WorldWideScience

Sample records for finance united states

  1. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  2. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  3. United States Hegemony and the Structural Power of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    This thesis advances and substantiates the claim that financialization and hegemony in the twentieth century are two sides of the same process. It begins by reviewing the insights and limitations of existing theories of hegemony and world order in the international political economy and international relations literature. Foundational categories in the theory of hegemony, such as capital, the state, money, finance and globalization are then re-examined with the intent of superseding some of t...

  4. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  5. Educational Finance and School Choice in the United States and Canada. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    Both the United States and Canadian provinces have moved to enhance educational choice within their educational systems to improve educational productivity. In spite of this similarity of purpose and means, the two nations are taking very different approaches. Most Canadian provinces have moved to full provincial financing of schools and to the…

  6. Wind Energy Finance in the United States: Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Paul D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In the United States, investment in wind energy has averaged nearly $13.6 billion annually since 2006 with more than $140 billion invested cumulatively over that period (BNEF 2017). This sizable investment activity demonstrates the persistent appeal of wind energy and its increasing role in the U.S electricity generation portfolio. Despite its steady investment levels over the last decade, some investors still consider wind energy as a specialized asset class. Limited familiarity with the asset class both limit the pool of potential investors and drive up costs for investors. This publication provides an overview of the wind project development process, capital sources and financing structures commonly used, and traditional and emerging procurement methods. It also provides a high-level demonstration of how financing rates impact a project's all-in cost of energy. The goal of the publication is to provide a representative and wide-ranging resource for the wind development and financing processes.

  7. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  8. Shifting the Burden: Public and Private Financing of Higher Education in the United States and Implications for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Donald E.; Rogers, Kimberly R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a significant change in the financing of higher education in the United States. A decrease in student and institutional support in real terms, tuition increases at all types of institutions, along with the view that students are the primary beneficiaries of higher education has resulted in policies that…

  9. Perspective of vaccine manufacturers on financing pediatric and adolescent vaccines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Rodewald, Lance E; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to understand vaccine manufacturers' perspectives on vaccine financing as a barrier to immunization. Individual telephone interviews with representatives of the 6 manufacturers that produce routinely recommended vaccines for children and adolescents in the United States were conducted in November and December 2006. Although manufacturers acknowledged that the price of newer vaccines presents challenges to optimal vaccine use, they asserted that children and adolescents have access to vaccinations through public and private insurance. Respondents suggested that the system could be improved through adequate funding of the public-sector safety net. Respondents stated that providers should receive timely reimbursement for the full costs of vaccine purchase and administration, and manufacturers who sell directly to health care providers may provide flexible payment terms for vaccine purchases. Manufacturers supported targeted expansion of the Vaccines for Children program to allow children with incomplete insurance coverage for vaccines to receive vaccines at health department clinics. Manufacturers perceived delays in publication of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations as a potential barrier to vaccine uptake. They viewed the perceived lack of public value for vaccines as a potential barrier to adequate reimbursement and optimal utilization. Respondents also maintained that their ability to negotiate vaccine prices through the private market is a crucial priority. Manufacturers assert that children and adolescents have access to immunizations through public and private insurance. Manufacturers think that they have mitigated the challenge most directly in their control: the large financial outlays required for up-front vaccine purchases.

  10. Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…

  11. Who Pays for National Defense? Financing Defense Programs in the United States, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Uk; Bohte, John

    2012-01-01

    Past studies on military expenditures in the United States have primarily focused on the extent to which guns versus butter trade-offs are prevalent without examining this relationship in the context of how other fiscal policy tools are used to pay for defense. Using annual data from 1947-2007, this study examines the relative importance of…

  12. Analysis on using UPREITs in real estate finance in United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoxiao; Xu Minjie

    2009-01-01

    This paper gave an overview, introduction about umbrella partnership real estate investment trust (UPREIT) to the readers who are not related to real estate and accounting major. To show how UPREIT defer capital gain taxes, makes good cash flow and maximize profit in real estate finance, the paper included the theory and structure of UPREIT (real estate investment trust), partnership issues, advantage and disadvantage, and created a proforma to demonstrate how UPREIT works.

  13. Patterns of financing for the largest hospital systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, William O; Baserman, Sarah Jane

    2005-01-01

    The ten large systems reviewed in this column have greater degrees of financial leverage than do most freestanding hospitals. Larger firms typically have both greater capital access and lower costs of financing. Both voluntary and IO systems make extensive use of variable rate financing, but the percentage of variable rate financing is slightly higher for voluntary systems. This difference may be attributable to larger yield curve spreads for tax-exempt versus taxable securities. Interest rate swaps were used by 70 percent of the systems, but the actual amount swapped was relatively minor. This may change in the future as financial officers become more comfortable and familiar with interest rate swap arrangements. When compared to IO systems, voluntary systems have extensive levels of cash relative to their debt positions. Cash balances are more critical in the bond-rating process for voluntary hospitals, and the ability to raise new equity is much more limited in the voluntary sector. Very little capital leasing was used in any of the systems.

  14. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  15. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  16. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  17. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  19. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  20. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  2. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  3. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  12. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  14. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  15. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  16. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  17. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  18. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  19. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  20. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  1. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  2. A Biennial Survey of Public School Finance in the United States, 1920-1922. Bulletin, 1923, No. 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Fletcher Harper

    1923-01-01

    Every great war in which the United States has played a part has been followed by educational developments of supreme national importance. As the result of the Revolutionary War the Federal Government acquired a vast public land domain from which it has carved generous grants to the States. Those became the foundation of systems of free public…

  3. Guaranteed Student Loans. Better Criteria Needed for Financing Guarantee Agencies. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The financing of guarantee agencies under the U.S. Department of Education's Guaranteed Student Loan Program was reviewed to determine whether, in the aggregate, the agencies are accumulating, retaining, and using reserve funds in accordance with legislative requirements and federal regulations. It was found that reserves exceed the risks…

  4. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  5. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  6. State Higher Education Finance, FY 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.; Wright, David L.; Bisel, Tara M.

    2005-01-01

    The State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) report is a tool to help policy makers and educators address broad public policy questions. SHEF seeks to inform policy deliberations with information and perspective on financial issues and national trends. The fiscal 2004 SHEF study documents a four-year period when state funding for higher education…

  7. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  8. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  9. State Higher Education Finance FY 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Higher Education Executive Officers, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Financing higher education requires political leaders, policymakers, and educators to address broad public policy questions, including ascertaining: the levels of state funding to colleges and universities that are necessary to maintain the economic and social well-being of the American people; the tuition levels that are appropriate given the…

  10. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Naveed A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents Louisiana's education finance and governance profile. Louisiana witnessed a 3.9% decline in population during the period from 2000 to 2007. Poverty persists both in urban and rural areas of the state, as demonstrated by visible poverty both in the agricultural parishes and in major cities such as New Orleans and Shreveport…

  11. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  12. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  13. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  14. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  15. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  16. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States depository institution. 560.319 Section 560.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... associations, credit unions, trust companies and United States bank holding companies)....

  17. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  18. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  19. Graduate Medical Education (GME). Hearing Before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate. One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session (March 12, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This hearing presents testimony on Medicare support for graduate medical education in light of Clinton Administration and other reform proposals to reduce the number of specialized residencies in teaching hospitals. The testimony includes opening statements by Senator William V. Roth, Jr., chair of the Senate Committee on Finance, and Senator Phil…

  20. A Roundup of State and Local Tax Developments. Financing Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    State and local tax performance in the United States and in the South and implications for the financing of public higher education are considered. It is suggested that despite apparent gains in state tax revenues, little overall growth in real terms has been experienced in the region and nation in recent years, nor can much be expected in the…

  1. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103.39 Section 103.39 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Records Required To Be Maintained §...

  2. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515.330 Section 515.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... doing business, which is owned or controlled by any person or persons specified in paragraphs (a)(1)...

  3. 31 CFR 500.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 500.330 Section 500.330 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued..., corporation, or other organization, wheresoever organized or doing business, which is owned or controlled...

  4. Environmental Finance Center Serving EPA's Region 8 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.

  5. State Government Finances in 1977. Government Finances/GF77 No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The tables in this report summarize each state's revenues and expenditures for 1977. Information presented for each state includes per capita amounts of financial items; relation of finances to personal income; revenue by source; expenditure by character and object and by type and function; intergovernmental expenditure by type of receiving…

  6. 31 CFR 547.312 - United States person; U.S. person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person; U.S. person. 547.312 Section 547.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.312 United States person; U.S. person. The term United...

  7. 31 CFR 592.305 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... General Definitions § 592.305 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means the bringing of goods into the United States....

  8. State Higher Education Finance, FY2004. Executive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.; Wright, David L.; Bisel, Tara M.

    2005-01-01

    The State Higher Education Finance (SHEF) report is a tool to help policy makers and educators address broad public policy questions. SHEF seeks to inform policy deliberations with information and perspective on financial issues and national trends. The fiscal 2004 SHEF study documents a four-year period when state funding for higher education…

  9. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  10. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Voici la 17e édition du Rapport moral sur l’argent dans le monde, publié chaque année depuis 1994 par l’Association d’économie financière avec le soutien de la Caisse des Dépôts. Abordant une nouvelle fois les grands débats qui traversent actuellement le monde de la finance, il se consacre dans un premier temps à la lutte contre la criminalité et les délits financiers, et plus particulièrement à la lutte contre la corruption, la délinquance dans la finance et la fraude fiscale. Dans un second...

  11. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ces deux ouvrages tirent les enseignements de l’impact de la crise de la finance mondiale sur l’économie réelle et se focalisent, dans ce contexte, sur le financement du Mittelstand. Le banquier JASCHINSKI, lorsqu’il passe en revue le système bancaire allemand, constate ainsi que si les moyennes entreprises trouvent les crédits nécessaires auprès de leurs solides partenaires de toujours que sont les Sparkassen, les grandes sociétés, internationales, que compte le Mittelstand n’ont pas de part...

  12. Higher Education Financing Policies: States/Institutions and Their Interaction. Proceedings of the Annual Finance Conference (Tucson, Arizona, December 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Larry L., Ed.; Hyatt, James, Ed.

    Thirty papers from a 1980 University of Arizona conference on higher education financing policies and the state government-college relationship are presented. Papers and authors include the following: "Higher Education Financing Policies: A Context" (Ernest Boyer); "The State Board Perspective" (William Arceneaux); "The…

  13. 31 CFR 593.411 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.411 Importation into the United States. With respect to the prohibitions set forth in § 593.205, the term importation into the United States...

  14. 31 CFR 545.304 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.304 Importation into the United States. (a) With respect to goods, software, or technology, the term importation into the United States means the bringing of any...

  15. 31 CFR 539.307 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.307 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means: (a) With respect to goods or technology, the bringing of any goods...

  16. Party financing and referendum campaigns in EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Klingeren; M. Orozco; J. van Spanje; C. de Vreese

    2015-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), part of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA). It comprises 1) an up-to-date inventory of party finance rules within the EU Member States, 2) an overview of the regulations

  17. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Spremann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Bisher veröffentlicht unter dem Titel: "Modern Finance" Das Buch beinhaltet ebenso einige Portraits: Die didaktische Erfahrung lehrt, dass man sich wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und Ansätze besser merken kann, wenn eine Assoziation zu jener Person bildlich konkret wird, der wir den betreffenden Denkansatz verdanken. Aus Fragen der Finanzierung und der Investitionsentscheidungen von Unternehmen ist in der Verschmelzung mit der Analyse von Kapitalmärkten ein grosses Gebiet entstanden, da...

  18. Public Education Finances, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2006 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  19. Public Education Finances, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2008 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  20. Public Education Finances, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2003 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  1. Public Education Finances, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2005 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  2. Financing residential energy conservation in the state of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.S.; Fairburn, W.A.

    1978-12-01

    The Washington Energy Extension Service Finance Program was commissioned for the overall purpose of facilitating and assessing the development of energy-related loan policies by financial institutions. Explicit objectives of the project are to: identify financial problems of small energy consumers in the domestic installation of energy-saving technologies; identify the financial options currently available in the State of Washington; and in concert with the financial institutions of the state, develop and analyze recommended additional programs which will benefit both consumers and financial institutions. This final report of the WEES Finance Program extends the rate-of-return analysis to include the overall required rates of return necessary to justify various commercial bank functional activities; with judicious implementation, this methodology can be a substitute for the subjective risk-assessment techniques currently utilized in the commercial banking sector. This report also considers changes that have occurred in the development of financial options related to energy-conservation measures.

  3. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Régulièrement au cœur de l'actualité, les trois agences de notation (Standard & Poor's, Moody's et Fitch) règnent sur le monde de la finance internationale. Mais quelles sont-elles et à qui appartiennent-elles véritablement ? Détenues par de puissants fonds d'investissements, elles ont progressivement renforcé leurs rôles et pouvoirs. L'auteur interpelle le citoyen sur un système dans lequel les fonds d'investissements profitent des agences de notation (et de leur rôle de « gardien des marché...

  4. Finance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Les investisseurs financiers et a fortiori les hedge fonds sont accusés de tous les maux. Ces « sauterelles » tomberaient sur les entreprises allemandes pour s’enrichir en les dépeçant. Un journaliste économique du quotidien des affaires Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung publie là un portrait objectif et factuel de ces « nouvelles stars » de la finance mondiale. Un portrait de branche, doublé d’une analyse de l’impact sur le « capitalisme rhénan » de la montée en puissance de ces nouveaux acteur...

  5. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi S

    2015-01-01

    Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Duba...

  6. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  7. FINANCING THE THEATRE: THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT AND THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bestvina Bukvić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At a time when public funding of culture is being reduced and increasing attention is being paid to profitability, it is essential to apply an entrepreneurial mindset and management principles to the guidance and the financing of cultural institutions. This paper focuses on the theatre funding scheme and presents a survey analysing the structure of funding theatres in Croatia by weighting budgetary and commercial funding, as well as analyses possible measures to be implemented in order to improve the theatre funding model. A survey was conducted in 2015, which found that public theatres are predominantly funded by budgetary resources (62.14%, while the most important part of the revenue and income section of private theatres originates from selling their own products and services (43.99%. Theatres believe that budgetary resources still need to remain the dominant sources of funding, but in order to increase the level of operational excellence, a change of direction would be necessary towards one’s own resources, including donations and sponsorships. At the same time, better solutions in terms of increasing tax incentives and tax deductions for both donations and sponsorships would result in an increase in their importance in the financing of theatres. The impact of state action on the funding and operation of theatres is unquestionable, but in theatres there is a need for developing a working knowledge in the fields of management and entrepreneurship in order to gradually reduce dependence, particularly of public theatres, on state action.

  8. 31 CFR 16.45 - Deposit in Treasury of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deposit in Treasury of United States. 16.45 Section 16.45 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.45 Deposit in Treasury of United States....

  9. 31 CFR 515.527 - Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. 515.527 Section 515.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain transactions with respect to United States intellectual property. (a)(1) Transactions related...

  10. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. 538.531 Section 538.531 Money and Finance: Treasury....531 Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. (a)...

  11. FINANCING DEMOCRACY OR CORRUPTION? POLITICAL PARTY FINANCING IN THE EU’ S SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fighting public-sector corruption has become a priority for most governments and international organizations. The public sector is the source of many benefits. Realizing improper private gains from these benefits has long been the core definition of corruption. As the public sector grows and expands its activities, the complexity of its activities also increases. The opportunities for improper private gains grow, too. Therefore, not surprisingly, the EU admits that the public sector, including political parties and public administrations, are especially vulnerable to corruption. Political parties, for instance, depend on the funding destined for their capability to win elections and otherwise to influence public policies. In turn, this dependency creates opportunities for a variety of corrupt activities. Ensuring that campaign funding promotes democracy and not corruption requires well-crafted, vigorously enforced laws. This article analyzes the legal framework of political party financing in the Eastern and South-eastern European EU member states, in order to assess how well it works in preventing political party corruption.

  12. 31 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - United States Customs Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Customs Service C...—United States Customs Service 1. In general. This appendix applies to the United States Customs Service. 2. Public reading room. The public reading room for the United States Customs Service is...

  13. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  14. Access to finance for micro, small and medium business units in Serbian agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlak Otilija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small and medium business units contribute to development of agribusiness only if adequate financial resources for founding and development are given. This paper analyzes the possibilities of financing micro, small and medium legal entities in agribusiness in Serbia, compared to large enterprises. Empirical research included a survey comprising 119 agribusiness units, grouped into three categories dependent on their size. The aim was to confirm that there are substantial differences between units of different sizes, concerning possibilities of accessing bank loans and concerning the process of evaluation of conditions for credit approval. Also, aim was to determine differences between the uses of necessary key economic measures in agribusiness. Results showed significant differences between each group of business units for the majority of the observed parameters. Consequently the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs sector and especially entrepreneurs and farmers (micro units only have limited access to financial resources and more financing costs compared to large enterprises.

  15. Financing Community Services for Persons with Disabilities: State Agency and Community Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This serial issue summarizes findings from a survey of 20 state mental retardation and developmental disabilities agencies and 93 community based providers on developing and financing community services. The survey queried respondents concerning: (1) which models or strategies for financing community services have been most effective; (2) what…

  16. Disaster Planning: Financing a Burn Disaster, Where Do You Turn and What Are Your Options When Your Hospital Has Been Impacted by a Burn Disaster in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Hubble, Michael W; Lord, Graydon C; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A; Helminiak, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The cost associated with a single burn injured patient can be significant. The American healthcare system functions in part based on traditional market forces which include supply and demand. In addition, there are a variety of payer sources with disparate payment for the same services. Thus, when a group of patients with serious injuries needing complicated care are underinsured or uninsured, or lacks the ability to pay, the financial health of the organization providing the care can be undermined. When a medical disaster with significant numbers of burn injured patients occurs, the financial concerns can be compounded with this singular event. It is critical to be cognizant of the disaster-related financial resources available. Knowing where to turn and what may be available can help assure that the institution caring for this group of high cost patients does not simultaneously take on significant financial risk in the aftermath of the disaster. This article includes national (United States) financial data with respect to burn injury, and focuses on (United States) governmental financial resources during and after a disaster. This review includes identifying and discussing traditional financial support, as well as atypical but established programs where, during a disaster, health care institutions may be eligible for assistance to cover part or all of the associated costs.

  17. 31 CFR Appendix H to Subpart C of... - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Mint H Appendix H to... RECORDS Privacy Act Pt. 1, Subpt. C, App. H Appendix H to Subpart C of Part 1—United States Mint 1. In general. This appendix applies to the United States Mint. It sets forth specific notification and...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - United States Customs Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Customs Service C... Customs Service 1. In general. This appendix applies to the United States Customs Service. It sets forth... records and accounting of disclosures. (a) For records which are maintained at the United States...

  19. The Sustanability of Public Finance in New Members States of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian INCEU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public finance sustainability is very important for all EU member states in the actual context after the economic crisis. This article makes an analysis of the sustainability of public finances for the new member states (which joined EU in 2004 and 2007. Firstly, we try to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on public finances sustainability. The sustainability of public finances can be reflected through the level of public debt and budget deficit for a country. For this reason the article presents the evolution of budget deficits for NMS 12 before and after the recent economic crisis. Based on the econometric regression the correlation between economic growth rate (indicator used for measuring the economic evolution and the budget deficit is revealed. Results for Romania and NMS 12 are quite similar; fact that tells us that the status of public finances is following the same trend in Romania as in the NMS 12.

  20. Islamic Finance In France: Current State, Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its small share of the global financial market, Islamic finance is considered as one of this sector’s fastest growing components over the last few decades and has gained further momentum in the wake of the global financial crisis. Given the France’s position as one of the leading international financial markets, it is surprising that part of this growth has not taken place in La Place de Paris. France, the western European country with the largest Muslim population, has not make much progress in developing Islamic finance in the domestic market like her neighbors UK. The paper examines the development of and possible prospects for Islamic finance in France. As well as, this study discuss the breakthroughs, issues and challenges facing this sector in France.

  1. Changes Of The Concept Of State Finance And Subjects In Sustainability Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Èernius

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a face of global financial crisis that is currently shaking the world, the issue what is the role of a state in its finance management and how  each state influences, or can influence, its finance is extremely relevant.The objective of  this research is to  identify whether the contemporary approach to public finance and its subjects is suitable  for the effective  financial  management at a state level in present conditions. In order to reach the objective, the research shall examine how the contemporary approach to finance limits possibilities of its management; form new concept of state finance involving private and public finance; and define how  the application of  new, broader, social partnership based approach, might  change financial relationship between a state, citizens, and companies, and how   practical  application  of  this  new approach  might contribute to financial stability of a state. Practical application of the research results would  allow saving 2­4  percent on the interest rates for state loans, create better conditions for the development of state economy, and increase financial sustainability of a state.

  2. Debt sustainability of state finances of Uttar Pradesh government

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Nagendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Serious deterioration in government fiscal finances in the late 1990s and early 2000s asked for prudent fiscal management. The fiscal deterioration of 1990s and 2000s led to elevated levels of debt liabilities at both the national and sub-national level. Uttar Pradesh (UP) fiscal position during 1990s and 2000s was one of the most vulnerable. Fiscal and revenue deficit and debt levels were appallingly high creating unmanageable pressure on fiscal finances. The UP government has enacted its FR...

  3. 31 CFR 547.704 - Administrative collection; referral to United States Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative collection; referral to United States Department of Justice. 547.704 Section 547.704 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 547.704 Administrative...

  4. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  5. Current Practices in Efficiency Financing: An Overview for State and Local Governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years there has been significant growth in the size and sheer number of energy efficiency financing programs. The term “energy efficiency financing” refers to debt or debt-like products that support the installation of energy efficiency measures by allowing costs to be spread over time. The implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) led to a proliferation of energy efficiency financing programs, which was followed in subsequent years by the launch of green banks in several states and the ramp up of other ratepayer-supported financing initiatives in various jurisdictions. These activities have brought increased attention to energy efficiency financing as an area of programmatic interest. Yet the propagation of various types of financing in a growing number of markets may have also left some policymakers and program administrators with questions as to what categories of products and programs are best suited for their situation.

  6. 31 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with respect to records of the United States... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Mint H Appendix H to... RECORDS Freedom of Information Act Pt. 1, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 1—United...

  7. 31 CFR 595.705 - Administrative collection; referral to United States Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to United States Department of Justice. 595.705 Section 595.705 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 595.705 Administrative collection; referral to United... United States Department of Justice for appropriate action to recover the penalty in a civil suit in a...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  9. Survey of finance companies, 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. Dynan; Kathleen W. Johnson; Samuel M. Slowinski

    2002-01-01

    Against a backdrop of robust economic activity, the finance company sector expanded briskly over the second half of the 1990s. The value of receivables held by finance companies in the United States rose nearly 50 percent, or about 11 percent a year, between 1996 and 2000. Business lending remained finance companies' major line of activity; the importance to the sector of consumer lending and leasing declined slightly, and the importance of real estate lending rose a bit. These and other find...

  10. State Government Finances in 1975. Government Finances/GF75 No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The comprehensive data on state general expenditure that are presented in this report include not only current operation spending but also any applicable amounts for assistance and subsidies, capital outlay, and intergovernmental expenditure. The report also provides distributions of state expenditure in terms of the kinds of spending involved.…

  11. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  13. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  14. Financing geothermal resource development in the Pacific Region states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-15

    State and federal tax treatment as an incentive to development and non-tax financial incentives such as: the federal geothermal loan guarantee program, the federal geothermal reservoir insurance, and state financial incentives are discussed. (MHR)

  15. State policies and the financing of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, A; Cvitanic, M; Bennett, C; Gorman, M; Serrato, C A

    1989-01-01

    State policies, with respect to the operation of Medicaid programs and the regulation of private health insurance, affect who gets what care, how much is spent, and who ultimately pays. A RAND Corporation study was used to assess States and the District of Columbia in terms of the effects of their Medicaid and health insurance regulations on people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human immunodeficiency virus-related illnesses. State characteristics are used to explain the individual State policy rankings.

  16. A Physical Unit for Value - Econophysics as Arbiter between Finance and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Defilla, S

    2006-01-01

    Finance and accounting often ignore money illusion, whereas economics treats it by using consumer baskets for making multilateral purchasing power comparisons between currencies. Such baskets are variable socio-economic phenomena and their use as numeraire (= value or real price unit) creates inconsistency as it confuses a measurement unit with a measurement result. Econophysics could do better and define a physical value unit in the Standard International (SI = metric) format based upon the exergetic (= objective) value of Planck Energy (1956.1 MJ). Planck units form a natural system of units that is independent of culture or civilization. We define a new value unit named walras (Wal) in h. of the economist L. Walras. By chance, one Wal is equal to the annual real cost of physiological energy consumption of the Sleeping Beauty, i.e. of a reference person at minimal activity. This corresponds to the annual minimum real cost of life. This pilot research uses official disaggregated Swiss Producer and Consumer P...

  17. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: A national health account (NHA provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE. Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita, compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion: The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of

  18. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers.

  19. Financing State and Local Government: Future Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildasin, David E.; Childress, Michael T.; Hackbart, Merl; Lynch, Lawrence K.; Martie, Charles W.

    This report focuses on state and local taxation in the state of Kentucky. It looks into what "the ideal" tax system looks like and how Kentucky's system compares, whether the current system will provide adequate revenue for the long-term, whether the tax system is efficient, how fair and equitable the tax system is, and whether the state…

  20. Development of Public School Finance in New York State. Occasional Paper #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arvid J.

    Since the establishment of school districts in 1812, a number of inequalities in public school finance have emerged in New York State. These inequalities result from decentralization within the system as a whole, and large-scale centralization of New York City schools. In a decentralized system, where districts have taxing power, rich districts…

  1. PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN STATE BUSINESS AREA OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Baybolatova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of financial management in the public sector of economy in the transition to budgeting focused on the result are considered. It is established that in the context of deepening market reforms, efficiency of public sector depends not on the size of the state property, but on the efficiency of public finance management.

  2. The Concept of Public Goods, the State, and Higher Education Finance: A View from the BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Froumin, Isak; Loyalka, Prashant K.; Tilak, Jandhyala B.

    2014-01-01

    Because higher education serves both public and private interests, the way it is conceived and financed is contested politically, appearing in different forms in different societies. What is public and private in education is a political--social construct, subject to various political forces, primarily interpreted through the prism of the state.…

  3. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  4. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  5. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  7. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  10. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  11. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  12. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  13. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  14. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  15. Four proposals to increase the financing capacity of the state

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Bánfi

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that in some specific cases the central Government, which is usually required to choose in between whether to maintain (improve) the competitiveness of the economy or to reduce governmental responsibilities, is able to manage the state budget without limiting its choice to one of the two alternatives. At present, in Hungary the possibility is given to increase tax revenues and concurrently increase competitiveness. The main discussion of the article is centered around four pr...

  16. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  19. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  20. 31 CFR 560.418 - Release of technology or software in the United States or a third country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of technology or software in... IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.418 Release of technology or software in the United States or a third country. The release of technology or software in the United States, or by a United...

  1. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Knutson, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Numerous pre-existing and newly emerging state- and locally-managed revolving loan funds (RLFs) are being used in conjunction with energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as an option for financing of energy efficiency projects. This document presents an overview of ESPCs and how they fit within the RLF framework. There are a variety of options available to state and local governments to catalyze the disbursement of available capital from RLFs and increase the number of ESPC projects within their jurisdictions. To demonstrate the implementation of this type of financing program in action, this report concludes with four program case studies of state-sponsored RLFs where ESPCs are an allowed use of funds.

  2. Human capital as the major financing in the welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantiuk Nataliia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is becoming one of the main types of capital in the global economy. But as any other capital it needs investments. The system of higher education, as well as health care and social security, represents the major investment in the development of human capital. The latter, in turn, is the basis of innovation and economic development of states, nations and intergovernmental alliances. Various research has shown that higher education greatly increases the person's and the country's income in general. Human capital produces new knowledge, which is the key for the future. As a result, the funding of the human capital development, for which the country is mostly responsible, becomes of strategic importance.

  3. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  4. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  5. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  6. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    injuries attributed to general aviation accidents in the United States, understanding the costs to society is of great importance. This chapter estimates the direct and indirect costs associated with general aviation accidents in the United States. The indirect costs are estimated via the human capital approach in addition to the willingness-to-pay approach. The average annual accident costs attributed to general aviation are found to be 2.32 billion and 3.81 billion (2006 US) utilizing the human capital approach and willingness-to-pay approach, respectively. These values appear to be fairly robust when subjected to a sensitivity analysis. These costs highlight the large societal benefits from accident and fatality reduction. The final chapter derives a second-best optimal aviation gasoline tax developed from previous general equilibrium frameworks. This optimal tax reflects both the lead pollution and accident externalities, as well as the balance between excise taxes and labor taxes to finance government spending. The calculated optimal tax rate is 4.07 per gallon, which is over 20 times greater than the current tax rate and 5 times greater than the Federal Aviation Administration proposed tax rate. The calculated optimal tax rate is also over 3 times greater than automobile gasoline optimal tax rates calculated by previous studies. The Pigovian component is 1.36, and we observe that the accident externality is taxed more severely than the pollution externality. The largest component of the optimal tax rate is the Ramsey component. At 2.70, the Ramsey component reflects the ability of the government to raise revenue aviation gasoline which is price inelastic. The calculated optimal tax is estimated to reduce lead emissions by over 10 percent and reduce accidents by 20 percent. Although unlikely to be adopted by policy makers, the optimal tax benefits are apparent and it sheds light on the need to reduce these negative externalities via policy changes.

  8. Case studies of energy efficiency financing in the original five pilot states, 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B C; Collins, N E; Walsh, R W

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to document progress in state-level programs in energy efficiency financing programs that are linked with home energy rating systems. Case studies are presented of programs in five states using a federal pilot program to amortize the costs of home energy improvements. The case studies present background information, describe the states` program, list preliminary evaluation data and findings, and discuss problems and solution encountered in the programs. A comparison of experiences in pilot states will be used to provide guidelines for program implementers, federal agencies, and Congress. 5 refs.

  9. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  10. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  11. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  12. The inequity of the Swiss health care system financing from a federal state perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Swiss health-care financing is particularly regressive. However, as it has been emphasized in the 2011 OECD Review of the Swiss Health System, the inter cantonal variations of income-related inequities are still broadly unexplored. The present paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the differences in the level of equity of health-care system financing across cantons and its evolution over time using household data. Methods Following the methodology proposed by Wagstaff et al. (JHE 11:361–387, 1992) we use the Kakwani index as a summary measure of regressivity and we compute it for each canton and for each of the sources that have a role in financing the health care system. We graphed concentration curves and performed relative dominance tests, which utilize the full distribution of expenditures. The microdata come from the Swiss Household Income and Expenditure Survey (SHIES) based on a sample of the Swiss population (about 3500 households per year), for the years 1998 - 2005. Results The empirical evidence confirms that the health-care financing in Switzerland has remained regressive since the major reform of 1996 and shows that the variations in equity across cantons are quite significant: the difference between the most and the least regressive canton is about the same as between two extremely different financing systems like the US and Sweden. There is no evidence, instead, of a clear evolution over time of regressivity. Conclusions The significant variation in equity across cantons can be explained by fiscal federalism and the related autonomy in the design of tax and social policies. In particular, the results highlight that earmarked subsidies, the policy adopted to smooth the regressivity of the premiums, appear to be not enough; in the practice of federal states the combination of allowances with mandatory community-rated health insurance premiums might lead to a modest outcome in terms of equity. PMID

  13. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  14. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  16. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  20. Federal Financing of Education: Issues and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Compares federal financing of education in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. Examines methods for reducing vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances and resulting inequalities in provision of education. Predicts increasingly centralized financing and control of education. Contains 31 references. (SV)

  1. Survey of the States: Economic, Personal Finance & Entrepreneurship Education in Our Nation's Schools in 2009. A Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Economic Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Survey of the States is a bi-annual report that documents the state of economic, personal finance and entrepreneurship education in the fifty states (and the District of Columbia), conducted by the Council for Economic Education and sponsored by State Farm Insurance Companies. This report presents summary findings as well as state-by-state…

  2. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, S.; Doris, E.; Knutson, D.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-07-01

    This document is meant to assist state and local decision makers in understanding how the financing of energy savings performance contract projects can effectively fit into the structure of a revolving loan fund.

  3. Economic Renewal: A Grand Strategy for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    difference between 1944’s Bretton Woods environment and today is that there are numerous vibrant, competing economies other than the United States which...that is consuming budget resources, the root cause of the problem is much deeper. The role of the U.S. dollar resulting from the Bretton Woods ...external/np/exr/center/mm/eng/mm_sc_03.htm (accessed December 29, 2009). 34 James M. Boughton, “A New Bretton Woods ?” Finance and Development, A Quarterly

  4. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  5. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  6. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  7. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  8. Survey of the States: Economic and Personal Finance Education in Our Nation's Schools in 2004. A Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Economic Education (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is the fourth biennial survey on the state of economic and personal finance education in the fifty states conducted by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE). NCEE conducts these surveys to gauge how the state standards, their implementation, and state testing change from year to year. Since the last survey, published April 2003,…

  9. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  10. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  11. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  12. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  13. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  14. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  15. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  16. Transplantation of healthcare financing policy from the United Kingdom to India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinde, R.; Arga, B.; Rataj, M.

    2016-01-01

    The staggering statistics in health conditions of India demand quick actions, and thus it is advised to come up with a solution which takes less time as compared to a complete design of a new system. This paper starts with background study of UK, Netherlands and Indian health care financing models,

  17. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations between…

  18. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations between…

  19. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations…

  20. Transplantation of healthcare financing policy from the United Kingdom to India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinde, R.; Arga, B.; Rataj, M.

    2016-01-01

    The staggering statistics in health conditions of India demand quick actions, and thus it is advised to come up with a solution which takes less time as compared to a complete design of a new system. This paper starts with background study of UK, Netherlands and Indian health care financing models,

  1. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  2. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  3. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  4. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  5. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  6. Who pays for health care in the United States? Implications for health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, J; Zedlewski, S

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of health care spending and financing in the United States. We analyze the distribution of employer and employee contributions to health insurance, private nongroup health insurance purchases, out-of-pocket expenses, Medicaid benefits, uncompensated care, tax benefits due to the exemption of employer-paid health benefits, and taxes paid to finance Medicare, Medicaid, and the health benefit tax exclusion. All spending and financing burdens are distributed across the U.S. population using the Urban Institute's TRIM2 microsimulation model. We then examine the distributional effects of the U.S. health care system across income levels, family types, and regions of the country. The results show that health care spending increases with income. Spending for persons in the highest income deciles is about 60% above that of persons in the lowest decile. Nonetheless, the distribution of health care financing is regressive. When direct spending, employer contributions, tax benefits, and tax spending are all considered, the persons in the lowest income deciles devote nearly 20% of cash income to finance health care, compared with about 8% for persons in the highest income decile. We discuss how alternative health system reform approaches are likely to change the distribution of health spending and financing burdens.

  7. Financing of the category I and II state road maintenance in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovac Života

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in roads, apart from traffic benefits, has significant effect on development due to influence on overall commercial flows. Road maintenance works serve the purposes of built roads which are primarily to ensure safety of traffic flow, transport of population and goods, to connect people and to improve their living and working conditions. Maintenance works are required for protection of roads, as civil engineering structure, against damaging influences, or in other words real value and usability of road shall be kept (protection of previously invested capital. Therefore, roads have to be maintained continuously in order to be achieved undisturbed and safe traffic flow. Current traffic-economic development needs have surpassed available funds in great extent. Financing system of state roads of category I and II has not ensured sufficient and stable funds for the required level of investment.

  8. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  9. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  10. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  11. THE FINANCING OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION THROUGH THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME 2007 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to be found methods to increase the competitiveness between the Romanian administrative-territorial units, under the current conditions of the economic crisis, by means of the existing economic levers successfully used within the European Union regions. The development regions of Romania do not have the statute of administrative units, but they represent territorial units large enough to constitute a good basis for the elaboration and implementation of regional development strategies, allowing an efficient use of the financial and human resources. The scope for which these development regions were created had in view the support granted for the larger communities in their action to settle the problems which go beyond the administrative borders and which surpass the financial possibilities of one county. In Romania, the communes, towns, municipalities and counties are defined as administrative-territorial units within which the local autonomy is exercised and the authorities of the local public administration are organized and operate. The local, communal, town, municipality and county councils, as deliberative authorities, and also the mayors and the presidents of county councils as executive authorities have the duties to solve the public matters of the community, acting as authorities of the Romanian public administration. In Romania, the local autonomy is only administrative and financial, having as objective the organization, operation, competencies and tasks, and also the management of the inland resources. The principle of the local financial autonomy implies the fact that the administrative-territorial units have the right to financial resources, which can be used by the authorities of the local public administration when exercising their tasks. According to the Law of the local public finances, the local budget incomes could be made also of the non-reimbursable funds granted by the European Union. Based on the

  12. The Assault upon State School Finance Systems: "Shades of Davey Crockett" or "The Third Domino To Fall."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Roger M.

    This report reviews the effects of recent court cases that struck down existing methods of school finance and presents a detailed discussion of the case Demetrio P. Rodriquez et al vs San Antonio Independent School District et al. The report gives the factual background of the case, states the issue, presents the court's decision, and sets forth…

  13. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  14. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  15. Reforming New York State's Flawed School Finance System. In Evidence: Policy Reports from the CFE Trial, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report exposes inadequacies in New York's education finance system, summarizing testimony and research collected for a lawsuit filed by the Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., on behalf of New York City students. The lawsuit charges that the state has underfunded the City's public schools, thus denying City students a sound basic education. The…

  16. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  17. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  18. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  19. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  20. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  1. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  2. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  3. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  4. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  5. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  6. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  7. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  8. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  11. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  12. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  13. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  14. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  15. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  16. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  17. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  18. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  19. What is project finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Project finance is the process of financing a specific economic unit that the sponsors create, in which creditors share much of the venture’s business risk and funding is obtained strictly for the project itself. Project finance creates value by reducing the costs of funding, maintaining the sponsors financial flexibility, increasing the leverage ratios, avoiding contamination risk, reducing corporate taxes, improving risk management, and reducing the costs associated with market imperfections. However, project finance transactions are complex undertakings, they have higher costs of borrowing when compared to conventional financing and the negotiation of the financing and operating agreements is time-consuming. In addition to describing the economic motivation for the use of project finance, this paper provides details on project finance characteristics and players, presents the recent trends of the project finance market and provides some statistics in relation to project finance lending activity between 2000 and 2014. Statistical analysis shows that project finance loans arranged for U.S. borrowers have higher credit spreads and upfront fees, and have higher loan size to deal size ratios when compared with loans arranged for borrowers located in W.E. On the contrary, loans closed in the U.S. have a much shorter average maturity and are much less likely to be subject to currency risk and to be closed as term loans.

  20. What is Project Finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, João

    2017-01-01

    Project finance is the process of financing a specific economic unit that the sponsors create, in which creditors share much of the venture’s business risk and funding is obtained strictly for the project itself. Project finance creates value by reducing the costs of funding, maintaining the sponsors financial flexibility, increasing the leverage ratios, avoiding contamination risk, reducing corporate taxes, improving risk management, and reducing the costs associated with market ...

  1. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  2. 31 CFR 537.527 - Importation into the United States of Burmese-origin animals and specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Burmese origin, in sample quantities only, for bona fide scientific research and analysis purposes. ... Burmese-origin animals and specimens. 537.527 Section 537.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Importation into the United States of Burmese-origin animals and specimens. Specific licenses may be issued...

  3. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  4. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  5. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  6. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  7. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  8. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects, unless... or bonds to finance IRR projects. Upon the request of a tribe, a BIA region will provide necessary...

  9. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  10. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  11. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  12. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  13. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  14. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  15. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  16. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  17. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  18. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  19. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  20. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  2. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  3. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  4. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  5. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  6. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  7. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  8. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  9. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  10. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  11. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  12. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  13. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  14. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  15. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  16. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  17. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  18. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  19. The Influence of Finance and Accountability Policies on Location of New York State Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Buerger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies a set of location incentives created by New York's charter school financing and accountability provisions. We then use regression models to examine the location of charter schools across and within districts. We find that charter schools (1) are significantly more likely to locate in districts with high operating expenses…

  20. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  2. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is...

  3. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  4. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  6. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  7. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  8. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the...

  9. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  10. Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Chong; Emily Poole

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, there has been a shift away from public infrastructure financing towards private infrastructure financing, particularly in advanced economies. In this article, infrastructure financing in four countries – China, India, Australia and the United Kingdom – is examined to illustrate the different approaches taken by governments to finance infrastructure and encourage private financing. In all four countries, public financing of infrastructure remains significant, ranging from...

  11. Educational Finance (Primary-Secondary Levels) Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Claude

    This lengthy bibliography in English, French, and German lists documents and journal articles concerning educational finance. Most items were published in Canada and the United States, but listings are also included from France, Germany, Switzerland, and Ceylon. A few items include an ERIC accession number. The bibliography is not annotated and is…

  12. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  13. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  14. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    incidence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) strains in the United States has created an emerging public health challenge. CDC...only 1,280 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were reported through NNDSS in 1993, data from recent prospective pneumonia studies suggest that between...surveillance data from 1992 indicated that the prevalence of pneumococcal strains that are highly resistant to penicillin increased 60-fold (from 0.02% to 1.3

  15. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  16. Energy Security in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    increase the domestic price of those 41. Coal gasification is a process that converts solid coal—through several energy-intensive steps—into gasoline and...for switching to other fuels or reducing consumption of transportation fuels . In con- trast, electricity can be produced from several sources of...the prices of those fuels in the United States. Although the global nature of the market for oil makes U.S. consumers vulnerable to price

  17. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  18. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    standards. 3. Work with the privatized housing partner to ensure that fire protection inspection and maintenance plans are achieved. Deputy Assistant...Secretary stated that Hunt Military Communities and Patrick AFB civil engineers were working to correct all of the other fire protection system...create a plan for the performance of ongoing inspection and maintenance of all housing units to applicable electrical codes and standards. 3. Work

  19. United States of Europe, Dream or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    center between the United States and the Soviet Union. The method chosen to examine this trend is to review three major politico-military problems...de France, pp. 3-7. ൫ Supra-nationalism must go! De Gaulle’s heir presumptive, Georges Pompidou , has given voice to de Gaulle’s thoughts on... Pompidou said: Certainly we do not believe in integration as a method of approach to European unity, precisely because we believe that there can be no

  20. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  3. Higher Education Financing in the New EU Member States : Leveling the Playing Field

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Mary; Godfrey, Martin; Holzer-Zelazewska, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews the experience in the EU8 countries of the emergence of private higher education institutions and introduction of fees for student who do not gain regular admission. This has resulted in a dual-track system that is affecting the equity of access to higher education. The authors have addressed this with a variety of financing mechanisms in the EU8 countries and seek to dev...

  4. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  5. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Fautin

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S. is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics, but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  6. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  7. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  8. College Students and Personal Finance: Exploring the Relationships among Financial Well-Being, Money Management Practices, and Engagement in Personal Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Arman

    2010-01-01

    Despite ample evidence of the relative financial illiteracy of students in college, personal finance education remains inconsistent across postsecondary institutions in the United States. Moreover, existing programs and services related to personal finance education have had modest success in attracting student interest and participation. To…

  9. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  10. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  11. Social Work with Older Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharlach, Andrew E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ageing services in the United States, which are provided and financed through a mixed economy of care that includes government, the voluntary sector, and the private market. Because of substantial unmet needs, poorly coordinated systems, and social and economic disparities among older adults in the United States, social-work services have an important role to play in overcoming barriers to optimal functioning and emotional well-being in later life. Existing evidence suggests that the ability of social work to meet the needs of a growing ageing population is hampered by insufficient numbers of social workers with adequate training and competence in ageing. The article analyses and discusses recent advances in social work education in the United States designed to produce greater numbers of ageing-competent social work professionals, including initiatives in aging-related curriculum development, training, organisational development, and scholarship.Este artículo examina los servicios de asistencia a los mayores en los Estados Unidos. Estos servicios se prestan y se financian por medio de un sistema de atención que incluye al gobierno, al sector del voluntariado y al mercado privado. A causa de las necesidades básicas no satisfechas, de los sistemas mal coordinados y de las disparidades sociales y económicas entre los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, los servicios de asistencia social desempeñan un papel importante en la superación de las dificultades para alcanzar el funcionamiento óptimo y el bienestar emocional en la edad avanzada. La insuficiencia de trabajadores sociales con una adecuada formación y competentes en envejecimiento reduce la capacidad del Trabajo Social para satisfacer las necesidades de un número creciente de población mayor. El artículo analiza y discute los avances recientes en la formación de los trabajadores sociales en los Estados Unidos, avances que tienden a aumentar el número de

  12. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  13. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  14. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    stage over the last 6 years.7 The DoD is on the cutting edge of partnering and there have been valuable lessons learned at the tactical and...global stage . “3D are the three pillars that provide the foundation for promoting and protecting U.S. national security interests abroad.”33 DoD, DoS...operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising

  15. Contraceptive failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2011-05-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

  16. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  17. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  18. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  19. The Political Economy of Education Finance: The Case of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Thomas; Kenny, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Texas has one of the largest primary and secondary school systems in the United States. Funding equity has been a concern in the state courts, and significant legislative actions have been taken. We examine two votes taken in the Texas State Legislature in 1993 and 2006 that follow the directives from a series of education finance equity legal…

  20. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given province, stress orientations appear quite uniform (usually within the estimated range of accuracy of the different methods used to determine stress). Available data on the transition in stress direction between the different stress provinces indicate that these transitions can be abrupt, occurring over characterized by high levels of seismicity and generally high heat flow, the stress pattern is complex, but numerous stress provinces can be well delineated. Despite relative tectonic quiescence in the eastern and central United States, a major variation in principal stress orientation is apparent between the Atlantic Coast and midcontinent areas. Most of the eastern United States is marked by predominantly compressional tectonism (combined thrust and strike slip faulting), whereas much of the region west of the southern Great Plains is characterized by predominantly extensional tectonism (combined normal and strike slip faulting). Deformation along the San Andreas fault and in parts of the Sierra Nevada is nearly pure strike slip. Exceptions to this general pattern include areas of compressional tectonics in the western United States (the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau interior, and the Big Bend segment of the San Andreas fault) and the normal growth faulting along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Sources of stress are constrained not only by the orientation and relative magnitude of the stresses within a given province but also by the manner of transition of the stress field from one province to another. Much of the modern pattern of stress in the western United States can be

  1. Spanish reits as an investment vehicle and financing source of the real state activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fernández Gimeno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis from a financial perspective of the SOCIMI, real estate investment vehicles regulated in Spain since 2009, which are equivalent to Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs.Design/methodology: It has been used the inductive-deductive and experimental methodology.Findings: From the investors point of view, SOCIMI are real estate investment vehicles competitive in terms of profitability and risk being affected not only by the evolution of financial markets, but also by its underlying assets which are subject to the real estate market cycle. On the other hand, SOCIMI are helpful for funding capture in real estate companies but it is foreseen that its quotation will incorporate significant discounts over the Net Asset Value (NAV of its underlying assets. For investors as well as for real estate company managers, the application of behavioral finance will enable a better investment and financing decision making in the real estate market with the contribution of analysis models which make possible the understanding of market inefficiencies.Originality/value: Further investigation over SOCIMI, the real estate investment vehicle, barely studied up to now, can help to improve decision making of investors as well as real estate companies interested in fund raising through this vehicle.

  2. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  3. ‘Arab Spring’: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and Their Vision of Islamic Finance and State (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidane Meriboute

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter analyses the Muslim Brotherhood movement (Ikhwan al-muslimin in its various guises. Born in the interwar period, this global, proselytising Islamic movement underwent a veritable resurgence, even a resurrection, in Muslim countries from the 1980s onwards. Founded in 1928 by the Egyptian Hassan al-Banna (1906–1949, the recent ‘Arab Spring’ phenomenon has given it fresh momentum. Significantly, the Muslim Brotherhood movement has taken the reins of Egypt, the most populous state in the Arab world. Wherever this movement gains a foothold, it creates its own labour unions, associations of students, doctors and workers, Islamic banking institutions, and so forth. More specifically, the chapter examines the nature of the Islamic state and the key characteristics of the politico-religious doctrine of the Muslim Brotherhood and its various offshoot Islamist parties, both in the Maghreb and elsewhere. The author sheds light on the Muslim Brotherhood’s economic, social and financial vision through an examination of the various techniques they employ with respect to Islamic finance. While the Muslim financial model is driven by considerations of social justice (‘adala ijtima’iya and the rejection of usury (riba, it is nevertheless argued that its emphasis on profit maximisation renders this model’s vision essentially capitalist. The chapter thus calls for a refocusing and adaptation of the approach of Islamic banks in order to make their financing accessible for small projects undertaken by the disenfranchised.

  4. PUBLIC FINANCE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEZURE OANA SABINA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of public finances is due to objective causes needs and determined their main function being to obtain the financial resources it needs for the State to exercise its powers and on the way to intervene in the economy and society general. Public finances are necessary, subjectively and objectively, as it contributes to accomplishing the tasks and functions of the state, which could not be realized without financial leverage. Public finances are inextricably linked to the existence of the state, and public sector's role in the economy. Thus, they express "social relations, economic arising in the establishment and use of public funds between the state, on the one hand, and members of society on the other hand, to meet the needs of general interest of society" [1]. Thus, the role of public finance is to meet the needs of general interest or collective needs.

  5. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  6. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  7. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  8. Hospital Utilization and Cost Trends in Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ronald; Hull, John T.

    1969-01-01

    Differences in hospital costs and utilization between the United States and Canada are analyzed and an attempt made to measure the significance of various demographic, economic, and other factors thought to be related to the differences. Increases in utilization are traced to population increases and to actual increased use per person; and cost increases tied to general inflationary trends are separated from those attributable to specific hospital price increases. Differences in the financing and reimbursement mechanisms in the two countries are shown to have had little effect on relative cost increases, which in the period under consideration were parallelled by similar or greater increases in other industrialized nations. PMID:4981616

  9. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  10. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  11. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  12. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  13. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  14. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  15. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  16. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  17. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  18. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  19. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  20. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  1. 46 CFR 67.97 - United States built.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States built. 67.97 Section 67.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.97 United States built. To be considered built in the United States a vessel...

  2. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  3. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under...

  4. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  5. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the...

  6. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: On November 25, 2013, the Department... 70275) soliciting applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  7. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  8. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  9. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning...

  10. Factors associated with lease financing in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to capital leases, which are reported on the balance sheet as debt, operating leases are a form of off-balance sheet financing only reported in the notes to the financial statement and have limited disclosure requirements. Following the perpetuity method of corporate finance, this study developed a capitalized operating lease value for hospitals. Evaluating the substitutability between lease and debt financing, the findings show a marginal displacement of debt by lease financing. Assessing the relationship of market, mission, operating, and financial factors on lease financing for all short-term, acute-care hospitals across the United States, the results indicate that investor-owned hospital management companies and hospitals located in CON markets are less likely to lease and that smaller hospitals with fewer unoccupied beds, higher proportion of government payers, low liquidity, and lower capital expenditures are more likely to lease.

  11. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  12. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  13. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  14. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  15. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  16. Industry economics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Demand for medical equipment in the United States (US) is projected to grow by 8% between 2001 and 2006, to reach 105 billion dollars. In 2001,the market was valued at 71.4 billion dollars, based on an annual growth of 7.5% between 1996 and 2001, according to The Freedonia Group. Product innovation and the growing ageing population is driving the industry, despite health-care cost containment measures. Medical and surgical instruments continue to be the largest sector, which is expected to grow to 30.5 billion dollars in 2006. However, electromedical/electrotherapeutic apparatus will remain the fastest growing sector, with annual gains of 10.8% predicted for this period.

  17. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  18. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  19. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on US
    imports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  20. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  1. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  2. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  3. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  4. The anatomy of health care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Dorsey, E Ray; George, Benjamin P; Sadoff, David; Yoshimura, Satoshi

    2013-11-13

    Health care in the United States includes a vast array of complex interrelationships among those who receive, provide, and finance care. In this article, publicly available data were used to identify trends in health care, principally from 1980 to 2011, in the source and use of funds ("economic anatomy"), the people receiving and organizations providing care, and the resulting value created and health outcomes. In 2011, US health care employed 15.7% of the workforce, with expenditures of $2.7 trillion, doubling since 1980 as a percentage of US gross domestic product (GDP) to 17.9%. Yearly growth has decreased since 1970, especially since 2002, but, at 3% per year, exceeds any other industry and GDP overall. Government funding increased from 31.1% in 1980 to 42.3% in 2011. Despite the increases in resources devoted to health care, multiple health metrics, including life expectancy at birth and survival with many diseases, shows the United States trailing peer nations. The findings from this analysis contradict several common assumptions. Since 2000, (1) price (especially of hospital charges [+4.2%/y], professional services [3.6%/y], drugs and devices [+4.0%/y], and administrative costs [+5.6%/y]), not demand for services or aging of the population, produced 91% of cost increases; (2) personal out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums and co-payments have declined from 23% to 11%; and (3) chronic illnesses account for 84% of costs overall among the entire population, not only of the elderly. Three factors have produced the most change: (1) consolidation, with fewer general hospitals and more single-specialty hospitals and physician groups, producing financial concentration in health systems, insurers, pharmacies, and benefit managers; (2) information technology, in which investment has occurred but value is elusive; and (3) the patient as consumer, whereby influence is sought outside traditional channels, using social media, informal networks, new public sources

  5. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  6. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  7. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: economics and marketing-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, N; Odekerken-Schröder, G; Pennings, J M E; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption and/or catastrophic economic consequences for the food industry. The identification, analysis, determination, and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in the food markets may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well-informed and effective corporate investment strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. In this paper, we discuss the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of market-participants, who are engaged in the upstream and downstream stages of the food supply chain. In addition, we review the most common approaches (expected utility model and psychometrics) for measuring benefit-risk trade-offs in the economics and marketing-finance literature, and different factors that may affect the economic behaviour in the light of benefit-risk analyses. Building on the findings of our review, we introduce a conceptual framework to study the benefit-risk behaviour of market participants. Specifically, we suggest the decoupling of benefits and risks into the separate components of utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits, and risk attitude and risk perception, respectively. Predicting and explaining how market participants in the food industry form their overall attitude in light of benefit-risk trade-offs may be critical for policy-makers and managers who need to understand the drivers of the economic behaviour of market participants with respect to production, marketing and consumption of food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  10. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  11. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency in the judicial branch of the United States..., and judicial branches of government, and other interested parties, to study the manner in which United... might be appropriate in light of the information obtained from that study. (12) Resolution of...

  12. Internationally Recommended Best Practices in Transportation Financing Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Lawrence; Lawther, Wendell; Hodge, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Transportation financing public-private partnerships (P3s) are a common practice in many countries. However, they represent a relatively new approach to transportation infrastructure financing for state and local governments in the United States. In a transportation financing P3 project, a private...... sector partner designs-builds-finances-operates- maintains (DBFOM) a transportation infrastructure asset (road, highway, bridge, tunnel, etc.) with an emphasis on financing. Under this type of arrangement, the private sector partner is primarily responsible for securing all or substantially all...... of the funding necessary to construct new transportation infrastructure and/or rehabilitate existing transportation infrastructure. This study reviews the international experience of national and sub-national governments with transportation financing P3s. The primary purpose of this study is to identify...

  13. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  14. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  15. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  16. Romantic Love in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. de Munck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80 and pile sorting (n = 39 to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.

  17. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  18. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  19. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  20. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  1. USEEIO: a New and Transparent United States ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    National-scope environmental life cycle models of goods and services may be used for many purposes, not limited to quantifying impacts of production and consumption of nations, assessing organization-wide impacts, identifying purchasing hot spots, analyzing environmental impacts of policies, and performing streamlined life cycle assessment. USEEIO is a new environmentally extended input-output model of the United States fit for such purposes and other sustainable materials management applications. USEEIO melds data on economic transactions between 389 industry sectors with environmental data for these sectors covering land, water, energy and mineral usage and emissions of greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants, nutrients and toxics, to build a life cycle model of 385 US goods and services. In comparison with existing US input-output models, USEEIO is more current with most data representing year 2013, more extensive in its coverage of resources and emissions, more deliberate and detailed in its interpretation and combination of data sources, and includes formal data quality evaluation and description. USEEIO was assembled with a new Python module called the IO Model Builder capable of assembling and calculating results of user-defined input-output models and exporting the models into LCA software. The model and data quality evaluation capabilities are demonstrated with an analysis of the environmental performance of an average hospital in the US. All USEEIO f

  2. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  3. United States orbital transfer vehicle programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    The United States will rely on five orbital transfer vehicles to carry spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Development of these vehicles have evolved through contrasting cultures of government and commercial management. The spectrum of their capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval and return to a space base; either the Shuttle or the Space Station Freedom. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are now nearing maturity. Their characteristics, flight record, costs, and projected future uses are defined. The TOS and OMV are currently in development with first uses scheduled in 1992 and 1993, respectively. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

  4. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  5. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  6. Financing CHP Projects at Wastewater Treatment Facilities with Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities, including applications, financial challenges, and financial opportunities, such as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  7. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  8. The Financial Education Tool Kit: Helping Teachers Meet State- Mandated Personal Finance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Eileen; Richert, Charlotte; Routh, Susan; Lockwood, Rachel; Simpson, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    States are recognizing the need for personal financial education and have begun requiring it as a condition for high school graduation. Responding to teacher requests to help them meet state-mandated financial education requirements, FCS educators in the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service developed a financial education tool kit. This article…

  9. The State Role in Financing Community Colleges: A Model for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terry

    1985-01-01

    Explores trends in the state role in community college funding and college responses to those trends, underscoring the need for an improved funding formula model. Identifies specific goals and components of such a model, covering areas including governance, budgeting standards, tuition pricing, community education, and state and institutional…

  10. State School Finance Inequities and the Limits of Pursuing Teacher Equity through Departmental Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Weber, Mark

    2016-01-01

    New federal regulations (State Plans to Ensure Equitable Access to Excellent Educators)1 place increased pressure on states and local public school districts to improve their measurement and reporting of gaps in teacher qualifications across schools and the children they serve. Yet a sole focus on resource disparities between schools within a…

  11. The Financial Education Tool Kit: Helping Teachers Meet State- Mandated Personal Finance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Eileen; Richert, Charlotte; Routh, Susan; Lockwood, Rachel; Simpson, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    States are recognizing the need for personal financial education and have begun requiring it as a condition for high school graduation. Responding to teacher requests to help them meet state-mandated financial education requirements, FCS educators in the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service developed a financial education tool kit. This article…

  12. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  13. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  14. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  15. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  16. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  17. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  18. Education Funding and Student Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework for Measurement of the Alignment of State Education Finance and Academic Accountability Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of education finance equity and adequacy has engaged researchers for more than three decades. At the same time, calls for increased academic accountability and higher student achievement in K-12 public education have reached new levels at both the national and state levels. Aligning these represents an…

  19. Tricks of the Trade: State Legislative Actions in School Finance Policy that Perpetuate Racial Disparities in the Post-Brown Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.; Green, Preston C., III

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the tricks of the trade that legislatures in formerly de jure segregated states might use to maintain racial funding disparities in existence before Brown and whether such ploys might be vulnerable to legal challenges. The first section provides an overview of modern school finance formulas and explains how legislatures in…

  20. 国有森工企业融资对策研究%Financing Strategies of State-Owned Forest Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓露露; 耿玉德

    2011-01-01

    我国国有森工企业负债融资比例较高,资本结构单一,企业融资较为困难。文中在分析了我国国有森工企业融资中存在问题的基础上,积极地提出融资对策,旨在解决我国国有森工企业的融资困境,进而促进国有森工企业及林业建设的快速发展。%The proportion of debt financing in Chinese state-owned logging enterprises is high. Besides, the capital structure is single and enterprise financing is difficult. Based on analyzing the existing problems of enterprise financing in Chinese state-owned logging enterprises, this paper actively puts forward the countermeasures in order to solve the difficulties of the financing in the state-owned logging enterprises so as to promote the rapid development of the state-owned logging enterprises and the forestry construction.

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the... is used in a geographical sense. The term “citizen of the United States” includes a citizen of the...

  2. Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berarducci, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.

  3. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  4. Financing State Governments in Nigeria, 1980-2007 (Pp. 204-215)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Sequel to this, lower-level government particularly state governments have continued ... There is always a combination of both the private and public sector in world ... In addition to the allocation function, distribution and stabilization functions.

  5. Financing the European Agriculture: A Comparative Approach across the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA- EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight through a comparative analysis the main trends and challenges for the Member States under the new Common Agricultural Policy financial framework. Our research will base its assumptions on the most recent statistics published by the Member States and also on the DG Agriculture& Rural Development reports. Our article will also assess, through a SWOT analysis, the opportunities and the weaknesses for the financial support granted to the Member States under the new regulations ofthe Common Agricultural Policy. In the final part of our paper we will present some conclusions related to the future of Common Agricultural Policy as a tool for addressing some financial gaps in the national rural development strategies of the Member States

  6. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  7. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  8. SOURCES OF FINANCING EUROPEAN SMES AND NEW SUPPORTING EU POLICIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA ROMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs’ access to finance is crucial for the creation, survival and growth of these firms. In the light of the recent global crisis, the dramatic fall in demand for goods and services and the reduced availability of bank loans has led to the aggravation of the problems faced by SMEs when they prospect for purchasing financial resources. In this context, our paper aims to highlight the sources of financing used by the European SMEs and the new policies proposed by the European Commission to facilitate their access to finance. The analysis carried out in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the European Commission and the World Bank. Based on the methodology used, the paper mainly indicates, the major problems regarding the financing opportunities faced by SMEs and the indispensable necessity for the adoption of measures, especially at EU level, to support their access to finance.

  9. Assessing the extension service needs of credit officers of microfinance banks in Anambah state: Implications for rural finance intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onugu Charles Uchenna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The credit officers of Microfinance Banks (MFBs are key players in rural finance intermediation for economic development. The paper assessed their extension service needs in Anambra State. Thirty-six (36 credit officers drawn from eleven (11 rural based MFBs in Anambra State were the respondents. Data was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics of simple percentage, frequency table and mean. Three (3 hypotheses were tested with the use of Chi square (x2. The findings of the study revealed that the credit officers are sufficiently knowledgeable about credit extension service delivery. However, they were found not involved in designing, and implementation of effective credit policies for their clients. Also, they are not adequately motivated to carry out their duties. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the board of directors and management of the MFBs should provide capacity building program for credit officers to improve and sustain their knowledge and skills, also they should improve their welfare especially, attractive and encouraging salary, incentives and insurance cover which are paramount to performance.

  10. State and Local Finances and the Macroeconomy: The High–Employment Budget and Fiscal Impetus

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Follette; Kusko, Andrea L.; Byron F. Lutz

    2008-01-01

    We use two measures of fiscal policy—the high–employment budget and fiscal impetus—to examine the interplay of the macroeconomy and state and local government budgets. We find that each one percent increase in GDP raises state and local net saving (as measured in the NIPA) by 0.1 percent of GDP through the automatic cyclical response of taxes and expenditures. We also find that the sector’s budget policies have been modestly pro–cyclical: The direct contribution to growth in real GDP has been...

  11. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set has been superseded by huc2m. This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii,...

  12. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  13. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J

    2012-11-23

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years

  14. Strategic Financing: Making the Most of the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Flynn, Margaret J.; Stebbins, Helene

    2004-01-01

    As states build comprehensive early childhood systems, policy leaders will need to be attentive to the funding streams available to communities to achieve desired returns. Most public funding for early care and education, as well as for other health and social services for young children and their families is categorical. Categorical funding…

  15. Public finance systems for coping with the crises: lessons from the three Baltic States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Jaansoo, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Of all EU member states the three Baltic countries were hit the hardest by the economic crises in 2008-2010 but they recovered relatively quickly, with all three countries even being able to qualify for EMU membership (Estonia joined the Eurozone in 2011, Latvia in 2014 and Lithuania in 2015). The s

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Coggeshall, C.

    2008-05-01

    State and local governments have grown increasingly aware of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits of taking a lead role in U.S. implementation of renewable energy, particularly distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations. Recently, solar energy's cost premium has declined as a result of technology improvements and an increase in the cost of traditional energy generation. At the same time, a nationwide public policy focus on carbon-free, renewable energy has created a wide range of financial incentives to lower the costs of deploying PV even further. These changes have led to exponential increases in the availability of capital for solar projects, and tremendous creativity in the development of third-party ownership structures. As significant users of electricity, state and local governments can be an excellent example for solar PV system deployment on a national scale. Many public entities are not only considering deployment on public building rooftops, but also large-scale applications on available public lands. The changing marketplace requires that state and local governments be financially sophisticated to capture as much of the economic potential of a PV system as possible. This report examines ways that state and local governments can optimize the financial structure of deploying solar PV for public uses.

  17. Educational Finance and the New York State Real Property Tax: The Inescapable Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Div. of the Budget, Albany. Education Study Unit.

    The property tax is the single most important revenue source for local governments and school districts in New York State. Its positive attributes are its stability, simplicity, efficiency, predictability, and its contribution to local government. Yet gross inequities are associated with assessment administration of property tax. An analysis of a…

  18. Determinants of Repayment of Loan Beneficiaries of Micro Finance Institutions in Southeast States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Chukwuemeka Okorji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the loan repayment, its determinantsand socio-economic characteristics of microfinance loanbeneficiaries in the Southeast states of Nigeria. It was carriedout in three states of the five southeast states. Using a multistagesampling technique, a total of 144 loan beneficiaries in thethree segments of MFIs, namely; formal (commercial and developmentbanks; semi-formal (NGOs-MFIs and informal(ROSCAS, “Isusu” and co-operative societies were randomlyselected and interviewed in the three states. An ordinary leastsquare (OLS multiple regression analysis was carried out toisolate and examine the determinants of loan repayment fromthe respondents’ perspective. Results showed that beneficiarieshad low level of education, operated enterprises at a relativelysmall scale, had large family size and were of middle age.Further, it was found out that the majority of the respondentswere involved in farming enterprise (crop and poultry eventhough trading was the most prominent single non-farmingenterprise (trading, processing and artisanship. The result affirmedthat the informal sector respondents recorded the bestrepayment rate, followed by the respondents of semi-formaland the banks brought the rear. Outstanding among the determinantsof loan repayments from the respondents’ perspectivewere; loan size, level of education, experience, profitabilityand portfolio diversity. These, therefore deserve special attentionin loan administration of MFIs.

  19. School Finance 2004?05: Districts Receive An Increase Despite A State Budget Squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary; Edwards, Brian; Oregon, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Another year of financial difficulty for the state of California led to the suspension of the minimum-funding guarantee that has provided some financial protection for schools in recent years. In a negotiation with education leaders Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger managed to craft the suspension in a way that protected education's interests at the…

  20. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  1. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  2. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THE INFORMATION OFFICE OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On March 8, the Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China published a document entitled the Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006. Following is the full text.

  3. 1990 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 1990 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  4. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  5. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  6. 2000 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 2000 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  7. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  8. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  9. Principal thorium resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Olson, J.C.; Brownfield, I.K.; Brock, M.R.; Lemons, J.F.; Coppa, L.V.; Clingan, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Resources were assessed for thorium in the higher grade and better known deposits in the United States in: (1) veins, (2) massive carbonatites, (3) stream placers of North and South Carolina, and (4) disseminated deposits. Thorium resources for the first three categories were divided into reserves and probable potential resources. Each of these then were separated into the following cost categories: (1) the amount of ThO2 producible at less than $15 per pound, (2) the amount producible at between $15 and $30 per pound, and (3) the amount producible at more than $50 per pound. The type of mining and milling needed at each deposit determines the capital, operating, and fixed costs of both mining and milling. Costs start with the clearing of land and are carried through to the final product, which for all deposits is ThO2. Capital costs of mining are affected most by the type of mining and the size of the mine. Those of milling are affected most by the kind of mill, its size, and whether or not extra circuits are needed for the separation of rare earths or some other byproduct. Veins, massive carbonatites, and stream placers of North and South Carolina have reserves of 188,000 short tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 505,000 tons of ThO2. Approximately half of the reserves and probable potential resources can be produced at less than $30 per pound of ThO2. Veins are the highest grade source in the United States and have total reserves of 142,000 tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 343,000 tons. About 90 percent of the reserves and 91 percent of the probable potential resources can be produced at less than $15 per pound of ThO2. Seven vein districts were evaluated: (1) Lemhi Pass, Mont.-Idaho, (2) Wet Mountains, Colo., (3) Powderhorn, Colo., (4) Hall Mountain, Idaho, (5) Diamond Creek, Idaho, (6) Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyo. and (7) Mountain Pass, Calif. Eighty-seven percent of the total reserves and probable potential resources are in the

  10. Finance, development and the Chinese entrepreneurial state: A Schumpeter-Keynes - Minsky approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO BURLAMAQUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe paper's central claim is that China's speed and ability to leapfrog its peer-nations in the last three decades stems, largely, from the fact that it is a fully developed Entrepreneurial State (ES. The discussion seeks to dig deeper on ES as a bridging concept that fits well with the Schumpeter-Keynes-Minsky analytical framework and one that is particularly appropriated analyzing contemporary China's development trajectory. Although rooted in a historical perspective and using historical examples, the main purpose of the paper is analytical, not descriptive.

  11. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  12. 12 CFR 561.53 - United States Treasury General Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Treasury General Account. 561.53 Section 561.53 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.53 United States Treasury General Account. The...

  13. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... (IFLE): Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  14. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and...

  15. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  16. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  17. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  18. United States’ Interests in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    while Haile Selassie intended to ensure that the United States had a vested interest in the survival of his regime. "There was never an alliance between...company; and he sent troops to fight in Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie’s political manuevering achieved the establishment of a United States vested

  19. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin....

  20. Immigration to the United States: 1996 Update. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; Pemberton, Alissa

    Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a profound impact on the United States. The public policy implications of immigration include the impact on population growth, employment, wages, taxes, and social spending. In 1994, a net total of between 900,000 and 1.1 million immigrants were added to the foreign-born population of the United States.…

  1. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  2. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  3. The Organization of Paralympic Sport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joe; Mushett, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, Paralympic sport is governed by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), as set forth in the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act of 1998. The USOC formed a dedicated Paralympic Division in 2001 to manage this responsibility in close cooperation with other USOC divisions and many of the sport-specific national…

  4. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  5. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  6. 78 FR 26425 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ..., the simple movement of a stolen trade secret within a domestic multinational company (e.g., from a United States office to an overseas office of the same company) may not pose the same risks or harms. More generally, the Commission heard that foreign actors increasingly target United States companies...

  7. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  8. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  9. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...... of underinvestment and, hence, induces cutting down investment. On the other hand, severely constrained firms benefit more by getting closer to the first-best investment implying higher investment....

  10. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  11. Leveling of Tuberculosis Incidence - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Mindra, Godwin; Haddad, Maryam B; Pratt, Robert; Price, Sandy F; Langer, Adam J

    2016-03-25

    After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

  12. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  13. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; Scott A. Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Forest resource growth, harvests, and land use conversion can change inventories within States, among regions, and even among countries, and can significantly influence the future performance of resources. This could affect the State, regional, and national economies that depend on the affected resources, as well as the resource environments. Periodic surveys provide...

  14. Quantum Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  15. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  16. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  17. The world economic crisis and the children: United States case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C A; Coulter, E J; Schorr, L B; Fine, A; Adams-Taylor, S

    1985-01-01

    This is a review of the United States experience with issues of child health and services as they relate to changes in economic trends. No existing data systems are entirely adequate for reporting on the current health status of children. An important consideration for the monitoring of children's health in the United States is the status of subgroups such as those who are disadvantaged for reasons of poverty, discrimination or geographic isolation. Ample evidence confirms that children living in poverty suffer adverse health consequences and that the proportion of children living in poverty in the United States has increased steadily since 1975 and dramatically since 1981. Most measures of health status and health risks for children show steady improvements throughout the 1970s. The exercise of public responsibility for financing and providing essential services and supports held constant or improved during this period, especially during the recession of 1974-75. The health status and risks for children since 1981 appear to be adversely affected which must be attributed to a combination of circumstances that include serious recession, increased poverty rates for households with children and diminished health benefits and social support services. These findings suggest that when either local or widespread economic reversals are anticipated, health services and social supports for children need to be expanded rather than contracted.

  18. Predictors of Students` Desire to be an Entrepreneur: Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry A. FRIEDMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important element of national economic growth, and college business students represent an important feeder pool for a nation’s supply of entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to identify and contrast predictors of students’ desire to be entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States. Three hundred and five undergraduate business students in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States completed the Aspiring Entrepreneurial Motives Questionnaire (Aziz, Friedman & Sayfullin, 2012. While the recognition motive was important for all students, predictors of their desire to be entrepreneurs differed across the three countries. In contrast to Kyrgyzstan and the United States, students’ in Georgia overall desire to be entrepreneurs was more complex as finance, recognition, freedom, marketing opportunities and economic conditions reached significance. National initiatives that recognize entrepreneurial accomplishments may therefore encourage more individuals to start and manage businesses. A more complex strategy may be required in Georgia, as the decision to be an entrepreneur appeared to be more multidimensional.

  19. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  1. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  2. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  3. Toxaphene in the United States: 1. Usage gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.

    2001-08-01

    Toxaphene, as a general-purpose insecticide, was widely used in the United States. The use of toxaphene in the United States can be divided into four different periods between 1947 and 1986, with total usage of about 490 kt, and total production around 720 kt. Inventories of gridded usage of toxaphene in the United States with 1/6° by 1/4° latitude/longitude resolution have been created by using different gridded cropland and cattle as surrogate data. The intensive use of toxaphene on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of the United States with the highest usage of 2 kt per grid cell. The results show that the state of Alabama was the largest user of toxaphene, reaching as much as 87 kt, followed by Mississippi at 60 kt. The total usage in the top 10 states is 410 kt, 84% of the national usage in the United States. The use in the first six states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and South Carolina, is 350 kt, 71% of the national usage in the United States.

  4. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Margreet F. Boersma-de Jong

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence

  5. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  6. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  7. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustai

  8. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  9. Finance Law Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the broad area of elementary-secondary education, specific cases involve allocation of federal school aid, fees charged by public schools for textbooks and instructional materials, property acquisition and school construction, and…

  10. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  11. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  12. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  14. Babesiosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, United States, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven A.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Kumar, Sanjai; Burwen, Dale R.; Gibbs, Jonathan; Kropp, Garner; Erten, Tugce; MaCurdy, Thomas E.; Worrall, Christopher M.; Kelman, Jeffrey A.; Walderhaug, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    We used administrative databases to assess babesiosis among elderly persons in the United States by year, sex, age, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months during 2006–2008. The highest babesiosis rates were in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts, and findings suggested babesiosis expansion to other states. PMID:22257500

  15. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  16. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  17. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  18. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  19. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  20. Forest Resources of the United States, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; John S. Vissage; David R. Darr; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2001-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 1987 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to 1997 to provide current information on the Nation`s forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data are analyzed and...

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  2. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts...... to highlight the perils of an oversized financial sector. States failing to harness natural resources for development led to the concept of the Resource Curse. In many countries, resource dependence generated slower growth, crowding out, reduced economic diversity, lost entrepreneurialism, unemployment......, economic instability, inequality, conflict, rent-seeking and corruption. The Finance Curse produces similar effects, often for similar reasons. Beyond a point, a growing financial sector can do more harm than good. Unlike the Resource Curse, these harms transcend borders. The concept of a Finance Curse...

  3. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    influxes of Ethiopian Jews during and Soviet Jews after the Cold War. Loan guarantees have been 77...and Saudi Arabia .88 President Bill Clinton stated that America’s interests in the Middle East are: “pursuing a comprehensive breakthrough to Middle...been, at least to some extent, an asset to the Arab regimes, as a strategic counterweight to radicalism.”136 Saudi Arabia and the members of the Gulf

  4. United States National Healthcare Policies 2015: An Analysis with Implications for the Future of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Harjus S

    2016-01-07

    There is little doubt that the tenure of President Barack Obama and implementation of the Affordable Care Act has had a profound effect on the United States healthcare delivery system in terms of the organization, finances, and clinical aspects of medical practice. As we enter the 2016 presidential election, looming issues of health affairs include 1) Is affordability achievable and can it be achieved without sacrificing the physician-patient relationship? and 2) Does practice consolidation and control by insurance providers cast physicians in a role as technicians? In countries such as the United Kingdom, policies seeking to increase healthcare affordability without sacrificing the quality of care have been implemented, as manifested through not only socialized medicine but also a general goal of cost cutting without sacrificing patient care. In addition, although done more as a tactical move with little impact on the overall budget, the healthcare benefits of political leaders in the United Kingdom are being trimmed in order to increase citizen buy-in in the healthcare model. This article compares recent healthcare policy changes in the United States to those of some constitutional democracies. The attitudes of healthcare stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and political leaders, are also analyzed. It is argued that the evolution of health affairs internationally is driven largely by efficacious political and economic factors, and that it behooves United States healthcare policy makers to note the impact of these international changes and to integrate the necessary changes in order to enhance patient care.

  5. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  6. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  7. 1:100,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States (AK, HI and Puerto Rico are available separately). The lines were extracted from U.S....

  8. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  9. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  10. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  11. Plant and Animal Phenology Data for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As of January 1, 2013, the dataset contains phenology data on 591 species of plants and animals, with 7,512 locations registered across the United States. Protocols...

  12. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  13. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  14. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  15. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  16. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  17. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  18. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  19. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  20. Indian Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. Only areas of 640 acres or more are included. Federally-administered lands within a reservation are included...

  1. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  2. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  3. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  4. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  5. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  6. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  7. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  8. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  9. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  10. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  11. Territorial Acquisitions of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major acquisitions of territory by the United States of America. Only areas in North America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii are included....

  12. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  13. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  14. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  15. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  16. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  17. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  18. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  19. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  20. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...