measured to be 2....

  7. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  8. Long-term performance of activated carbon air cathodes with different diffusion layer porosities in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214±123mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35±4W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734±18mW/m 2. The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014±2mW/m 2 to 789±68mW/m 2). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750mW/m 2 after 1 year. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Development of large area, pico-second resolution photo-detectors and associated readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabas, H.; Oberla, E. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Attenkoffer, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bogdan, M.; Frisch, H. J. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J. F. [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3/LPNHE, Paris 75252 (France); Northrop, R. [Enrico Fermi Inst., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); May, E. N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Varner, G. S. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wetstein, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Large Area Pico-second Photo-detectors described in this contribution incorporate a photo-cathode and a borosilicate glass capillary Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) pair functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of separate resistive and electron secondary emitters materials. They may be used for biomedical imaging purposes, a remarkable opportunity to apply technologies developed in HEP having the potential to make major advances in the medical world, in particular for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). If daisy-chained and coupled to fast transmission lines read at both ends, they could be implemented in very large dimensions. Initial testing with matched pairs of small glass capillary test has demonstrated gains of the order of 105 to 106. Compared to other fast imaging devices, these photo-detectors are expected to provide timing resolutions in the 10-100 ps range, and two-dimension position in the sub-millimeter range. A 6-channel readout ASIC has been designed in 130 nm CMOS technology and tested. As a result, fast analog sampling up to 17 GS/s has been obtained, the intrinsic analog bandwidth being presently under evaluation. The digitization in parallel of several cells in two microseconds allows getting off-chip digital data read at a maximum rate of 40 MHz. Digital Signal Processing of the sampled waveforms is expected achieving the timing and space resolutions obtained with digital oscilloscopes. (authors)

  10. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  11. Indirect readout of DNA sequence by p22 repressor: roles of DNA and protein functional groups in modulating DNA conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lydia-Ann; Watkins, Derrick; Williams, Loren Dean; Koudelka, Gerald B

    2013-01-09

    The repressor of bacteriophage P22 (P22R) discriminates between its various DNA binding sites by sensing the identity of non-contacted base pairs at the center of its binding site. The "indirect readout" of these non-contacted bases is apparently based on DNA's sequence-dependent conformational preferences. The structures of P22R-DNA complexes indicate that the non-contacted base pairs at the center of the binding site are in the B' state. This finding suggests that indirect readout and therefore binding site discrimination depend on P22R's ability to either sense and/or impose the B' state on the non-contacted bases of its binding sites. We show here that the affinity of binding sites for P22R depends on the tendency of the central bases to assume the B'-DNA state. Furthermore, we identify functional groups in the minor groove of the non-contacted bases as the essential modulators of indirect readout by P22R. In P22R-DNA complexes, the negatively charged E44 and E48 residues are provocatively positioned near the negatively charged DNA phosphates of the non-contacted nucleotides. The close proximity of the negatively charged groups on protein and DNA suggests that electrostatics may play a key role in the indirect readout process. Changing either of two negatively charged residues to uncharged residues eliminates the ability of P22R to impose structural changes on DNA and to recognize non-contacted base sequence. These findings suggest that these negatively charged amino acids function to force the P22R-bound DNA into the B' state and therefore play a key role in indirect readout by P22R.

  12. Noise and mismatch optimization for capacitive MEMS readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chong; Wu Qisong; Yin Tao; Yang Haigang, E-mail: yanghg@mail.ie.ac.c [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a high precision CMOS readout circuit for a capacitive MEMS gyroscope. A continuous time topology is employed as well as the chopper noise cancelling technique. A detailed analysis of the noise and mismatch of the capacitive readout circuit is given. The analysis and measurement results have shown that thermal noise dominates in the proposed circuit, and several approaches should be used for both noise and mismatch optimization. The circuit chip operates under a single 5 V supply, and has a measured capacitance resolution of 0.2 aF/sq rootHz. With such a readout circuit, the gyroscope can accurately measure the angular rate with a sensitivity of 15.3 mV/{sup 0}/s. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Noise and mismatch optimization for capacitive MEMS readout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chong; Wu Qisong; Yin Tao; Yang Haigang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a high precision CMOS readout circuit for a capacitive MEMS gyroscope. A continuous time topology is employed as well as the chopper noise cancelling technique. A detailed analysis of the noise and mismatch of the capacitive readout circuit is given. The analysis and measurement results have shown that thermal noise dominates in the proposed circuit, and several approaches should be used for both noise and mismatch optimization. The circuit chip operates under a single 5 V supply, and has a measured capacitance resolution of 0.2 aF/√Hz. With such a readout circuit, the gyroscope can accurately measure the angular rate with a sensitivity of 15.3 mV/°/s.

  14. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandri, Cristobal; Guzman, Dani; Passalacqua, Ignacio; Alvarez-Fontecilla, Enrique; Guarini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-dom...

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE-TPC read-out electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junique, A; Mager, M; Musa, L; Rehman, A Ur, E-mail: Magnus.Mager@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The ALICE experiment at CERN LHC employs a large volume time projection chamber (TPC) as its main tracking device. Instigated by analyses indicating that the high level trigger is capable of sifting events with rare physics probes, it is endeavoured to read out the TPC an order of magnitude faster then was reckoned during the design of its read-out electronics. Based on an analysis of the read-out performance of the current system, an upgrade of the front-end read-out network is proposed. The performance of the foreseen architecture is simulated with raw data from real 7 TeV pp collisions. Events are superimposed in order to emulate the future ALICE running conditions: high multiplicity events generated either by PbPb collisions or by the superposition (pile-up) of a large number of pp collisions. The first prototype of the main building block has been produced and characterised, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  16. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications.

  17. Improvement of Event Synchronization in the ATLAS Pixel Readout Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Logan; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the LHC continues in Run2, the B-Layer still uses the Atlas-SiROD Pixel readout system initially developed for Run 1. The higher luminosity occurring during Run 2 results in higher occupancy causing increased desynchronization errors in the Pixel Readout. In order to ensure lasting operation of the B-Layer until it is replaced after Run 3, changes were made to the firmware and software to add debug capabilities to identify when the errors are crossing certain thresholds and change the internal control logic accordingly. These features also allow for better debugging of the Event Counter Reset addition to the firmware. This talk will focus on the features implemented and measurements to demonstrate the positive impact on the Pixel DAQ system. A Pixel front-end chip emulator which can be used for readout system development beyond Run 3 will also be discussed. Presenter is Logan Adams, University of Washington.

  18. A Triggerless readout system for the bar PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemens, M.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    One of the physics goals of the future bar PANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this concept, each detector subsystem preprocesses the signal, so that in a later stage, high-level phyiscs constraints can be applied to select events of interest. A dedicated clock source using a protocol called SODANET over optical fibers ensures proper synchronisation between the components. For this new type of readout, a new way of simulating the detector response also needed to be developed, taking into account the effects of pile-up caused by the 20 MHz interaction rate.

  19. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  20. Upgrade of the ALICE-TPC read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Junique, A; Musa , L; Rehman , A U

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN LHC employs a large volume time projection chamber (TPC) as its main tracking device. Instigated by analyses indicating that the high level trigger is capable of sifting events with rare physics probes, it is endeavoured to read out the TPC an order of magnitude faster then was reckoned during the design of its read-out electronics. Based on an analysis of the read-out performance of the current system, an upgrade of the front-end read-out network is proposed. The performance of the foreseen architecture is simulated with raw data from real 7 TeV pp collisions. Events are superimposed in order to emulate the future ALICE running conditions: high multiplicity events generated either by PbPb collisions or by the superposition (pile-up) of a large number of pp collisions. The first prototype of the main building block has been produced and characterised, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach

  1. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang,; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  2. A readout for large arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McHugh, Sean; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry (ARCONS). This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible...

  3. Hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1992-04-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  4. A Low-Noise Readout Circuit for Gyroscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanshi Wang; Xiaowei Liu; Changchun Dong

    2015-01-01

    In order to suppress the noise of gyroscopes, the method based on lock⁃in amplifier and capacitor matching of the low⁃noise readout circuit is proposed. Firstly, the principle to suppress the noise by lock⁃in amplifier is analyzed, and the noise model of front end is proposed. Secondly, the noise optimization for the charge amplifier is presented according to the noise model of front end. Finally, a readout circuit is constructed by this approach. The measurement results show that the parasitic capacitance of front end is 18 pF, and the noise at resonant frequency ( 4 kHz) is 133 nV/Hz1/2 , and the overall bias stability is 30°/h, and the noise level is 0�003°/( s·Hz1/2 ) . The noise of the gyroscope with the low⁃noise readout by this method is suppressed effectively.

  5. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O' CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  6. Development of the readout system for waveguide multilayer optical card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Min-fen; LIANG Zhong-cheng; WANG Ren-zhou; DONG Xiang-mei; ZHANG Pei-ming; CHEN Jia-bi

    2008-01-01

    Waveguide multilayer optical card(WMOC)is a novel storage device of three-dimensional optical information.An ad-vancod readout system fitting for the WMOC is introduced in this paper.The hardware mainly consists of the light source for reading,WMOC,motorized stages addressing unit,microscope imaging unit,CCD detecting unit and PC controlling & processing unit.The movement of the precision motorized stage is controlled by the computer through Visual Basic(VB) language in software.A control panel is also designed to get the layer address and the page address through which the position of the motorized stages call be changed.The WMOC readout system is easy to manage and the readout result is directly displayed on computer monitor.

  7. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Berra, A.

    2016-09-11

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5~GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the $e/\\pi$ separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  8. Cathode materials: A personal perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712-1063 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    A thermodynamically stable rechargeable battery has a voltage limited by the window of the electrolyte. An aqueous electrolyte has a window of 1.2 eV, which prevents achieving the high energy density desired for many applications. A non-aqueous electrolyte with a window of 5 eV requires Li{sup +} rather than H{sup +} as the working ion. Early experiments with Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} cathodes showed competitive capacity and rate capability, but problems with a lithium anode made the voltage of a safe cell based on a sulfide cathode too low to be competitive with a nickel/metal-hydride battery. Transition-metal oxides can give voltages of 4.5 V versus Li{sup +}/Li{sup 0}. However, the challenge with oxides has been to obtain a competitive capacity and rate capability while retaining a high voltage with low-cost, environmentally friendly cathode materials. Comparisons will be made between layered Li{sub 1-x}MO{sub 2}, spinels Li{sub 1-x}[M{sub 2}]O{sub 4}, and olivines Li{sub 1-x}MPO{sub 4} having 0 < x < 1. Although higher capacities can be obtained with layered Li{sub 1-x}MO{sub 2} compounds, which have enabled the wireless revolution, their metastability makes them unlikely to be used in power applications. The spinel and olivine framework structures have been shown to be capable of charge/discharge rates of over 10C with a suitable temperature range for plug-in hybrid vehicles. (author)

  9. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  10. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  11. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Battat, J B R; Aleksandrov, A; Guler, M Ali; Asada, T; Baracchini, E; Billard, J; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Bouvier, J; Buonaura, A; Burdge, K; Cebrian, S; Colas, P; Consiglio, L; Dafni, T; D'Ambrosio, N; Deaconu, C; De Lellis, G; Descombes, T; Di Crescenzo, A; Di Marco, N; Druitt, G; Eggleston, R; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fusayasu, T; Galan, J; Galati, G; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Gentile, V; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Giomataris, Y; Guerrero, N; Guillaudin, O; Harton, J; Hashimoto, T; Hedges, M T; Iguaz, F; Ikeda, T; Jaegle, I; Kadyk, J A; Katsuragawa, T; Komura, S; Kubo, H; Kuge, K; Lamblin, J; Lauria, A; Lee, E R; Lewis, P; Leyton, M; Loomba, D; Lopez, J P; Luzon, G; Mayet, F; Mirallas, H; Miuchi, K; Mizumoto, T; Mizumura, Y; Monacelli, P; Monroe, J; Montesi, M C; Naka, T; Nakamura, K; Nishimura, H; Ochi, A; Papevangelou, T; Parker, J D; Phan, N S; Pupilli, F; Richer, J P; Riffard, Q; Rosa, G; Santos, D; Sawano, T; Sekiya, H; Seong, I S; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Sugiyama, A; Taishaku, R; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanaka, M; Tanimori, T; Thorpe, T N; Tioukov, V; Tomita, H; Umemoto, A; Vahsen, S E; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshimoto, M; Zayas, E

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  12. The SoLid anti-neutrino detector's readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.; Beaumont, W.; Cussans, D.; Newbold, D.; Ryder, N.; Weber, A.

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space-time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. In these proceedings the design of the readout system is explained and results showing the performance of a prototype version of the system are presented.

  13. The Retinal Readout System: a status report A Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M

    1999-01-01

    The 'Retinal Readout System' is being developed to study the language the eye uses to send information about the visual world to the brain. Its architecture is based on that of silicon microstrip detectors. An array of 512 microscopic electrodes picks up the signals generated by the output neurons of live retinal tissue in response to a dynamic image focused on the input neurons. These signals are amplified, filtered and multiplexed by a set of eight custom-designed VLSI readout chips, and digitized and recorded by a data acquisition system. This report describes the goals, design, and status of the system. (author)

  14. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  15. A Readout System for the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedner, D; Apeldorn , G; Bachmann, S; Bagaturi , I; Bauer, T; Berkien, A; Blouw, J; Bos, E; Deisenroth, M; Dubitzki, R; Eisele, F; Guz , Y; Haas, T; Hommels, B; Ketel, T; Knopf , J; Merk , M; Nardulli , J; Nedos, M; Pellegrino, A; Rausch, A; Rusnyak, R; Schwemmer, R; Simoni, E; Sluijk , T; Spaan, B; Spelt , J; Stange, U; van Tilburg, J; Trunk , U; Tuning , N; Uwer, U; Vankow , P; Warda, K

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is composed of 55 000 straw drift tubes. The requirements for the OT electronics are the precise (1 ns) drift time measurement at 6 % occupancy and 1 MHz readout. Charge signals from the straw detector are amplified, shaped and discriminated by ATLAS ASDBLR chips. Drift-times are determined and stored in the OTIS TDC and put out to a GOL serializer at L0 accept. Optical fibres carry the data 90 m to the TELL1 acquisition board. The full readout chain performed well in an e- test beam.

  16. Dual readout 3D direct/induced-signals pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Sherwood; Deile, Mario; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Watts, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 3D-electrode pixel detectors are described, in which the bias electrode systems have additional elements. Adding resistors between the bias supply line and each bias electrode together with a signal electrode readout that can measure pulse heights of both polarities could simultaneously provide lower capacitance and improved spatial resolution in both directions. A separate paper (“Dual-readout—strip/pixel systems”) covers an alternative—pixels with an added strip readout in one direction which could be used with either planar or 3D-electrodes, and could simultaneously provide a fast trigger and significantly increase the spatial resolution in both directions.

  17. Temperature compensation method using readout signals of ring laser gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Guangzong; Wei, Guo; Zhang, Pengfei; Long, Xingwu

    2015-05-18

    Traditional compensation methods using temperature-related parameters have little effect when the ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias changes rapidly. To solve this problem, a novel RLG bias temperature compensation method using readout signals is proposed in this paper. Combined with the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm, the novel method can improve the precision of the RLG bias. Experiments show that by utilizing the readout signals in the LS-SVM model, the RLG bias stability can be significantly raised compared to the original data. The novel method proposed in this paper is shown to be feasible, even when the RLG bias changes rapidly.

  18. A Time Projection Chamber with GEM-Based Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, David; Bellerive, Alain; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Bhattacharya, Purba; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Caiazza, Stefano; Colas, Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dehmelt, Klaus; Desch, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Dixit, Madhu; Fleck, Ivor; Fujii, Keisuke; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Ganjour, Serguei; Gao, Yuanning; Gros, Philippe; Hayman, Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Jönsson, Leif; Kaminski, Jochen; Kato, Yukihiro; Kawada, Shin-ichi; Killenberg, Martin; Kleinwort, Claus; Kobayashi, Makoto; Krylov, Vladyslav; Li, Bo; Li, Yulan; Lundberg, Björn; Lupberger, Michael; Majumdar, Nayana; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Müller, Felix; Münnich, Astrid; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Oskarsson, Anders; Österman, Lennart; Peterson, Daniel; Riallot, Marc; Rosemann, Christoph; Roth, Stefan; Schade, Peter; Schäfer, Oliver; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shirazi, Amir Noori; Smirnova, Oxana; Sugiyama, Akira; Takahashi, Tohru; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maksym; Tsionou, Dimitra; Vauth, Annika; Wang, Wenxin; Watanabe, Takashi; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Yang, Yifan; Yang, Zhenwei; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenker, Klaus; Zhang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent GEM-based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  19. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  20. Vacuum arc on the polycrystalline silica cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of silica and its compounds are used in modern technology to produce Li-ion batteries, wear-resistant and protective coatings, thin-films insulators, etc. This coating is produced with CVD methods, with magnetron sputtering systems or with electron-beam evaporation. The vacuum arc evaporation method, presently, is not used.The paper demonstrates a possibility for a long-term operation of vacuum arc evaporator with polycrystalline silica-aluminum alloy (90% of silica cathode and with magnetic system to create a variable form of arch-like magnetic field on the cathode surface. It was shown that archlike configuration of magnetic field provides a stable discharge and uniform cathode spots moving with the velocities up to 5 m/s with magnetic fields induction about 10 mT. Thus, there is no local melting of the cathode, and this provides its long-term work without chips, cracks and destruction. Cathodes spots move over the cathode surface leaving t big craters with melted edges on its surface. The craters size was 150-450μm. The cathode spot movement character and the craters on the cathode surface were like the spots movement, when working on the copper or aluminum cathodes. With the magnetic field induction less than 1 mT, the cathode spots movement was the same as that of on the silica mono-crystal without magnetic field. Thus, the discharge volt-ampere characteristics for different values of magnetic fields were obtained. Voltampere characteristics were increasing and were shifted to the higher voltage with increasing magnetic field. The voltage was 18.7-26.5 V for the arc current 30-140 A.So, it was confirmed that vacuum arc evaporation method could be used for effective evaporation of silica and silica-based alloys and for thin films deposition of this materials.

  1. A 4k-Pixel CTIA Readout for Far IR Photodetector Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a low noise, two-side buttable, 64x64 readout multiplexer with the following key design features: 1- By far the largest readout array developed...

  2. Cathodic contact glow discharge electrolysis: its origin and non-faradaic chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Susanta K. Sen; Singh, Rajshree

    2017-01-01

    Normal electrolysis (NE), at sufficiently high voltages, breaks down and undergoes a transition to a phenomenon called contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) in which a sheath of glow discharge plasma encapsulates one of the electrodes, the anode or the cathode. The chemical effects of CGDE are highly non-faradaic e.g. a mixture of H2 and H2O2 plus O2 each in excess of the Faraday law value is liberated at the glow discharge plasma electrode from an aqueous electrolyte solution. Studies of cathodic CGDE, particularly its origin and chemical effects, in comparison to those of anodic CGDE have received significantly less attention and have not been studied in detail. The present paper is an attempt towards elucidation of the mechanisms of the growth of cathodic CGDE during NE and its non-faradaic chemical effects. The findings of the study have led to the inference that emission of secondary electrons from the metal cathode with sufficient kinetic energies, vaporization of the electrolyte solvent in the vicinity of the cathode surface induced by Joule heating and the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in local vaporization contribute to the generation of the plasma at the cathode during NE. The findings have further shown that non-faradaic yields of CGDE at the cathode originate from energy transfer processes in two reaction zones: a plasma phase reaction zone around the cathode which accounts for ~75% of the yields, and a liquid phase reaction zone near the plasma-catholyte solution interface accounting for the remaining ~25% of the yields.

  3. Generalized Mechanism of Field Emission from Nanostructured Semiconductor Film Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru-Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Yan, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Considering the effect of both the buffer layer and substrate, a series of ultrathin multilayered structure cathodes (UTMC) is constructed to simulate the field emission (FE) process of nanostructured semiconductor film cathodes (NSFCs). We find a generalized FE mechanism of the NSFCs, in which there are three distinct FE modes with the change of the applied field. Our results clearly show significant differences of FE between conventional emitters and nanofilm emitters, which the non-Fowler-Nordheim characteristics and the resonant FE will be inevitable for NSFCs. Moreover, the controllable FE can be realized by fine-tuning the quantum structure of NSFCs. The generalized mechanism of NSFCs presented here may be particularly useful for design high-speed and high-frequency vacuum nano-electronic devices.

  4. ALIBAVA A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Marco-Hernández, R; Casse, G; García, C; Greenall, A; Lacasta, C; Lozano, M; Martí i García, S; Martínez, R; Miñano, M; Pellegrini, G; Smith, N A; Ullán, M

    2007-01-01

    A portable readout system for micro-strip silicon sensors has been developed. The system uses an analogue pipelined readout chip, which was developed for the LHC experiments. The system will be used to characterise the properties of both non-irradiated and irradiated micro-strip sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be operated at the Super LHC (SLHC). The system hardware has two main parts: a daughter board and a mother board. The daughter board contains two readout chips, analogue data buffering, power supply regulation and chip-to-sensor fan-in structures. The mother board is intended to process the analogue data that comes from the readout chips and from external trigger signals, to control the whole system and to communicate with a PC via USB. There is provision for an external trigger input (e.g. scintillator trigger) and a synchronised trigger output for pulsing an external excitation source (e.g. laser system). A prototype of the system will be presented.

  5. Triple-stack multigap resistive plate chamber with strip readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, V., E-mail: vbabkin@cern.ch; Basilev, S.; Buryakov, M.; Golovatyuk, V.; Lobastov, S.; Petrov, V.; Rumyantsev, M.; Schipunov, A.; Shutov, A.; Slepnev, I.; Slepnev, V.

    2016-07-11

    A triple-stack MRPC for the TOF system of the BM@N and the MPD experiments at the future collider NICA was tested. We use three stacks of glass to have symmetrical construction which allows to decrease dispersion and reflections of the signal from the readout strip.

  6. Compact, Low-power and Precision Timing Photodetector Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.; /Hawaii U.; Schwiening, Jochen; Vavra, Jaroslav; /SLAC

    2011-06-14

    Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and single-photon detection requires a digitizer capable of integrated recording of dense arrays of sensor elements with high analog bandwidth (precision timing) and large record depth, in a cost-effective, compact and low-power way. Simply stated, one cannot do better than having a high-fidelity 'oscilloscope on a chip' for every sensor channel. A firs version of the Buffered Large Analog Bandwidth (BLAB1) ASIC has been designed based upon the lessons learned from the development of the Large Analog Bandwidth Recorder and Digitizer with Ordered Readout (LABRADOR) ASIC. While this LABRADOR ASIC has been very successful and forms the readout basis of a generation of new, large-scale radio neutrino detectors, its limited sampling depth is a major drawback. To address this shortcoming, a prototype intended for photodetector readout has been designed and fabricated with 64k deep sampling at multi-GSa/s operation. An evaluation system has been constructed for instrumentation of Time-Of-Propagation (TOP) and focusing DIRC prototypes and test results will be reported.

  7. Beetle A radiation hard readout chip for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Bauer, C; Baumeister, D; Van Beuzekom, M G; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Jans, E; Klous, S; Knöpfle, K T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2004-01-01

    A new radiation hard pipelined readout chip is being developed for the LHCb-experiment. Appropriate design measures have been taken to ensure the radiation hardness against total ionising dose effects in excess of 45 Mrad, as well as radiation effects induced by single particles.

  8. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, E.T.; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and filt

  9. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  10. Micro coriolis mass flow sensor with integrated capacitive readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneveld, J.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Boer, de M.J.; Wiegerink, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have realized a micromachined micro Coriolis mass flow sensor with integrated capacitive readout to detect the extremely small Coriolis vibration of the sensor tube. A special comb-like detection electrode design eliminates the need for multiple metal layers and sacrificial layer etching methods.

  11. Optimised cantilever biosensor with piezoresistive read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, J.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present a cantilever-based biochemical sensor with piezoresistive read-out which has been optimised for measuring surface stress. The resistors and the electrical wiring on the chip are encapsulated in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride, so that the chip is well sui...

  12. DS read-out transcription in transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, George N.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    To select for Ds transposition in transgenic tomato plants a phenotypic excision assay, based on restoration of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT II) gene expression, was employed. Some tomato plants, however, expressed the marker gene even though the Ds had not excised. Read-out transcriptional

  13. A generic readout environment for prototype pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turqueti, Marcos, E-mail: turqueti@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk and Wilson Road, 60510-500 (United States); Rivera, Ryan; Prosser, Alan; Kwan, Simon [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk and Wilson Road, 60510-500 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Pixel detectors for experimental particle physics research have been implemented with a variety of readout formats and potentially generate massive amounts of data. Examples include the PSI46 device for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which implements an analog readout, the Fermilab FPIX2.1 device with a digital readout, and the Fermilab Vertically Integrated Pixel device. The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the various needs of these devices to support laboratory test bench as well as test beam applications. The system is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and is characterized by its flexibility, versatility and scalability by virtue of several key architectural features. These include a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and a core group of boards that provide specific processing and readout capabilities for the system. System software based on distributed computing techniques supports an expandable network of CAPTANs. In this paper, we describe the system architecture and give an overview of its capabilities.

  14. Tomographic readout of an opto-mechanical interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufer, Henning; Westphal, Tobias; Friedrich, Daniel; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The quantum state of light changes its nature when being reflected off a mechanical oscillator due to the latter's susceptibility to radiation pressure. As a result, a coherent state can transform into a squeezed state and can get entangled with the motion of the oscillator. The complete tomographic reconstruction of the state of light requires the ability to readout arbitrary quadratures. Here we demonstrate such a readout by applying a balanced homodyne detector to an interferometric position measurement of a thermally excited high-Q silicon nitride membrane in a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer. A readout noise of $\\unit{1.9 \\cdot 10^{-16}}{\\metre/\\sqrt{\\hertz}}$ around the membrane's fundamental oscillation mode at $\\unit{133}{\\kilo\\hertz}$ has been achieved, going below the peak value of the standard quantum limit by a factor of 8.2 (9 dB). The readout noise was entirely dominated by shot noise in a rather broad frequency range around the mechanical resonance.

  15. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, H.B.; Johnston, S.R.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the n

  16. FUTURE TRENDS IN MICROELECTRONICS - IMPACT ON DETECTOR READOUT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' CONNOR, P.

    2006-04-03

    Mainstream CMOS is now a well-established detector readout technology. We review technology scaling trends and limits, the implementation of analog circuits in digital CMOS processes, and radiation resistance. Emphasis is placed on the growing importance of power dissipation in ultra-scaled technologies.

  17. Thin film magnetostrictive sensor with on-chip readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    We report the first successful integration of magnetostrictive Metglas2605S2 (Fesb{78}Sisb9Bsb{13}) thin film sensor system on silicon with high resolution capacitive readout. A deposition process for Metglas thin film has been developed to allow easy control of thin film composition. An amorphous microstructure has been achieved over a wide temperature range, and in-situ magnetic domain alignment can be accomplished at room temperature as the film is deposited. The thin film has been characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis for composition, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum for microstructure, magnetization measurement for domain alignment and capacitive measurement for magnetostriction. The thin film is suitable for any magnetostrictive sensor applications, in particular, for IC compatible microsensors and microactuators. We have demonstrated the subsequent process integration with IC fabrication technology. Here, the Metglas thin film has been successfully incorporated to micromechanical structures using surface micromachining with appropriate choice of sacrificial layer and low stress mechanical layers. In addition, we present the development of a high resolution capacitive readout circuit co-integrated with the sensor. The readout circuit is based on a floating gate MOSFET configuration, requiring just a single transistor and operated at DC or low frequencies. Using the prototype developed in-house, we have successfully demonstrated a resolution capability of 10sp{-17} F, this translates to a few A in terms of cantilever beam deflection of the sensor. The floating gate readout technique is readily applicable to any capacitive sensors with a need for on-chip readout. It is also an ideal in-situ test structure for on IC chip process characterization and parameter extraction.

  18. Hall-effect thruster--Cathode coupling: The effect of cathode position and magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jason D.

    2009-12-01

    Hall-effect thruster (HET) cathodes are responsible for the generation of the free electrons necessary to initiate and sustain the main plasma discharge and to neutralize the ion beam. The position of the cathode relative to the thruster strongly affects the efficiency of thrust generation. However, the mechanisms by which the position affects the efficiency are not well understood. This dissertation explores the effect of cathode position on HET efficiency. Magnetic field topology is shown to play an important role in the coupling between the cathode plasma and the main discharge plasma. The position of the cathode within the magnetic field affects the ion beam and the plasma properties of the near-field plume, which explains the changes in efficiency of the thruster. Several experiments were conducted which explored the changes of efficiency arising from changes in cathode coupling. In each experiment, the thrust, discharge current, and cathode coupling voltage were monitored while changes in the independent variables of cathode position, cathode mass flow and magnetic field topology were made. From the telemetry data, the efficiency of the HET thrust generation was calculated. Furthermore, several ion beam and plasma properties were measured including ion energy distribution, beam current density profile, near-field plasma potential, electron temperature, and electron density. The ion beam data show how the independent variables affected the quality of ion beam and therefore the efficiency of thrust generation. The measurements of near-field plasma properties partially explain how the changes in ion beam quality arise. The results of the experiments show that cathode position, mass flow, and field topology affect several aspects of the HET operation, especially beam divergence and voltage utilization efficiencies. Furthermore, the experiments show that magnetic field topology is important in the cathode coupling process. In particular, the magnetic field

  19. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  20. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  1. Particle tracking in kaon electroproduction with cathode-charge sampling in multi-wire proportional chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, P; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Bösz, M; Debenjak, L; Distler, M O; Esser, A; Friščić, I; de la Paz, M Gómez Rodríguez; Makek, M; Merkel, H; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Majos, S Sánchez; Schlimme, B S; Širca, S; Weinriefer, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.03.039

    2011-01-01

    Wire chambers are routinely operated as tracking detectors in magnetic spectrometers at high-intensity continuous electron beams. Especially in experiments studying reactions with small cross-sections the reaction yield is limited by the background rate in the chambers. One way to determine the track of a charged particle through a multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) is the measurement of the charge distribution induced on its cathodes. In practical applications of this read-out method, the algorithm to relate the measured charge distribution to the avalanche position is an important factor for the achievable position resolution and for the track reconstruction efficiency. An algorithm was developed for operating two large-sized MWPCs in a strong background environment with multiple-particle tracks. Resulting efficiencies were determined as a function of the electron beam current and on the signal amplitudes. Because of the different energy-losses of pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range of the s...

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Studies of SOFC Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Johan; Søgaard, Martin; Wandel, Marie

    2007-01-01

    impedance of the cathode at intermediate operating temperatures. The perovskite is of the La-Sr-Co-Fe type. The EIS response of symmetrical cells with a thick (similar to 200 mu m) gadolinia doped ceria electrolyte was compared with the impedance contribution of the cathode of a full anode supported cell....... The full cells had a Ni-YSZ anode and anode support, a thin YSZ electrolyte, and a CGO barrier layer. The symmetric and full cell cathode responses were compared at open-circuit voltage. Humidified hydrogen was used as the fuel in the full cell measurements. Differential analysis of the impedance data...

  3. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution.

  4. Manufacturing of Electrolyte and Cathode Layers SOFC Using Atmospheric Spraying Method and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulistyo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC has created various interest in many parties, due to its capability to convert gases into electricity. The main requirement of SOFC cell components is to be produced as thin as possible to minimize the losses of electrical resistance, as well as able to support internal and external loads. This paper discusses the procedure of making a thin electrolyte layer, as well as a porous thin layer cathode using atmospheric spraying technique. The procedure of spraying was in room temperature with the process of sintering at temperature of 13500 C held for 3 hours. The SOFC characterization of electrolyte and cathode microstructure was determined by using the SEM, FESEM, XRD and impedance spectroscopy, to measure the impedance of SOFC cells. The results show that the thickness of thin layer electrolyte and porous cathode obtained of about 20 µm and 4 µm, respectively. Also the SOFC cell impedance was measured of 2.3726 x 106 Ω at room temperature. The finding also demonstrated that although the materials (anode, cathode and electrolyte possess different coefficient thermal expansion, there was no evidence of flaking layers which seen the materials remain intact. Thus, the atmospheric spraying method can offer an alternative method to manufacturing of SOFC thin layer electrolyte and cathode. [Key words: SOFC; spraying method; electrolyte; cathode

  5. Development of a new laser-line and CCD based optical-CT scanner for the readout of 3D radiation dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, A E; Maris, T G; Zacharakis, G; Ripoll, J; Varveris, C; Damilakis, J, E-mail: apapadak@edu.med.uoc.g

    2010-11-01

    We present initial results on the comparison of the dose readout from a three dimensional polymer gel dosimeter using two different optical-CT systems; i) a common wide field and a wide area detector optical-CT system and ii) a new 'laser-line' and wide area detector based optical-CT system. The findings presented herein highlight the advantage of the laser based over the wide field optical-CT concept for the readout of scattering 3D dosimeters. Moreover, the new 'laser-line' based optical-CT system overcomes the disadvantage of the long acquisition times required by the existing laser-based instruments.

  6. Advances in Thermionic Cathode of Tungsten and Molybdenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several kinds of tungsten thermonic cathodes have been introduced. As a promising alternative for thoriated tungsten, rare earth doped molybdenum cathode has been studied. Compared with the traditional thoriated tungsten, La-Mo cathode has higher emission current density at lower temperature, but it has poor emission stability. In order to improve the emission stability, systematical study on the emission mechanism of La-Mo cathode has been carried out. The life of La-Mo cathode has been improved and has achieved 1400 h, which exceeds the minimum life for practical uses (1000 h). As another alternative for thoriated tungsten cathode, Y-Mo cathode has shown better performance. The thermionic emission capability of Y-Mo cathode is between that of La-Mo cathode and Th-W cathode.

  7. Design and optimization of the readout system for X-ray CCDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Bo; HAN Da-Wei; LI Mao-Shun; YANG Yan-Ji; WANG Juan; CHEN Tian-Xiang; HU Wei; LI Cheng-Kui; LIU Xiao-Yan; CUI Wei-Wei; WANG Yu-Sa; ZHU Yue; ZHANG Yi; XU Yu-Peng; CHEN Yong; HUO Jia; LI Wei

    2012-01-01

    A readout system for X-ray CCDs based on an improved architecture is presented; by optimizing several critical circuit blocks along the analog signal chain,the conflict between the readout speed and readout noise is greatly alleviated.Using CCD47-10 as its target CCD,the readout system has achieved 8.6e- readout noise and 142 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV Mn Kα under a pixel rate of 80 kHz.Also its performance of imaging has been investigated.

  8. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  9. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  10. RF Electron Gun with Driven Plasma Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    It's known that RF guns with plasma cathodes based on solid-state dielectrics are able to generate an intense electron beam. In this paper we describe results of experimental investigation of the single cavity S-band RF gun with driven plasma cathode. The experimental sample of the cathode based on ferroelectric ceramics has been designed. Special design of the cathode permits to separate spatially processes of plasma development and electron acceleration. It has been obtained at RF gun output electron beam with particle energy ~500 keV, pulse current of 4 A and pulse duration of 80 ns. Results of experimental study of beam parameters are referred in. The gun is purposed to be applied as the intense electron beam source for electron linacs.

  11. Reservoir Scandate Cathode for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to combine two revolutionary cathode technologies into a single device for use in electric space propulsion. This will overcome problems that both...

  12. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cathode discharge excimer lamps , Phys. Plasmas 7, 286 (2000). [3] RH Stark and KH Schoenbach, Direct high pressure glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys...temperature profiles in argon glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2234 (2000) [8] M. Moselhy, W. Shi, R. Stark, A flat glow discharge excimer radiation...MHCD acts as a plasma cathode for a third electrode (anode). Some experimental results in this geometry are available for argon and for air from the

  13. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  14. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, M., E-mail: lupberger@physik.uni-bonn.de; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-11

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  15. Readout Circuits for Noise Compensation in ISFET Sensory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M. P.; Bhuyan, M.; Talukdar, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents two different noise reduction techniques for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) readout configuration and their comparison. The proposed circuit configurations are immune to the noise generated from the ISFET sensory system and particularly to the low frequency pH dependent 1/ f electrochemical noise. The methods used under this study are compensation of noise by differential OPAMP based and Wheatstone bridge circuit, where two identical commercial ISFET sensors were used. The statistical and frequency analysis of the data generated by this two methods were compared for different pH value ranging from pH 2 to 10 at room temperature, and it is found that the readout circuits are able to compensate the noise to a great extent.

  16. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  17. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Henrich, B.; Johnson, I.; Lohmann, M.; Valeria, R.; Schmitt, B.; Xintian, S.

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  18. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  19. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupberger, M.; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  20. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  1. Test Of The CMS Microstrip Silicon Tracker Readout And Control

    CERN Document Server

    Zghiche, A; Civinini, C; Coughlan, J; Drouhin, F; Figueiredo, P; Fiore, L; Furtjes, A; Giassi, A; Gutleber, J; Ljuslin, C; Loreti, M; Maazouzi, C; Marchioro, A; Marinelli, N; Mattig, P M; Parthipan, T; Paillard, C; Siegrist, P; Silvestris, L; Tsirou, A; Verdini, P G; Walsham, P; Wittmer, B

    2000-01-01

    The Microstrip Silicon tracker of the CMS detector is designed to provide robust particle tracking and vertex reconstruction within a strong magnetic field in the high luminosity environment of the LHC. The Tracker readout system employs Front End Driver cards to digitize and buffer the analogue data arriving via optical links from on detector pipeline chips. The control Chain of the front-end electronic is built to operate via optical fibers in order to shield the communications from the outside noise. Components close to the final design have been assembled to be tested in the X5 beam area at CERN where a dedicated 25ns temporal structrure beam has been made available by the SPS. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for readout and control of data acquired by the front-end electronics operating at 40 MHz. Some preliminary results of the tests performed in the 25ns beam are also given.

  2. TID-dependent current measurements of IBL readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, Karola [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik IV (Germany); CERN (Switzerland); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several subsystems with a hybrid pixel detector as the innermost component of the tracking system. The pixel detector has been composed of three layers of silicon sensor assemblies during the first data taking run of the LHC and has been upgraded with a new 4th layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), in summer 2014. Each silicon sensor of the IBL is connected to a Front End readout chip (FE-I4) via bump bonds. During the first year of data taking an increase of the LV current produced by the readout chips was observed. This increase could be traced back to radiation damage inside the silicon. The dependence of the current on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and temperature has been tested with X-ray irradiations and will be presented in this talk.

  3. Readout of relaxation rates by nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Roche, Benoît; Jehl, Xavier; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-06-01

    We put forward nonadiabatic charge pumping as a method for accessing the different charge relaxation rates as well as the relaxation rates of excited orbital states in double-quantum-dot setups, based on extremely size-limited quantum dots and dopant systems. The rates are obtained in a well-separated manner from plateaus, occurring when comparing the steady-state current for reversed driving cycles. This yields a reliable readout independent of any fitting parameters. Importantly, the nonadiabatic pumping spectroscopy essentially exploits the same driving scheme that the operation of these devices generally employs. We provide a detailed analysis of the working principle of the readout scheme as well as of possible errors, thereby demonstrating its broad applicability. The precise knowledge of relaxation rates is highly relevant for the implementation of time-dependently operated devices, such as electron pumps for metrology or qubits in quantum information.

  4. Simple High-Bandwidth Sideband Locking with Heterodyne Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Christoph; Sankey, Jack C

    2016-01-01

    We present a robust sideband laser locking technique that is ideally suited for applications requiring low probe power and heterodyne readout. By feeding back to a high-bandwidth voltage controlled oscillator, we lock a first-order phase-modulation sideband to a table-top high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, achieving a feedback bandwidth of 3.5 MHz with a single integrator, limited fundamentally by the signal delay. The directly measured transfer function of the closed feedback loop agrees with a model assuming ideal system components, and from this we suggest a modified design that should realistically achieve a bandwidth exceeding 6 MHz with a near-causally limited feedback gain of $4\\times 10^7$ at 1 kHz. The off-resonance optical carrier is used for alignment-free heterodyne readout, alleviating the need for a second laser or additional optical modulators.

  5. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  6. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  7. NIKEL_AMC: Readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Bouly, J L; Bouvier, J; Bosson, G; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Goupy, J; Li, C; Macías-Pérez, J F; Monfardini, A; Tourres, D; Ponchant, N; Vescovi, C

    2016-01-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument, dedicated to mm-wave astronomy, uses microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera feature a total of 3300 KID. To instrument these detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper.

  8. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  9. Integrated Circuit Readout for the Silicon Sensor Test Station

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Silaev, A; Fedenko, A; Karmanov, D; Merkin, M; Voronin, A

    2009-01-01

    Various chips for the silicon sensors measurements are described. These chips are based on 0.35 um and 0.18um CMOS technology. Several analog chips together with self-trigger /derandomizer one allow to measure silicon sensors designed for different purposes. Tracking systems, calorimeters, particle charge measurement system and other application sensors can be investigated by the integrated circuit readout with laser or radioactive sources. Also electrical parameters of silicon sensors can be studied by such test setup.

  10. Analog readout modules for the ZEUS microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fusayasu, T

    1999-01-01

    Analog readout modules have been developed for a silicon microvertex detector of the electron-proton collision experiment ZEUS. Analog signals kept in the front end are read out and digitized by ADCs and processed afterwards to reduce the data volume while keeping the signal information. We have developed prototype modules with 10-bit 10 MHz ADCs and digital processors built in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Their performance was investigated.

  11. Toward a Micro-Scale Acoustic Direction-Finding Sensor with Integrated Electronic Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Distance from bridge center (µm) D efl ec tio n (n m ) Rigid bridge Finite element Long beam Figure 2.4: Comparison of the two analytical flexing models...this guide. Wire bonding technique is a skill that must be developed through practice. However, there are some tips that may help the novice. First

  12. Anode-Coupled Readout for Light Collection in Liquid Argon TPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Z; Bugel, L; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a new method of signal read-out from photon detectors in ultra-large, underground liquid argon time projection chambers. In this design, the signal from the light collection system is coupled via capacitive plates to the TPC wire-planes. This signal is then read out using the same cabling and electronics as the charge information. This greatly benefits light collection: it eliminates the need for an independent readout, substantially reducing cost; It reduces the number of cables in the vapor region of the TPC that can produce impurities; And it cuts down on the number of feed-throughs in the cryostat wall that can cause heat-leaks and potential points of failure. We present experimental results that demonstrate the sensitivity of a LArTPC wire plane to photon detector signals. We also simulate the effect of a 1 $\\mu$s shaping time and a 2 MHz sampling rate on these signals in the presence of noise, and find that a single photoelectron timing resolution of $\\sim$30 ns can be achieved.

  13. BLASTbus electronics: general-purpose readout and control for balloon-borne experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, S. J.; Ade, P. A.; Amiri, M.; Angilè, F. E.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Doré, O. P.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Golwala, S. R.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Holmes, W. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kermish, Z. D.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Kuo, C. L.; MacTavish, C. J.; Mason, P. V.; Matthews, T. G.; Megerian, K. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Mroczkowski, T. K.; Nagy, J. M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Thomas, N. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the second generation BLASTbus electronics. The primary purposes of this system are detector readout, attitude control, and cryogenic housekeeping, for balloon-borne telescopes. Readout of neutron transmutation doped germanium (NTD-Ge) bolometers requires low noise and parallel acquisition of hundreds of analog signals. Controlling a telescope's attitude requires the capability to interface to a wide variety of sensors and motors, and to use them together in a fast, closed loop. To achieve these different goals, the BLASTbus system employs a flexible motherboard-daughterboard architecture. The programmable motherboard features a digital signal processor (DSP) and field-programmable gate array (FPGA), as well as slots for three daughterboards. The daughterboards provide the interface to the outside world, with versions for analog to digital conversion, and optoisolated digital input/output. With the versatility afforded by this design, the BLASTbus also finds uses in cryogenic, thermometry, and power systems. For accurate timing control to tie everything together, the system operates in a fully synchronous manner. BLASTbus electronics have been successfully deployed to the South Pole, and own on stratospheric balloons.

  14. CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Stephen C; Loomis, Craig P; Fitzgerald, Roger E; Peacock, Grant O

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band from 380 nm to 1260 nm through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k x 4k, 15 um pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k x 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k x 4k detector and ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems: the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main...

  15. Improved Signal Chains for Readout of CMOS Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce; Cunningham, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An improved generic design has been devised for implementing signal chains involved in readout from complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and for other readout integrated circuits (ICs) that perform equivalent functions. The design applies to any such IC in which output signal charges from the pixels in a given row are transferred simultaneously into sampling capacitors at the bottoms of the columns, then voltages representing individual pixel charges are read out in sequence by sequentially turning on column-selecting field-effect transistors (FETs) in synchronism with source-follower- or operational-amplifier-based amplifier circuits. The improved design affords the best features of prior source-follower-and operational- amplifier-based designs while overcoming the major limitations of those designs. The limitations can be summarized as follows: a) For a source-follower-based signal chain, the ohmic voltage drop associated with DC bias current flowing through the column-selection FET causes unacceptable voltage offset, nonlinearity, and reduced small-signal gain. b) For an operational-amplifier-based signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise increase superlinearly with size of the pixel array because of a corresponding increase in the effective capacitance of the row bus used to couple the sampled column charges to the operational amplifier. The effect of the bus capacitance is to simultaneously slow down the readout circuit and increase noise through the Miller effect.

  16. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  17. SQUIDs for the readout of metallic magnetic calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferring, Anna; Wegner, Mathias; Fleischmann, Andreas; Gastaldo, Loredana; Kempf, Sebastian; Enss, Christian [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the devices of choice to read out metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). Here, the temperature change of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle is measured as a magnetization change of a paramagnetic temperature sensor that is situated in a weak magnetic field. Driven by the need for devices that allow for the readout of large-scale detector arrays with hundreds or even thousands of individual detectors as well as of single channel detectors with sub-eV energy resolution, we have recently started the development of low-T{sub c} current-sensing SQUIDs. In particular, we are developing cryogenic frequency-domain multiplexers based on non-hysteretic rf-SQUIDs for detector array readout as well as dc-SQUIDs for single channel detector readout. We discuss our SQUID designs and the performance of prototype SQUIDs. We particularly focus on the frequency and temperature dependence of the SQUID noise as well as the reliability of our SQUID fabrication process for Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions. Additionally, we demonstrate experimentally that state-of-the-art MMCs can successfully be read out with our current devices. Finally, we discuss different strategies to improve the SQUID and detector performance aiming to reach sub-eV energy resolution for individual detectors as well as for detector arrays.

  18. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  19. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  20. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczygiel, R., E-mail: robert.szczygiel@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-07-11

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm Multiplication-Sign 4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40 Multiplication-Sign 32 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  1. The ALICE Time of Flight Readout System AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Time of Flight Detector system comprises more than 100.000 channels and covers an area of more than 100 m2. The timing resolution should be better than 150 ps. This combination of requirements poses a major challenge to the readout system. All detector timing measurements are referenced to a unique start signal t0. This signal is generated at the time an event occurs. Timing measurements are performed using a multichannel TDC chip which requires a 40 MHz reference clock signal. The general concept of the readout system is based on a modular architecture. Detector cells are combined to modules of 1024 channels. Each of these modules can be read out and calibrated independently from each other. By distributing a reference signal, a timing relationship between the modules is established. This reference signal can either be the start signal t0 or the TDC-reference clock. The readout architecture is divided into three steps; the TDC controller, the module controller, and the time of flight controller. Th...

  2. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  3. Simulation and Analysis of Uncooled Microbolometer for Serial Readout Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaed Alhussein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed thermal behavior and theoretical analysis of uncooled resistive microbolometer is presented along with the proposed thermal imager simulator. An accurate model of a thermal detector is required to design a readout circuit that can compensate for the noise due to process variability and self-heating. This paper presents a realistic simulation model of microbolometer that addresses the fixed pattern noise, Johnson noise, and self-heating. Different simulations were performed to study the impact of infrared power and bias power on the performance of microbolometers. The microbolometers were biased with different bias currents along with different thermal parameters of the reference microbolometer to analyze the impact of self-heating on the thermal image. The proposed thermal imager simulator is used as a tool to visually analyze the impact of noise on the quality of a thermal image. This simulator not only helps in compensating the noise prior to the implementation in Analog Design Environment, but also can be used as a platform to explore different readout architectures. In this work, serial readout architecture was simulated with a row of blind microbolometers that served as a reference. Moreover, the algorithm for the proposed thermal imager simulator is presented.

  4. Compact Pulse Width Modulation Circuitry for Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of solid state photo-detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analog channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTC), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal to noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analog switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4×4 array 0.9mm×0.9mm×15mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5mm×5mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for 2-fold multiplexing. In principle, much larger multiplexing ratios are

  5. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  6. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  7. A low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Toprak, Alperen; Akin, Tayfun

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new, low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs. The readout circuits of the microbolometer detectors contain parallel readout channels whose outputs are driven and multiplexed on large bus capacitances in order to form the output of the readout circuit. High number of opamps used in the readout channel array and large output capacitances that these opamps should drive necessitates the use of high output current capacity structures, which results in large power dissipation. This paper proposes two new methods in order to decrease the power dissipation of the readout circuits for uncooled thermal FPAs. The first method is called the readout channel group concept, where the readout channel array is separated into groups in order to decrease the load capacitance seen by the readout channel output. The second method utilizes a special opamp architecture where the output current driving capacity can be digitally controlled. This method enables efficient use of power by activating the high output current driving capacity only during the output multiplexing. The simulations show that using these methods results in a power dissipation reduction of 80% and 91% for the readout channels optimized for a single output 384x288 FPA operating at 25 fps and for a two-output 640x480 FPA operating at 30 fps, respectively.

  8. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  9. 2013 Estorm - Invited Paper - Cathode Materials Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Mohanty, Debasish [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403 431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783 789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO2 cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over the past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.

  10. Improved cathode materials for microbial electrosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T; Nie, HR; Bain, TS; Lu, HY; Cui, MM; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Franks, AE; Nevin, KP; Russell, TP; Lovley, DR

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis is a promising strategy for the microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels and other organic commodities, but optimization of this process is required for commercialization. Cathodes which enhance electrode-microbe electron transfer might improve rates of product formation. To evaluate this possibility, biofilms of Sporomusa ovata, which are effective in acetate electrosynthesis, were grown on a range of cathode materials and acetate production was monitored over time. Modifications of carbon cloth that resulted in a positive-charge enhanced microbial electrosynthesis. Functionalization with chitosan or cyanuric chloride increased acetate production rates 6-7 fold and modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane gave rates 3-fold higher than untreated controls. A 3-fold increase in electrosynthesis over untreated carbon cloth cathodes was also achieved with polyaniline cathodes. However, not all strategies to provide positively charged surfaces were successful, as treatment of carbon cloth with melamine or ammonia gas did not stimulate acetate electrosynthesis. Treating carbon cloth with metal, in particular gold, palladium, or nickel nanoparticles, also promoted electrosynthesis, yielding electrosynthesis rates that were 6-,4.7- or 4.5-fold faster than the untreated control, respectively. Cathodes comprised of cotton or polyester fabric treated with carbon nanotubes yielded cathodes that supported acetate electrosynthesis rates that were similar to 3-fold higher than carbon cloth controls. Recovery of electrons consumed in acetate was similar to 80% for all materials. The results demonstrate that one approach to increase rates of carbon dioxide reduction in microbial electrosynthesis is to modify cathode surfaces to improve microbe-electrode interactions.

  11. Multiple cathodic reaction mechanisms in seawater cathodic biofilms operating in sediment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Hsu, Lewis; Atci, Erhan; Kagan, Jeff; Chadwick, Bart; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-10-01

    In this study, multiple reaction mechanisms in cathodes of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry and microelectrode measurements of dissolved oxygen and pH. The cathodes were acclimated in SMFCs with sediment and seawater from San Diego Bay. Two limiting current regions were observed with onset potentials of approximately +400 mVAg/AgCl for limiting current I and -120 mVAg/AgCl for limiting current II. The appearance of two catalytic waves suggests that multiple cathodic reaction mechanisms influence cathodic performance. Microscale oxygen concentration measurements showed a zero surface concentration at the electrode surface for limiting current II but not for limiting current I, which allowed us to distinguish limiting current II as the conventional oxygen reduction reaction and limiting current I as a currently unidentified cathodic reaction mechanism. Microscale pH measurements further confirmed these results.

  12. Preparation of nanocomposite thoriated tungsten cathode by swaging technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发展; 诸葛飞; 张晖; 丁秉钧

    2002-01-01

    By using the high energy ball milling method,the nanosized ThO2 powders were obtained.Through mixing powders,sintering and hot swaging processing,a nanocomposite thoriated tungsten cathode was fabricated.The relative density of the nanocomposite material is near 100%.The microstructure of nanocomposite cathode is quite different from that of conventional thoriated tungsten cathode.Most of thoria particles are less than 100 nm in diameter,and distribute on the boundaries of tungsten grains.The nanocomposite cathode shows a much lower arc starting field than that of conventional cathode,which will improve the performance of the cathode significantly.

  13. The influence of cathode excavation of cathodic arc evaporator on thickness uniformity and erosion products angle distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathodic arc evaporators are used for coating with functional films. Prolonged or buttend evaporators may be used for this purposes. In butt-end evaporator the cathode spots move continuously on the cathode work surface and evaporate cathode material. High depth excavation profile forms on the cathode work surface while the thick coating precipitation (tens or hundreds of microns. The cathode excavation profile is shaped like a “cup” with high walls for electrostatic discharge stabilization systems with axial magnetic fields. Cathode spots move on the bottom of the “cup”. It is very likely that high “cup” walls are formed as a result of lasting work time influence on the uniformity of precipitated films.In the present work the influence of excavation profile walls height on the uniformity of precipitated coating was carried out. The high profile walls are formed due to lasting work of DC vacuum arc evaporator. The cathode material used for tests was 3003 aluminum alloy. The extended substrate was placed parallel to the cathode work surface. Thickness distribution along the substrate length with the new cathode was obtained after 6 hours and after 12 hours of continuous operation.The thickness distribution of precipitated coating showed that the cathode excavation has an influence on the angular distribution of the matter escaping the cathode. It can be clearly seen from the normalized dependence coating thickness vs the distance from the substrate center. Also the angular distribution of the matter flow from the cathode depending on the cathode working time was obtained. It was shown that matter flow from the cathode differs from the LambertKnudsen law. The more the cathode excavation the more this difference.So, cathode excavation profile has an influence on the uniformity of precipitated coating and it is necessary to take in account the cathode excavation profile while coating the thick films.

  14. Parallel Operation of Microhollow Cathode Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Robert H.; Shi, Wenhui; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-10-01

    The dc current-voltage characteristics of microhollow cathode discharges has, in certain ranges of the discharge current, a positive slope [1]. In these current ranges it should be possible to operate multiple discharges in parallel without individual ballast, and be used as flat panel excimer lamps [2] or large area plasma cathodes. In order to verify this hypothesis we have studied the parallel operation of two microhollow cathode discharges of 100 micrometer hole diameter in argon at pressures from 100 Torr to 800 Torr. Stable dc operation of the two discharges, without individual ballast, was obtained if the voltage-current characteristics of the individual discharges had a positive slope greater than 10 V/mA over a voltage range of more than 5 to obtain parallel operation over the entire current range of the microhollow cathode discharges, which includes regions of negative differential conductivity, we have replaced the metal anode by a semi-insulating semiconductor, which serves as distributed resistive ballast. With this method, we were able to ignite and sustain an array of dc microhollow cathode discharges over a wide range of pressure and discharge current. [1] K.H.Schoenbach et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 13 (1996). [2] A.El-Habachi and K.H.Schoenbach, APL. 72, 1 (1998). This work was funded by the Department of Energy, Advanced Energy Division, and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) in cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI Program.

  15. Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes With Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Diffusion Layers Constructed around Stainless Steel Mesh Current Collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2010-02-15

    A new and simplified approach for making cathodes for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was developed by using metal meshcurrent collectorsandinexpensive polymer/carbon diffusion layers (DLs). Rather than adding a current collector to a cathode material such as carbon cloth, we constructed the cathode around the metal mesh itself, thereby avoiding the need for the carbon cloth or other supporting material. A base layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and carbon black was applied to the air-side of a stainless steel mesh, and Pt on carbon black with Nafion binder was applied to the solutionside as catalyst for oxygen reduction. The PDMS prevented water leakage and functioned as a DL by limiting oxygen transfer through the cathode and improving coulombic efficiency. PDMS is hydrophobic, stable, and less expensive than other DL materials, such as PTFE, that are commonly applied to air cathodes. Multiple PDMS/carbon layers were applied in order to optimize the performance of the cathode. Two PDMS/ carbon layers achieved the highest maximum power density of 1610 ± 56 mW/m 2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 47.0 ± 1.6 W/m3 based on liquid volume). This power output was comparable to the best result of 1635 ± 62 mW/m2 obtained using carbon cloth with three PDMS/carbon layers and a Pt catalyst. The coulombic efficiency of the mesh cathodes reached more than 80%, and was much higher than the maximum of 57% obtained with carbon cloth. These findings demonstrate that cathodes can be constructed around metal mesh materials such as stainless steel, and that an inexpensive coating of PDMS can prevent water leakage and lead to improved coulombic efficiencies. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Metrology in arc plasmas - A new cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croche, R.

    1980-02-01

    A new radiating source consisting of an electric arc under argon pressure is described, with power varying between about 0.2 and 1.5 kW, and with the plasma furnishing a continuous spectrum between 115 and 350 nm. The arc functions from 5 to 50 A, with a voltage varying between 30 and 35 V. The cathode of the transfer arc is described in detail, including such advantages as easy igniting of the arc and the possibility of re-sharpening the tip of the cathode. Most important, the new 'knife-shaped' form of the tungsten cathode has improved the stability and reproducibility of the ultraviolet continuum emitted by the plasma of the arc, which is used at the French National Institute of Metrology as a transfer standard of spectral radiance in the vacuum ultraviolet.

  17. Sheet Plasma Produced by Hollow Cathode Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 张厚先; 杨宣宗; 冯春华; 乔宾; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    A sheet plasma is produced by a hollow cathode discharge under an axial magnetic field.The plasma is about 40cm in length,4 cm in width and 1cm in thickness.The electron density is about 108cm-3.The hollow cathode is made to be shallow with a large opening,which is different from the ordinary deep hollow cathode.A Langmuir probe is used to detect the plasma.The electron density and the spatial distribution of the plasma change when voltage,pressure and the magnetic field vary.A peak and a data fluctuation at about 200 G-300 G are observed in the variation of electron density(or thickness of the sheet plasma)with the magnetic field.Our work will be helpful in characterizing the sheet plasma and will make the production of dense sheet plasma more controllable.

  18. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  19. First results of FGLD gas detector with multi-channel self-triggering readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Louis; De Oliveira, R; Watts, D

    2007-01-01

    Following the successful demonstration of a proof-of-concept FGLD detector, work has been done to find a multi-channel readout electronics capable of obtaining the position information from its 3-axis geometry and suitable for medical imaging applications. The IDEAS GP3 and GP5 chips were selected for testing because they are sensitive to the range of input charge collected on the FGLD and because they are self-triggering. Preliminary tests in which both the GP3 and GP5 were connected to the ground layer of the FGLD has yielded promising results. Signals can be seen in the analysis software and some initial results of the charge sharing between strips is presented. Furthermore, both chips were subjected to forced discharging. Only a few input channels localized about the discharge were destroyed in the GP3 whereas the GP5 continued to function normally after repeated discharges.

  20. Uncovering the role of cathode buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Boyuan; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jizheng

    2015-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) as the third generation photovoltaic devices have drawn intense research, for their ability to be easily deposited by low-cost solution coating technologies. However the cathode in conventional OSCs, Ca, can be only deposited by thermal evaporation and is highly unstable in ambient. Therefore various solution processible cathode buffer layers (CBLs) are synthesized as substitute of Ca and show excellent effect in optimizing performance of OSCs. Yet, there is still no universal consensus on the mechanism that how CBL works, which is evidently a critical scientific issue that should be addressed. In this article detailed studies are targeted on the interfacial physics at the interface between active layer and cathode (with and without treatment of a polar CBL) by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage measurement, and impedance spectroscopy. The experimental data demonstrate that CBL mainly takes effect in three ways: suppressing surface states at the surface of active layer, protecting the active layer from being damaged by thermally evaporated cathode, and changing the energy level alignment by forming dipole moments with active layer and/or cathode. Our findings here provide a comprehensive picture of interfacial physics in devices with and without CBL.

  1. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesgen, Renate; Sörgel, Seniz; Costa, Rémi; Carlé, Linus; Galm, Ines; Cañas, Natalia; Pascucci, Brigitta; Friedrich, K Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur)(-1) after 43 cycles.

  2. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  3. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, N; Cardini, A; Ferrari, R; Gaudio, G; Hauptman, J; Kim, H; La Rotonda, L; Livan, M; Meoni, E; Paar, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Pinci, D; Policicchio, Antonio; Popescu, S; Susinno, G; Roh, Y; Vandelli, W; Wigmans, R

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light to the signals, event by event. This information makes it possible to eliminate the dominating source of fluctuations and thus achieve an important improvement in hadronic calorimeter performance.

  4. Trigger and readout electronics for the STEREO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Bouvier, J; Vescovi, C; Bosson, G; Helaine, V; Lamblin, J; Li, C; Montanet, F; Real, J S; Salagnac, T; Ponchant, N; Stutz, A; Tourres, D; Zsoldos, S

    2015-01-01

    The STEREO experiment will search for a sterile neutrino by measuring the anti-neutrino energy spectrum as a function of the distance from the source, the ILL nuclear reactor. A dedicated electronic, hosted in a single microTCA crate, was designed for this experiment. It performs triggering in two stages with various selectable conditions, processing and readout via UDP/IPBUS on 68 photomultiplier signals continuously digitized at 250 MSPS. Additionally, for detector performance monitoring, the electronics allow on-line calibration by driving LED synchronously with the data acquisition. This paper describes the electronics requirements, architecture and the performances achieved.

  5. GPC-enhanced read-out of holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    available modulation systems or for more irregular and dynamic shapes such as found in advanced optogenetic light-excitations of neurons. In this work, we integrate a static GPC light shaper to illuminate a phase-only spatial light modulator encoding dynamic phase holograms. The GPC-enhanced phase......The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method has been demonstrated to reshape light efficiently to match the input beam profile requirement of different illumination targets. A spatially coherent beam can be GPC-shaped into a variety of static and dynamic profiles to match e.g. fixed commercially...... truncation. The phase flatness of the GPC-enhanced readout beam has also been investigated....

  6. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  7. A liquid scintillator detector with wavelength-shifting fibre readout

    CERN Document Server

    Doucet, M; Grégoire, G; Panman, J; Zucchelli, P

    2000-01-01

    A technique based on liquid scintillator with wavelength-shiftingfibre readout is interesting for large-mass neutrino detectors.In this paper we present the first results obtained with a laboratoryprototype assembled at CERN. In the configuration tested, a large light yield has been observed and attenuation lengths of the order of 3.2~m have been measured. As a comparison, we also measured the attenuation length of the fibres in air using the same setup. No significant difference in attenuation length between the fibres in air and in liquid was measured.

  8. Low Noise Readout Circuit for Biosensor SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yin-song; KONG Mou-fu; LI Xiang-quan; WANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Presented is a low noise interface circuit that is tuned to the needs of self-assembly monolayers biosensor SoC. The correlated double sampling(CDS) unit of the readout circuit can reduce 1/f noise, KTC noise and fixed noise of micro arrays effectively. The circuit is simulated in a 0.6 μm/level 7 standard CMOS process, and the simulated results show the output voltage has a good linearity with the transducing current of the micro arrays. This is a novel circuit including four amplifiers sharing a common half-circuit and the noise reducing CDS unit. It could be widely used for micro array biosensors.

  9. ASPIC and CABAC: two ASICs to readout and pilot CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, P.; Barrillon, P.; Dhellot, M.; El berni, A.; Jeglot, J.; Juramy-Gilles, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Vallerand, P.

    2017-03-01

    For several years, a group of engineers and physicists from LAL and LPNHE have been working on the design of two front end ASICs dedicated to Charge Couple Devices (CCD). ASPIC (Analogue Signal Processing Integrated Circuit), designed in AMS CMOS 0.35 μm 5V technology, is meant to readout and process the analog signals of CCDs. CABAC (Clocks And Biases ASIC for CCDs), designed in AMS CMOS 0.35 μm 50V technology, produces the clocks and biases needed by the CCDs to work at their full potential. This paper presents the performances of the final versions of these two ASICs.

  10. FELIX: the detector readout upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Soo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange(FELIX) system will be the interface between the readout system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a gateway to a commodity switched network which will use standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with data collecting and processing components. In this talk the system architecture of FELIX will be described and the testing results of the FELIX demonstrator will be presented

  11. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  12. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ("PXL") subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector.

  13. Electrochemical Studies on Cathodic Reduction of Titanium Dioxide in Molten Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Jayashree; Mishra, Krushna Gopal; Paramguru, Raja Kishore; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-06-01

    The polarization studies have been performed on the electrochemical reduction of TiO2 in a molten CaCl2 bath at 950°C. The cathodic and anodic plots have been drawn by taking TiO2 pellet as cathode and graphite rod as anode, respectively. The cathodic and anodic over-potentials at various cell voltages have been measured. Prolonged electrolysis has been carried out at a cell voltage of 3 V and the resultant products have been analyzed by X-ray Diffraction to find out the reaction pathway through which TiO2 is reduced to titanium. The results indicate that the electrochemical reduction of TiO2 to titanium proceeds through a multi-step reduction process.

  14. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  15. Nonactivated and activated biochar derived from bananas as alternative cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haoran; Deng, Lifang; Qi, Yujie; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Tang, Jiahuan

    2014-01-01

    Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900) exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m(2) and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  16. Optical Readout in a Multi-Module System Test for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; Gerlach, P; Kersten, S; Mättig, P; Kirichu, S N; Reeves, K; Richter, J; Schultes, J; Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Kirichu, Simon Nderitu; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. In this paper the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain is described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given.

  17. A 40 MHz Trigger-free Readout Architecture for the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F; Guzik, Z

    2009-01-01

    LHCb is considering an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout. In this paper we investigate possibilities for a new Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system based on completely new technologies, and the consequences for the readout electronics. We define the requirements and propose an architecture allowing partitioning, complete readout control and event management. The backbone is based on bidirectional high-speed optical links using the latest FPGA transceivers. For the Front-End Electronics we advocate exploiting the bidirectional capability of the CERN GigaBit Transceiver to make the Readout Boards the TFC and the Control System interface to the Front-End

  18. Study of readout architectures for triggerless high event rate detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kulis, S

    2011-01-01

    In this work possible readout architectures for future detectors at CLIC are discussed. These detectors will need a triggerless readout electronics with amplitude and time reconstruction and they may operate with very high event rates (≥ 1 hits / channel / bunch train of 156 ns). The main subject of this study, both theoretical and experimental, is a readout based on the deconvolution principle. The basic principle, the performance, the advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed. In the case of extremely high event rates (> 4 hits / channel / bunch train) a readout based on a gated integrator and correlated double sampling is proposed.

  19. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    CERN Document Server

    Yonamine, Ryo; De Lentdecker, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analogue readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  20. RCU2-The ALICE TPC readout electronics consolidation for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Alme, J; Christiansen, P; Yang, S; Lien, J; Velure, A; Rehman, A Ur; Torgersen, C; David, E; Gunji, T; Osterman, L; Ullaland, K; Roed, K; Tarantola, A; Langoy, R; Appelshaeuser, H; Oskarsson, A; Alt, T; Costa, F; Bratrud, L; Zhao, C; Lippmann, C; Torsvik, I Nikolai; Kiss, T

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the solution for optimization of the ALICE TPC readout for running at full energy in the Run2 period after 2014. For the data taking with heavy ion beams an event readout rate of 400 Hz with a low dead time is envisaged for the ALICE central barrel detectors during these three years. A new component, the Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2), is being designed to increase the present readout rate by a factor of up to 2.6. The immunity to radiation induced errors will also be significantly improved by the new design.

  1. Review on MIEC Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnwal, Suman Kumar; Bharadwaj, S.; Kistaiah, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cathode is one of the most important components of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reduction of oxygen at the cathode (traditional cathodes like LSM, LSGM, etc.) is the slow step in the cell reaction at intermediate temperature (600-800∘C) which is one of the key obstacles to the development of SOFCs. The mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode (MIEC) like LSCF, BSCF, etc., has recently been proposed as a promising cathode material for SOFC due to the improvement of the kinetic of the cathode reaction. The MIEC materials provide not only the electrons for the reduction of oxygen, but also the ionic conduction required to ensure the transport of the formed oxygen ions and thereby improves the overall electrochemical performance of SOFC system. The characteristics of MIEC cathode materials and its comparison with other traditional cathode materials is studied and presented in the paper.

  2. Nano-Particle Scandate Cathode for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an improved cathode based on our novel theory of the role of scandium oxide in enhancing emission in tungsten impregnate cathodes. Recent results have...

  3. Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...

  4. Klystron Amplifier Utilizing Scandate Cathode and Electrostatic Focusing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build an electrostatically focused klystron that exploits recent breakthroughs in scandate cathode technology. We have built cathodes with greater than...

  5. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function

  6. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  7. READOUT ASIC FOR 3D POSITION-SENSITIVE DETECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; VERNON, E.; ACKLEY, K.; DRAGONE, A.; FRIED, J.; OCONNOR, P.; HE, Z.; HERMAN, C.; ZHANG, F.

    2007-10-27

    We describe an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position-sensitive detectors. It was optimized for pixelated CZT sensors, and it measures, corresponding to an ionizing event, the energy and timing of signals from 121 anodes and one cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping, along with peak- and timing-detection. The cathode's timing can be measured in three different ways: the first is based on multiple thresholds on the charge amplifier's voltage output; the second uses the threshold crossing of a fast-shaped signal; and the third measures the peak amplitude and timing from a bipolar shaper. With its power of 2 mW per channel the ASIC measures, on a CZT sensor Connected and biased, charges up to 100 fC with an electronic resolution better than 200 e{sup -} rms. Our preliminary spectral measurements applying a simple cathode/mode ratio correction demonstrated a single-pixel resolution of 4.8 keV (0.72 %) at 662 keV, with the electronics and leakage current contributing in total with 2.1 keV.

  8. Low-current hollow-cathode discharge in a trigger unit of a cold cathode thyratron

    OpenAIRE

    Landl, N. V.; Korolev, Yuriy Dmitrievich; Frants, O. B.; Geyman, V. G.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigations of the effect of cathode emissivity on the regimes of low-current hollow-cathode glow discharge. It is shown that an increase in the emissivity due to the so-called high-emissivity tablet allows the essential decrease in the discharge initiation voltage and the discharge burning voltage. The model of current sustaining for the hollow-cathode discharge, which takes into account the external emission current has been developed. On basis of the model, the ...

  9. Low-current hollow-cathode discharge in a trigger unit of a cold cathode thyratron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landl, N. V.; Korolev, Y. D.; Frants, O. B.; Geyman, V. G.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with the investigations of the effect of cathode emissivity on the regimes of low-current hollow-cathode glow discharge. It is shown that an increase in the emissivity due to the so-called high-emissivity tablet allows the essential decrease in the discharge initiation voltage and the discharge burning voltage. The model of current sustaining for the hollow-cathode discharge, which takes into account the external emission current has been developed. On basis of the model, the current-voltage characteristics of the discharge have been interpreted.

  10. A Novel Cathode Material for Cathodic Dehalogenation of 1,1-Dibromo Cyclopropane Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütz, Christoph; Selt, Maximilian; Bänziger, Markus; Bucher, Christoph; Römelt, Christina; Hecken, Nadine; Gallou, Fabrice; Galvão, Tomás R; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-09-28

    Leaded bronze turned out to be an excellent cathode material for the dehalogenation reaction of cyclopropanes without affecting the strained molecular entity. With this particular alloy, beneficial properties of lead cathodes are conserved, whereas the corrosion of cathode is efficiently suppressed. The solvent in the electrolyte determines whether a complete debromination reaction is achieved or if the process can be selectively stopped at the monobromo cyclopropane intermediate. The electroorganic conversion tolerates a variety of functional groups and can be conducted at rather complex substrates like cyclosporine A. This approach allows the sustainable preparation of cyclopropane derivatives.

  11. Porous cathode design and optimization of lithium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Hung

    Narrowing the gap between theoretical and actual capacity in key Li-based battery systems can be achieved through improvements in both electronic and ionic conductivities of materials, via addition of conductive species. Additives do, however, penalize both volumetric and gravimetric properties, and also limit liquid transport and high rate performance. In this work, we developed techniques to design and optimize cathode system based directly on the relationships among ionic and electronic conductivities, and specific energy. We also investigated formation mechanisms, and resulting geometric characteristics in nanoparticle agglomerates, to systematically study percolation and conductivity in self-assembled structures. In our study of selection of conductive additives, architectures of model composite cathodes, comprised of active material, graphite, carbon black, and PVDF, were generated using our prior approach in simulating polydisperse arrangements. A key finding of this portion of the work, was that the conductive coatings strongly influence conductivity, via reduction of contact resistance. Thus, we conclude that neither surface nor bulk modifications of active material particles conductivities seem to be desirable targets for improvement of laminate conductivity, for the ranges of materials studied. In the cathode optimization study, our results quantified trade-offs among ionic and electronic conductivity, and conductivity and specific energy. We also provided quantitative relationships for improved utilization and specific power, with higher specific energy. Finally, we provided quantitative guidance for design of high energy density Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 cells using conductive additives, and also provided guidelines for design of cathode systems, based directly on solid and liquid phase transport limitations. In the agglomeration and aggregation study, 3D, branch-like nanoparticle agglomerates were systematically studied via use of new algorithms in

  12. Uniform large-area thermionic cathode for SCALPEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsap, Victor; Sewell, Peter B.; Waskiewicz, Warren K.; Zhu, Wei

    1999-11-01

    An electron beam lithography tool, which employs the SCALPEL technique, requires an extremely uniform beam to illuminate the scattering Mask, with the cathode operating in the temperature limited mode. It has been previously shown that LaB6 cathodes are not stable in this mode of operation. We have explored the possibility of implementing refined Tantalum-based emitters in the SCALPEL source cathode, and have developed large-area flat cathodes featuring suitably high emission uniformity under temperature limited operation.

  13. Design, construction and performance tests of a prototype micromegas chamber with two readout planes in a common gas volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Bernard; Düdder, Andreas; Schott, Matthias; Yildirim, Eda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the design and the performance of a prototype detector based on MicroMegas technology with two detection planes in a common gas volume is discussed. The detector is suited for the forward region of LHC detectors, addressing the high-rate environment and limited available space. Each detection plane has an active area of 9 × 9cm2 with a two-dimensional strip readout and is separated by a common gas region with a height of 14 mm . A micro-mesh, working as a cathode, is placed in the middle of the common gas volume separating it into two individual cells. This setup allows for an angle reconstruction of incoming particles with a precision of ∼ 2 mrad. Since this design reduces the impact of multiple scattering effects by the reduced material budget, possible applications for low energy beam experiments can be envisioned. The performance of the prototype detector has been tested with a 4 . 4 GeV electron beam, provided by the test beam facility at DESY.

  14. Optical properties of lamps with cold emission cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenik, Jerzy; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Biernacki, Krzysztof; Rymarczyk, Joanna; Stepińska, Izabela

    2016-12-01

    A luminescent lamp was constructed and tested. Phosphor excited by electrons is the source of light. The source of electrons is field emission cathode. The cathode is covered with nickel-carbon layer containing carbon nanotubes that enhance electron emission from the cathode. Results of luminance measurements are presented. Luminance is high enough for lighting application.

  15. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  16. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, I.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  17. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  18. Superconducting hot-electron nanobolometer with microwave bias and readout

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, A A; Shitov, S V; Abramov, N N; Ermakov, A B; Arndt, M; Wuensch, S H; Ilin, K S; Ustinov, A V; Siegel, M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new detection technique based on radio-frequency (RF) bias and readout of an antenna-coupled superconducting nanobolometer. This approach is suitable for Frequency-Division-Multiplexing (FDM) readout of large arrays using broadband low-noise RF amplifier. We call this new detector RFTES. This feasibility study was made on demonstrator devices which are made in all-Nb technology and operate at 4.2 K. The studied RFTES devices consist of an antenna-coupled superconducting nanobolometer made of ultrathin niobium films with transition temperature Tc = 5.2 K. The 0.65-THz antenna and nanobolometer are embedded as a load into a GHz-range coplanar niobium resonator (Tc = 8.9 K, Q = 4000). To heat the superconducting Nb nanobolometer close to the Tc, the RF power at resonator frequency f = 5.8 GHz is applied via a transmission line which is weakly coupled (-11 dB) to the loaded resonator. The THz-antenna of RFTES was placed in the focus of a sapphire immersion lens inside a He4-cryostat equipped with an ...

  19. Wide-Range Bolometer with RF Readout TES

    CERN Document Server

    Shitov, S V; Kuzmin, A A; Merker, M; Arndt, M; Wuensch, S H; Ilin, K S; Erhan, E; Ustinov, A; Siegel, M

    2014-01-01

    To improve both scalability and noise-filtering capability of a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES), a new concept of a thin-film detector is suggested, which is based on embedding a microbridge TES into a high-Q planar GHz range resonator weakly coupled to a 50 Ohm-readout transmission line. Such a TES element is designed as a hot-electron microbolometer coupled to a THz range antenna and as a load of the resonator at the same time. A weak THz signal coupled to the antenna heats the microbridge TES, thus reducing the quality factor of the resonator and leading to a power increment in the readout line. The power-to-power conversion gain, an essential figure of merit, is estimated to be above 10. To demonstrate the basic concept, we fabricated and tested a few submicron sized devices from Nb thin films for operation temperature about 5 K. The dc and rf characterization of the new device is made at a resonator frequency about 5.8 GHz. A low-noise HEMT amplifier is used in our TES experiments without the need for a SQU...

  20. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  1. Inorganic single crystalline fibers for dual-readout calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    This thesis focuses on the improvement of the energy resolution of hadron calorimeters. The approach is based on dual-readout, which consists in the simultaneous detection of both scintillation and Cherenkov light. The comparison of these two signals allows a compensation of the energy fluctuations, which are inherent to the detection of hadronic showers. Lutetium aluminium garnets (LuAG), which are efficient scintillators when activated with rare-earth dopants (i.e. Cerium), can also act as Cherenkov radiators when undoped. Both undoped and doped crystals can then be assembled to build an efficient dual-readout calorimeter. With the objective to investigate the feasibility of this concept, the effects of the doping concentration and the use of various co-dopant on the light output and the timing properties of LuAG were studied. The growth method was demonstrated to induce significant differences in the nature and concentration of structural defects. The optimum geometry, which is based on single-crystals sha...

  2. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  3. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m sup 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. I have modeled the charge collection in silicon detectors which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolut...

  4. Fast optical readout for Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Charged lepton flavour violation is highly suppressed in the Standard Model, which results in a prediction for the branching ratio of μ{sup +}→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} below O(10{sup -54}). The Mu3e experiment will search for this rare decay with a sensitivity of 10{sup -16}. An observation would be a clear sign for new physics. A high muon stopping rate of 2.10{sup 9} Hz is required so that sufficient statistics can be accumulated in about one year of data taking. The high event rate and the requirement of a full online track reconstruction demand a fast readout system which should provide a bandwidth above 1 Tbit/s. Reconfigurable devices, namely FPGAs, can easily parallelise the data processing, so it becomes possible to sort, merge, pack and route the data with low latency at high throughput. Optical fibres are the only option for the interconnection between different FPGA-based boards. The fibres also reduce the crosstalk and signal attenuation, especially over long distance links. As part of the readout system prototyping, firmware for synchronous merging of different data streams is being developed. In addition, the optical links have been tested and show a bit error rate below O(10{sup -16}) at 6.4 Gbit/s for a single fibre.

  5. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Guinn, I; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0nbb) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of <3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to <1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  6. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  7. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Beringer, J. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Anghinolfi, F. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aspell, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chilingarov, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heijne, E.H.M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Santiard, J.C. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Verweij, H. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Goessling, C. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Lisowski, B. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Reichold, A. [Institut fur Physik, Univ. Dortmund, D-4600 Dortmund (Germany); Bonino, R. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Clark, A.G. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Kambara, H. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); La Marra, D. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Leger, A. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wu, X. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Richeux, J.P. [DPNC, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Fedotov, M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kuper, E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Velikzhanin, Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Campbell, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Murray, P. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Seller, P. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.).

  8. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, Ian [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  9. The readout system of the MAGIC-II Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tescaro, D; Barcelo, M; Bitossi, M; Cortina, J; Fras, M; Hadasch, D; Illa, J M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Paoletti, R; Pegna, R

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we describe the hardware, firmware and software components of the readout system of the MAGIC-II Cherenkov telescope on the Canary island La Palma. The PMT analog signals are transmitted by means of optical fibers from the MAGIC-II camera to the 80 m away counting house where they are routed to the new high bandwidth and fully programmable receiver boards (MONSTER), which convert back the signals from optical to electrical ones. Then the signals are split, one half provide the input signals for the level ONE trigger system while the other half is sent to the digitizing units. The fast Cherenkov pulses are sampled by low-power Domino Ring Sampler chips (DRS2) and temporarily stored in an array of 1024 capacitors. Signals are sampled at the ultra-fast speed of 2 GSample/s, which allows a very precise measurement of the signal arrival times in all pixels. They are then digitized with 12-bit resolution by an external ADC readout at 40 MHz speed. The Domino samplers are integrated in the newly...

  10. Massively Parallel Atomic Force Microscope with Digital Holographic Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sache, L [Laboratory of Robotic Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFLSRO1, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kawakatsu, H [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Emery, Y [Lyncee Tec SA, PSE-A, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bleuler, H [Laboratory of Robotic Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFLSRO1, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Massively Parallel Scanning Probe Microscopy is an obvious path for data storage (E Grochowski, R F Hoyt, Future Trends in Hard disc Drives, IEEE Trans. Magn. 1996, 32, 1850- 1854; J L Griffin, S W Schlosser, G R Ganger and D F Nagle, Modeling and Performance of MEMS-Based Storage Devices, Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000). Current experimental systems still lay far behind Hard Disc Drive (HDD) or Digital Video Disk (DVD), be it in access speed, data throughput, storage density or cost per bit. This paper presents an entirely new approach with the promise to break several of these barriers. The key idea is readout of a Scanning Probes Microscope (SPM) array by Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). This technology directly gives phase information at each pixel of a CCD array. This means that no contact line to each individual SPM probes is needed. The data is directly available in parallel form. Moreover, the optical setup needs in principle no expensive components, optical (or, to a large extent, mechanical) imperfections being compensated in the signal processing, i.e. in electronics. This gives the system the potential for a low cost device with fast Terabit readout capability.

  11. Development and characterization of the readout system for POLARBEAR-2

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, D; Akiba, Y; Aleman, C; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Bender, A; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, G; Gilbert, A; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Katayama, N; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Morii, H; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Okamura, T; Peloton, J; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Sholl, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, J; Takada, S; Takakura, S; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yamaguchi, H; Zahn, O

    2014-01-01

    POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new c...

  12. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, Ian [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  13. Hadron detection with a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Choi, S.; Ciapetti, G.; Ferrari, R.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Ha, S.; Hauptman, J.; Kim, H.; Lanza, A.; Li, F.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Park, J.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Wigmans, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe measurements of the response functions of a fiber-based dual-readout calorimeter for pions, protons and multiparticle ;jets; with energies in the range from 20 to 180 GeV. The calorimeter uses lead as absorber material and has a total mass of 1350 kg. It is complemented by leakage counters made of scintillating plastic, with a total mass of 500 kg. The effects of these leakage counters on the calorimeter performance are studied as well. In a separate section, we investigate and compare different methods to measure the energy resolution of a calorimeter. Using only the signals provided by the calorimeter, we demonstrate that our dual-readout calorimeter, calibrated with electrons, is able to reconstruct the energy of proton and pion beam particles to within a few percent at all energies. The fractional widths of the signal distributions for these particles (σ / E) scale with the beam energy as 30% /√{ E }, without any additional contributing terms.

  14. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    . However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  15. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  16. The double sheath on cathodes of discharges burning in cathode vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M S; Benilova, L G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do MunicIpio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2010-09-01

    The model of a collisionless near-cathode space-charge sheath with ionization of atoms emitted by the cathode surface is considered. Numerical calculations showed that the mathematical problem is solvable and its solution is unique. In the framework of this model, the sheath represents a double layer with a potential maximum, with the ions which are produced before the maximum returning to the cathode surface and those produced after the maximum escaping into the plasma. Numerical results are given in a form to be readily applicable in analysis of discharges burning in cathode vapour, such as vacuum arcs. In particular, the results indicate that the ion backflow coefficient in such discharges exceeds 0.5, in agreement with values extracted from the experiment.

  17. High-pressure hollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Shi, Wenhui; Ciocca, Marco

    1997-11-01

    Reducing the diameter of the cathode hole in a plane anode - hollow cathode geometry to 0963-0252/6/4/003/img1m has allowed us to generate direct current discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure. Up to pressure times cathode hole diameter (pD) values of approximately 5 Torr cm, and at sub-mA currents, glow discharges (predischarges) are observed with a shape which is determined by the vacuum electric field. In the same pD range, but at higher currents of up to approximately 4 mA, the discharges are of the hollow cathode discharge type. At pD values exceeding 5 Torr cm the predischarges turn into surface discharges along the mica spacer between the electrodes. At currents > 4 mA filamentary, pulsed discharges are observed. Qualitative information on the electron energy distribution in the microdischarges has been obtained by studying the VUV emission from ionized argon atoms and the argon excimer radiation at 130 nm. The results of the spectral measurements indicate the presence of a relatively large concentration of electrons with energies > 15 eV over the entire pressure range. The fact that the current - voltage characteristic of the microdischarges has a positive slope over much of the current range where excimer radiation is emitted indicates the possibility of forming arrays of these discharges and using them in flat panel excimer lamps.

  18. Barium depletion in hollow cathode emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of Ba released by BaO-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} source material in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. The examination of cathode emitters from long duration tests shows deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of Ba from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of Ba transport in the cathode plasma indicates that the Ba partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant Ba-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress Ba loss in the upstream part of the emitter. New measurements of the Ba depletion depth from a cathode insert operated for 8200 h reveal that Ba loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis. The Ba transport model was modified to predict the depletion depth with time. A comparison of the calculated and measured depletion depths gives excellent qualitative agreement, and quantitative agreement was obtained assuming an insert temperature 70 °C lower than measured beginning-of-life values.

  19. Nanostructured LnBaCo2O6− (Ln = Sm, Gd with layered structure for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto E. Mejía Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the combination of two characteristics that are beneficial for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC cathodic performance in one material. We developed and evaluated for the first time nanostructured layered perovskites of formulae LnBaCo2O6-d with Ln = Sm and Gd (SBCO and GBCO, respectively as SOFC cathodes, finding promising electrochemical properties in the intermediate temperature range. We obtained those nanostructures by using porous templates to confine the chemical reagents in regions of 200-800 nm. The performance of nanostructured SBCO and GBCO cathodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique under different operating conditions using Gd2O3-doped CeO2 as electrolyte. We found that SBCO cathodes displayed lower area-specific resistance than GBCO ones, because bulk diffusion of oxide ions is enhanced in the former. We also found that cathodes synthesized using smaller template pores exhibited better performance.

  20. Development of a selftriggered high counting rate ASIC for readout of 2D gas microstrip neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brogna, AS; Dabrowski, W; Fiutowski, T; Gebauer, B; Mindur, B; Schmidt, Ch J; Schulz, Ch; Soltveit, H K; Szczygiel, R; Trunk, U; Wiacek, P

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the DETNI project a 32-channel ASIC suitable for readout of a novel 2D thermal neutron detector based on a hybrid low-pressure Micro-Strip Gas Chamber with solid 157Gd converter has been developed. Each channel delivers position information, a fast time stamp of 2 ns resolution and the signal amplitude (called energy below). The time stamp is used for correlating the signals from X and Y strips while the amplitude is used for finding the center of gravity of a cluster of strips. The timing and energy information are stored in derandomizing buffers and read out via token ring architecture.

  1. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  2. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  3. Organic imager on readout backplane based on TFTs with cross-linkable dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, P.E.; Vicca, P.; Willegems, M.; Schols, S.; Cheyns, D.; Smout, S.; Ameys, M.; Myny, K.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Martin, E.; Kumar, A.; Steen, J.L. van der; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of imagers based on organic semiconductors both in the photodiode layer and in the readout backplane. The photodiode is based on evaporated ultrathin (<100 nm) stack of SubPc/C60, sensitive in the wavelength range between 300 and 650 nm. The readout circuit is a switch

  4. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  5. Occupancy in the CLIC ILD Time Projection Chamber using Pixelised Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gamma gamma -> hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons is very high for conventional pad readout. We show that the occupancy for a pixelised TPC readout is moderate and might be a viable solution to operate a TPC at CLIC.

  6. Feasibility of a Frequency-Multiplexed TES Read-Out Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a feasibility study of a frequency multiplexed read-out scheme for large number transition edge sensor arrays. The read-out makes use of frequency up- and down-conversion and RF-to-DC conversion with superconducting-isolator-superconducting tunnel junctions operating at GHz frequencies,

  7. Design of a large dynamic range readout unit for the PSD detector of DAMPE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-01-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Paricle Explorer (DAMPE), and a double-dynode readout has been developed. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic rays and heavy ion beams. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range.

  8. Two-dimensional electronic readout system for multi-step-avalanche chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlén, L.; Garpmann, S.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Löhner, H.; Nystrand, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Svensson, T.; Stenlund, E.; Söderström, K.; Whitlow, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present prototype studies of a new technical solution of detector readout for measurements of charged particles at very high particle densities. In particular, this paper describes a readout system for Multi-Step Avalanche Chambers designed for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. Results from th

  9. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, M. S., E-mail: shane.allman@boulder.nist.gov; Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328 (United States); Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kumor, D. [Purdue University, 610 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  10. A Near-Infrared 64-pixel Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector Array with Integrated Multiplexed Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Allman, M S; Stevens, M; Gerrits, T; Horansky, R D; Lita, A E; Marsili, F; Beyer, A; Shaw, M D; Kumor, D; Mirin, R; Nam, S W

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array, as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  11. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical impedance analysis of SOFC cathode reaction using evolutionary programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershkovitz, S.; Baltianski, S.; Tsur, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2012-02-15

    Investigation of the cathode reaction in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) by impedance spectroscopy (IS) measurements using evolutionary-based programming analysis is demonstrated. In contrast to the conventional analysis methods used for impedance spectroscopy measurements, e.g., equivalent circuits, the impedance spectroscopy genetic programming (ISGP) program seeks for a distribution of relaxation times that has the form of a peak or a sum of several peaks, assuming the Debye kernel. Using this method one finds a functional (parametric) form of the distribution of relaxation times. A symmetric cell configuration of Pt vertical stroke LSCF vertical stroke GDC vertical stroke LSCF vertical stroke Pt was examined using IS measurements combined with I-V measurements. Different samples at different temperatures and different oxygen partial pressures were examined in order to investigate their influence on the oxygen reduction reaction. The resulting IS data was analyzed using the ISGP program and the resulting peaks constructing the distribution of relaxation times were assigned for the different processes that occur at the cathode side. The activation energies as well as the dependence of the processes on the oxygen partial pressure were also evaluated. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Unveil the Chemistry of Olivine FePO4 as Magnesium Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruigang; Ling, Chen

    2016-07-20

    Despite growing interest in magnesium batteries, it is still a challenge to find a cathode that fulfills requirements such as high capacity and good cyclability. Because of their positions in the periodic table and the similar ionic sizes of lithium and magnesium, it was naturally postulated that a classical intercalation-type Li-ion battery cathode may also accommodate the intercalation of Mg. On the contrary, many Li-ion battery cathodes performed very poorly in Mg cells, although the mechanism behind such phenomena is still unclear. Here we provide first-hand evidence about the chemistry of olivine FePO4 as Mg battery cathode using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Although LiFePO4 is a commercial cathode with extraordinary good performance in Li-ion batteries, the measured capacity of FePO4 in nonaqueous Mg cell was only ∼13 mAh/g. Density functional theory calculations predicted sufficient mobility of Mg(2+) in FePO4 lattice to support the insertion of Mg at a reasonable rate, suggesting the poor performance cannot be simply attributed to the limitation of Mg(2+) diffusion. Instead, the recorded low capacity was the result of surface amorphorization that prohibited the electrochemical reaction from penetrating deeply into the bulk phase. The amorphorization had a thermodynamic origin from the instability of intercalated product, which was predicted from DFT calculations and supported by the failure to synthesize magnesiated FePO4 in the solid state reaction route. These results highlighted the importance of a thermodynamically preferred intercalation in order to achieve successful Mg battery cathode.

  14. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, D.H.; /SLAC; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; /Cornell U., CLASSE; Harkay, K.; /Argonne; Hernandez-Garcia; /Jefferson Lab; Legg, R.; /Wisconsin U., SRC; Padmore, H.; /LBL, Berkeley; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; /Brookhaven; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  15. Design of ANSYS-based Cathode with Complex Groove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范植坚; 赵刚刚; 张丽娟

    2012-01-01

    The profile of cathode with complex groove needs to be modified time after time during design of electrochemical machining (ECM) cathode.A design scheme using finite element method (FEM) for cathode with complex profile is put forward to shorten the period of cathode design.Based on Laplace equation,the potential distribution on parameter-transformation model was calculated by using ANSYS,which is compared to the potential distribution calculated by substituting conductivity and current efficiency into Laplace equation.According to the difference between the results calculated and simulated by ANSYS,the cathode profile was modified by adjusting the cathode boundary.The experiments show that the dimensions and shape of workpiece machined by numerically simulated cathode conform well with the blueprint.

  16. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  17. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  18. Design of the readout electronics for the DAMPE Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fei; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Dong, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Rui; Fan, Rui-Rui; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xin; La Marra, Daniel; Azzarello, Philipp; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Nardinocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The Silicon Tracker (STK) is a detector of the DAMPE satellite to measure the incidence direction of high energy cosmic ray. It consists of 6 X-Y double layers of silicon micro-strip detectors with 73,728 readout channels. It's a great challenge to readout the channels and process the huge volume of data in the critical space environment. 1152 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and 384 ADCs are adopted to readout the detector channels. The 192 Tracker Front-end Hybrid (TFH) modules and 8 identical Tracker Readout Board (TRB) modules are designed to control and digitalize the front signals. In this paper, the design of the readout electronics for STK and its performance will be presented in detail.

  19. Readout board upgrade for the Pixel Detectors: reasons, status and results in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Giangiacomi, Nico; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity in the LHC accelerator at CERN constitutes a challenge for the data readout since the rate of data to be transmitted depends on both pileup and trigger frequency. In the ATLAS experiment, the effect of the increased luminosity is most evident in the Pixel Detector, which is the detector closest to the beam pipe. In order to face the difficult experimental challenges, the readout system was upgraded during the last few years. The main purpose of the upgrade was to provide a higher bandwidth by exploiting more recent technologies. The new readout system is composed by two paired electronic boards named Back Of Crate (BOC) and ReadOut Driver (ROD). In this work the main readout limitation related to increased luminosity will be discussed as well as the strategy and the technological solutions adopted in order to cope with the future operational challenges. In addition the general progresses and achievements will be presented.

  20. Novel Low-Cost, Low-Power Miniature Thermionic Cathode Developed for Microwave/Millimeter Wave Tube and Cathode Ray Tube Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1999-01-01

    A low cost, small size and mass, low heater power, durable high-performance barium dispenser thermionic cathode has been developed that offers significant advancements in the design, manufacture, and performance of the electron sources used in vacuum electronic devices--such as microwave (and millimeter wave) traveling-wave tubes (TWT's)--and in display devices such as high-brightness, high-resolution cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The lower cathode heater power and the reduced size and mass of the new cathode are expected to be especially beneficial in TWT's for deep space communications, where future missions are requiring smaller spacecraft, higher data transfer rates (higher frequencies and radiofrequency output power), and greater electrical efficiency. Also expected to benefit are TWT's for commercial and government communication satellites, for both low and geosynchronous Earth orbit, with additional benefits offered by lower cost and potentially higher cathode current loading. A particularly important TWT application is in the microwave power module (MPM), which is a hybrid microwave (or millimeter wave) amplifier consisting of a low-noise solid state driver, a vacuum power booster (small TWT), and an electronic power conditioner integrated into a single compact package. The attributes of compactness and potentially high electrical efficiency make the MPM very attractive for many commercial and government (civilian and defense) applications in communication and radar systems. The MPM is already finding application in defense electronic systems and is under development by NASA for deep space communications. However, for the MPM to become competitive and commercially successful, a major reduction in cost must be achieved.

  1. Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers and Read-Out Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2013-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions in the design of precision instrumentation amplifier and read-out ICs, which can be used to boost millivolt-level signals transmitted by modern sensors, to levels compatible with the input ranges of typical Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).  The discussion includes the theory, design and realization of interface electronics for bridge transducers and thermocouples. It describes the use of power efficient techniques to mitigate low frequency errors, resulting in interface electronics with high accuracy, low noise and low drift. Since this book is mainly about techniques for eliminating low frequency errors, it describes the nature of these errors and the associated dynamic offset cancellation techniques used to mitigate them.  Surveys comprehensively offset cancellation and accuracy improvement techniques applied in precision amplifier designs; Presents techniques in precision circuit design to mitigate low frequency errors in millivolt-level signals transmitted by ...

  2. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, R

    2010-01-01

    During the past seven years, the DREAM Collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development (dual readout), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event and their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contributions of nuclear evaporation to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in “invisible energy”. We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrated with e...

  3. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  4. Production Performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) together with the pixel and the transition radiation detectors will form the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It will consist of 20000 single-sided silicon microstrip sensors assembled back-to-back into modules mounted on four concentric barrels and two end-cap detectors formed by nine disks each. The SCT module production and testing has finished while the macro-assembly is well under way. After an overview of the layout and the operating environment of the SCT, a description of the readout electronics design and operation requirements will be given. The quality control procedure and the DAQ software for assuring the electrical functionality of hybrids and modules will be discussed. The focus will be on the electrical performance results obtained during the assembly and testing of the end-cap SCT modules.

  5. The ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeters read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Fayard, L; La Marra, D; Léger, A; Matricon, P; Perrot, G; Poggioli, L; Prast, J; Riu, I; Simion, S

    2004-01-01

    The calorimetry of the ATLAS experiment takes advantage of different detectors based on the liquid Argon (LAr) technology. Signals from the LAr calorimeters are processed by various stages before being delivered to the Data Acquisition system. The calorimeter cell signals are received by the front-end boards, which digitize a predetermined number of samples of the bipolar waveform and sends them to the Read-Out Driver (ROD) boards. The ROD board receives triggered data from 1028 calorimeter cells, and determines the precise energy and timing of the signals by processing the discrete samplings of the pulse. In addition, it formats the digital stream for the following elements of the DAQ chain, and performs monitoring. The architecture and functionality of the ATLAS LAr ROD board are discussed, along with the final design of the Processing Unit boards housing the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). (9 refs).

  6. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  7. The read-out ASIC for the Space NUCLEON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, E.; Voronin, A.; Karmanov, D.; Kudryashov, I.; Podorozhniy, D.; Shumikhin, V.

    2015-04-01

    This paper summarizes the design results for the read-out ASIC for the space NUCLEON project of the Russian Federal Space Agency ROSCOSMOS. The ASIC with a unique high dynamic range (1-40 000 mip) at low power consumption ( 50, generated by silicon detectors, having capacitances up to 100 pF. The chip structure includes 32 analog channels, each consisting of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with a p-MOS input transistor (W = 8 mm, L = 0.5 μ m), a shaper (peaking time of 2 us) and a T&H circuit. The ASIC showed a 120 pC dynamic range at a SNR of 2.5 for the particles with minimal ionization energy (1 mip). The chip was fabricated by the 0.35 um CMOS process via Europractice and tested both at lab conditions and in the SPS beam at CERN.

  8. Method of multi-channel data readout and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2010-06-15

    A method for dealing with the problem of simultaneous continuous readout of large number of data channels from the set of multiple sensors in instances where the use of multiple amplitude-to-digital converters is not practical or causes undesirable extra noise and distortion in the data. The new method uses sensor front-end s and subsequent electronics to transform the analog input signals and encode them into a series of short pulses that can be transmitted to a long distance via a high frequency transmission line without information loss. Upon arrival at a destination data decoder and analyzer device, the series of short pulses can be decoded and transformed back, to obtain, store, and utilize the sensor information with the required accuracy.

  9. Initialization and Readout of Spin Chains for Quantum Information Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurneet

    2011-01-01

    Linear chains of spins acting as quantum wires are a promising approach to achieve scalable quantum information processors. Nuclear spins in apatite crystals provide an ideal test-bed for the experimental study of quantum information transport, as they closely emulate a one-dimensional spin chain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be used to drive the spin chain dynamics and probe the accompanying transport mechanisms. Here we demonstrate initialization and readout capabilities in these spin chains, even in the absence of single-spin addressability. These control schemes enable preparing desired states for quantum information transport and probing their evolution under the transport Hamiltonian. We further optimize the control schemes by a detailed analysis of $^{19}$F NMR lineshape.

  10. Characterization of the JUDIDT Readout Electronics for Neutron Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, R; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; van Waasen, S; Juelich, Forschungszentrum

    2013-01-01

    The Group for the development of neutron and gamma detectors in the Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics (ZEA-2) at Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) has developed, in collaboration with European institutes, an Anger Camera prototype for improving the impact point reconstruction of neutron tracks. The detector is a chamber filled with $^3He+CF_4$ gas for neutron capture and subsequent production of a tritium and a proton. The energy deposition by the ions gives rise to drifting electrons with an avalanche amplification as they approach a micro-strip anode structure. The scintillating light, generated during the electron drift and avalanche stage, is collected by four vacuum photomultipliers. The position reconstruction is performed via software algorithms. The JUDIDT readout electronics was modified at ZEA-2 to cope with the data acquisition requirements of the prototype. The results of the commissioning of the electronics are here presented and commented.

  11. A cryogenic SAR ADC for infrared readout circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongliang, Zhao; Yiqiang, Zhao; Zhisheng, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    A cryogenic successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) is presented. It has been designed to operate in cryogenic infrared readout systems as they are cooled from room temperature to their final cryogenic operation temperature. In order to preserve the circuit's performance over this wide temperature range, a temperature-compensated time-based comparator architecture is used in the ADC, which provides a steady performance with ultra low power for extreme temperature (from room temperature down to 77 K) operation. The converter implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process exhibits 0.64 LSB maximum differential nonlinearity (DNL) and 0.59 LSB maximum integral nonlinearity (INL). It achieves 9.3 bit effective number of bits (ENOB) with 200 kS/s sampling rate at 77 K, dissipating 0.23 mW under 3.3 V supply voltage and occupies 0.8 × 0.3 mm2.

  12. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  13. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2004-05-18

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  14. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2006-12-12

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  15. Readout techniques and radiation damage of undoped cesium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C.L.; Levy, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Skwarnicki, T.; Sobolewski, Z.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Souder, P.; Anderson, D.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Syracuse Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Several readout techniques for undoped CsI have been studied which utilize the fast scintillation component for speed, and the high photon yield for good energy resolution. Quantum yields have been measured for samples up to 30 cm in length using photomultiplier tubes, wavelength shifters, and silicon photodiodes. A study has also been made of the scintillation properties of undoped CsI. It is found that the light output and decay time of the 310 nm fast component increases and the emission spectrum shifts to longer wavelengths at lower temperatures. The effects on the optical transmission and scintillation light output due to radiation damage from {sup 60}Co gamma rays has been measured for doses up to {approximately}10{sup 6} rad. It is found that the radiation resistance of undoped CsI is substantially higher than has been reported for thallium doped CsI. 16 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A Trigger and Readout Scheme for future Cherenkov Telescope Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, G; Foehr, C; Hofmann, W; Kihm, T; Köck, F

    2008-01-01

    The next generation of ground-based gamma-ray observatories, such as e.g. CTA, will consist of about 50-100 telescopes, and cameras with in total ~100000 to ~200000 channels. The telescopes of the core array will cover and effective area of ~ 1 km2 and will be possibly accompanied by a large halo of smaller telescopes spread over about 10 km2 . In order to make maximum use of the stereoscopic approach, a very flexible inter-telescope trigger scheme is needed which allows to couple telescopes that located up to ~1 km apart. The development of a cost effective readout scheme for the camera signals exhibits a major technological challenge. Here we present ideas on a new asynchronous inter-telescope trigger scheme, and a very cost-effective, high-bandwidth frontend to backend data transfer system, both based on standard Ethernet components and an Ethernet front-end interface based on mass production standard FPGAs.

  17. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, H. B.; Johnston, S. R.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A.

    2013-07-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the nanotube acting as a mixer, we detect the amplitude of its mechanical motion at room temperature with an intermediate frequency of 6 MHz and a timeconstant of 780 ns, both up to five orders of magnitude faster than achieved before. The transient response of the mechanical motion indicates a ring-down time faster than our enhanced time resolution, placing an upper bound on the contribution of energy relaxation processes to the room temperature mechanical quality factor.

  18. HEXITEC ASIC-a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.l.jones@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20x20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process.

  19. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  20. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  1. Erosion behaviour of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Robert; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Al$_{x}$Cr$_{1-x}$ composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres and their erosion behaviour was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N$_2$ and O$_2$ atmospheres were non-uniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded centre region of the cathodes.

  2. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  3. NIRCA ASIC for the readout of focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Steenari, David; Øya, Petter; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Meier, Dirk; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar; Johansen, Tor Magnus; Stein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    This work is a continuation of our preliminary tests on NIRCA - the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC [1]. The primary application for NIRCA is future astronomical science and Earth observation missions where NIRCA will be used with mercury cadmium telluride image sensors (HgCdTe, or MCT) [2], [3]. Recently we have completed the ASIC tests in the cryogenic environment down to 77 K. We have verified that NIRCA provides to the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) regulated power, bias voltages, and fully programmable digital sequences with sample control of the analogue to digital converters (ADC). Both analog and digital output from the ROIC can be acquired and image data is 8b/10bencoded and delivered via serial interface. The NIRCA also provides temperature measurement, and monitors several analog and digital input channels. The preliminary work confirms that NIRCA is latch-up immune and able to operate down to 77 K. We have tested the performance of the 12-bit ADC with pre-amplifier to have 10.8 equivalent number of bits (ENOB) at 1.4 Msps and maximum sampling speed at 2 Msps. The 1.8-V and 3.3-V output regulators and the 10-bit DACs show good linearity and work as expected. A programmable sequencer is implemented as a micro-controller with a custom instruction set. Here we describe the special operations of the sequencer with regards to the applications and a novel approach to parallel real-time hardware outputs. The test results of the working prototype ASIC show good functionality and performance from room temperature down to 77 K. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  4. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  5. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  6. Pulsed current cathodic protection of well casings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bich, N.N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada). Scotford Complex; Bauman, J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Cochrane, Alberta (Canada). Jumping Pound Complex

    1995-04-01

    Electric pulses of several hundred volts, applied for very brief periods of time, several thousand times per second, are more effective and economical than conventional steady-state DC currents in protecting deep and/or close-spaced well casings against external corrosion. More uniform current distribution, greater depth of protection, reduced stray current interference, and small anode bed requirements are the main benefits of pulsed technology. Operating principles, equivalent electrical circuits, design considerations, and field cathodic protection logging experience is reviewed.

  7. Plasma Cathode for E-Beam Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    JMJIIJUillWWpi^WiffW^HipaHIP’Pi1’’’ "a" ii.lllVi;lM’iiWMlMBfj!|l|>WiiU|’lUW"L’l’w«|M>l|Wy™.^J"^^y-ff^w», iitM ^^^ The 4 cm x 40 cm plasma cathode e-gun, which is

  8. The Hollow Cathode Phase of Pseudospark Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    THE HOLLOW CATHODE PHASE OF PSEUDOSPARK OPERATION L. Pitchford and J. P. Boeuf University Paul Sabatier, France V. Puech University De Paris-Sud...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Paul Sabatier, France 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME...Appl. Phys. 53, 1699 (1988). [9] A. Anders, S. Anders, and M. Gundersen, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. [10] J. P. Boeuf and L. Pitchford , IEEE

  9. Cathodic Cage Plasma Nitriding: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,R.R.M.; de Araújo, F. O.; J. A. P. da Costa; Brandim,A.S.; R. A. de Brito; C. Alves

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical samples of AISI 1020, AISI 316, and AISI 420 steels, with different heights, were simultaneously treated by a new technique of ionic nitriding, entitled cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN), in order to evaluate the efficiency of this technique to produce nitrided layers with better properties compared with those obtained using conventional ionic nitriding technique. This method is able to eliminate the edge effect in the samples, promoting a better uniformity of temperature, and...

  10. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLED CATHODIC PROTECTION CIRCUIT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAYOL, M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study, output voltage of automatic transformer-rectifier (TR) unit of impressed current cathodic protection has been controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. To prevent corrosion, voltage between the protection metal and the auxiliary anode has to be controlled on a desired level. Because soil resistance in the environment changes with humidity and soil characteristics, TRs must control the output voltage between protection metal and auxiliary anode automatically. In this study, a ...

  11. Modeling lithium/hybrid-cathode batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomadam, Parthasarathy M.; Merritt, Don R.; Scott, Erik R.; Schmidt, Craig L.; Skarstad, Paul M. [Medtronic Energy and Component Center, 6700 Shingle Creek Pkwy, Brooklyn Center, MN 55430 (United States); Weidner, John W. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2007-12-06

    This document describes a first-principles-based mathematical model developed to predict the voltage-capacity behavior of batteries having hybrid cathodes comprising a mixture of carbon monofluoride (CF{sub x}) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO). These batteries typically operate at moderate rates of discharge, lasting several years. The model presented here is an accurate tool for design optimization and performance prediction of batteries under current drains that encompass both the application rate and accelerated testing. (author)

  12. A definitive criterion for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Roger [Cathodic Protection Network International Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The corrosion reaction is defined using the Pourbaix Diagram and includes consideration of the pH, temperature, pressure, nobility of the metal and conductivity of the electrolyte. The passive zone can be established in a laboratory by creating a closed circuit condition in which the voltages can be measured. Natural corrosion cells occurring in simple conditions can be evaluated for the purpose of monitoring the performance of cathodic protection. Metal pipelines are complex networks of conductors submerged in electrolyte of infinitely variable qualities. The present method used to ascertain the effectiveness of cathodic protection has many inherent errors and results in costly and unpredictable corrosion failures. An electrode has been devised to define the exact electrical status of the corrosion reaction at its location. The design allows a closed circuit measurement of the corrosion current that can determine whether or not corrosion has been stopped by cathodic protection. This has allowed the development of software that can calculate the condition and corrosion status throughout a network of pipelines, using electrical circuit analysis common in the electronics industry. (author)

  13. Readout Control Specifications for the Front-End and Back-End of the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system [1] in order to run at between five and ten times the initial design luminosity. The various sub-systems in the readout architecture will need to be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. The development of a new readout control system for the upgraded LHCb readout system was investigated already in 2008 [2]. This work has evolved into a detailed system-level specification of the entire timing and readout control system [3]. In this paper, we specify in detail the functionalities that must be supported by the Front-End and the Back-End electronics to comply with the timing requirements and the readout scheme, and the necessary control and monitoring capabilities in order to validate, commission and operate the upgraded experiment efficiently and with sufficient flexibility. The document focuses entirely on the readout control aspects of the FE and BE, and the ECS inter...

  14. Parametrically Optimized Carbon Nanotube-Coated Cold Cathode Spindt Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigate, through parametrically optimized macroscale simulations, the field electron emission from arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT-coated Spindts towards the development of an emerging class of novel vacuum electron devices. The present study builds on empirical data gleaned from our recent experimental findings on the room temperature electron emission from large area CNT electron sources. We determine the field emission current of the present microstructures directly using particle in cell (PIC software and present a new CNT cold cathode array variant which has been geometrically optimized to provide maximal emission current density, with current densities of up to 11.5 A/cm2 at low operational electric fields of 5.0 V/μm.

  15. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  16. Effect of cathode model on arc attachment for short high-intensity arc on a refractory cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi Shirvan, Alireza; Choquet, Isabelle; Nilsson, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    Various models coupling the refractory cathode, the cathode sheath and the arc at atmospheric pressure exist. They assume a homogeneous cathode with a uniform physical state, and differ by the cathode layer and the plasma arc model. However even the most advanced of these models still fail in predicting the extent of the arc attachment when applied to short high-intensity arcs such as gas tungsten arcs. Cathodes operating in these conditions present a non-uniform physical state. A model taking into account the first level of this non-homogeneity is proposed based on physical criteria. Calculations are done for 5 mm argon arcs with a thoriated tungsten cathode. The results obtained show that radiative heating and cooling of the cathode surface are of the same order. They also show that cathode inhomogeneity has a significant effect on the arc attachment, the arc temperature and pressure. When changing the arc current (100 A, 200 A) the proposed model allows predicting trends observed experimentally that cannot be captured by the homogeneous cathode model unless restricting a priori the size of the arc attachment. The cathode physics is thus an important element to include to obtain a comprehensive and predictive arc model.

  17. Mitigating voltage fade in cathode materials by improving the atomic level uniformity of elemental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Pinghong; Chen, Xilin; Zhu, Zihua; Zhao, Wenbo; Pullan, Lee; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-05-14

    Lithium- and manganese-rich (LMR) layered-structure materials are very promising cathodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, their voltage fading mechanism and its relationships with fundamental structural changes are far from being well understood. Here we report for the first time the mitigation of voltage and energy fade of LMR cathodes by improving the atomic level spatial uniformity of the chemical species. The results reveal that LMR cathodes (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2) prepared by coprecipitation and sol-gel methods, which are dominated by a LiMO2 type R3̅m structure, show significant nonuniform Ni distribution at particle surfaces. In contrast, the LMR cathode prepared by a hydrothermal assisted method is dominated by a Li2MO3 type C2/m structure with minimal Ni-rich surfaces. The samples with uniform atomic level spatial distribution demonstrate much better capacity retention and much smaller voltage fade as compared to those with significant nonuniform Ni distribution. The fundamental findings on the direct correlation between the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species and the functional stability of the materials may also guide the design of other energy storage materials with enhanced stabilities.

  18. Nanoscale Surface Modification of Lithium-Rich Layered-Oxide Composite Cathodes for Suppressing Voltage Fade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fenghua; Yang, Chenghao; Xiong, Xunhui; Xiong, Jiawen; Hu, Renzong; Chen, Yu; Liu, Meilin

    2015-10-26

    Lithium-rich layered oxides are promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibit a high reversible capacity exceeding 250 mAh g(-1) . However, voltage fade is the major problem that needs to be overcome before they can find practical applications. Here, Li1.2 Mn0.54 Ni0.13 Co0.13 O2 (LLMO) oxides are subjected to nanoscale LiFePO4 (LFP) surface modification. The resulting materials combine the advantages of both bulk doping and surface coating as the LLMO crystal structure is stabilized through cationic doping, and the LLMO cathode materials are protected from corrosion induced by organic electrolytes. An LLMO cathode modified with 5 wt % LFP (LLMO-LFP5) demonstrated suppressed voltage fade and a discharge capacity of 282.8 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C with a capacity retention of 98.1 % after 120 cycles. Moreover, the nanoscale LFP layers incorporated into the LLMO surfaces can effectively maintain the lithium-ion and charge transport channels, and the LLMO-LFP5 cathode demonstrated an excellent rate capacity.

  19. Improving performance of inverted organic solar cells using ZTO nanoparticles as cathode buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Yen; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Jen-Sue

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a low-temperature solution-processed zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films are successfully utilized as the cathode buffer layer in the inverted organic P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells. ZTO film cathode buffer layer with an appropriate Sn-doping concentration outperforms the zinc oxide (ZnO) film with an improved power conversion efficiency (1.96% (ZTO film) vs. 1.56% (ZnO film)). Furthermore, ZTO nanoparticles (NPs) are also synthesized via low-temperature solution route and the device with ZTO NPs buffer layer exhibits a significant improvement in device performance to reach a PCE of 2.60%. The crystallinity of the cathode buffer layer plays an influential factor in the performance. From impedance spectroscopy analysis, a correlation between short circuit current (Jsc), carrier life time (τavg) and, thus, PCE is observed. The interplay between composition and crystallinity of the cathode buffer layers is discussed to find their influences on the solar cell performance.

  20. Application of Taguchi method for the characterization of calcareous deposits formed by pulse cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanzade, M.; Shahrabi, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran); Gharacheh, E.A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, the Taguchi method, a powerful tool to design optimization for quality, is used to find the optimal process parameters of pulse cathodic protection system for the calcareous deposits' formation. An orthogonal array, main effect and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio are employed to investigate the process parameters in order to achieve optimum final current density. Through this study also the main process parameters that affect the calcareous deposits' formation can be found. Experiments were carried out to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. From the results, chronoamperometric measurements have been used to evaluate the influence of pulse cathodic protection on decreasing the required cathodic current for protection and also decreasing the surface coverage. The morphology of the formed deposits has been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis of the formed deposits has been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the different environmental conditions, i.e., Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Mg{sup 2+} concentration, rotation speed, and temperature significantly affect the final required current density of the pulse cathodic protection. The optimum levels of parameters at different frequencies are also presented. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Abnormal Cathodic Photocurrent Generated on an n-Type FeOOH Nanorod-Array Photoelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjun; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-24

    A simple, wet-chemical method for the synthesis of an FeOOH nanorod-array photoelectrode on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass is reported. Nanorods of diameter about 35 nm and length about 300 nm have been vertically grown on an FTO substrate. Upon calcination, the FeOOH phase could be easily converted to a hematite structure while maintaining the shape of the nanorod array. An interesting abnormal cathodic photocurrent is generated on the FeOOH nanorod-array photoelectrode under illumination, which is totally different from that obtained on a calcined hematite photoelectrode under the same experimental conditions. The cathodic photocurrent density generated on the FeOOH photoelectrode can also be tuned by applying an electrochemical anodic or cathodic treatment. Detailed analysis has revealed that higher valence state Fe(IV) species in the FeOOH photoelectrode play an important role in sacrificing the photoexcited electrons for generation of the cathodic photocurrent. Comparison between the FeOOH and hematite photoelectrodes allows for a better understanding of the interplay between crystal structure, surface reactions, and photocurrent. The findings on this new abnormal phenomenon could also provide guidance for the design of new types of semiconducting photoelectrochemical devices.

  2. Modeling of mixing and interaction of multi-cathode spot vacuum arc jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Qin, Kang; Deng, Jie; Jia, Shenli

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum arc consists of cathode spot and mixing zone, arc column and anode zone. The separate jets and the mixing zone should be considered in the model of diffuse arc. Moreover, the interaction between the plasma jets in multi-cathode spot vacuum arc also is very important. In this paper, mixing and interaction of multi-cathode spot vacuum arc jets were studied through simulation. To completely investigate the mixing and interaction of vacuum arc jets, a steady 3D Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modeling was established. In order to find out the influence of different parameters on mixing and interaction of vacuum arc jets, simulations with different parameters such as currents, angel of vacuum arc jets, with or without electromagnetic equations, tilted jets and different height of mixing zone were conducted. The simulation results show that the densities of ion number and plasma pressure as well as ion temperature increase with the increase of arc current, while the plasma velocity decreases. The jet center is more deviated from the cathode center with the increase of angle of tilted jets.

  3. Modelling cathode spots in glow discharges in the cathode boundary layer geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, P G C; Bieniek, M S

    2015-01-01

    Self-organized patterns of cathode spots in glow discharges are computed in the cathode boundary layer geometry, which is the one employed in most of the experiments reported in the literature. The model comprises conservation and transport equations of electrons and a single ion species, written in the drift-diffusion and local-field approximations, and Poisson's equation. Multiple solutions existing for the same value of the discharge current and describing modes with different configurations of cathode spots are computed by means of a stationary solver. The computed solutions are compared to their counterparts for plane-parallel electrodes, and experiments. All of the computed spot patterns have been observed in the experiment.

  4. Cathode including a non fluorinated linear chain polymer as the binder, method of making the cathode, and lithium electrochemical cell containing the cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Edward J.; Salomon, Mark

    1986-08-01

    A cathode suitable for use in a lithium electrochemical cell is made from a mixture of active cathode material, carbon, and non fluorinated linear chain polymer by a method including the following steps: (1) dissolving the non fluorinated linear polymer in a non polar solvent at a temperature near the melting point of the polymer; (2) adding the active cathode material and carbon and evaporating the solvent; and (3) grinding the dried mixture into a fine powder and making it into a cathode by pressing the powdered mixture onto both sides of an expanded metal screen and then cutting to the desired dimensions. The cathode can be combined with lithium as the anode and a solution of 0.8 mol/cu dm LiAlCl4 in a mixed organic solvent of 24 mass percent 4-butyrolactone in 1, 2 dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte to provide a mechanically stable, relatively inexpensive lithium electrochemical cell having good cell performance.

  5. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimminen, H; Kyynäräinen, J

    2013-05-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  6. Signal Characteristics of a Resistive-Strip Micromegas Detector with an Integrated Two-Dimensional Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Wehner, Laura; Westenberger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, micropattern gaseous detectors, which comprise a two-dimensional readout structure within one PCB layer, received significant attention in the development of precision and cost-effective tracking detectors in medium and high energy physics experiments. In this article, we present for the first time a systematic performance study of the signal characteristics of a resistive strip micromegas detector with a two-dimensional readout, based on test-beam and X-ray measurements. In particular, comparisons of the response of the two independent readout-layers regarding their signal shapes and signal reconstruction efficiencies are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Fermi Read-out of the ATLAS Tilecal Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Agnvall, S; Albiol, F; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Amelin, D V; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Angelini, C; Antola, A; Astesan, F; Astvatsaturov, A R; Autiero, D; Badaud, F; Barreira, G; Benetta, R; Berglund, S R; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Blaj, C; Bodö, P; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Breveglieri, L; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Calôba, L P; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Castera, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chevaleyre, J C; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colaço, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Crouau, M; Dadda, L; Daudon, F; David, J; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Engström, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Evans, H; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fristedt, A; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gildemeister, O; Givoletto, M; Glagolev, V V; Goggi, Giorgio V; Gómez, A; Gong, S; Guz, Yu; Grabskii, V; Grieco, M; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M W; Hansen, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Hentzell, H; Holmberg, T; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jon-And, K; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Kérek, A; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kostyukhin, V; Kukhtin, V V; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurzbauer, W; Lami, S; Landi, G; Lapin, V; Lazzeroni, C; Lebedev, A; Leitner, R; Li, J; Lippi, M; Le Dortz, O; Löfstedt, B; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lokajícek, M; Lund-Jensen, B; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mariani, R; Marroquin, F; Martins, J P; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Montarou, G; Motto, S; Muanza, G S; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Ödmark, A; Onofre, A; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Patriarca, J; Pereira, A; Perlas, J A; Persson, S T; Petit, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Reinmuth, G; Renzoni, G; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sami, M; Sanders, H; Santos, J; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schwemling, P; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Semenov, A A; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Simaitis, V J; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stefanelli, R; Stephens, R; Suk, M; Sundblad, R; Svensson, C; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vinogradov, V; Vivaldi, F; Vorozhtsov, S B; Wagner, D; White, A; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Yuan, J; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M

    1998-01-01

    Prototypes of the \\fermi{} system have been used to read out a prototype of the \\atlas{} hadron calorimeter in a beam test at the CERN SPS. The \\fermi{} read-out system, using a compressor and a 40 MHz sampling ADC, is compared to a standard charge integrating read-out by measuring the energy resolution of the calorimeter separately with the two systems on the same events. Signal processing techniques have been designed to optimize the treatment of \\fermi{} data. The resulting energy resolution is better than the one obtained with the standard read-out.

  8. Development of an ASIC for CCD readout at the vertex detectors of the intrenational linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, P; Stefanov, K D; Woolliscroft, T

    2007-01-01

    The Linear Collider Flavour Identification Collaboration is developing sensors and readout electronics suitable for the International Linear Collider vertex detector. In order to achieve high data rates the proposed detector utilises column parallel CCDs, each read out by a custom designed ASIC. The prototype chip (CPR2) has 250 channels of electronics, each with a preamplifier, 5-bit flash ADC, data sparsification logic for identification of significant data clusters, and local memory for storage of data awaiting readout. CPR2 also has hierarchical 2-level data multiplexing and intermediate data memory, enabling readout of the sparsified data via the 5-bit data output bus.

  9. The Trigger Readout Electronics for the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12bit precision at 40MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  10. The trigger readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  11. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40-80 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. The design of the readout chain and the status of the R&D of the components will be presented.

  12. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  13. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  14. A new read-out architecture for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Alberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Tile hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will increase of order five to seven times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity. TileCal will undergo an upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal read-out electronics will be redesigned introducing a new read-out strategy. The new TileCal read-out architecture is presented including a description of the main electronics modules and some preliminary results obtained with the first demonstrator system.

  15. Development of ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Read-out Electronics for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Newcomer, Mitchel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider will provide a 5-7 times greater instantaneous and total luminosities than assumed in the original design of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters and their read-out system. An improved trigger system with higher acceptance rate and longer latency and a better radiation tolerance require an upgrade of the read-out electronics. Concepts for the future read-out of the 183.000 calorimeter channels at 40-80 MHz and 16 bit dynamic range, and the development of radiation tolerant, low noise, low power and high-bandwidth electronic components will be presented.

  16. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  17. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  18. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  19. Assistant Anode in a Cathodic Arc Plasma Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; Paul K. Chu; 张荟星; Ian G. Brown

    2001-01-01

    The performance and characteristics of a cathodic arc plasma source, consisting of a titanium cathode, an anode with and without a tungsten mesh, and a coil producing a focusing magnetic field between the anode and cathode,are investigated. The high transparency and large area of the mesh allow a high plasma flux to penetrate the anode from the cathodic arc. The mesh helps to decrease the arc resistance and the ignition voltage of the cathodic arc in the focusing magnetic field, and to increase the life of the source, which means that the source makes the cathodic arc easily and greatly stabilized during the operation when a focusing magnetic field exists in the source.

  20. Cathodic electrocatalyst layer for electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher P. (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. K. (Inventor); Singh, Waheguru Pal (Inventor); Anderson, Kelvin C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cathodic gas diffusion electrode for the electrochemical production of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cathodic gas diffusion electrode comprises an electrically conductive gas diffusion substrate and a cathodic electrocatalyst layer supported on the gas diffusion substrate. A novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer comprises a cathodic electrocatalyst, a substantially water-insoluble quaternary ammonium compound, a fluorocarbon polymer hydrophobic agent and binder, and a perfluoronated sulphonic acid polymer. An electrochemical cell using the novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer has been shown to produce an aqueous solution having between 8 and 14 weight percent hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, such electrochemical cells have shown stable production of hydrogen peroxide solutions over 1000 hours of operation including numerous system shutdowns.

  1. Cathodic phosphate coating containing nano zinc particles on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A technology for preparation of a cathodic phosphate coating mainly containing nano metallic zinc particles and phosphate compounds on magnesium alloy was developed.The influence of cathodic current density on the microstructure of the cathodic phosphate coating Was investigated.The results show that the crystals of the coating are finer and the microstructures of the outer surface of the coatings are zigzag at the cathodic density of 0.2-0.5 A/dm2.The content of nano metallic zinc particles in the coating decreases with the increase of the thickness of the coatings and tends to be zero when the coating thickness is 4.14 μm.The cathodic phosphate coating was applied to be a transition coating for improving the adhesion between the paints and the magnesium alloys.The formation mechanism of the cathodic phosphate coating was investigated as well.

  2. Effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam, Phan Luong; Thuy, Thi Bich [Hanoi University of Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2002-10-15

    Damage of reinforced concrete structures is mainly caused by chloride or carbonation induced corrosion of steel. Cathodic protection is a very effective measure for corrosion control of steel in concrete, especially in chloride contaminated concrete. In this paper, effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement is presented. Cathodic polarization of reinforcements in concrete was done under different submerged conditions. Cyclic potentiodynamic tests were used to determine the effect of cathodic protection on the behavior of the steel. Pitting appeared on the non-protected steel, but was not observed on the cathodically protected steel. microscopic photographs show that a close film exists on the protected steel, while the non-protected steel's film is loose. Investigated results have proved the effect of cathodic protection in restoring or strengthening passive film on the steel reinforcement

  3. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  4. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaramwong, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, D. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andonian, G. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab

    2017-03-07

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have open new possibilities such as enhancing quantum eciency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated to this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes.We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  5. Impedance Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    A 1-dimensional impedance model for a solid oxide fuel cell cathode is formulated and applied to a cathode consisting of 50/50 wt% strontium doped lanthanum cobaltite and gadolinia doped ceria. A total of 42 impedance spectra were recorded in the temperature range: 555-852°C and in the oxygen...... physical parameters such as the cathode thickness. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  6. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangaramwong, A.; Mihalcea, D.; Andonian, G.; Piot, P.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have opened new possibilities such as enhancing quantum efficiency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper, we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated with this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes. We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  7. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  8. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  9. Apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Coffey, Gregory W.

    2016-09-13

    The approaches and apparatuses for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  10. Importance of OH(-) transport from cathodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Ki, Dongwon; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I

    2012-06-01

    Cathodic limitation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered an important hurdle towards practical application as a bioenergy technology. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) needs to occur in MFCs under significantly different conditions compared to chemical fuel cells, including a neutral pH. The common reason cited for cathodic limitation is the difficulty in providing protons to the catalyst sites. Here, we show that it is not the availability of protons, but the transport of OH(-) from the catalyst layer to the bulk liquid that largely governs cathodic potential losses. OH(-) is a product of an ORR mechanism that has not been considered dominant before. The accumulation of OH(-) at the catalyst sites results in an increase in the local cathode pH, resulting in Nernstian concentration losses. For Pt-based gas-diffusion cathodes, using polarization curves developed in unbuffered and buffered solutions, we quantified this loss to be >0.3 V at a current density of 10 Am(-2) . We show that this loss can be partially overcome by replacing the Nafion binder used in the cathode catalyst layer with an anion-conducting binder and by providing additional buffer to the cathode catalyst directly in the form of CO(2) , which results in enhanced OH(-) transport. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of cathodic limitations in MFCs and should allow researchers to develop and select materials for the construction of MFC cathodes and identify operational conditions that will help minimize Nernstian concentration losses due to pH gradients.

  11. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  12. Recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    One of the challenges for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries to meet increasingly demanding requirements for energy storage is the development of suitable cathode materials. Cathode materials must be able to accept and release lithium ions repeatedly (for recharging) and quickly (for high current). Transition metal oxides based on the {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2}, spinel and olivine structures have shown promise, but improvements are needed to reduce cost and extend effective lifetime. In this paper, recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. This includes comparison of the performance characteristics of the promising cathode materials and approaches for improving their performances. (author)

  13. Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio

    This dissertation focuses on the development of nanostructured cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and their performance at low operating temperatures. Cathodes were mainly fabricated by the infiltration method, whereby electrocatalysts are introduced onto porous, ionic conducting backbones......degreeC. The most promising cathode was integrated onto an anode supported cell and it was found that the cell exhibits electrochemical stability with no measureable degradation during 1500 h operation at 700degreeC. LaCoO3 and Co3O4 infiltrated - CGO cathodes were also investigated and revealed...

  14. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  15. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  16. DIRAC v2 a DIgital Readout Asic for hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaglione, R; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Vouters, G

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is a 64 channel mixed-signal readout integrated circuit designed for Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MICROMEGAS, Gas Electron Multiplier) or Resistive Plate Chambers. These detectors are foreseen as the active part of a digital hadronic calorimeter for a high energy physics experiment at the International Linear Collider. Physic requirements lead to a highly granular hadronic calorimeter with up to thirty million channels with probably only hit information (digital calorimeter). The DIRAC ASIC has been especially designed for these constraints. Each channel of the DIRAC chip is made of a 4 gains charge preamplifier, a DC-servo loop, 3 switched comparators and a digital memory, thus providing additional energy information for a hit. A bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded DIRAC v1 ASIC has been built. The tests of this assembly, both in laboratory with X-Rays and in a beam at CERN are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of a bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded electronics. The second version of...

  17. Thermal design and tests for the CMS HCAL readout box

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, B; Booke, M; Karmgard, D; Los, S; Lu, Q; Marchant, J; Reidy, J; Ronzhin, A; Ruchti, R C; Wiand, D

    2000-01-01

    A method is necessary to cool the electronics contained in the readout boxes for the CMS HCAL. The electronics to pre-amplify and digitize signals from the optical detectors will generate a large amount of heat that must be removed from the CMS HCAL system. To accomplish this a thermal management system has been designed that uses metallic extrusions, liquid coolant, and thermal foam to transfer the heat from the electronics to the exterior cooling system. Because the electronics are difficult to access throughout the life of the experiment, the temperature must be kept low to extend life expectancy. In order to test the concepts before the final design is implemented a thermal test station was built. Several methods to are under study to determine the best method of making the thermal routing from source of the heat to the liquid for heat removal. The test bed for this evaluation and methods to monitor the electronics temperature in situ will be discussed. 3 Refs.

  18. Proposed STAR Time of Flight Readout Electronics and DAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, Joachim

    2006-04-01

    A novel Time-of-Flight (TOF) subsystem is under design for the STAR detector at RHIC. A total of 3840 Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) of 6 pads each are distributed over 120 trays. The total number of channels is 23040. Each TOF tray consists of 192 detector channels and three different types of electronic circuit cards, called "TINO", "TDIG", and "TCPU", listed in order of the data flow. Every 30 trays send their data to a "THUB" card that interfaces to the STAR trigger and transmits the data over a fiber to a fiber receiver which is part of STAR DAQ. The TINO contains the analog front end electronics based on a custom IC called NINO. The output of TINO is passed to the TDIG, where the data are digitized (using the CERN HPTDC ASIC). The TCPU formats and buffers the digital detector information. This formatted data is passed to THUB, which transmits it over an optical fiber to a data receiver in the STAR DAQ room. The architecture of this readout chain and DAQ will be described, and first results from prototypes of the component boards will be discussed.

  19. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  20. Longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters with SiPM readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Ferdinando, D. Di; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the INFN SCENTT R&D project is to develop the calorimeter technologies for the instrumentation of decay tunnels in conventional neutrino beams. This instrumentation is required to achieve a substantial improvement in the uncertainty on neutrino fluxes for the next generation cross section experiments. In particular, we are designing a positron tagger based on purely calorimetric techniques that is able to measure the rate and the spectrum of the positrons produced in the K+ →e+π0νe decay. The νe flux is inferred from the positron rate in the decay tunnel. Considering the large dimensions of the tagger, the most cost effective technology is based on small modules of Fe/Scintillator shashlik calorimeters, with adequate segmentation and energy resolution to efficiently tag the positrons over the charged pion background. This contribution presents preliminary results obtained with two shashlik calorimeter prototypes readout with an array of Silicon PhotoMultipliers and tested at the CERN PS-T9 beamline.

  1. The CMS pixel readout chip for the Phase 1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hits, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel Read Out Chip (ROC) was designed for operation at a bunch spacing of 25\\,ns and to be efficient up to the nominal instantaneous luminosity of 10$^{34} \\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$. Based on the excellent LHC performance to date and the upgrade plans for the accelerators, it is anticipated that the instantaneous luminosity could reach $2\\times10^{34} \\rm cm^{-2} \\rm s^{-1}$ before the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2018, and well above this by the LS3 in 2022. That is why a new ROC has been designed and why a completely new pixel detector will be built with a planned installation in CMS during an extended winter shutdown in 2016/17. The ROC for the upgraded pixel detector is an evolution of the present architecture. It will be manufactured in the same 250\\,nm CMOS process. The core of the architecture is maintained, with enhancement in performance in three main areas: readout protocol, reduced data loss and enhanced analog performance. The main features of the new CMS pixel ROC are presented togeth...

  2. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  3. A cryogenic SAR ADC for infrared readout circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongliang; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Zhisheng

    2011-01-01

    A cryogenic successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) is presented.It has been designed to operate in cryogenic infrared readout systems as they are cooled from room temperature to their final cryogenic operation temperature.In order to preserve the circuit's performance over this wide temperature range,a temperature-compensated time-based comparator architecture is used in the ADC,which provides a steady performance with ultra low power for extreme temperature (from room temperature down to 77 K) operation.The converter implemented in a standard 0.35μm CMOS process exhibits 0.64 LSB maximum differential nonlinearity (DNL) and 0.59 LSB maximum integral nonlinearity (INL).It achieves 9.3 bit effective number of bits (ENOB)with 200 kS/s sampling rate at 77 K,dissipating 0.23 mW under 3.3 V supply voltage and occupies 0.8 × 0.3 mm2.

  4. The CMS Pixel Readout Chip for the Phase 1 Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hits, D.; Starodumov, A.

    2015-05-01

    The present CMS pixel Read Out Chip (ROC) was designed for operation at a bunch spacing of 25 ns and to be efficient up to the nominal instantaneous luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. Based on the excellent LHC performance to date and the upgrade plans for the accelerators, it is anticipated that the instantaneous luminosity could reach 2×1034 cm-2 s-1 before the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2018, and well above this by the LS3 in 2022. That is why a new ROC has been designed and why a completely new pixel detector will be built with a planned installation in CMS during an extended winter shutdown in 2016/17. The ROC for the upgraded pixel detector is an evolution of the present architecture. It will be manufactured in the same 250 nm CMOS process. The core of the architecture is maintained, with enhancement in performance in three main areas: readout protocol, reduced data loss and enhanced analog performance. The main features of the new CMS pixel ROC are presented together with measured performance of the chip.

  5. Low-noise readout circuit for SWIR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Oguz; Tasdemir, Ferhat; Nuzumlali, Omer Lutfi; Kepenek, Reha; Inceturkmen, Ercihan; Akyurek, Fatih; Tunca, Can; Akbulut, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a 640x512 SWIR ROIC with 15um pixel pitch that is designed and fabricated using 0.18um CMOS process. Main challenge of SWIR ROIC design is related to input circuit due to pixel area and noise limitations. In this design, CTIA with single stage amplifier is utilized as input stage. The pixel design has three pixel gain options; High Gain (HG), Medium Gain (MG), and Low Gain (LG) with corresponding Full-Well-Capacities of 18.7ké, 190ké and 1.56Mé, respectively. According to extracted simulation results, 5.9é noise is achieved at HG mode and 200é is achieved at LG mode of operation. The ROIC can be programmed through an SPI interface. It supports 1, 2 and 4 output modes which enables the user to configure the detector to work at 30, 60 and 120fps frame rates. In the 4 output mode, the total power consumption of the ROIC is less than 120mW. The ROIC is powered from a 3.3V analog supply and allows for an output swing range in excess of 2V. Anti-blooming feature is added to prevent any unwanted blooming effect during readout.

  6. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  7. Characterization of Medipix3 with the MARS readout and software

    CERN Document Server

    Ronaldson, J P; van Leeuwen, D; Doesburg, R M N; Ballabriga, R; Butler, A P H; Donaldson, J; Walsh, M; Nik, S J; Clyne, M N

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix3 x-ray imaging detector has been characterized using the MARS camera. This x-ray camera comprises custom built readout electronics and software libraries designed for the Medipix family of detectors. The performance of the Medipix3 and MARS camera system is being studied prior to use in real-world applications such as the recently developed MARS-CT3 spectroscopic micro-CT scanner. We present the results of characterization measurements, describe methods for optimizing performance and give examples of spectroscopic images acquired with Medipix3 and the MARS camera system. A limited number of operating modes of the Medipix3 chip have been characterized and single-pixel mode has been found to give acceptable performance in terms of energy response, image quality and stability over time. Spectroscopic performance is significantly better in charge-summing mode than single-pixel mode however image quality and stability over time are compromised. There are more modes of operation to be tested and further...

  8. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  9. Light Readout Optimisation using Wavelength Shifter - Reflector Combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrokoridis, Konstantinos, E-mail: k.mavrokoridis@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Oxford Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-25

    The use of reflectors coated with a wavelength shifter (WLS) along with standard bialkali PMTs is an economical method for an efficient readout system for vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light produced in large liquid argon detectors. Various thicknesses of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) were deposited by spraying and vacuum evaporation onto both specular 3M{sup TM}-foil and diffuse Tetratex{sup TM} (TTX) reflectors. 128 nm VUV light generated in 1 bar argon gas by a 5.4 MeV {alpha} source was detected by a 3-inch bialkali borosilicate PMT within a 1 m tube lined internally with a TPB coated reflector. The light collection was recorded as a function of separation between source and PMT for each combination of coating and reflector for distances up to 1m. Reflection coefficients of TPB coated reflectors were measured using a spectroradiometer. WLS coating on the PMT window was also studied. The optimum coating and reflector combination was TPB evaporated on TTX. Measurements with coating thicknesses of 0.2 mg/cm{sup 2} and 1.0 mg/cm{sup 2} yielded a similar performance. The best PMT window coating is obtained by TPB evaporation of 0.05 mg/cm{sup 2}.

  10. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  11. The COMPASS RICH-1 read-out system

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, G; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Chapiro, A; Cicuttin, A; Ciliberti, P; Colavita, A A; Costa, S; Crespo, M; Cristaudo, P; Dalla Torre, S; Díaz, V; Fauland, P; Fratnik, F

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the reconfigurable read-out system for the 82944 RICH-1 channels of the COMPASS experiment (NA58) at CERN. The system is based on 192 identical large front-end boards (BORA board). BORA was designed for acquiring, digitizing, threshold subtracting and transmitting event data. The overall operation of the board is controlled and supervised by a DSP tightly interacting with an FPGA that acts as a parallel co-processor. The DSP allows characterizing each analog channel by locally calculating noise and pedestal. Each BORA communicates with the outside world through two optical fibers and through a dedicated DSP network. One optical fiber is used to receive event triggers, and the other one is used to transmit event data to subsequent processing stages of the acquisition system. The DSP network allows reconfiguring and reprogramming the DSPs and FPGAs as well as acquiring sample events to visualize the overall operation of the system. The whole RICH has eight DSP networks working in parallel. ...

  12. Test runs of a Belle II PXD prototype readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getzkow, Dennis; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Soeren; Lautenbach, Klemens [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Gessler, Thomas [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Belle II PXD readout system (called ONSEN for Online Selection Nodes) uses ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Architecture) boards with Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGAs and high speed optical links (6.5 Gbit/s each). The full system consists of 9 carrier boards and 33 daughter cards. The ONSEN system has several interfaces: (a) it receives PXD data from the DHH (Data Handling Hybrid) system, (b) it receives ROI (Regions-of-Interest) data for online data reduction from the HLT (High Level Trigger) system by GbE, and (c) it features data ports to two event builders: EVB1 combines data from all detectors except PXD (in order to generate the ROIs) and EVB2 combines the reduced PXD data with all other data. One of the critical issues is the matching of trigger numbers in the data (received by DHH from the timing distribution system) and trigger numbers in the ROIs (received by the HLT). In order to test the interfaces, in particular for a high HLT rate up to 30 kHz, a prototype system with 3 daughter cards was installed at KEK and tested with DHH, HLT and EVB2. Test results are presented.

  13. Electrostatic readout of DNA microarrays with charged microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clack, Nathan G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group; Salaita, Khalid [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Department of Chemistry; Groves, Jay T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group and Department of Chemistry

    2008-06-29

    DNA microarrays are used for gene-expression profiling, single-nucleotide polymorphism detection and disease diagnosis. A persistent challenge in this area is the lack of microarray screening technology suitable for integration into routine clinical care. In this paper, we describe a method for sensitive and label-free electrostatic readout of DNA or RNA hybridization on microarrays. The electrostatic properties of the microarray are measured from the position and motion of charged microspheres randomly dispersed over the surface. We demonstrate nondestructive electrostatic imaging with 10-μm lateral resolution over centimeter-length scales, which is four-orders of magnitude larger than that achievable with conventional scanning electrostatic force microscopy. Changes in surface charge density as a result of specific hybridization can be detected and quantified with 50-pM sensitivity, single base-pair mismatch selectivity and in the presence of complex background. Lastly, because the naked eye is sufficient to read out hybridization, this approach may facilitate broad application of multiplexed assays.

  14. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  15. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, M.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Boissevain, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  16. Simplification of the DREAM collaboration's "Q/S method" in dual readout calorimetry analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groom, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    The DREAM collaboration has introduced the "Q/S Method" for obtaining the energy estimator from simultaneous Cherenkov and scintillator readouts of individual hadronic events. We show that the algorithm is equivalent to an elementary method.

  17. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    Letter of Intent for RD Collaboration Proposal focused on development of a next generation pixel readout integrated circuits needed for high luminosity LHC detector upgrades. Brings together ATLAS and CMS pixel chip design communities.

  18. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  19. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: sunday@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: licheng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)

    2014-11-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  20. SLIM5 beam test results for thin striplet detector and fast readout beam telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.vitale@ts.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Trieste and INFN-Trieste (Italy); Bruschi, M.; Di Sipio, R.; Fabbri, L.; Giacobbe, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini, N.; Spighi, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In September 2008 the SLIM5 collaboration submitted a low material budget silicon demonstrator to test with 12 GeV/c protons, at the PS-T9 test-beam at CERN. Two different detectors were placed as DUTs inside a high-resolution and fast-readout beam telescope. The first DUT was a high resistivity double sided silicon detector, with short strips ('striplets') and with reduced thickness, at 45{sup 0} angle to the detector's edge, readout by the data-driven FSSR2 chip. The other one was a 4k-Pixel Matrix of Deep N Well MAPS, developed in a 130 nm CMOS Technology, providing digital sparsified readout. In the following, I present the striplets and also the beam telescope characteristics, with some details about the frontend readout (based on the FSSR2 chip) and some preliminary results of the data-analysis.

  1. Towards multi-hit readout of TPCs for exotic beam tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, Timothy; Enders, Joachim; Hucka, Jan-Paul; Schlemme, Steffen [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Super-FRS beam diagnostics system supports the set up and adjustment of the separator and provides tracking and event-by-event particle identification. A TPC-type detector with GEM amplification and with multi-hit single-strip readout is proposed to be used as a tracking detector. The main challenges for such a detector are position resolution below 1 mm, high dynamic range (1000) and high-efficiency tracking up to 10 MHz ion rate. One of the planned improvements towards a high-rate capability of single-ion tracking is the multi-hit readout of the TPC detectors. Present TPC detectors with delay-line readout were tested with multihit electronics at the GSI fragment separator FRS with Au beam at 1 GeV/nucl. up to 150 kHz. Results are presented in comparison to single-hit readout.

  2. The Drift Chamber Electronics and Readout for the NA48 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, I; Holder, M; Kreutz, A; Otto, W; Roschangar, M; Schöfer, B; Schwarze, I; Ziolkowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A drift chamber readout system for about 8000 channels with continuous sensitivity, i.e. concurrent data recording and readout, is described. Drift times are measured in bins of 1.56 ns with respect to a continuously running 40 MHz clock. The clock interval of 25 ns is divided into 16 bins by means of a 16 element delay chain. The length of this chain is linked to the clock interval by a phase locked loop. An ASIC chip was developed to perform time measurements and data storage for 16 channels. In an asynchronous readout of this chip, data are tranferred to intermediate buffers, for use in a first level trigger and eventual final readout. The design of the electronics is described and results from data taking runs are presented.

  3. Real-Time Discrete SPAD Array Readout Architecture for Time of Flight PET

    CERN Document Server

    Tétrault, M -A; Boisvert, A; Thibaudeau, C; Dubois, F; Fontaine, R; Pratte, J -F

    2014-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays have proven themselves as serious candidates for time of flight positron emission tomography (PET). Discrete readout schemes mitigate the low-noise requirements of analog schemes and offer very fine control over threshold levels and timing pickup strategies. A high optical fill factor is paramount to timing performance in such detectors, and consequently space is limited for closely integrated electronics. Nonetheless, a production, daily used PET scanner must minimize bandwidth usage, data volume, data analysis time and power consumption and therefore requires a real-time readout and data processing architecture as close to the detector as possible. We propose a fully digital, embedded real-time readout architecture for SPAD-based detector. The readout circuit is located directly under the SPAD array instead of within or beside it to remove the fill factor versus circuit capabilities tradeoff. The overall real-time engine reduces transmitted data by a factor of 8 i...

  4. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Shawn W; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K; Cothard, Nicholas F; Crowley, Kevin T; Duff, Shannon M; Fitzgerald, Colin P; Gallardo, Patricio A; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Koopman, Brian J; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Reintsema, Carl D; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Staggs, Suzanne T; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Ward, Jonathan T

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol...

  5. A 4k-Pixel CTIA Readout for Far IR Photodetector Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate the feasibility of developing a low noise, two-side buttable, 64x64 readout multiplexer with the following key design features: 1- By far...

  6. Novel Single Photon Counting Readout Circuits and APD Arrays with Capability from UV to IR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed Phase I SBIR project is to develop and demonstrate 256x256 segmented readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that can read, digitize and...

  7. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  8. Proposal of Readout Electronics for CSNS-WNS BaF2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi; He, Bing; Zhang, Yaxi; Qi, Xincheng; Yu, Tao; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    BaF2 (Barium fluoride) detector is one of the experiment facilities at the under construction CSNS-WNS (White Neutron Source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is designed for precisely measuring (n,gamma) cross section with total 92 crystal elements and completely 4 pi steradian coverage. In this proposal for readout electronics, waveform digitizing technique with 1GSps sampling rate and 12-bit resolution is adopted to precisely capture the detector signal. To solve the problem of massive data readout and processing, the readout electronics system is designed into a distributed architecture with 4 PXIe crates. The digitized detector's signal is concentrated to PXIe crate controller through PCIe bus on backplane and transmitted to data acquisition system over Gigabit Ethernet in parallel. Besides, clock and trigger can be fanned out synchronously to each electronic channel over a high-precision distributing network. Test results showed that the prototype of the readout electronics system achieved good pe...

  9. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout technologies for future ion beam analytical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J. E-mail: harry_j.whitlow@nuclear.lu.se

    2000-03-01

    New possibilities for ion beam analysis (IBA) are afforded by recent developments in detector technology which facilitate the parallel collection of data from a large number of channels. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technologies, which have been widely employed for multi-channel readout systems in nuclear and particle physics, are more net-cost effective (160/channel for 1000 channels) and a more rational solution for readout of a large number of channels than afforded by conventional electronics. Based on results from existing and on-going chip designs, the possibilities and issues of ASIC readout technology are considered from the IBA viewpoint. Consideration is given to readout chip architecture and how the stringent resolution, linearity and stability requirements for IBA may be met. In addition the implications of the restrictions imposed by ASIC technology are discussed.

  10. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Allen, M.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Boissevain, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  11. Electronics and readout of the UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacci, C.; Bonino, R.; Ceradini, F.; Lacava, F.; Petrolo, E.; Tusi, A.; Veneziano, S.; Zanello, L.; Boniface, J.; Colas, J.

    1989-07-01

    The readout electronics realized for the uranium-TMP calorimeter of the UA1 experiment is presented. The main features of the electronics chain, from integration of the detector signal to the data digitization are discussed in detail. (orig.).

  12. Upgrades to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, David Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cathode strip chambers (CSCs) are used to detect muons in theend cap region of the CMS detector. The chambers are arrangedin rings in four planes on each end of the detector. The innerrings of CSCs in each station have the highest flux ofparticles and this presents challenges to efficient readout atthe luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at theHL-LHC.The existing front end electronics in Stations 2, 3, and 4 arebased on switched capacitor arrays with limited bufferingcapability. Queuing models have shown that significantsaturation of the buffers would occur for the luminosity, Level1 trigger rates, and required Level 1 latency for running atthe HL-LHC. In addition, the expected output rate of data isexpected to exceed the 1 Gbps bandwidth of the optical linksthat carry data to the back end, resulting in loss of eventsynchronization.The upgrade of the inner ring of CSCs addresses these problemsby replacing some types of electronics boards in these ringswith upgraded boards. In particular, the existi...

  13. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  14. Evaluation of microbial fuel cell operation using algae as an oxygen supplier: carbon paper cathode vs. carbon brush cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Min, Booki

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and its cathode performances were compared with use of carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathode electrodes in algae aeration. The MFC having carbon fiber brush cathode exhibited a voltage of 0.21 ± 0.01 V (1,000 Ω) with a cathode potential of around -0.14 ± 0.01 V in algal aeration, whereas MFC with plain carbon paper cathode resulted in a voltage of 0.06 ± 0.005 V with a cathode potential of -0.39 ± 0.01 V. During polarizations, MFC equipped with carbon fiber brush cathode showed a maximum power density of 30 mW/m(2), whereas the MFC equipped with plain carbon paper showed a power density of 4.6 mW/m(2). In algae aeration, the internal resistance with carbon fiber brush cathode was 804 Ω and with plain carbon paper it was 1,210 Ω. The peak currents of MFC operation with carbon fiber brush and plain carbon paper cathodes were -31 mA and -850 µA, respectively.

  15. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  16. Deep sub electron noise readout in CCD systems using digital filtering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Cancelo, Gustavo; Moroni, Guillermo Fernandez; Treptow, Ken; Zmuda, Ted; Diehl, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Scientific CCDs designed in thick high resistivity silicon (Si) are excellent detectors for astronomy, high energy and nuclear physics, and instrumentation. Many applications can benefit from CCDs ultra low noise readout systems. The present work shows how sub electron noise CCD images can be achieved using digital signal processing techniques. These techniques allow readout bandwidths of up to 10 K pixels per second and keep the full CCD spatial resolution and signal dynamic range.

  17. Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2004-02-01

    The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.

  18. Tailored Core Shell Cathode Powders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Scott [NexTech Materials, Ltd.,Lewis Center, OH (United States)

    2015-03-23

    In this Phase I SBIR project, a “core-shell” composite cathode approach was evaluated for improving SOFC performance and reducing degradation of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode materials, following previous successful demonstrations of infiltration approaches for achieving the same goals. The intent was to establish core-shell cathode powders that enabled high performance to be obtained with “drop-in” process capability for SOFC manufacturing (i.e., rather than adding an infiltration step to the SOFC manufacturing process). Milling, precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were evaluated for making core-shell composite cathode powders comprised of coarse LSCF “core” particles and nanoscale “shell” particles of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) or praseodymium strontium manganite (PSM). Precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were successful for obtaining the targeted core-shell morphology, although perfect coverage of the LSCF core particles by the LSM and PSM particles was not obtained. Electrochemical characterization of core-shell cathode powders and conventional (baseline) cathode powders was performed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) half-cell measurements and single-cell SOFC testing. Reliable EIS testing methods were established, which enabled comparative area-specific resistance measurements to be obtained. A single-cell SOFC testing approach also was established that enabled cathode resistance to be separated from overall cell resistance, and for cathode degradation to be separated from overall cell degradation. The results of these EIS and SOFC tests conclusively determined that the core-shell cathode powders resulted in significant lowering of performance, compared to the baseline cathodes. Based on the results of this project, it was concluded that the core-shell cathode approach did not warrant further investigation.

  19. Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium

    OpenAIRE

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Thallium arc plasma was investigated in a vacuum arc ion source. As expected from previous consideration of cathode materials in the Periodic Table of the Elements, thallium plasma shows lead-like behavior. Its mean ion charge state exceeds 2.0 immediately after arc triggering, reaches the predicted 1.60 and 1.45 after about 100 microsec and 150 microsec, respectively. The most likely ion velocity is initially 8000 m/s and decays to 6500 m/s and 6200 m/s after 100 microsec and 150 micros...

  20. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  1. Coated particles for lithium battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Pratt, Russell Clayton; Mullin, Scott Allen; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-18

    Particles of cathodic materials are coated with polymer to prevent direct contact between the particles and the surrounding electrolyte. The polymers are held in place either by a) growing the polymers from initiators covalently bound to the particle, b) attachment of the already-formed polymers by covalently linking to functional groups attached to the particle, or c) electrostatic interactions resulting from incorporation of cationic or anionic groups in the polymer chain. Carbon or ceramic coatings may first be formed on the surfaces of the particles before the particles are coated with polymer. The polymer coating is both electronically and ionically conductive.

  2. A Triple-GEM Detector with Pixel Readout for High-Rate Beam Tracking in COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, T; Haas, F; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Krämer, M; Mann, A; Paul, S

    2008-01-01

    For its physics program with a high-intensity hadron beam of $2 · 10^{7}$ particles/s, the COMPASS experiment at CERN requires tracking of charged particles scattered by very small angles with respect to the incident beam direction. While good resolution in time and space is mandatory, the challenge is imposed by the high beam intensity, requiring radiation-hard detectors which add very little material to the beam path in order to minimise secondary interactions. To this end, a set of triple-GEM detectors with pixel readout in the beam region and 2-D strip readout in the periphery is currently being built. The pixel size has been chosen to be 1×1 mm2, which constitutes a compromise between the spatial resolution achievable and the number of readout channels. Surrounding the pixel area, a 2-D strip readout with a pitch of 400 μm has been realised on the same printed circuit foil. In total an active area of 10 × 10 cm2 is covered using 2048 readout channels. Analogue readout by the APV25 ASIC has been chose...

  3. Central FPGA-based Destination and Load Control in the LHCb MHz Event Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment [1] is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz [2]. Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes [3]. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...

  4. Radiation hardening of low-noise readout integrated circuit for infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Yong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul

    2010-04-01

    A radiation-resistant readout integrated circuit for focal plane arrays was studied to improve the reliability of infrared image systems operating in a radioactive environment, such as in space or in the surroundings of a nuclear reactor. First, as radiation-hardened NMOSFET structure, which includes a layout modification technique, was proposed. The readout integrated circuit for infrared focal plane arrays was then designed on basis of the proposed NMOSFET layout. Commercial 0.35 um process technology was used to fabricate the proposed unit NMOSFET and the designed readout integrated circuit which is based on the proposed NMOSFET. The measured electrical characteristics of the fabricated unit NMOSFET and readout integrated circuit are in good agreement with the simulated results. For verification of the radiation tolerance, the fabricated chip was exposed to 1 Mrad (Si) of gamma radiation, which is high enough to guarantee reliable usage in space or in a very harsh radiation environment. While exposed to gamma radiation, the fabricated chip was connected to a power supply (3.3 V) for testing under the worst conditions. After being exposed to 1 Mrad of gamma radiation, the unit NMOSFET showed only a slight increment of a few picoamperes in the leakage current, and the designed readout integrated circuit showed little change at an output voltage of less than 10% of a proper output voltage. The changes in the characteristics of the unit NMOSFET and the designed readout infrared integrated circuit are at an allowable level in relation to process variation.

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis with a symmetric cell for LiCoO2 cathode degradation correlated with Co dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Static degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes is a problem that hinders accurate analysis using our developed separable symmetric cell. Therefore, in this study we investigate the static degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes in separable symmetric cells by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and inductively coupled plasma analyses. EIS measurements of LiCoO2 cathodes are conducted in various electrolytes, with different anions and with or without HF and/or H2O. This allows us to determine the static degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes relative to their increase of charge transfer resistance. The increase of the charge transfer resistance of the LiCoO2 cathodes is attributed to cobalt dissolution from the active material of LiCoO2. Cobalt dissolution from LiCoO2 is revealed to occur even at low potential in the presence of HF, which is generated from LiPF6 and H2O. The results indicate that avoidance of HF generation is important for the analysis of lithium-ion battery electrodes by using the separable cell. These findings reveal the condition to achieve accurate analysis by EIS using the separable cell.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of highly tolerant Pd electrocatalysts as cathodes in Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells (DEGFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, F. J.; Fraire Luna, S. [Grupo de Recursos Naturales y Energeticos, Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Monterrey Km. 13.5, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900 (Mexico); Savadogo, O. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Materiaux Energetiques, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid (FA) method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}), Pd/C exhibited a noteworthy electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (E{sub onset}) toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a poor selectivity for the ORR when EG was present. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in E{sub onset}. The evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 {sup o}C demonstrated its good performance as cathode material. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs. (author)

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Highly Tolerant Pd Electrocatalysts as Cathodes in Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells (DEGFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumarou Savadogo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly selective Pd electrocatalysts were synthesized by the formic acid (FA method and evaluated as cathodes for DEGFC applications. In rotating disc measurements in acid medium, the Pd/C cathode showed important catalytic activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR. In the presence of ethylene glycol (EG, C2H6O2, Pd/C exhibited a noteworthy electrochemical behavior and full tolerance to the organic molecule. No current density peaks associated to the EG oxidation reaction emerged and the shift in onset potential for the ORR (Eonset toward more negative potentials was negligible on this cathode. As a comparison, commercial Pt/C was tested under the same conditions showing a poor selectivity for the ORR when EG was present. The detrimental effect of EG on the Pt electrocatalysts resulted in high intensity current density peaks due to the oxidation of EG and a significant shift in Eonset. The evaluation of Pd/C in a DEGFC operating at 80 °C demonstrated its good performance as cathode material. Given these results, it is expected that highly efficient Pd-based cathodes can find application in DEGFCs.

  8. Time-optimized high-resolution readout-segmented diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min. This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1 × 1 × 2.5 mm(3 diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context.

  9. Readout of a 176 pixel FDM system for SAFARI TES arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R.; Ridder, M.; van der Linden, A. J.; van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J. R.; Jackson, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our 176-pixel prototype of the FDM readout system for SAFARI, a TES-based focal-plane instrument for the far-IR SPICA mission. We have implemented the knowledge obtained from the detailed study on electrical crosstalk reported previously. The effect of carrier leakage is reduced by a factor two, mutual impedance is reduced to below 1 nH and mutual inductance is removed. The pixels are connected in stages, one quarter of the array half of the array and the full array, to resolve intermediate technical issues. A semi-automated procedure was incorporated to find all optimal settings for all pixels. And as a final step the complete array has been connected and 132 pixels have been read out simultaneously within the frequency range of 1-3.8MHz with an average frequency separation of 16kHz. The noise was found to be detector limited and was not affected by reading out all pixels in a FDM mode. With this result the concept of using FDM for multiplexed bolometer read out for the SAFARI instrument has been demonstrated.

  10. The Effect of Substrate Topography on Coating Cathodic Delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinell, Claus E.; Sørensen, Per A.; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of steel substrate topography on coating cathodic delamination. The study showed that the surface preparation can be used to control and minimize the rate of cathodic delamination. The coating should have maximum wetting properties so that substrates with high...

  11. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with a Pressurized Cathode Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power densities are often constrained by the oxygen reduction reaction rate on the cathode electrode. One important factor for this is the normally low solubility of oxygen in the aqueous cathode solution creating mass transport limitations, which hinder oxygen reduction a...

  13. Miniature High Density Scandate Cathodes for Linear Beam Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    Gartner1 and is useful with scandate cathodes that do not exhibit sharp transmissions from space-charge limited to temperature limited flow, see...Electron Detector ( BSE ) and an Energy- dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). In Image 5 the surface of the cathode is viewed using the BSE detector

  14. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  15. The Cathode Ramper: Application for the Duoplasmatron Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Cathode Ramper Application is to heat the Linac 2 duoplasmatron ion source cathode up to a desired temperature selected by the user. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  16. A Preliminary Study on Cathodic Prevention in Reinforced Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; Mol, J.M.C.; De Wit, J.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary tests on the performance of cathodic prevention (CPre) in reinforced mortar, subjected to aggressive (10% NaCl environment). Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique for minimizing, actually "preventing" any eventual corrosion of the steel bars in reinfo

  17. Multichannel Discharge Between Jet Electrolyte Cathode and Solid Anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafin, T. B.; Gaitsin, Al. F.

    We investigate particularities of burning of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte anode and solid cathode within a wide range of parameters. We observe the multichannel discharge propagation over the humid plexiglas cathode surface and discover its various shapes. We reveal the

  18. Development of cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Mukhtaruly Turganaly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of the cathode material coated with carbon layer has been developed. Various carbon coating methods. There  has been carried out a comparative electrochemical analysis of the coated and uncoated with carbon cathode material. 

  19. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Mahapatra, Manoj K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wachsman, E. D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Meilin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gerdes, Kirk R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  20. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has