WorldWideScience

Sample records for final focus experiment

  1. A Scaled Final Focus Experiment for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaren, Stephan Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-09-19

    A one-tenth dimensionally scaled version of a final focus sub-system design for a heavy ion fusion driver is built and tested. By properly scaling the physics parameters that relate particle energy and mass, beam current, beam emittance, and focusing field, the transverse dynamics of a driver scale final focus are replicated in a small laboratory beam. The experiment uses a 95 μA beam of 160 keV Cs+ ions to study the dynamics as the beam is brought to a ballistic focus in a lattice of six quadrupole magnets. Diagnostic stations along the experiment track the evolution of the transverse phase space of the beam. The measured focal spot size is consistent with calculations and the report of the design on which the experiment is based. By uniformly varying the strengths of the focusing fields in the lattice, the chromatic effect of a small energy deviation on the spot size can be reproduced. This is done for ±1% and ±2% shifts and the changes in the focus are measured. Additionally, a 400 μA beam is propagated through the experiment and partially neutralized after the last magnet using electrons released from a hot tungsten filament. The increase in beam current allows for the observation of significant effects on both the size and shape of the focal spot when the electrons are added.

  2. A Scaled Final Focus Experiment for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaren, Stephan, Alexander

    2000-09-19

    A one-tenth dimensionally scaled version of a final focus sub-system design for a heavy ion fusion driver is built and tested. By properly scaling the physics parameters that relate particle energy and mass, beam current, beam emittance, and focusing field, the transverse dynamics of a driver scale final focus are replicated in a small laboratory beam. The experiment uses a 95 {micro}A beam of 160 keV Cs{sup +} ions to study the dynamics as the beam is brought to a ballistic focus in a lattice of six quadrupole magnets. Diagnostic stations along the experiment track the evolution of the transverse phase space of the beam. The measured focal spot size is consistent with calculations and the report of the design on which the experiment is based. By uniformly varying the strengths of the focusing fields in the lattice, the chromatic effect of a small energy deviation on the spot size can be reproduced. This is done for {+-}1% and {+-}2% shifts and the changes in the focus are measured. Additionally, a 400 {micro}A beam is propagated through the experiment and partially neutralized after the last magnet using electrons released from a hot tungsten filament. The increase in beam current allows for the observation of significant effects on both the size and shape of the focal spot when the electrons are added.

  3. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chen, P. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  4. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  5. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  6. Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size

    CERN Document Server

    White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Bai, Sha; Bambade, Philip; Renier, Yves; Bolzon, Benoit; Kamiya, Yoshio; Komamiya, Sachio; Oroku, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Marin, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing lowemittance electron beams (<12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances

  7. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  8. Final focus system for TLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Results of Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-06-13

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 {micro}m x 75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders.

  10. Passive water wall and focusing roof aperture solar-heating building experiment. Final technical report, October 1977-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraker, H.; Huffman, J.

    1983-06-01

    A passive water wall and focusing roof aperture solar-heating system has been constructed and has been operating successfully since the winter of 1981. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments under the scope of the grant effort, including two important modifications to the grant involving: (1) a data-acquisition-system installation at another building; and (2) a passive-solar-energy curriculum survey. Unfortunately, because the owner of the building has been involved in a lawsuit with the builder, final instrumentation, data collection, and evaluation have not been accomplished. However, the owner does report substantially lower annual fuel bills for heating and cooling (totaling approximately $200 per year). Because sensors have been placed in the building, the project would definitely merit a follow-up data collection effort when the owner has settled his dispute with the builder. (Reference CAPE-2832)

  11. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

  12. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P A Coe; D Urner; A Reichold

    2007-12-01

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative positions and orientations of several key components in the beam-delivery and interaction region. Monitoring the relative positions of the ILC final focus quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam-relative stability will have a direct impact on machine luminosity. Established, laser-based frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and fixed-frequency interferometry (FFI) offer positional resolution at length scales of the laser wavelength (1500 nm to 1560 nm) and a thousandth of the wavelength, respectively. As part of the ATF at KEK, StaFF will use interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam position monitors. Interferometers are being designed and tested in Oxford prior to deployment at the ATF.

  13. Diode and Final Focus Simulations for DARHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Welch, Dale R.; Carlson, Randolph L.

    1997-05-01

    We have used the numerical simulation codes uc(ivory,) uc(iprop) and uc(pbguns) to simulate beam dynamics in the diode and final focus of the 4 kA, 20 MV DARHT linear accelerator. A low emittance 4 MV, 4 kA source for a 4-pulse injector was designed using uc(ivory) and uc(pbguns.) Due to the long pulse length (four 70 ns pulses over 1 μsec), we have kept the field stress to stacks. The normalized edge emittance produced by the diode optics is only ≈ 130 mm-mrad. In the final-focus region, we have used uc(iprop) to model the effect of ion emission from the target. The intense electric field of the beam at the 1 mm diameter focal spot produces substantial ion velocities, and, if the space-charge-limited current density can be supplied, significant focal spot degradation may occur due to ion space-charge. Calculations for the ITS test stand, which has a larger focal spot, show that the effect should be observable for H^+ and C^+ ion species. The effect may be lessened if there is insufficient ion density on the target to supply the space-charge-limited current density, or if the ion charge-to-mass ratio is sufficiently large.

  14. Neutronic calculations for a final focus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, E. E-mail: enrico@nuc.berkeley.edu; Premuda, F.; Lee, E

    2001-05-21

    For heavy-ion fusion and for 'liquid-protected' reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II (Moir et al., Fusion Technol. 25 (1994); HYLIFE-II-Progress Report, UCID-21816, 4-82-100), a mixture of molten salts made of F{sup 10}, Li{sup 6}, Li{sup 7}, Be{sup 9} called flibe allows highly compact target chambers. Smaller chambers will have lower costs and will allow the final-focus magnets to be closer to the target with decreased size of the focus spot and of the driver, as well as drastically reduced costs of IFE electricity. Consequently the superconducting coils of the magnets closer to the chamber will suffer higher radiation damage though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. The scope of our calculations is essentially the total energy deposited on the magnetic lens system by fusion neutrons and induced {gamma}-rays. Such a study is important for the design of the final focus system itself from the neutronic point of view and indicates some guidelines for a design with six magnets in the beam line. The entire chamber consists of 192 beam lines to provide access of heavy ions that will implode the pellet. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The development of efficient and precise models for geometric representation and nuclear analysis is necessary. The parameters are optimized thanks to an accurate analysis of six geometrical models that are developed starting from the simplest. Different configurations are examined employing TART 98 (D.E. Cullen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-126455, Rev. 1, November, 1997) and MCNP 4B (Briesmeister (Ed.), Version 4B, La-12625-m, March 1997, Los Alamos National Laboratory): two Monte Carlo codes for neutrons and photons. The quantities analyzed include: energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated on the whole

  15. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.; Burke, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point.

  16. Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B.; Waldron, William L.

    2004-06-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  17. Expanded studies of linear collider final focus systems at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    In order to meet their luminosity goals, linear colliders operating in the center-of-mass energy range from 3,50 to 1,500 GeV will need to deliver beams which are as small as a few Manometers tall, with x:y aspect ratios as large as 100. The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a prototype for the final focus demanded by these colliders: its purpose is to provide demagnification equivalent to those in the future linear collider, which corresponds to a focused spot size in the FFTB of 1.7 microns (horizontal) by 60 manometers (vertical). In order to achieve the desired spot sizes, the FFTB beam optics must be tuned to eliminate aberrations and other errors, and to ensure that the optics conform to the desired final conditions and the measured initial conditions of the beam. Using a combination of incoming-beam diagnostics. beam-based local diagnostics, and global tuning algorithms, the FFTB beam size has been reduced to a stable final size of 1.7 microns by 70 manometers. In addition, the chromatic properties of the FFTB have been studied using two techniques and found to be acceptable. Descriptions of the hardware and techniques used in these studies are presented, along with results and suggestions for future research.

  18. New Results from the FOCUS/E831 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D Y; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Barberis, S; Bediaga, I; Benussi, L; Bertani, L; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cerutti, A; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Davenport, T F; De Miranda, J M; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Dos Reis, A C; Edera, L; Engh, D; Erba, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E E; Green, S W; Göbel, C; Han, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Link, J M; Lopes-Pegna, D; Luiggi, E; López, A M; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Mitchell, R; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Pon, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Wahl, M; Wang, M; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y; Kim, Doris Yangsoo

    2003-01-01

    The E831/FOCUS experiment at Fermilab is a photoproduction experiment which generated high quality charm particles. During its run, we obtained a large data set, including more than 1 million charm mesons in the Kpi/K2pi/K3pi mode decays. The current analysis efforts by the collaboration members are quite active and diverse. I will summarize the recent papers published by the FOCUS group on topics of semileptonic decays of charm mesons.

  19. Final Focus Test Team Alighment - A Draft Proposal -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    In its present form, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to transmit 50 GeV electron beams of SLC emittance (3 x 10{sup -10} radian-meters) straight through the central arm of the Beam Switchyard (BSY C line) with a final focus point out in the Research Yard but relatively near the end of the switchyard tunnel. The axis of the incident beam coincides with that of the SLAC linear accelerator; the final focus, some 300 meters downstream of the end of the accelerator, is displaced from this axis by about 2 meters horizontally.

  20. First Generation Final Focusing Solenoid For NDCX-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-11-09

    This report describes the prototype final focus solenoid (FFS-1G), or 1st generation FFS. In order to limit eddy currents, the solenoid winding consists of Litz wire wound on a non-conductive G-10 tube. For the same reason, the winding pack was inserted into an electrically insulating, but thermally conducting Polypropylene (Cool- Poly© D1202) housing and potted with highly viscous epoxy (to be able to wick the single strands of the Litz wire). The magnet is forced-air cooled through cooling channels. The magnet was designed for water cooling, but he cooling jacket cracked, and therefore cooling (beyond natural conduction and radiation) was exclusively by forced air. Though the design operating point was 8 Tesla, for the majority of running on NDCX-1 it operated up to about 5 Tesla. This was due mostly from limitations of voltage holding at the leads, where discharges at higher pulsed current damaged the leads. Generation 1 was replaced by the 2nd generation solenoid (FFS-2G) about a year later, which has operated reliably up to 8 Tesla, with a better lead design and utilizes water cooling. At this point, FFS-1G was used for plasma source R&D by LBNL and PPPL. The maximum field for those experiments was reduced to 3 Tesla due to continued difficulty with the leads and because higher field was not essential for those experiments. The pulser for the final focusing solenoid is a SCR-switched capacitor bank which produces a half-sine current waveform. The pulse width is ~800us and a charge voltage of 3kV drives ~20kA through the magnet producing ~8T field.

  1. Novel final focus design for future linear colliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, P; Seryi, A

    2001-04-23

    The length, complexity, and cost of the present final focus designs for linear colliders grow very quickly with the beam energy. In this Letter, a novel final focus system is presented and compared with the one proposed for the Next Linear Collider (NLC Zeroth-Order Design Report, edited by T. O. Raubenheimer, SLAC Report No. 474, 1996). This new design has fewer optical elements and is much shorter, nonetheless achieving better chromatic properties. Moreover, the new system is more suitable for operation over a larger energy range.

  2. FCC-ee final focus with chromaticity correction

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    A 100 km circular electron-positron collider is considered as one of the possible future high energy facilities. In order to achieve a high luminosity, strong beam focusing at the Interaction Point (IP) is used requiring the correction of the chromatic aberrations. In this paper we study preliminary designs of a Final Focus System (FFS) for the FCC-ee collider with chromatic correction. Beam orbit stability and dynamic aperture calculations are also presented.

  3. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  4. Compact Superconducting Final Focus Magnet Options for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Brett; Escallier, John; Harrison, Michael; He, Ping; Jain, Animesh K; Markiewicz, Thomas W; Marone, Andrew; Maruyama, Takashi; Nosochkov, Yuri; Seryi, Andrei; Wu, Kuo-Chen

    2005-01-01

    We present a compact superconducting final focus (FF) magnet system for the ILC based on recent BNL direct wind technology developments. Direct wind gives an integrated coil prestress solution for small transverse size coils. With beam crossing angles more than 15 mr, disrupted beam from the IP passes outside the coil while incoming beam is strongly focused. A superconducting FF magnet is adjustable to accommodate collision energy changes, i.e. energy scans and low energy calibration runs. A separate extraction line permits optimization of post IP beam diagnostics. Direct wind construction allows adding separate coils of arbitrary multipolarity (such as sextupole coils for local chromaticity correction). In our simplest coil geometry extracted beam sees significant fringe field. Since the fringe field affects the extracted beam, we also study advanced configurations that give either dramatic fringe field reduction (especially critical for gamma-gamma colliders) or useful quadrupole focusing on the outgoing be...

  5. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  6. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  7. Broadening the focus of evaluation: An experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of student performance in any course, especially those delivered in a management programme, poses a serious challenge; more so, in a course like ‘Business Communication’, where oral communication ought to form an integral part of evaluation. This paper presents various details of an experiment, conducted with a view to introduce this much needed component in the evaluation process. Essential purpose of the exercise was to try and broaden the focus of evaluation, simultaneously enlarging its scope. The need to maintain certain amount of objectivity and transparency was taken as critical. Group Discussion was used as a tool. A process was developed with the objective of getting every student evaluated on both written as well as non-written skills. A two-sided evaluation mechanism was put in place to achieve the dual purpose of leaning and evaluation. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that the experiment was a useful one. The student feedback, too, was favourable.

  8. Diode and final-focus simulations for DARHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.P.; Welch, D.R. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlson, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Beam dynamics calculations for the injector and final-focus region of a 4 kA, 20 MeV linear induction accelerator are presented. The injector is a low-emittance 4 MeV thermionic or photocathode diode designed to produce four 70 ns pulses over 2 {micro}sec. Due to the long total pule length, the authors have kept the field stress to < 200 kV/cm over the cathode electrode, and to {approx} 50 kV/cm on the radial insulator stacks. The normalized edge emittance produced by the diode is only {approx} 0.019 cm-rad. In the final-focus region, the authors have modeled the effect of ion emission from the target. The intense electric field of the beam at the 1-mm-diameter focal spot produces substantial ion velocities, and, if the space-charge-limited current density can be supplied, significant focal spot degradation may occur due to ion space-charge. Calculations for the existing Integrated Test Stand, which has a larger focal spot, show that the effect should be observable for H{sup +} and C{sup +} ion species. The effect is lessened if there is insufficient ion density on the target to supply the space-charge-limited current density, or if the ion charge-to-mass ratio is sufficiently small.

  9. Southeast regional experiment station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-05

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  10. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J. M.; Budde, M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensen, J. P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  11. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  12. A superconducting magnet upgrade of the ATF2 final focus

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, B; Escallier, J; He, P; Jain, P; Marone, A; Wanderer, P; Wu, KC; Hauviller, C; Marin, E; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Bolzon, B; Jeremie, A; Kimura, N; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomaru, T; Tsuchiya, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Bambade, P; Coe, P; Urner, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; White, G

    2010-01-01

    The ATF2 facility at KEK is a proving ground for linear collider technology with a well instrumented extracted beam line and Final Focus (FF). The primary ATF2 goal is to demonstrate the extreme beam demagnification and spot stability needed for a linear collider FF [1]. But the ATF2 FF uses water cooled magnets and the ILC baseline has a superconducting (SC) FF [2]. We plan to upgrade ATF2 and replace some of the warm FF magnets with SC FF magnets. The ATF2 SC magnets, like the ILC FF, will made via direct wind construction [3]. ATF2 coil winding is in progress at BNL and warm magnetic measurements indicate we have achieved good field quality. Studies indicate that having ATF2 FF magnets with larger aperture and better field quality should allow reducing the ATF2 FF beta function for study of focusing regimes relevant to CLIC [4]. The ATF2 magnet cryostat will have laser view ports for directly monitoring cold mass movement. We plan to make stability measurements at BNL and KEK to relate ATF2 FF magnet perfo...

  13. A Superconducting Magnet Upgrade of the ATF2 Final Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker B.; Anerella M.; Escallier J.; He P.; Jain A.; Marone A.; Wanderer P.; Wu K.C.; Hauviller C.; Marin E.; Tomas R.; Zimmermann F.; Bolzon B.; Jeremie A.; Kimura N.; Kubo K.; Kume T.; Kuroda S.; Okugi T.; Tauchi T.; Terunuma N.; Tomaru T.; Tsuchiya K.; Urakawa J.; Yamamoto A.; Bambabe P.; Coe P.; Urner D.; Seryi A.; Spencer C.; White G.

    2010-05-23

    The ATF2 facility at KEK is a proving ground for linear collider technology with a well instrumented extracted beam line and Final Focus (FF). The primary ATF2 goal is to demonstrate the extreme beam demagnification and spot stability needed for a linear collider FF. But the ATF2 FF uses water cooled magnets and the ILC baseline has a superconducting (SC) FF. We plan to upgrade ATF2 and replace some of the warm FF magnets with SC FF magnets. The ATF2 SC magnets, like the ILC FF, will made via direct wind construction. ATF2 coil winding is in progress at BNL and warm magnetic measurements indicate we have achieved good field quality. Studies indicate that having ATF2 FF magnets with larger aperture and better field quality should allow reducing the ATF2 FF beta function for study of focusing regimes relevant to CLIC. The ATF2 magnet cryostat will have laser view ports for directly monitoring cold mass movement. We plan to make stability measurements at BNL and KEK to relate ATF2 FF magnet performance to that of a full length ILC QD0 R and D FF prototype under construction at BNL.

  14. A Superconducting Magnet Upgrade of the ATF2 Final Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Brett; /Brookhaven; Anerella, Michael; /Brookhaven; Escallier, John; /Brookhaven; He, Ping; /Brookhaven; Jain, Animesh; /Brookhaven; Marone, Andrew; /Brookhaven; Wanderer, Peter; /Brookhaven; Wu, Kuo-Chen; /Brookhaven; Bambade, Philip; /Orsay, LAL; Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP; Coe, Paul; /Oxford U.; Urner, David /Oxford U.; Hauviller, Claude; /CERN; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Zimmermann, Frank; /CERN; Kimura, Nobuhiro; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kubo, Kiyoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kume, Tatsuya /KEK, Tsukuba; Kuroda, Shigeru; /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ATF2 facility at KEK is a proving ground for linear collider technology with a well instrumented extracted beam line and Final Focus (FF). The primary ATF2 goal is to demonstrate the extreme beam demagnification and spot stability needed for a linear collider FF. But the ATF2 FF uses water cooled magnets and the ILC baseline has a superconducting (SC) FF. We plan to upgrade ATF2 and replace some of the warm FF magnets with SC FF magnets. The ATF2 SC magnets, like the ILC FF, will made via direct wind construction. ATF2 coil winding is in progress at BNL and warm magnetic measurements indicate we have achieved good field quality. Studies indicate that having ATF2 FF magnets with larger aperture and better field quality should allow reducing the ATF2 FF beta function for study of focusing regimes relevant to CLIC. The ATF2 magnet cryostat will have laser view ports for directly monitoring cold mass movement. We plan to make stability measurements at BNL and KEK to relate ATF2 FF magnet performance to that of a full length ILC QD0 R&D FF prototype under construction at BNL.

  15. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  16. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  17. Optical tuning in the arcs and final focus sections of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1989-03-01

    In this thesis, we present the experimental tuning procedures developed for the Arcs and for the Final Focus Section of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Such tuning is necessary to maximize the luminosity, by minimizing the beam size at the interaction point, and to reduce backgrounds in the experiment. In the final Focus Section, the correction strategy must result from the principles of the optical design, which is based on cancellations between second order aberrations, and on the ability to measure micron-size beams typical of the SLC. In the Arcs, the corrections were designed after the initial commissioning, to make the system more error-tolerant, through a modification in the optical design, and to enable adjustments of the beam phase-space a the injection to the Final Focus System, through a harmonic perturbation technique inspired from circular accelerators. Although the overall optimization of the SLC is not entirely finished, an almost optimal set-up has been achieved for the optics of the Arcs and of the Final Focus Section. Beams with transverse sizes close to the nominal ones, of a few microns, have been obtained at the interaction point. We present and discuss our results and the optical limits to the present performance. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Final results of the MEG experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshinori; MEG Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Transitions of charged leptons from one generation to another are basically prohibited in the Standard Model because of the mysteriously tiny neutrino masses, although such flavor-violating transitions have long been observed for quarks and neutrinos. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUT), which unify quarks and leptons as well as their forces, predict that charged leptons should also make such transitions at small but experimentally observable rates. The MEG experiment was the first to have explored one of such transitions, μ^+ to e^+ γ decays, down to the branching ratios predicted by SUSY GUT. Here we report the final results of the MEG experiment based on the full dataset collected from 2009 to 2013 at the Paul Scherrer Institut, corresponding to a total of 7.5× 10^{14} stopped muons on target. No excess for μ^+ to e^+ γ decays was found. Thus the most stringent upper bound was placed on the branching ratio, B( μ+_{}↦e+ γ) motivated theories. We are now preparing the upgraded experiment MEG II with the aim to achieve a sensitivity of 4× 10^{-14} after three years of data taking. It is expected to start late in 2017.

  19. Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.

  20. Final Results of the MEG Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Transitions of charged leptons from one generation to another are basically prohibited in the Standard Model because of the mysteriously tiny neutrino masses, although such flavor-violating transitions have been long observed for quarks and neutrinos. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUT), which unify quarks and leptons as well as their forces, predict that charged leptons should also make such transitions at small but experimentally observable rates. The MEG experiment was the first to have explored one of such transitions, mu+ -> e+ gamma decays, down to the branching ratios predicted by SUSY GUT. Here we report the final results of the MEG experiment based on the full dataset collected from 2009 to 2013 at the Paul Scherrer Institut, corresponding to a total of 7.5 x 10^14 stopped muons on target. No excess for mu+ -> e+ gamma decays was found. Thus the most stringent upper bound was placed on the branching ratio, B(mu+ -> e+ gamma) < 4.2 x 10^-13 at 90% C.L., about 30 times tighter than prev...

  1. Combined Experiment Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT)? The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  2. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  3. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  4. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  5. Particle Release Experiment (PRex) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keillor, Martin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arrigo, Leah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detwiler, Rebecca S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kernan, Warnick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Randy R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chipman, Veraun D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Milbrath, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Allen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Carolyn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Emer, Dudley [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-09-30

    An experiment to release radioactive particles representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty verification and monitoring activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven “air cannon” was used to release La-140 at ambient temperatures. Lanthanum-140 was chosen to represent the fission fragments because of its short half-life and prominent gamma-ray emissions; the choice was also influenced by the successful production and use of La-140 with low levels of radioactive contaminants in a Defence Research and Development Canada Field Trial. The source was created through activation of high-purity natural lanthanum oxide at the reactor of Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Multiple varieties of witness plates and air samplers were laid in an irregular grid covering the area over which the plume was modeled to deposit. Aerial survey, a NaI(Tl) mobile spectrometer, and handheld and backpack instruments ranging from polyvinyl toluene to high-purity germanium were used to survey the plume. Additionally, three varieties of soil sampling were investigated. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of On-Site Inspection. The measurements and samples show a high degree of correlation and form a valuable set of test data.

  6. UCLA-KIAE focusing permanent magnet undulator for SASE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, N.; Tolmachev, S.; Varfolomeev, A.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Frigola, P.; Hogan, M.; Pellegrini, C.; Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1998-02-01

    A description of a new 2 m undulator is presented which was specially designed and manufactured for a SASE mode FEL experiment. It is a one section two plane focusing permanent magnet construction. The uniform period length is 2.06 cm, total number of periods is 98. The peak field on the axis is 5.4 kG for a 5 mm gap.

  7. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  8. Exploring the triplet parameters space to optimise the final focus of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges when designing final focus systems of particle accelerators is maximising the beam stay clear in the strong quadrupole magnets of the inner triplet. Moreover it is desirable to keep the quadrupoles in the triplet as short as possible for space and costs reasons but also to reduce chromaticity and simplify corrections schemes. An algorithm that explores the triplet parameter space to optimise both these aspects was written. It uses thin lenses as a first approximation and MADX for more precise calculations. In cooperation with radiation studies, this algorithm was then applied to design an alternative triplet for the final focus of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  9. [Leadership Experience of Clinical Nurses: Applying Focus Group Interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Sook; Eo, Yong Sook; Lee, Mi Aie

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the leadership experience of clinical nurses. During 2014, data were collected using focus group interviews. Three focus group interviews were held with a total of 20 clinical nurses participating. All interviews were recorded as they were spoken and transcribed and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen categories emerged from the five main themes. 1) Thoughts on the leadership category: to lead others, to cope with problem situations adequately and to serve as a shield against difficulties. 2) Situations requiring leadership: situation that requires correct judgement, coping and situations that need coordination and cooperation. 3-1) Leadership behaviors: other-oriented approach and self-oriented approach. 3-2) Leadership behavior consequences: relevant compensation and unfair termination. 4-1) Facilitators of leadership: confidence and passion for nursing and external support and resources. 4-2) Barriers to leadership: non-supportive organization culture and deficiency in own leadership competencies. 5) Strategies of leadership development: strengthen leadership through self-development and organizational leadership development. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to enhance clinical nurses' leadership role in healthcare. Enhancement can be achieved through leadership programs focused on enlarging leadership experience, constant self-development, leadership training, and development of leadership competencies suited to the nursing environment.

  10. Numerical Experiments Providing New Insights into Plasma Focus Fusion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent extensive and systematic numerical experiments have uncovered new insights into plasma focus fusion devices including the following: (1 a plasma current limitation effect, as device static inductance is reduced towards very small values; (2 scaling laws of neutron yield and soft x-ray yield as functions of storage energies and currents; (3 a global scaling law for neutron yield as a function of storage energy combining experimental and numerical data showing that scaling deterioration has probably been interpreted as neutron ‘saturation’; and (4 a fundamental cause of neutron ‘saturation’. The ground-breaking insights thus gained may completely change the directions of plasma focus fusion research.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  12. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  13. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  14. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  15. Microwave thermal imaging of scanned focused ultrasound heating: animal experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Meaney, Paul M.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses focused ultrasound beams to ablate localized tumors noninvasively. Multiple clinical trials using HIFU treatment of liver, kidney, breast, pancreas and brain tumors have been conducted, while monitoring the temperature distribution with various imaging modalities such as MRI, CT and ultrasound. HIFU has achieved only minimal acceptance partially due to insufficient guidance from the limited temperature monitoring capability and availability. MR proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry is currently the most effective monitoring method; however, it is insensitive in temperature changes in fat, susceptible to motion artifacts, and is high cost. Exploiting the relationship between dielectric properties (i.e. permittivity and conductivity) and tissue temperature, in vivo dielectric property distributions of tissue during heating were reconstructed with our microwave tomographic imaging technology. Previous phantom studies have demonstrated sub-Celsius temperature accuracy and sub-centimeter spatial resolution in microwave thermal imaging. In this paper, initial animal experiments have been conducted to further investigate its potential. In vivo conductivity changes inside the piglet's liver due to focused ultrasound heating were observed in the microwave images with good correlation between conductivity changes and temperature.

  16. ATF2 for Final Focus Test Beam for Future Linear Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S.; ATF2 Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    In future linear colliders, extremely small beam size is required at collision point for high luminosity. For example, it is of order of nanometer in ILC(International Linear Collider). ATF2 is a project at ATF(Accelerator Test Facility) in KEK which demonstrates performance of final focus system experimentally. ATF2 beam line is a prototype of ILC final focus system where the local chromaticity correction scheme is adopted. The optics is basically the same and the natural chromaticity, too. Thus the tolerance of magnet alignment and field error is similar for both of the beam lines. We report here observation of small beam size of about 45nm there. We also report plan for smaller beam size with higher beam intensity.

  17. Constructing maturity through alcohol experience - Focus group interviews with teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2006-01-01

    alcohol experience and positive attitudes towards drinking are related to popularity and influence in the peer group. The function of alcohol in teenagers’ struggle for recognition is so strong that the participants who drink very little or not at all are put under considerable pressure. With alcohol......Danish 14- and 15-year-olds are at the top of the European list when it comes to drinking and drunkenness. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how the struggle for social recognition–with alcohol as the central marker–transpires in groups of teenagers in Denmark. This article shows how...... as a central marker of maturity–and the drinking teenagers’ parents described as supporters of this view–non-drinking teenagers come out as the potential losers in the negotiation of status in the groups. The data are drawn from a large qualitative study in which 28 focus group interviews were conducted...

  18. The experience of learning Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Knestel, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the process of learning Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy (EFT) as reported by 122 EFT therapists and therapists-in-training. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing their experiences of learning EFT, with particular emphasis on EFT theory, alliance, interventions, perceived impact on clients, and impact on self. Findings suggest that therapists are drawn to the attachment-based model of EFT, appreciate the EFT framework and structure, that clients endorse the usefulness of the model and that learning the model has contributed to personal healing and improved relationships for the trainees. Results also show that the transition to EFT from another model can be taxing and requires time, support, and additional supervision/training to increase comfort level and competency with EFT. Nevertheless, results also highlight that learning EFT can be a rewarding and worthwhile endeavor. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Men's Experiences of Living With Osteoporosis: Focus Group Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Brixen, Kim; Huniche, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    that resonated with the social construction of hegemonic masculinity as displayed through the men's fear of weakness and endurance through physical activity, as well as identity construction through active decision making in relation to health. Understanding and implementation of these issues is necessary......Osteoporotic fractures in men are an increasing public health problem. Male osteoporosis is often a low-prioritized issue, however. To examine men's experiences with osteoporosis and how they handle osteoporosis in their everyday lives, the authors collected data from four focus groups with a total...... of 16 men aged 51 to 82 years diagnosed with osteoporosis. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed to elicit information about the men's daily lives. The men handled osteoporosis in different ways using different strategies. The authors found patterns...

  20. Final-focus optics for the LHeC electron beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, J; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    One of the options considered for the ECFA-CERNNuPECC design study for a Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) based on the LHC is adding a recirculating energy-recovery linac tangential to the LHC. First designs of the electron Final Focus System have shown the need to correct the chromatic aberrations. Two designs using different approaches for the chromaticity correction are compared, namely, the local chromaticity correction and the traditional approach using dedicated sections.

  1. OneClick: A Program for Designing Focused Mutagenesis Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Warburton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OneClick is a user-friendly web-based program, developed specifically for quick-and-easy design of focused mutagenesis experiments (e.g., site-directed mutagenesis and saturation mutagenesis. Written in Perl and developed into a web application using CGI programming, OneClick offers a step-by-step experimental design, from mutagenic primer design to analysis of a mutant library. Upon input of a DNA sequence encoding the protein of interest, OneClick designs the mutagenic primers according to user input, e.g., amino acid position to mutate, type of amino acid substitutions (e.g., substitution to a group of amino acids with similar chemical property and type of mutagenic primers. OneClick has incorporated an extensive range of commercially available plasmids and DNA polymerases suitable for focused mutagenesis. Therefore, OneClick also provides information on PCR mixture preparation, thermal cycling condition, expected size of PCR product and agar plate to use during bacterial transformation. Importantly, OneClick also carries out a statistical analysis of the resultant mutant library, information of which is important for selection/screening. OneClick is a unique and invaluable tool in the field of protein engineering, allowing for systematic construction of a mutant library or a protein variant and simplifying molecular biology work. The program will be constantly updated to reflect the rapid development in the fields of molecular biology and protein engineering.

  2. Optimization of the CLIC 500 GeV Final Focus system and design if a new 3 TeV Final Focus system with L*=6.0 M

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of the 500 GeV Final Focus System is presented for the conservative beam parameters. A Final Focus System for the nominal beam parameters is derived from the conservative lattice. A number of studies are presented for the 500 GeV Beam Delivery System. A new Final Focus System at 3 TeV with L*=6.0 m is presented and its performance is described.

  3. Design optimization of the International Linear Collider Final Focus System with a long L*

    CERN Document Server

    Plassard, Fabien

    This Master's Thesis work has been done in the Aerospace Engineering master's programme framework and carried out at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It was conducted under the 500 GeV e-e+ International Linear Collider (ILC) study and focused on the design and performance optimization of the Final Focus System (FFS). The purpose of the final focus system of the future linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) is to demagnify the beam to the required transverse size at the interaction point (IP). The FFS is designed for a flat-beam in a compact way based on a local chromaticity correction which corrects both horizontal and vertical chromaticities simultaneously. An alternative FFS configuration based on the traditional scheme with two dedicated chromatic correction sections for horizontal and vertical chromaticities and a long L * option has been developed. A longer free space between the last quadrupole and the IP allows to place the last quadrupole on a stable ground, with fewer engineering ...

  4. Mechanical design of a pre-isolator for the CLIC final focusing magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A; Ramos, F; Siegrist, N

    2012-01-01

    Due to the very small vertical beam sizes, the final focusing elements at the future CLIC linear collider need to be stable against vibrations to below 0.15 nanometres at frequencies above about 4 Hz. One of the key elements in the strategy to achieve such a stable environment is a passive, heavy pre-isolator. In this report, the results from the dynamic finite element analyses of the proposed design for such a passive preisolator are summarized. Furthermore, the results from a low frequency, heavy mass passive vibration isolation test set-up used to validate the calculations are shown.

  5. Radiation Load Optimization in the Final Focus System of FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Roman; Cerutti, Francesco; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    With a center-of-mass energy of up to 100 TeV, FCC-hh will produce highly energetic collision debris at the Interaction Point (IP). Protecting the final focus quadrupoles from this radiation is challenging, since the required amount of shielding placed inside the magnets will reduce the free aperture, thereby limiting the β^{*} reach and luminosity. Hence, radiation mitigation strategies that make best use of the available aperture are required. In this paper, we study the possibility to split the first quadrupole Q1 into two quadrupoles with individual apertures, in order to distribute the radiation load more evenly and reduce the peak dose.

  6. FCC-hh final-focus for flat-beams: parameters and energy deposition studies

    CERN Document Server

    Abelleira, Jose; Seryi, Andrei; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Besana, Maria Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The international Future Circular Collider (FCC) study comprises the study of a new scientific structure in a tunnel of 100 km. This will allow the installation of two accelerators, a 45.6–175 GeV lepton collider and a 100-TeV hadron collider. An optimized design of a final-focus system for the hadron collider is presented here. The new design is more compact and enables unequal ${\\beta}$$^{∗}$ in both planes, whose choice is justified here. This is followed by energy deposition studies, where the total dose in the magnets as a consequence of the collision debris is evaluated.

  7. DIME Students Discuss Final Drop Tower Experiment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Students discuss fine points of their final design for the Drop Tower experiment during the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  8. Controlling backstreaming ions from X-ray converter targets with time varying final focusing solenoidal lens and beam energy variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Paul, A

    1998-08-20

    Backstreaming ions emitted from an x-ray converter hit by a tightly focused intense electron beam can form an ion focusing channel and over-focus the electron beam. As the ions move upstream in time, the net focusing strength increases. The final beam spot size on the target would then change in time and typically be larger than intended. We have developed a model to estimate the backstreaming ions' neutralization factor in a potential sheath near the target surface and away from the sheath. Performance of high resolution x-ray radiography facilities requires high current electron beams to be focused to a millimeter spot size on an x-ray converter through out the entire current pulse. We have studied the possibility of maintaining a constant final spot size for the entire pulse by using either a time varying final focusing solenoid field or beam energy variation to compensate the time varying ion focusing effects

  9. Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Final Focus Quadrupole Model for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, Michele; Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid quadrupole magnet design has been proposed for the final focus in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) that is currently under study. The proposed design is a combination of an iron dominated electromagnetic quadrupole with a bore diameter of 8.25 mm with permanent magnet blocks placed between the poles made of soft magnetic CoFe alloy "Permendur". The possibility of using Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B as material for the permanent magnet blocks has been investigated. It is shown that a very high field gradient of 530 T/m (Sm2Co17) and 590 T/m (Nd2Fe14B) can be achieved.

  10. Final-focus systems for multi-TeV linear colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Garcia Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3779 (2001, a compact final focus system (FFS was presented. This scheme was compared to the nonlocal chromatic correction FFS concluding with the superiority of the local system. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of the system to errors and its mitigation was missing in the comparison. In this paper, an extended comparison of the Compact Linear Collider local FFS and an improved nonlocal FFS is presented at 3 TeV and 500 GeV. We demonstrate that, at high energies, luminosity delivered by the ideal machine is no longer the most important figure of merit but the recovered luminosity after tuning with imperfections, where the improved traditional scheme shows a better performance. This result might have an important relevance also for ILC at 1 TeV.

  11. Beam dynamics in the final focus section of the future linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)739431; TOMAS, Rogelio

    The exploration of new physics in the ``Tera electron-Volt''~(TeV) scale with precision measurements requires lepton colliders providing high luminosities to obtain enough statistics for the particle interaction analysis. In order to achieve design luminosity values, linear colliders feature nanometer beam spot sizes at the Interaction~Point~(IP).\\par In addition to several effects affecting the luminosity, three main issues to achieve the beam size demagnification in the Final Focus Section (FFS) of the accelerator are the chromaticity correction, the synchrotron radiation effects and the correction of the lattice errors.\\par This thesis considers two important aspects for linear colliders: push the limits of linear colliders design, in particular the chromaticity correction and the radiation effects at 3~TeV, and the instrumentation and experimental work on beam stabilization in a test facility.\\par The current linear collider projects, CLIC~\\cite{CLICdes} and ILC~\\cite{ILCdes}, have lattices designed using...

  12. The Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andreason, Samuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this paper is to present the conclusions that can be drawn from the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) formation experiments conducted on the Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD) at the University of Washington. The experiment is ongoing. The experimental goal for this first stage of PHD was to generate a stable, high flux (>10 mWb), high energy (>10 KJ) target FRC. Such results would be adequate as a starting point for several later experiments. This work focuses on experimental implementation and the results of the first four month run. Difficulties were encountered due to the initial on-axis plasma ionization source. Flux trapping with this ionization source acting alone was insufficient to accomplish experimental objectives. Additional ionization methods were utilized to overcome this difficulty. A more ideal plasma source layout is suggested and will be explored during a forthcoming work.

  13. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  14. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  15. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary ``issues`` talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the ``issues`` and ``summary`` talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems.

  16. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary issues'' talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the issues'' and summary'' talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems.

  17. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Hoon, Michiel Jan Laurens [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  18. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Laurence C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Technology Development Office

    2014-08-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear-grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC-3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. The report documents qualification of AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data following MCP-2691. This report also documents whether AGC-3 experiment irradiation monitoring data meet the requirements for data collection as specified in technical and functional requirements documents and quality assurance (QA) plans. Data handling is described showing how data are passed from the data collection experiment to the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) team. The data structure is described, including data batches, components, attributes, and response variables. The description of the approach to data qualification includes the steps taken to qualify the data and the specific tests used to verify that the data meet requirements. Finally, the current status of the data received by NDMAS from the AGC-3 experiment is presented with summarized information on test results and resolutions. This report addresses all of the irradiation monitoring data collected during the AGC-3 experiment.

  19. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  20. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  1. Ultrasonic brain therapy: First trans-skull in vivo experiments on sheep using adaptive focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Mathieu; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Tanter, Michael; Fink, Mathias; Boch, Anne-Laure; Kujas, Michèle

    2001-05-01

    A high-power prototype dedicated to trans-skull therapy has been tested in vivo on 20 sheep. The array is made of 200 high-power transducers working at 1-MHz central and is able to reach 260 bars at focus in water. An echographic array connected to a Philips HDI 1000 system has been inserted in the therapeutic array in order to perform real-time monitoring of the treatment. A complete craniotomy has been performed on half of the treated animal models in order to get a reference model. On the other animals, a minimally invasive surgery has been performed thanks to a time-reversal experiment: a hydrophone was inserted at the target inside the brain thanks to a 1-mm2 craniotomy. A time-reversal experiment was then conducted through the skull bone with the therapeutic array to treat the targeted point. For all the animals a specified region around the target was treated thanks to electronic beam steering. Animals were finally divided into three groups and sacrificed, respectively, 0, 1, and 2 weeks after treatment. Finally, histological examination confirmed tissue damage. These in vivo experiments highlight the strong potential of high-power time-reversal technology.

  2. Final Size Planar Edgeless Silicon Detectors for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Noschis, E; Anelli, G; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Boccone, V; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Catanesi, M G; Cereseto, R; Cuneo, S; Da Vià, C; Deile, M; Dinapoli, R; Eggert, K; Egorov, N; Eremin, I; Ferro, F; Hasi, J; Haug, F; Heino, J; Jarron, P; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Kok, A; Kozlov, Y; Kundrat, W; Kurvinen, K; Lauhakangas, R; Lokajícek, M; Luntama, T; Macina, D; Macri, M; Minutoli, S; Mirabito, L; Morelli, A; Musico, P; Negri, M; Niewiadomski, H; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Perrot, A L; Puppo, R; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Saarikko, H; Santroni, A; Sette, G; Sidorov, A; Siegrist, P; Smotlacha, J; Snoeys, W; Taylor, C; Watts, S; Whitmoree, J

    2006-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will detect leading protons scattered in angles of microradians from the interaction point at the Large Hadron Collider. This will be achieved using detectors with a minimized dead area at the edge. The collaboration has developed an innovative structure at the detector edge reducing the conventional dead width to less than 100 microns, still using standard planar fabrication technology. In this new development, the current of the surface is decoupled from the sensitive volume current within a few tens of micrometers. The basic working principle is explained in this paper. Final size detectors have been produced using this approach. The current-voltage and current-temperature characteristics of the detectors were studied and the detectors were successfully tested in a coasting beam experiment.

  3. Exploring the inquiry experience: A focus on Kentucky teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Beth

    2007-12-01

    Inquiry-based instruction is driven by active participation by the learner. Through the learning process, critical thinking skills are practiced. While inquiry methods are often discussed in the realm of science education, the methods are not subject specific. In fact, the Kentucky Program of Studies calls for the incorporation of inquiry strategies into all areas of the curriculum. This call for more inquiry-based education occurs in the midst of a national testing debate in which accountability is tied to student test scores. This study takes a narrative approach to explore teachers' experiences with using inquiry methods. Interviews were conducted with teachers who, at least 1 year prior to participating in this study, had attended a weeklong intensive professional development workshop on using inquiry methods for instruction. A method is described for analyzing interview data direct in its digital audio form---without transcription. Eight teachers' experiences are presented here in the narrative form and their narratives are compared for an overall analysis. Themes of conflict previously reported in the literature are explored in participants' stories. This research concludes with a discussion of the results, a reflection on the method, and suggestions for the future based on teachers' experiences with using inquiry-based learning strategies.

  4. Obesity in general practice: a focus group study on patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Ulriksen, Kjersti

    2010-12-01

    To explore obese patients' experiences with GPs' management of their weight problems. Focus-group study with a purposive sample of 13 participants (eight women and five men), aged 30-55 years, with BMI above 40, or BMI above 35 with additional weight-related problems. Two focus-group interviews were conducted, inviting the participants to speak about their health care experiences from general practice. Analysis applied Systematic Text Condensation inspired by Giorgi's approach, searching for issues describing or discussing participants' experiences of GPs' obesity management. Obese patients want their GPs to put their weight problems on the agenda. When the patient appears reluctant, it may be a sign of embarrassment rather than rejection of the issue. However, restricted attention to obesity could lead to neglect of patients' problems. Participants complained that GPs often demonstrated insufficient engagement and knowledge regarding service resources for obesity treatment, leaving the responsibility for information on available referral resources to the patient. Finally, considerate attitudes in the GPs are needed for follow-up to be experienced as helpful by the patients. Vulnerable feelings of failure could be reinforced by well-intended advice. Degrading attitudes were perceived as especially subversive when they came from doctors. The challenge for the GP is to increase his or her competence in individualized and evidence-based counselling, while acknowledging the efforts needed by the patient to achieve permanent change, and shifting attention from shame to coping.

  5. Innovative Interactive Visitor Experiences Focused on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettvin, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Science Center has adopted a multi-pronged approach to introduce visitors to the concepts of climate change and linkages to human behavior in an informal science education setting. We leverage key fixed exhibit assets derived from collaborations with NOAA: Science on a Sphere and an exhibit kiosk showcasing local CO2 measurements that are adjacent on our exhibit floor. NOAA PMEL Scientists deployed a sensor at the top of the Space Needle that measures variability in atmospheric CO2 over Seattle; the kiosk showcases these near-real-time, daily, weekly and monthly measurements as well as similar observations from a NOAA buoy near Aberdeen, Washington. Displays of these data enable visitors to see first-hand varying CO2 levels in urban and remote marine environments as well as seasonal cycling. It also reveals quantifiable increases in CO2 levels over a relatively short time (~5 years). Trained interpreters help visitors understand linkages between personal behavior and corresponding CO2 footprints. Interpreters discuss connections between local and regional CO2 measurements displayed on the kiosk, and global Sphere datasets including NOAA Carbon Tracker, changing arctic sea ice coverage and sea level rise projections. Portable Discovery Carts, consisting of props and interactive, hands-on activities provide a platform for facilitated interpretation on a series of topics. We have developed two climate focused carts: 'Sinks and Sources' that examines materials and activities that produce and absorb carbon, and 'Ocean Acidification' that shows how absorption of atmospheric CO2 is changing ocean composition and its habitability for marine life. These carts can be deployed anywhere on the exhibit floor but are primarily used adjacent to the Sphere and the kiosk, making it possible to have a range of conversations about global and local CO2 levels, linkages to individual and collective behaviour and associated implications. Additional collaborations with members of

  6. Final Results of the PICASSO Dark Matter Search Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Dai, X; Das, M; Davour, A; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Fines-Neuschild, M; Gagnebin, S; Giroux, G; Grace, E; Jackson, C M; Kamaha, A; Krauss, C B; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Lessard, L; Levine, I; Marlisov, D; Martin, J -P; Mitra, P; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviyanuk, R; Pospisil, S; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Starinski, N; Stekl, I; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V

    2016-01-01

    The PICASSO dark matter search experiment operated an array of 32 superheated droplet detectors containing 3.2 kg of C$_{4}$F$_{10}$ and collected an exposure of 231.4 kg days at SNOLAB between March 2012 and January 2014. We report on the final results of this experiment which includes for the first time the complete data set and improved analysis techniques including acoustic localization to allow fiducialization and removal of higher activity regions within the detectors. No signal consistent with dark matter was observed. We set limits for spin-dependent interactions on protons of $\\sigma_p^{SD}$ = 1.32 $\\times$ 10$^{-2}$ pb (90% C.L.) at a WIMP mass of 20 GeV/c$^{2}$. In the spin-independent sector we exclude cross sections larger than $\\sigma_p^{SI}$ = 4.86 $\\times$ 10$^{-5 }$ pb (90% C.L.) in the region around 7 GeV/c$^{2}$. The pioneering efforts of the PICASSO experiment have paved the way forward for a next generation detector incorporating much of this technology and experience into larger mass bub...

  7. Radiation protection systems for the final focus test beam at SLAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, S H; Benson, E C; Burke, D L; Jenkins, T M; Liu, J C; Nelson, G; Nelson, W R; Smith, H E; Tenenbaum, P; Vylet, V; Walz, D R

    1996-11-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a new beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center designed to test new beam optics concepts, hardware, and techniques necessary to achieve and measure the small spot sizes required for future generations of high-energy e+e- linear colliders. The FFTB takes a 47 GeVc-1, 1 kW electron beam at the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center linear accelerator and transports it to the FFTB beam dump. A radiation protection system was designed and installed for the FFTB with the primary goal that the integrated dose equivalent outside the shielding resulting from beam loss would not exceed 10 mSv y-1. This system is comprised of shielding, a beam containment system and a personnel protection system. This paper presents various aspects of radiation safety at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that were considered in the design of the FFTB radiation protection system. Beam tests were conducted in which the performance of various beam containment devices and the shielding effectiveness were evaluated. Preliminary results from these tests are presented.

  8. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    When the Advisory Committee began work in April 1994 we were charged with determining whether the radiation experiments design and administration adequately met the ethical and scientific standards, including standards of informed consent, that prevailed at the time of the experiments and that exist today and also to determine the ethical and scientific standards and criteria by which it shall evaluate human radiation experiments. Although this charge seems straightforward, it is in fact difficult to determine what the appropriate standards should be for evaluating the conduct and policies of thirty or fifty years ago. First, we needed to determine the extent to which the standards of that time are similar to the standards of today. To the extent that there were differences we needed to determine the relative roles of each in making moral evaluations. In Chapter 1 we report what we have been able to reconstruct about government rules and policies in the 1940s and 1950s regarding human experiments. We focus primarily on the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense. In Chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this period. Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research.

  9. Final results of magnetic monopole searches with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Kumar, A; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles in the penetrating cosmic radiation, for the range 4*10/sup -5/< beta <1. Several searches with all the MACRO sub-detectors (i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors) were performed, both in stand alone and combined ways. No candidates were detected and a 90% Confidence Level (C.L.) upper limit to the local magnetic monopole flux was set at the level of 1.4*10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr /sup -1/. This result is the first experimental limit obtained in direct searches which is well below the Parker bound in the whole beta range in which GUT magnetic monopoles are expected. (37 refs).

  10. Performance of the final Event Builder for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Battaglia, A; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W N; Haeberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, M; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vandelli, W; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 15th IEEE Real Time Conference 2007

    2007-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three level trigger system, which reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2) to ~3 kHz. At this rate the Event-Builder collects the data from all Read-Out system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the the Event-Filter (EF), which is the third level trigger, to achieve a further rate reduction to ~200 Hz for permanent storage. The Event-Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs and one third of the Event-Builder PCs are already installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which show promising results to reach the final data throughput required for the ATLAS experiment.

  11. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ ---> K- pi+ pi+ decay in the FOCUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; /UC, Davis; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /CINVESTAV, IPN /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U.

    2007-05-01

    Using data collected by the high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS at Fermilab we performed a Dalitz plot analysis of the Cabibbo favored decay D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. This study uses 53653 Dalitz-plot events with a signal fraction of {approx} 97%, and represents the highest statistics, most complete Dalitz plot analysis for this channel. Results are presented and discussed using two different formalisms. The first is a simple sum of Breit-Wigner functions with freely fitted masses and widths. It is the model traditionally adopted and serves as comparison with the already published analyses. The second uses a K-matrix approach for the dominant S-wave, in which the parameters are fixed by first fitting K{pi} scattering data and continued to threshold by Chiral Perturbation Theory. We show that the Dalitz plot distribution for this decay is consistent with the assumption of two body dominance of the final state interactions and the description of these interactions is in agreement with other data on the K{pi} final state.

  12. Present Status And First Results of the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambade, P.; /Orsay /KEK, Tsukuba; Alabau Pons, M.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Amann, J.; /SLAC; Angal-Kalinin, D.; /Daresbury; Apsimon, R.; /Oxford U., JAI; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bai, S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bellomo, P.; /SLAC; Bett, D.; /Oxford U., JAI; Blair, G.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Bolzon, B.; /Savoie U.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Coe, P.; Constance, B.; /Oxford U., JAI; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; /CERN; Deacon, L.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Elsen, E.; /DESY /Valencia U., IFIC /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Savoie U. /Fermilab /Ecole Polytechnique /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyungpook Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Savoie U. /Daresbury /Tokyo U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /University Coll. London /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tohoku U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Brookhaven /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /SLAC /Orsay /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Orsay /Fermilab /Tohoku U. /Manchester U. /CERN /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Hiroshima U. /KEK, Tsukuba /CERN /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /Fermilab /SLAC /Liverpool U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /CERN

    2011-11-11

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  13. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bambade, P; Amann, J; Angal-Kalinin, D; Apsimon, R; Araki, S; Aryshev, A; Bai, S; Bellomo, P; Bett, D; Blair, G; Bolzon, B; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Burrows, P N; Christian, G; Coe, P; Constance, B; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Deacon, L; Elsen, E; Faus-Golfe, A; Fukuda, M; Gao, J; Geffroy, N; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Guler, H; Hayano, H; Heo, A -Y; Honda, Y; Huang, J Y; Hwang, W H; Iwashita, Y; Jeremie, A; Jones, J; Kamiya, Y; Karataev, P; Kim, E -S; Kim, H -S; Kim, S H; Komamiya, S; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Lam, B; Lyapin, A; Masuzawa, M; McCormick, D; Molloy, S; Naito, T; Nakamura, T; Nelson, J; Okamoto, D; Okugi, T; Oroku, M; Park, Y J; Parker, B; Paterson, E; Perry, C; Pivi, M; Raubenheimer, T; Renier, Y; Resta-Lopez, J; Rimbault, C; Ross, M; Sanuki, T; Scarfe, A; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; Suehara, T; Sugahara, R; Swinson, C; Takahashi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomas, R; Urakawa, J; Urner, D; Verderi, M; Wang, M -H; Warden, M; Wendt, M; White, G; Wittmer, W; Wolski, A; Woodley, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamanaka, T; Yan, Y; Yoda, H; Yokoya, K; Zhou, F; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  14. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bambade, P; Amann, J; Angal-Kalinin, D; Apsimon, R; Araki, S; Aryshev, A; Bai, S; Bellomo, P; Bett, D; Blair, G; Bolzon, B; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Burrows, P N; Christian, G; Coe, P; Constance, B; Delahaye, J P; Deacon, L; Elsen, E; Faus-Golfe, A; Fukuda, M; Gao, J; Geffroy, N; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Guler, H; Hayano, H; Heo, A Y; Honda, Y; Huang, J Y; Hwang, W H; Iwashita, Y; Jeremie, A; Jones, J; Kamiya, Y; Karataev, P; Kim, E S; Kim, H S; Kim, S H; Komamiya, S; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Lam, B; Lyapin, A; Masuzawa, M; McCormick, D; Molloy, S; Naito, T; Nakamura, T; Nelson, J; Okamoto, D; Okugi, T; Oroku, M; Park, Y J; Parker, B; Paterson, E; Perry, C; Pivi, M; Raubenheimer, T; Renier, Y; Resta-Lopez, J; Rimbault, C; Ross, M; Sanuki, T; Scarfe, A; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; Suehara, T; Sugahara, R; Swinson, C; Takahashi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomas, R; Urakawa, J; Urner, D; Verderi, M; Wang, M H; Warden, M; Wendt, M; White, G; Wittmer, W; Wolski, A; Woodley, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamanaka, T; Yan, Y; Yoda, H; Yokoya, K; Zhou, F; Zimmermann, F; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.042801

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  15. Are Success and Failure Experiences Equally Motivational? An Investigation of Regulatory Focus and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Tse-Mei; Lam, Shui-fong

    2011-01-01

    The present study extended regulatory focus theory (Idson & Higgins, 2000) to an educational setting and attempted to identify individuals with high motivation after both success and failure feedback. College students in Hong Kong (N = 180) participated in an experiment with a 2 promotion focus (high vs. low) x 2 prevention focus (high vs. low) x…

  16. Supersymmetry Searches in Dilepton Final States with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lungwitz, Matthias

    One of the main goals of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadr on Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva is the search for new physics beyond the Standa rd Model. In 2011, proton- proton collisions were performed at the LHC at a center of mas s energy of 7 TeV and an in- tegrated luminosity of 4 . 7 fb − 1 was recorded. This dataset can be tested for one of the most promising theories beyond limits achieved thus far: supers ymmetry. Final states in supersym- metry events at the LHC contain highly energetic jets and siz eable missing transverse energy. The additional requirement of events with highly energetic leptons simplifies the control of the backgrounds. This work presents results of a search for supe rsymmetry in the inclusive dilepton channel. Special emphasis is put on the search within the Gau ge-Mediated Symmetry Breaking (GMSB) scenario in which the supersymmetry breaking is medi ated via gauge fields. Statis- tically independent Control Regions for the dominant Stand ard Model backgrounds as well as ...

  17. Medical students' experience and perceptions of their final rotation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    led by consultants, and sessions devoted to interpersonal and microcommunication ... Objective. To evaluate medical students' perceptions of their final psychiatry rotation of 7 weeks. Methods. .... relationships between factors and individual.

  18. Brief Group Psychotherpay for Women after Divorce: Planning a Focused Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Judith; Goldman, Janice

    1979-01-01

    A model for a brief, focused group psychotherapy experience for women, led by women therapists, is suggested as an effective means to ease the transition from marriage and to allow a redefinition of the self as a single individual. (Author)

  19. Natural Interactions in Artifical Situations: Focus Groups as an Active Social Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the interactions going on in the group can be described as natural occurring data (cf. Silverman, 2007). Thus this approach comes to terms with some of the problems addressed within both positivistic as well as constructivist uses of focus group methods. Secondly, framing focus groups as social experiments also......This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while...... highlights possibilities of a more active use of groups (by intervention) that resembles the interviewing situations as an active ethnomethodological breaching. It is within this framework of “stimulated or irritated” natural occurring data that focus groups will be discussed....

  20. Final Technical Report [Cosmogenic background and shielding R&D for a Ge Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiseppe, Vince

    2013-10-01

    The USD Majorana group focused all of its effort in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) experiment. Final designs of the shielding subsystems are complete. Construction of the MJD shielding systems at SURF has begun and the proposed activities directly support the completion of the shield systems. The PI and the group contribute heavily to the onsite construction activities of the MJD experiment. The group led investigations into neutron and neutron-­induced backgrounds, shielding effectiveness and design, and radon backgrounds.

  1. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  2. Budgeting and control of the mechanical noise in the International Linear Collider final focus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshilumba, D.; Oriunno, M.; Markiewicz, T.; Collette, C.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present a simplified vibration model of the silicon detector (SiD), where the final doublet (QD0) is captured inside the detector and the penultimate magnet (QF1) is inside the machine tunnel. Ground motion spectra measured at the detector hall at SLAC have been used together with a spectrum of the technical noise on the detector. The model predicts that the maximum level of rms (root mean square) vibration seen by QD0 is well below the capture range of the interaction point (IP) feedback system available in the ILC. With the addition of an active stabilization system on QD0, it is also possible to get closer to the stability requirements of the compact linear collider (CLIC). These results can have important implications for CLIC.

  3. Budgeting and control of the mechanical noise in the International Linear Collider final focus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tshilumba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a simplified vibration model of the silicon detector (SiD, where the final doublet (QD0 is captured inside the detector and the penultimate magnet (QF1 is inside the machine tunnel. Ground motion spectra measured at the detector hall at SLAC have been used together with a spectrum of the technical noise on the detector. The model predicts that the maximum level of rms (root mean square vibration seen by QD0 is well below the capture range of the interaction point (IP feedback system available in the ILC. With the addition of an active stabilization system on QD0, it is also possible to get closer to the stability requirements of the compact linear collider (CLIC. These results can have important implications for CLIC.

  4. Line focus solar thermal central receiver research study. Final report, April 30, 1977-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Canio, D.G.; Treytl, W.J.; Jur, F.A.; Watson, C.D.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to examine the line focus central receiver alternative for solar thermal generation of electric power on a commercial scale are presented. The baseline concept consists of the following elements: (1) a solar collector (heliostat) whose geometry is the equivalent of a focused parabolic cylinder. The heliostat reflecting surface is composed of an array of flexible rectangular mirror panels supported along their long edges by a framework which rotates about an axis parallel to the ground plane. The mirror panels in one section (18.3 meters by 3.05 meters (60 feet by 10 feet)) are defocused in unison by a simple mechanism under computer control to achieve the required curvature. Two sections (110 meters/sup 2/(591 feet/sup 2/)) are controlled and driven in elevation by one control/drive unit. (2) A linear cavity receiver, composed of 61-meter (200-foot) sections supported by towers at an elevation of 61 meters (200 feet). Each section receives feedwater and produces turbine-rated steam. The cavity is an open cylinder 1.83 meters (6 feet) in inside diameter, with a 1.22 meter (4 foot) aperture oriented at 45 degrees to the collector field. (3) Heliostat control, consisting of a local controller at each heliostat module which communicates with a master control computer to perform elevation tracking and focal length adjustment. The control logic is open-loop, with sun position computer by the master computer with an algorithm. Image sensors, mounted above and below the receiver aperture, are used to monitor the collector field and provide feedback to the master computer for detection of misaligned heliostats. (WHK)

  5. Green Fluorescent Protein-Focused Bioinformatics Laboratory Experiment Suitable for Undergraduates in Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura

    2017-01-01

    An introductory bioinformatics laboratory experiment focused on protein analysis has been developed that is suitable for undergraduate students in introductory biochemistry courses. The laboratory experiment is designed to be potentially used as a "stand-alone" activity in which students are introduced to basic bioinformatics tools and…

  6. Line focus solar central power systems. Phase I. Final report, September 30, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    A conceptual design study was performed of a stand-alone Line Focus Solar Central Power System based on the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) for heat collection and draw salt (a 50% molar mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate) for heat transport and storage. Parametric analyses were performed at the subsystem level, and models were developed that were employed in a computerized simulation to minimize the cost of electricity (COE) by adjusting system design parameters. A design was prepared and costed for a first commercial plant with a rating of 100 MW(e) and a storage capacity equivalent to 420 MW(e)-hr of generation. The resulting plant achieves an annual capacity of 45.6%. Scaling studies indicate reductions in the COE for increased capacity factor and increased plant rating. Assessments of the plant concept indicate it should be acceptable to utilities on the basis of technical and operational considerations, but that reductions from the first 100-MW(e) plant cost would be required to achieve substantial market penetration.

  7. Focus-of-attention behavioral experiment: an examination of a therapeutic procedure to reduce social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Kerry A; Valentiner, David P; Holzman, Jacob B

    2017-01-01

    A clinical protocol based on contemporary cognitive behavioral treatment for social anxiety was developed and examined. Previously published instructions for conducting a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment targeting self-focused attention and safety behaviors during exposure were used to create a structured protocol. Individuals (n = 45) with high levels of social anxiety and public-speaking anxiety were randomly assigned to either a focus-of-attention behavioral experiment (FABE) or an Exposure-Only Control (EOC) condition. During four exposure trials, those in the FABE condition (n = 24) were alternately instructed to engage in self-focused attention vs. externally focused attention and to eliminate safety behaviors. Those in the EOC condition (n = 21) were not so instructed. At post-intervention, individuals in the FABE condition showed significantly less self-focused attention and anxiety, and better observed performance as rated by audience members. Focus-of-attention statistically mediated the effect of condition on anxiety. For those in the FABE condition, the degree of association between focus-of-attention and anxiety during the intervention predicted less self-focused attention post-intervention. The FABE appears to be a useful procedure for implementing part of the contemporary cognitive behavioral treatment model.

  8. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G P

    1998-08-19

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed waste low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) is developing the Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of .their classification; low level, transuranic or provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user/customer technology selection. The Active and Passive Computed Tomography non

  9. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  10. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2015-11-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  11. Beam Steering, Focusing and Compression for Warm-Dense Matter Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anders, A.; Cohen, R. H.; Coleman, J. E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B. G.; Roy, P. K.; Sefkow, A. B.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Axial compression leading to ˜100X current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching, but still short of, the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We present measurements from the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including: (1) axial compression and radial focusing; (2) spatial and temporal distribution of energy deposition at the target plane; and (3) centroid motion of the beam spot through the pulse.

  12. Matrix fluid chemistry experiment. Final report June 1998 - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John A.T. [Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Waber, H. Niklaus [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Inst. of Geology; Frape, Shaun K. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2003-06-01

    The Matrix Fluid Chemistry Experiment set out to determine the composition and evolution of matrix pore fluids/waters in low permeable rock located at repository depths in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Matrix pore fluids/waters can be highly saline in composition and, if accessible, may influence the near-field groundwater chemistry of a repository system. Characterising pore fluids/waters involved in-situ borehole sampling and analysis integrated with laboratory studies and experiments on rock matrix drill core material. Relating the rate of in-situ pore water accumulation during sampling to the measured rock porosity indicated a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -13} m/s for the rock matrix. This was in accordance with earlier estimated predictions. The sampled matrix pore water, brackish in type, mostly represents older palaeo- groundwater mixtures preserved in the rock matrix and dating back to at least the last glaciation. A component of matrix pore 'fluid' is also present. One borehole section suggests a younger groundwater component which has accessed the rock matrix during the experiment. There is little evidence that the salinity of the matrix pore waters has been influenced significantly by fluid inclusion populations hosted by quartz. Crush/leach, cation exchange, pore water diffusion and pore water displacement laboratory experiments were carried out to compare extracted/calculated matrix pore fluids/waters with in-situ sampling. Of these the pore water diffusion experiments appear to be the most promising approach and a recommended site characterisation protocol has been formulated. The main conclusions from the Matrix Fluid Chemistry Experiment are: Groundwater movement within the bedrock hosting the experimental site has been enhanced by increased hydraulic gradients generated by the presence of the tunnel, and to a much lesser extent by the borehole itself. Over experimental timescales {approx}4 years) solute transport

  13. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). Phase A final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.

    1994-04-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum 1,000 and 3,500 Å. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  14. An Innovative Sequential Focus Group Method for Investigating Diabetes Care Experiences With Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Jacklin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the innovative use of sequential focus groups (SFGs with Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes. This use of SFGs has not been previously described in the literature. In our project, SFGs were used to explore Indigenous people’s experiences in managing their diabetes. Our research objective has been to elucidate deep understandings of these experiences in order to inform the development of continuing medical education curriculum with the aim of improving approaches to diabetes care for Indigenous people. Working in partnerships with Indigenous health organizations, we recruited four groups comprising participants from diverse Indigenous communities (two urban, two rural in three provinces of Canada. We conducted a series of five focus groups (SFGs with the same participants (6–8 participants at each site for a total of 20 focus groups and 29 participants. Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes were asked open-ended questions concerning their experiences with diabetes and diabetes care in primary health-care settings. Our findings concerning the use of SFGs for Indigenous health research draw on team member and participants’ reflections captured in facilitator field notes, memos from debriefing sessions, and focus group transcripts. The SFG approach enabled in-depth exploration of the complex, and at times sensitive, issues related to Indigenous people’s views on diabetes and their experiences of diabetes care. The repeated sessions facilitated comfort and camaraderie among participants, which led to insightful sessions filled with personal and emotional stories of living with diabetes, the impacts of colonization, and health-care experiences. Overall, the method fostered a deeper level of engagement, exploration, and reflection than a single-session focus group typically would. We suggest this adaptation of the traditional single-session focus groups would be applicable to a wide variety of research

  15. Final Report for Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Spaceflight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John B.; McKay, Terri L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Brown, Dan F.; Zoldak, John T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA designed and operated the Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS), Increment 23/24, during May 2010. This hardware was a demonstration experiment to generate intravenous (IV) fluid from ISS Water Processing Assembly (WPA) potable water using a water purification technique and pharmaceutical mixing system. The IVGEN experiment utilizes a deionizing resin bed to remove contaminants from feedstock water to a purity level that meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the governing body for pharmaceuticals in the United States. The water was then introduced into an IV bag where the fluid was mixed with USP-grade crystalline salt to produce USP normal saline (NS). Inline conductivity sensors quantified the feedstock water quality, output water purity, and NS mixing uniformity. Six 1.5-L bags of purified water were produced. Two of these bags were mixed with sodium chloride to make 0.9 percent NS solution. These two bags were returned to Earth to test for compliance with USP requirements. On-orbit results indicated that all of the experimental success criteria were met with the exception of the salt concentration. Problems with a large air bubble in the first bag of purified water resulted in a slightly concentrated saline solution of 117 percent of the target value of 0.9 g/L. The second bag had an inadequate amount of salt premeasured into the mixing bag resulting in a slightly deficient salt concentration of 93.8 percent of the target value. The USP permits a range from 95 to 105 percent of the target value. The testing plans for improvements for an operational system are also presented.

  16. Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Green, S. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Howard, M. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Yesalusky, M. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Modlin, N. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) was a project to produce best-estimate atmospheric state measurements at the: 1. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Clouds and Radiation Test-bed (CART) site located in Lamont, Oklahoma (11–14 December 2012) 2. Poker Flat Alaska Research Range (PFRR) located in Poker Flat, Alaska (19–26 February 2013) 3. DOE ARM CART site located in Lamont, Oklahoma (24–28 April 2013) 4. DOE ARM CART site located in Lamont, Oklahoma (9–15 July 2013) 5. DOE ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site located in Darwin, Australia (27 September–3 October 2013).

  17. Study of correlations between photoproduced pairs of charmed particles at Experiment E831/FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castromonte Flores, Cesar Manuel [Brazilian Center for Physics Research, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-08-01

    The authors present the study of the charm-pair correlations produced in photon-nucleon interactions at $\\langle$Eγ$\\rangle$ = 175 GeV/c, by the Fermilab fixed target experiment E831/FOCUS. The E831/FOCUS experiment produced and reconstructed over one million charm particles. This high statistics allows the reconstruction of more than 7000 charm-pair mesons D$\\bar{D}$, 10 times the statistic of former experiments, and also allows to get, for the first time, about 600 totally reconstructed charm-pairs in the DDs and DΛc channels. They were able to study, with some detail, the kinematical correlations between the charm and anticharm particle forming a pair, in the square transverse momentum (pT2), azimuthal angle difference (ΔΦ), rapidity difference (Δy) and the charm-pair mass variables. They observe some correlation for the longitudinal momenta, and a significant correlation for the transverse momenta of the charm and anticharm particles. They compare the experimental distributions with theoretical predictions based on the photon-gluon fusion model (PGF), for the production of c$\\bar{c}$ quarks, and the standard Lund hadronization model. These models are implemented by the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator. The PYTHIA program allows the inclusion, in the simulation, of non-perturbative effects that have been shown to be important for charm production. In order to compare data and simulation, they have generated two Monte Carlo samples, the first one set to favor the production of D$\\bar{D}$ pairs (MCDD2), and the second one set to favor the production of DDsand DΛc pairs, where each one uses different functions and parameters values for the theoretical models in the simulation. They observe, for the correlation distributions, that the set of parameters used by the MCDD2 model together with the intrinsic transverse momentum (k$\\perp$) of the partons inside the

  18. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  19. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  20. Downwell pump reliability: Geothermal experience update: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Geothermal resources with temperatures between 250/sup 0/ and 360/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C and 182/sup 0/C) are prime candidates for binary-cycle power generation, and constitute about 80% of the power-capable resources in the United States. The successful exploitation of these resources requires reliable high-capacity downwell brine production pumps, but earlier experience showed that high-capacity, high-temperature geothermal production pumps had many problems which resulted in a mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of less than 1000 h. However, steady progress has been made since 1981, and a large body of experience has been acquired by three geothermal binary plants. This survey of high-temperature geothermal downwell pump users and manufacturers updates a prior survey (AP-3572) completed in early 1983. This survey traces the development of lineshaft pump technology from the late 1970s to the present (mid-1987), detailing the advances in design, materials selection, and operating practices. Case histories of 72 lineshaft pumps installed at three geothermal binary plants since late 1981 are documented, including some detailed cause of failure reports. In the recent past, pump lives in excess of 7000 h have become common, but a high continuing rate of premature failures resulted in a mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of about 5000 h. Based on recent advances which appear likely to eliminate most premature failures, the estimated near-term MTTF will be on the order of 8000 h. The survey found almost no development of high-temperature geothermal electric submersible pumps (ESP's) or close-coupled downwell hydraulic turbopumps, and concluded that considerable development and demonstration will be needed before these technologies are able to compete with existing high-temperature geothermal lineshaft pump technology. 36 refs., 10 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Effect of gravitational focusing on annual modulation in dark-matter direct-detection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samuel K; Lisanti, Mariangela; Peter, Annika H G; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-10

    The scattering rate in dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10)  GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  2. The DAN-AERO MW experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bak, C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Gaunaa, M. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Fuglsang, P. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark)); Romblad, J.; Olesen, N.A. (Vestas Wind Systems, Ringkoebing (Denmark)); Enevoldsen, P.; Laursen, J. (Siemens Wind Power, Ballerup (Denmark)); Jensen, Leo (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risoe DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to establish an experimental data base which can provide new insight into a number of fundamental aerodynamic and aero-acoustic issues, important for the design and operation of MW size turbines. The most important issue is the difference between airfoil characteristics measured under 2D, steady conditions in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were measured on a 2MW NM80 turbine with an 80 m rotor. One of the LM38.8 m blades on the rotor was replaced with a new LM38.8 m blade where instruments for surface pressure measurements at four radial sections were build into the blade during the blade production process. Additionally, the outmost section on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents of the inflow turbulence. In parallel, 2D wind tunnel measurements on common airfoils for wind turbine applications have been conducted in three different wind tunnels at Delft

  3. Conasauga near-surface heater experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Conasauga Experiment was undertaken to begin assessment of the thermomechanical and chemical response of a specific shale to the heat resulting from emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Canister-size heaters were implanted in Conasauga shale in Tennessee. Instrumentation arrays wee placed at various depths in drill holes around each heater. The heaters operated for 8 months and, after the first 4 days, were maintained at 385/sup 0/C. Emphasis was on characterizing the thermal and mechanical response of the formation. Conduction was the major mode of heat transport; convection was perceptible only at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Despite dehydration of the shale at higher temperatures, in situ thermal conductivity was essentially constant and not a function of temperature. The mechanical response of the formation was a slight overall expansion, apparently resulting in a general decrease in permeability. Metallurgical observations were made, the stability of a borosilicate glass wasteform simulant was assessed, and changes in formation mineralogy and groundwater composition were documented. In each of these areas, transient nonequilibrium processes occur that affect material stability and may be important in determining the integrity of a repository. In general, data from the test reflect favorably on the use of shale as a disposal medium for nuclear waste.

  4. Learning from clinical placement experience: Analysing nursing students' final reflections in a digital storytelling activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliadelis, Penny; Wood, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the learning potential of a reflective activity undertaken by final year nursing students, in which they were asked to recount two meaningful events that occurred during their clinical placements over the duration of their 3-year nursing degree program and reflect on how these events contributed to their learning to become beginning level Registered Nurses (RNs). This descriptive qualitative study gathered narratives from 92 students as individual postings in an online forum created within the University's learning management system. An analysis of the students' reflections are the focus of this paper particularly in relation to the value of reflecting on the identified events. Four themes emerged that clearly highlight the way in which these students interpreted and learned from both positive and negative clinical experiences, their strong desire to fit into their new role and their ability to re-imagine how they might respond to clinical events when they become Registered Nurses. The findings of this study may contribute to developing nursing curricula that better prepares final year students for the realities of practice.

  5. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  6. Progress in beam focusing and compression for warm-dense matter experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Barnard, J. J.; Calanog, J.; Chen, A. X.; Cohen, R. H.; Coleman, J. E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P. K.; Van den Bogert, K.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2009-07-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the warm-dense matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has been demonstrated in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) with controlled ramps and forced neutralization. Using an injected 30-mA K + ion beam with initial kinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to ˜50-fold current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing to beam radii of a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss the status of several improvements to our Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment and associated beam diagnostics that are under development to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including (1) greater axial compression via a longer velocity ramp using a new bunching module with approximately twice the available volt seconds (Vs); (2) improved centroid control via beam steering dipoles to mitigate aberrations in the bunching module; (3) time-dependent focusing elements to correct considerable chromatic aberrations; and (4) plasma injection improvements to establish a plasma density always greater than the beam density, expected to be >10 13 cm -3.

  7. Sounding Rocket Experiments to Investigate Thermal Electron Heating in the Sq Current Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T.; Ishisaka, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket observations in the southern part of Japan suggest that the electron temperature profile occasionally exhibits the local increase by several hundred K at 100-110 km altitudes at 1100-1200 LT in winter. Detailed study of the temperature profiles indicates that such an increase is closely related to the existence of Sq current focus, because it becomes more significant when the measurement is made near the center of Sq focus. In order to understand a general feature of this unusual phenomena occurring in the Sq current focus, the sounding rocket experiment was conducted in Uchinoura of Japan. In this experiment, we launched "S-310-37" rocket equipped with a total of eight science instruments at 11:20 JST on January 16, 2007 after being convinced that the Sq current was approaching to the planned rocket trajectory. The geomagnetic activity had been successively quiet on that day so that we can estimate the position of Sq current focus. Our analysis of the obtained data indicates that the electron temperature was certainly increased by about 500-600 K at the altitude of 97-101 km with respect to the background. Strong electron density perturbation was also observed to exist above 97 km altitude, which corresponds to the lower boundary of the high electron temperatures. It is also noticeable that both the electric field and magnetic field data include unusual variation in the same altitude region as the temperature increase was observed, suggesting a possible connection between the thermal electron heating and variation of the electric and/or magnetic field. Thus, the first experiment in 2007 revealed a general feature of such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus, and thereby our interest to the generation mechanism for increasing the electron temperature was more and more increased. We will conduct the second rocket experiment to investigate such unusual phenomena in the Sq current focus in January 2016. In this experiment, we will try to measure

  8. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  9. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final experiment design, monitoring results and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eng, Anders [Acuo Engineering AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The field part of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) was finished in 2004. The experiment was designed to induce and monitor the process of brittle failure, spalling, in a fractured rock mass under controlled conditions. The field part was successfully conducted and a large data set was obtained. This report presents the final design of the experiment, the results of the monitoring, and the observations made during the spalling process and when the spalled rock was removed. When heating of the rock was initiated the rock responded quickly. After only a few days the spalling process was activated in the notch, as indicated by the acoustic emission system, and shortly thereafter displacement readings were recorded. Contraction (radial expansion) of the rock was recorded by several instruments before the notch reached the instrument levels. This contraction is probably the result of a 3D re-distribution of the stresses. The temperature increase in the system was both slower and reached a steady state much earlier than predicted by the numerical models. The propagation of the notch was therefore halted after approximately one month of heating. The power to the electrical heaters was therefore doubled. Spalling then started up again, and in one month's time it had propagated to a depth of approximately five metres in the hole. A second steady state was now reached, but this time the heater power was kept constant for a while to let the rock settle before the confinement pressure was reduced from 700 kPa to 0 in decrements of 50 kPa. The rock mass response to the pressure drop was very limited until the pressure was lowered to approximately 200 kPa (the atmospheric pressure is not included in the given pressure values). Large displacements and a high acoustic emission hit frequency were then measured in the open hole. After the de-pressurization of the confined hole, the heaters were left on for approximately one week

  10. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2017-04-18

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  11. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, James C; Salsbury, Stacie A; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J

    2016-10-01

    One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor-patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices.

  12. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, James C.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Methods: Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. Results: The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor–patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Conclusion: Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices. PMID:27258817

  13. Focused bedside ultrasonography by clinicians: experiences with a basic introductory course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Nielsen, M.B.; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    behaviour and course compliance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The course consisted of a combined didactic, hands-on, one-day course including a skills test and a review of 20 still-pictures of pathological findings for final authorization. A questionnaire focusing on pre- and post-course activity and its impact...... of referral by 24 (23%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians appear to be ready to change the patterns of their workout programmes and clinical approach after a combined didactic and hands-on introduction to US, but only 10% produced the recommended documentation for authorization. National guidelines need...

  14. Experiences with a Focus on Test in Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2008-01-01

    Software of high quality is a major concern in teaching programming: simply making any program that fulfills the requirements is not enough. Yet the way teachers often state exercises tends to make the students focus more on functionality requirements and deadlines than on keeping the program...... quality high. This chapter discusses some concrete teaching guidelines that help in keeping the learning focus on quality and reports on our experiences in applying them. It furthermore presents an important observation relating to the use of test-driven development as a process that focus on high quality......, namely that it tend to improve also the flexibility and reusability of the production code. This issue is presented and argued by a concrete development example. Parts of the present chapter have been published in early form in a paper entitled Systematic Testing should not be a Topic in the Computer...

  15. Dutch Cyberbullying Victims’ Experiences, Perceptions, Attitudes and Motivations Related to (Coping with) Cyberbullying: Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Niels C.L. Jacobs; Linda Goossens; Francine Dehue; Trijntje Völlink; Lilian Lechner

    2015-01-01

    Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ ( i.e., the target group) experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with) cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female) participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims d...

  16. Use of proximity focused HPDs for the inner trigger detector of the FINUDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesotti, M

    2000-01-01

    A barrel scintillator detector viewed by proximity focused HPDs will be employed in the inner region of the FINUDA experiment inside a 1.1 T magnetic field to provide a fast first level trigger, the common stop for drift chambers and straw tubes and the start signal for Time-of-Flight (ToF) measurements. The overall performances have been tested with a laser system and sup 9 sup 0 Sr radiation source.

  17. Responses of potential users to the intracortical visual prosthesis: final themes from the analysis of focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Frank John; Huyck, Margaret; Troyk, Philip; Schug, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    Although visual implant prosthesis projects are advancing, little exists in the literature on the factors that would lead an individual to volunteer for such an experimental procedure. Many ethical issues are raised in recruiting and involving individuals in experimental implant procedures, most involving autonomy and informed consent. This report provides perspectives of 30 totally or legally blind older individuals on their expectations about a potential visual implant, their motivations for volunteering, and the processes they would use for decision making. Data were collected in eight focus groups, using semistructured focus group processes. Among the primary reasons a person with seriously impaired vision would volunteer for a new implant procedure are helping others, exploring the unknown, and restoring perception. The decision to participate in an experimental brain implant procedure is complex. Potential recipients have many questions about the device and the procedure, the perceived risks, and the commitment of a research team to the participants once a device has been implanted. Some would involve their family in a decision; others are more comfortable making the decision independent, after consulting others. The themes identified provide a guide for recruiting and ensuring an ethical experience for participants in experimental protocols.

  18. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students' learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Ramsey-Stewart, George

    2015-01-01

    The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students' interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD) within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students' perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. At the end of the course, all students (n=24) were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. In total, 20/24 (83%) students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students' learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students' learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying teaching methods and frequent assessments, prompting student-student and student-teacher interaction, was also beneficial for student learning.

  19. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Annette Burgess,1 George Ramsey-Stewart2 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods: At the end of the course, all students (n=24 were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results: In total, 20/24 (83% students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion: Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying

  20. Strengthening Integrated Care Through Population-Focused Primary Care Services: International Experiences Outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenson, Rene; Simpson, Sarah

    2017-03-20

    Many high- and middle-income countries (HMICs) are experiencing a burden of comorbidity and chronic diseases. Together with increasing patient expectations, this burden is raising demand for population health-oriented innovation in health care. Using desk review and country case studies, we examine strategies applied in HMICs outside the United States to address these challenges, with a focus on and use of a new framework for analyzing primary care (PC). The article outlines how a population health approach has been supported by focusing assessment on and clustering services around social groups and multimorbidity, with support for community roles. It presents ways in which early first contact and continuity of PC, PC coordination of referral, multidisciplinary team approaches, investment in PC competencies, and specific payment and incentive models have all supported comprehensive approaches. These experiences locate PC as a site of innovation, where information technology and peer-to-peer learning networks support learning from practice.

  1. FY06 LDRD Final Report Next-generation x-ray optics: focusing hard x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovaroff, M; Soufli, R

    2007-03-01

    The original goal of our research was to open up a new class of scientific experiments by increasing the power of newly available x-ray sources by orders of magnitude. This was accomplished by developing a new generation of x-ray optics, based on hard x-ray (10-200 keV) reflective and diffractive focusing elements. The optical systems we envision begin with a core reflective optic, which has the ability to capture and concentrate x-rays across a wide range of energies and angles band, combined with diffractive optics, based on large-scale multilayer structures, that will further enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power of the system. Enabling technologies developed at LLNL such as precise mounting of thermally formed substrates, smoothing techniques and multilayer films of ultra-high reflectance and precision were crucial in the development and demonstration of our research objectives. Highlights of this phase of the project include: the design and fabrication of a concentrator optic for the Pleiades Thomson X-ray source located at LLNL, smoothing of glass substrates through application of polyimide films, and the design, fabrication and testing of novel volume multilayers structures. Part of our research into substrate smooth led to the development of a new technique (patent pending) to construct high-quality, inexpensive x-ray optics. This innovation resulted in LLNL constructing a x-ray optic for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and allowed LLNL to join the international experiment.

  2. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  3. Reflections on the Final Year Learning Experience--Designing a Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keith; Wong, Kin Chi; Li, Yi Ching; Hung, Ching Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sector educational reform to be implemented in 2012 in Hong Kong (HK) is intended principally to prepare students for the future workplace. One of the explicit requirements for the new four-year undergraduate curriculum is the inclusion of a capstone course for final year students. This paper explores the uptake and reported effect of the…

  4. Subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused attention: cortical-hippocampal-insular and amygdala contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Clemens C C; Barrios, Fernando A; Díaz, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat). Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10), primary somatosensory cortex (BA1), premotor cortex (BA 6), precuneus (BA 7), temporopolar cortex (BA 38), inferior parietal lobe (BA 39), hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32) = 0.54, p = 0.0013) and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32) = 0.46, p = 0.007). All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention.

  5. Subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused attention: cortical-hippocampal-insular and amygdala contributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens C C Bauer

    Full Text Available In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat. Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10, primary somatosensory cortex (BA1, premotor cortex (BA 6, precuneus (BA 7, temporopolar cortex (BA 38, inferior parietal lobe (BA 39, hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32 = 0.54, p = 0.0013 and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32 = 0.46, p = 0.007. All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention.

  6. An exploration of people's experiences of compassion-focused therapy for trauma, using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Verity A; Lee, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion enhances psychological well-being, and compassion-focused therapy aims to alleviate psychological distress by fostering its development. The experience of becoming self-compassionate for people with complex mental health difficulties has not been analysed in the literature, despite clinical observations that this process is difficult. This study explored the process of becoming self-compassionate for people with posttraumatic stress disorder, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven participants. Five superordinate themes emerged from the data including: (1) the battle to give up the inner critic: who am I if I am not self-critical?; (2) an aversive and alien experience: how it feels to develop self-compassion; (3) the emotional experience of therapy; (4) self-compassion as a positive emotional experience; and (5) a more positive outlook in the present and for the future. Self-criticism formed an important part of the participants' self-identity, and they experienced an initially aversive emotional response to self-compassion, describing it as a completely new experience and one to be feared. Despite this, they were able to persist with therapy and subsequently experience positive emotional responses to self-compassion. They reported the therapeutic relationship as an important factor making this possible. Participants reflected on several reasons for the aversive nature of developing self-compassion, which are discussed. A process model of the journey from self-criticism to self-compassion is proposed. It is suggested that the obstacles frequently experienced when developing self-compassion can be overcome, instilling hope for both therapists and clients.

  7. Focusing on the Environment to Improve Youth Participation: Experiences and Perspectives of Occupational Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Teplicky, Rachel; Turner, Laura

    2015-10-23

    The environment plays a key role in supporting children's participation and can serve as a focus of intervention. This study aimed to elicit the perceptions and experiences of occupational therapists who had applied the PREP approach--Pathways and Resources for Engagement and Participation. PREP is a novel 12-week intervention for youth with physical disabilities, aimed at improving participation in leisure community-based activities by modifying aspects of the environment. Using a qualitative post-intervention only design, 12 therapists took part in individual semi-structured interviews, in which the therapists reflected on their experience using PREP to enable participation. A thematic analysis was conducted. Four themes emerged from the data; two of which were informative in nature, describing elements of the PREP intervention that target multi-layered composition of the environment and use strategies that involve leveraging resources and problem solving. The two remaining themes were reflective in nature, illustrating a new take on the Occupational Therapy role and re-positioning the concept of participation in therapy practices. Results emphasize aspects of the environment that can serve as effective targets of intervention, guided by the PREP approach. Findings can broaden the scope and focus of occupational therapy practice by redefining views on participation and the environment.

  8. Focusing on the Environment to Improve Youth Participation: Experiences and Perspectives of Occupational Therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Anaby

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The environment plays a key role in supporting children’s participation and can serve as a focus of intervention. This study aimed to elicit the perceptions and experiences of occupational therapists who had applied the PREP approach—Pathways and Resources for Engagement and Participation. PREP is a novel 12-week intervention for youth with physical disabilities, aimed at improving participation in leisure community-based activities by modifying aspects of the environment. Using a qualitative post-intervention only design, 12 therapists took part in individual semi-structured interviews, in which the therapists reflected on their experience using PREP to enable participation. A thematic analysis was conducted. Four themes emerged from the data; two of which were informative in nature, describing elements of the PREP intervention that target multi-layered composition of the environment and use strategies that involve leveraging resources and problem solving. The two remaining themes were reflective in nature, illustrating a new take on the Occupational Therapy role and re-positioning the concept of participation in therapy practices. Results emphasize aspects of the environment that can serve as effective targets of intervention, guided by the PREP approach. Findings can broaden the scope and focus of occupational therapy practice by redefining views on participation and the environment.

  9. Patients' experience of home and hospital based cardiac rehabilitation: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miren I; Greenfield, Sheila; Jolly, Kate

    2009-03-01

    New cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes, such as home programmes using the Heart Manual, are being introduced but little is known about patients' experiences of these. To compare the views of patients who had completed a home or hospital-based CR programme and explore the benefits and problems of each programme. 16 patients from 4 hospital programmes attended one of 3 focus groups; 10 home programme patients attended one of 2 focus groups. Some themes were common to all focus groups: loss of confidence; continuing to exercise and lifestyle changes; understanding of heart disease. Hospital programme patients particularly enjoyed exercising in a group and mixing with other people, and gained motivation and support from others. Home programme patients spoke very highly of the Heart Manual and valued the one-to-one support of the nurse facilitators. They described the home programme as a lifestyle change compared to the hospital programme which they suggested was more like a treatment. Patients in the hospital programme enjoyed the camaraderie of group exercise and patients in the home programme valued the wealth of information and advice in the Heart Manual and this gave them a feeling of being in control of their health.

  10. Numerical Experiments on Oxygen Plasma Focus: Scaling Laws of Soft X-Ray Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akel, M.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical experiments have been investigated on UNU/ICTP PFF low energy plasma focus device with oxygen filling gas. In these numerical experiments, the temperature window of 119-260 eV has been used as a suitable temperature range for generating oxygen soft X-rays. The Lee model was applied to characterize the UNU/ICTP PFF plasma focus. The optimum soft X-ray yield (Ysxr) was found to be 0.75 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.03 % at pressure of 2.36 Torr and the end axial speed was va = 5 cm/μs. The practical optimum combination of p0, z0 and `a' for oxygen Ysxr was found to be 0.69 Torr, 4.8 cm and 2.366 cm respectively, with the outer radius b = 3.2 cm. This combination gives Ysxr ~ 5 J, with the corresponding efficiency of about 0.16 %. Thus we expect to increase the oxygen Ysxr of UNU/ICTP PFF, without changing the capacitor bank, merely by changing the electrode configuration and operating pressure. Scaling laws on oxygen soft X-ray yield, in terms of storage energies E0, peak discharge current Ipeak and focus pinch current Ipinch were found over the range from 1 kJ to 1 MJ. It was found that the oxygen soft X-ray yields scale well with and for the low inductance (L0 = 30 nH) (where yields are in J and currents in kA). While the soft X-ray yield scaling laws in terms of storage energies were found to be as (E0 in kJ and Ysxr in J) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E0 rises over the range. The oxygen soft X-ray yield emitted from plasma focus is found to be about 8.7 kJ for storage energy of 1 MJ. The optimum efficiency for soft X-ray yield (1.1 %) is with capacitor bank energy of 120 kJ. This indicates that oxygen plasma focus is a good soft X-ray source when properly designed.

  11. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ $\\to$K $\\pi$+$\\pi$+ decay in the FOCUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Castromonte, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; Frisullo, V; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Stenson, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Göbel, C; Otalora, J; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Luiggi, E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M; Pennington, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected by the high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS at Fermilab we performed a Dalitz plot analysis of the Cabibbo favored decay D+ to K-pi+ pi+. This study uses 53653 Dalitz-plot events with a signal fraction of ~ 97%, and represents the highest statistics, most complete Dalitz plot analysis for this channel. Results are presented and discussed using two different formalisms. The first is a simple sum of Breit--Wigner functions with freely fitted masses and widths. It is the model traditionally adopted and serves as comparison with the already published analyses. The second uses a K-matrix approach for the dominant S-wave, in which the parameters are fixed by first fitting Kpi scattering data and continued to threshold by Chiral Perturbation Theory. We show that the Dalitz plot distribution for this decay is consistent with the assumption of two body dominance of the final state interactions and the description of these interactions is in agreement with other data on the Kpi final state.

  12. Doctors' learning experiences in end-of-life care - a focus group study from nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Anette; Ruths, Sabine; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase

    2017-01-31

    Doctors often find dialogues about death difficult. In Norway, 45% of deaths take place in nursing homes. Newly qualified medical doctors serve as house officers in nursing homes during internship. Little is known about how nursing homes can become useful sites for learning about end-of-life care. The aim of this study was to explore newly qualified doctors' learning experiences with end-of-life care in nursing homes, especially focusing on dialogues about death. House officers in nursing homes (n = 16) participated in three focus group interviews. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Lave & Wenger's theory about situated learning was used to support interpretations, focusing on how the newly qualified doctors gained knowledge of end-of-life care through participation in the nursing home's community of practice. Newly qualified doctors explained how nursing home staff's attitudes taught them how calmness and acceptance could be more appropriate than heroic action when death was imminent. Shifting focus from disease treatment to symptom relief was demanding, yet participants comprehended situations where death could even be welcomed. Through challenging dialogues dealing with family members' hope and trust, they learnt how to adjust words and decisions according to family and patient's life story. Interdisciplinary role models helped them balance uncertainty and competence in the intermediate position of being in charge while also needing surveillance. There is a considerable potential for training doctors in EOL care in nursing homes, which can be developed and integrated in medical education. This practice based learning arena offers newly qualified doctors close interaction with patients, relatives and nurses, teaching them to perform difficult dialogues, individualize medical decisions and balance their professional role in an interdisciplinary setting.

  13. Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidd Jane

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly

  14. Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Debra; Kidd, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles) and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly on patient safety

  15. Dutch Cyberbullying Victims’ Experiences, Perceptions, Attitudes and Motivations Related to (Coping with Cyberbullying: Focus Group Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the negative effects of cyberbullying; and because of its unique characteristics; interventions to stop cyberbullying are needed. For this purpose, more insightful information is needed about cyberbullying victims’ (i.e., the target group experiences, perceptions, attitudes and motivations related to (coping with cyberbullying. Five schools with 66 low-educated Dutch adolescents between 12 and 15 (53% female participated in 10 focus group interviews. Results show that victims do not perceive all behaviors as cyberbullying and traditional bullying is generally perceived as worse than cyberbullying. Cyberbullies are perceived as sad, cowards and embarrassing themselves. Victims are perceived as easy targets; they wear strange clothes, act in a provocative manner and have a bad appearance. These perceptions often depend on context, the level of anonymity, being in a fight or not, the person sending the message and his/her behavior. Further, victims reacted to cyberbullying by acting nonchalant, by not actually saying anything and seeking help from others (i.e., parents are not often asked for help because they do not want to bother them; fear of restricted Internet privileges. It can be concluded that asking cyberbullying victims about their experiences in an open manner, and allowing them to discuss these experiences, likely results in new and insightful information compared to using self-reports. In this questioning the perception of adolescents is key to see what is perceived as cyberbullying.

  16. Optimization of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for the HighCurrent Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Gourlay, Steve; Gung, Chen-yu; Hafalia, Ray; Lietzke, Alan; Martovetski, Nicolai; Mattafirri, Sara; Meinke, Rainer; Minervini, Joseph; Schultz, Joel; Seidl, Peter

    2005-09-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is progressing through a series of physics and technology demonstrations leading to an inertial fusion power plant. The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physics of intense beams with high line-charge density. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles have been developed for the HCX magnetic transport studies. A baseline design was selected following several pre-series models. Optimization of the baseline design led to the development of a first prototype that achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, without training, with measured field errors at the 0.1% level. Based on these results, the magnet geometry and fabrication procedures were adjusted to improve the field quality. These modifications were implemented in a second prototype. In this paper, the optimized design is presented and comparisons between the design harmonics and magnetic measurements performed on the new prototype are discussed.

  17. Management of Overweight during Childhood: A Focus Group Study on Health Professionals’ Experiences in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Marie Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcribed data were analysed using systematic text condensation followed by thematic analysis. Results. Health professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they have a special obligation, capacity, and role in the management of obesity in childhood. Implementation of future management programmes must address existing barriers beyond an evidence-based standardised strategy.

  18. Students' Experiences of Clinic-Based Learning during a Final Year Veterinary Internship Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Susan M.; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Ellis, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated veterinary students' experiences of clinic-based learning (CBL) during a comprehensive final year internship programme. Open-ended surveys (n = 93) were used to gather qualitative data about students' conceptions of what is learned during CBL and their approaches to learning in clinics. Phenomenography was used for detailed…

  19. Students' Experiences of Clinic-Based Learning during a Final Year Veterinary Internship Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Susan M.; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Ellis, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated veterinary students' experiences of clinic-based learning (CBL) during a comprehensive final year internship programme. Open-ended surveys (n = 93) were used to gather qualitative data about students' conceptions of what is learned during CBL and their approaches to learning in clinics. Phenomenography was used for detailed…

  20. Do You Look to the Future or Focus on Today? The Impact of Life Experience on Intertemporal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy; Aaker, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this research, we investigate the impact of significant life experiences on intertemporal decisions among young adults. A series of experiments focus specifically on the impact of experiencing the death of a close other by cancer. We show that such an experience, which bears information about time, is associated with making decisions that favor…

  1. Do You Look to the Future or Focus on Today? The Impact of Life Experience on Intertemporal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy; Aaker, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In this research, we investigate the impact of significant life experiences on intertemporal decisions among young adults. A series of experiments focus specifically on the impact of experiencing the death of a close other by cancer. We show that such an experience, which bears information about time, is associated with making decisions that favor…

  2. A new attempt using LabVIEW into a computational experiment of plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungkyu

    2017-03-01

    The simulation program of plasma focus device based on S. Lee's model has been first developed since 30 years ago and it is widely used to date. Originally the program made by GWbasic language, and then modified by visual basic which was included in the Microsoft Excel. Using Excel well-known to researchers is a key advantage of this program. But it has disadvantages in displaying data in same graph, in slow calculation speed, and in displaying data and calculation of smaller time step. To overcome all these points, the LabVIEW that made by national instrument and based on graphical environment is used for simulation. Furthermore it is correlated with data acquisition of experiment, once experiment being the data is directly transferred to the simulation program and then analyzes and predicts for the next shot. The mass swept factor (fm) and current factor (fc) can be easily find out using this program. This paper describes the detail function and usage of the program and compares the results with the existing one.

  3. Ion probe beam experiments and kinetic modeling in a dense plasma focus Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Ellsworth, J., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Falabella, S., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, A., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; McLean, H., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Rusnak, B., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Sears, J., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Tang, V., E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, 418 Washington St SE, Albuquerque NM 87108 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) emits multiple-MeV ions in a ∼cm length. The mechanisms through which these physically simple devices generate such high energy beams in a relatively short distance are not fully understood. We are exploring the origins of these large gradients using measurements of an ion probe beam injected into a DPF during the pinch phase and the first kinetic simulations of a DPF Z-pinch. To probe the accelerating fields in our table top experiment, we inject a 4 MeV deuteron beam along the z-axis and then sample the beam energy distribution after it passes through the pinch region. Using this technique, we have directly measured for the first time the acceleration of an injected ion beam. Our particle-in-cell simulations have been benchmarked on both a kJ-scale DPF and a MJ-scale DPF. They have reproduced experimentally measured neutron yields as well as ion beams and EM oscillations which fluid simulations do not exhibit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for accelerator and neutron source applications.

  4. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  5. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  6. Preservice Teachers' Reflection on Clinical Experiences: A Comparison of Blog and Final Paper Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Darci J.; Wondra, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the depth of reflection in the writing of preservice teachers who completed end-of-the-semester reflective papers or reflective blogs for undergraduate education courses associated with clinical experiences. Coders rated the depth of reflection as one of four categories: non-reflection, understanding, reflection, or critical…

  7. On the development of the final optical multiplexer board prototype for the TileCal experiment

    CERN Document Server

    González, V; Torres, J; Soret, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, V; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; Higón, E; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruíz, A; Salvachúa, B; Solans, C; Valero, A; Valls, J A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of the final optical multiplexer board for the TileCal experiment. The results of the first VME 6U prototype have led to the definition of the final block diagram and functionality of this prototype. Functional description of constituent blocks and the state of the work currently undergoing at the Department of Electronic Engineering, in collaboration with IFIC-Valencia, is presented. As no board is yet produced, no experimental results are presented but, nevertheless, design issues that have been taking into account as component placement and signal integrity issues will be detailed.

  8. Experimenting clinical pathways in general practice: a focus group investigation with Italian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zannini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB, Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods. Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results. Four major themes emerged: i clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions. Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment.

  9. Experiences of employees with arm, neck or shoulder complaints: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people suffer from complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). CANS causes significant work problems, including absenteeism (sickness absence), presenteeism (decreased work productivity) and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people suffering from CANS. Management of symptoms and workload, and improving the workstyle, could be important factors in the strategy to deal with CANS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experienced problems of employees with CANS, as a first step in an intervention mapping process aimed at adaptation of an existing self-management program to the characteristics of employees suffering from CANS. Methods A qualitative study comprising three focus group meetings with 15 employees suffering from CANS. Based on a question guide, participants were asked about experiences in relation to continuing work despite their complaints. Data were analysed using content analysis with an open-coding system. During selective coding, general themes and patterns were identified and relationships between the codes were examined. Results Participants suffering from CANS often have to deal with pain, disability, fatigue, misunderstanding and stress at work. Some needs of the participants were identified, i.e. disease-specific information, exercises, muscle relaxation, working with pain, influence of the work and/or social environment, and personal factors (including workstyle). Conclusions Employees suffering from CANS search for ways to deal with their complaints in daily life and at work. This study reveals several recurring problems and the results endorse the multi-factorial origin of CANS. Participants generally experience problems similar to those of employees with other types of complaints or chronic diseases, e.g. related to their illness, insufficient communication, working together with healthcare professionals, colleagues and management, and workplace adaptations. These topics will be

  10. Rural health professionals' experiences in implementing advance care planning: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sophie; Sinclair, Craig; Rhee, Joel; Goh, Desiree; Auret, Kirsten

    2015-09-02

    Advance care planning (ACP) is described as an ongoing discussion between a patient, their family and healthcare professionals (HCPs) to understand a patient's wishes for future health care. Legislation supporting ACP in Western Australia is relatively new and HCPs are still learning about the process and implementation. This study aimed to provide a rich description of rural health professionals' perceptions and experiences with ACP within the context of their professional role and to identify systemic issues and training needs. Ten focus groups were conducted throughout 2014 with a total of 55 rural participants including general practitioners (n = 15), general practice registrars (n = 6), practice nurses (n = 18), community nurses (n = 4) and hospital nurses (n = 12) in the south-western regions of Western Australia. Thematic analysis has identified the following themes regarding ACP: benefits to patients and families; professional roles in ACP; barriers and enablers; and systems for communicating ACP. HCPs have self-determined their roles in the ACP process, which currently leaves some components of the process unaccounted for, suggesting that collaboration between HCPs working together in a rural health setting and a standardised system for distributing these documents may assist with the implementation of ACP.

  11. Exploring the Experience of Nursing Home Residents Participation in a Hope-Focused Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Moore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99 who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end, field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one’s situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.”

  12. Exploring the Experience of Nursing Home Residents Participation in a Hope-Focused Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sharon L.; Hall, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home) understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99) who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end), field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one's situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.” PMID:24551450

  13. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  14. New Physics search in mono-jet final states with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavino, Giuliano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The search for New Physics in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum plays a major role in the physics program of the LHC experiments. This experimental signature is sensitive to different New Physics models including different scenarios of supersymmetry, models that predict the existence of extra dimensions and the production of Weakly Interacting Dark Matter candidates. Results based on the LHC Run-1 dataset corrisponding to 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ and firsts performance plots based on the data collected at the center of mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented.

  15. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  16. An integrated ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound system for in-vivo experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the system architecture of an integrated Ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (USgHIFU) system for image-guided surgery and temperature tracking in vivo. The system is capable of operating with multiple frontends. Current implementation has a SonixRP for imaging and a custom designed dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) system (32Tx/32Rx) for imaging/therapy. The highlights of the system include a fully-programmable, multiple data stream capable data processing engine, and an arbitrarily programmable high power array driver that is able to synthesize complex beam patterns in space and time. The data processing engine features a pipeline-style design that can be programmed on-the-fly by re-arranging the pre-verified GPU-accelerated high performance pipeline blocks, which cover an extensive range from basic functions such as filtering to specialized processing like speckle tracking. Furthermore, the pipeline design also has the option of bringing in MATLAB (Mathworks, Natick, MA, US) as part of the processing chain, thus vastly increase the capability of the system. By properly balancing the processing load between GPU-enabled routine and MATLAB script. This allows one to achieve a high degree of flexibility while meeting real-time constraints. Results are presented from in vivo rat experiment. Where low dose of therapeutic ultrasound was delivered into the hind limb of the Copenhagen rats using DMUA and temperature was tracked using a linear probe (HST, Ultrasonix). The data is processed in realtime with MATLAB in the loop to perform temperature regularization. Results show that we can reliably track the low temperature heating in the presence of motion artifacts (respiration and pulsation).

  17. Final report: Constructing comprehensive models of grain boundaries using high-throughput experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkowicz, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Schuh, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Marzouk, Youssef [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This is the final report on project DE-SC0008926. The goal of this project was to create capabilities for constructing, analyzing, and modeling experimental databases of the crystallographic characters and physical properties of thousands of individual grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline metals. This project focused on gallium permeation through aluminum (Al) GBs and hydrogen uptake into nickel (Ni) GBs as model problems. This report summarizes the work done within the duration of this project (including the original three-year award and the subsequent one-year renewal), i.e. from August 1, 2012 until April 30, 2016.

  18. Effects of an Intensive Disability-Focused Training Experience on University Faculty Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Seely, John R.; Gerdes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the short-term effects of a disability-focused training on the disability-related self-efficacy of university faculty. Three consecutive cohorts of faculty (N = 102) participated in an intensive four-day training institute focused on understanding and supporting university students with disabilities. Self-efficacy for…

  19. Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

  20. First year nursing students’ experiences of social media during the transition to university: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Moorley, CR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social media platforms are useful for creating communities, which can then be utilised as a mean for supportive, professional and social learning. Objective: To explore first year nursing student experiences with social media in supporting student transition and engagement into higher education. Design: Qualitative focus groups. Methods: Ten 1st yearBachelor of Nursing students were included in three face-to-face focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content ...

  1. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  2. Performance studies of the final prototype for the CASTOR forward calorimeter at the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Basegmez, Suzan; Beaumont, Willem; Blocki, Jacek; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Çerçi, Salim; d'Enterria, David; de Silva, M; Dumanoglu, Isa; Erturk, Sefa; Eskut, Eda; Erchov, Y; Göttlicher, P; Gouskos, Loukas; Onengüt, G; Gusev, Yuri; Jung, Hannes; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Khein, Lev; Kisoglu, F; Knutsson, Albert; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Lebeau, Michel; McCauley, Thomas; Muhl, Carsten; Musienko, Yuri; Ochesanu, Silvia; Oroku, M; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Shileev, K; Sogut, Kenan; Swain, John; Reucroft, Steve; Ripert, Marion; Tiflov, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    We present performance results of the final prototype for the CASTOR quartz-tungsten sampling calorimeter, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The energy linearity and resolution, the uniformity, as well as the spatial resolution of the prototype to electromagnetic and hadronic showers are studied with $E=$ 10--200 GeV electrons, $E=$ 20--350 GeV pions, and $E=$ 50, 150 GeV muons in beam tests carried out at CERN/SPS in 2007.

  3. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  4. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  5. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping

  6. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital

  7. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  8. Introduction to focus issue: Mixed mode oscillations: Experiment, computation, and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Kaper, T.J.; Rotstein, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed mode oscillations ( MMOs ) occur when a dynamical system switches between fast and slow motion and small and large amplitude. MMOs appear in a variety of systems in nature, and may be simple or complex. This focus issue presents a series of articles on theoretical, numerical, and experimental...

  9. The Experience of Transitioning Two Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome in Academically Focused High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roselyn M.; Tanner, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) are increasingly being placed in academically focused high schools. These students, although academically able, may not be coping with the wider classroom and social demands of transition to, and within, the high school environment. Schools are keen to enroll these students. However, there appears to be a…

  10. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  11. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  12. Early Experience of Financial Performance and Solvency of Medicaid-Focused Insurers Under ACA Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2016-08-16

    To allow for greater coverage of the uninsured, the Affordable Care Act expanded Medicaid coverage in 2014. Accessing financial data of state health insurers from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, this data trend study compares the financial performance and solvency of Medicaid-focused health insurers prior to and after the first year expansion of Medicaid coverage. After the first year of Medicaid expansion, there was a significant increase in operating profit margin ratio for Medicaid-focused health insurers within expansion states. Lower medical loss ratio as well as no change in administrative costs contributed to this profitable position. The risk-based capital ratio for solvency increased significantly for health insurers in nonexpansion states while there was no change in this ratio for health insurers in expansion states. Conversely, the other important solvency ratio of cash flow margin increased significantly for health insurers in expansion states but not for insurers in nonexpansion states. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Executive summary and guide to final report: Advisory committee on human radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    On January 15, 1994, President Clinton appointed the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate reports of possibly unethical experiments funded by the government decades ago. The Committee was directed to uncover the history of human radiation experiments during the period 1944 through 1974 and to examine cases in which the government had intentionally released radiation into the environment for research purposes. The Committee was further charged with identifying the ethical and scientific standards for evaluating these events, and with making recommendations to ensure that whatever wrongdoing may have ocurred in the past cannot be repeated. The Committee undertook three projects: A review of how each agency of the federal government that currently conducts or funds research involving human subjects regulates this activity or oversees it; An examination of the documents and consent forms of research projects that are today sponsored by the federal government in order to develop insight into the current status of protections for the rights and interests of human subjects; and, Interviews of nearly 1,900 patients receiving out-patient medical care in private hospitals and federal facilities throughout the country. This booklet provides an overview of the Final Report, summarizing each chapter.

  14. Optimizing the Experience of Flow for Adults with Aphasia: A Focus on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas W.; Howe, Tami; Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Lagerwey, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Flow has been described as positive experiences of intense concentration, distorted time passage, and a loss of self-consciousness that result from matching task difficulty to a person's skill level. It has been studied in many different populations and has been associated with a number of positive outcomes, including improved life satisfaction…

  15. Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin

    2007-01-01

    The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

  16. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and p

  17. Within-Students Variability in Learning Experiences, and Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Task-Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Lim, Wee H. T.; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    In order to advance our understanding of educational processes, we present a tutorial of intraindividual variability. An adaptive educational process is characterised by stable (less variability), and a maladaptive process is characterised by instable (more variability) learning experiences from one learning situation to the next. We outline step…

  18. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  19. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  20. Final results on the neutrino magnetic moment from the MUNU experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Daraktchieva, Z; Avenier, M; Broggini, C; Busto, J; Cerna, C; Juget, F R; Koang, D H; Lamblin, J; Lebrun, D; Link, O; Puglierin, G; Stutz, A; Tadsen, A; Vuilleumier, J L; Zacek, V

    2005-01-01

    The MUNU detector was designed to study neutrino-electron elastic scattering at low energy. The central component is a Time Projection Chamber filled with CF4 gas, surrounded by an anti-Compton detector. The experiment was carried out at the Bugey (France) nuclear reactor. In this paper we present the final analysis of the data recorded at 3 bar and 1 bar pressure. Both the energy and the scattering angle of the recoil electron are measured. From the 3 bar data a new upper limit on the neutrino magnetic moment was derived. At 1 bar electron tracks down to 150 keV were reconstructed, demonstrating the potentiality of the experimental technique for future applications in low energy neutrino physics.

  1. The LINC-NIRVANA Fizeau interferometric imager: final lab integration, first light experiments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Eckart, A.; Weigelt, G.

    2014-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is an innovative Fizeau interferometric imager for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). LN uses Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) for high-sky-coverage single-eye imagery and interferometric beam combination. The last two years have seen both successes and challenges. On the one hand, final integration is proceeding well in the lab. We also achieved First Light at the LBT with the Pathfinder experiment. On the other hand, funding constraints have forced a significant re-planning of the overall instrument implementation. These laboratory, observatory, and financial "events" provide lessons for builders of complex interferometric instruments on large telescopes. This paper presents our progress and plans for bringing the instrument online at the telescope.

  2. Focusing neutron reflectometry: Implementation and experience on the TOF-reflectometer Amor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, J.; Glavic, A.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to investigate chemical and magnetic depth profiles near surfaces. The advantages of neutrons compared to x-rays are their sensitivity to isotopes, the high penetration capabilities and the high sensitivity to magnetic induction. The biggest disadvantage however is the low flux available, which leads to much longer counting times on much larger samples. In order to boost the performance of neutron reflectometers, a focusing guide system was developed and realised over recent years. Here we report on the application and performance of a down-scaled demonstrator of such a Selene guide, installed as an add-on on the time-of-flight (TOF) reflectometer Amor at the PSI. Due to the limited size of the guide, the flux is concentrated to a footprint of at most 2 mm width. It is thus possible to avoid illumination of contacts even on small samples. Despite the fact that typical samples measured on Amor with a size of 10 × 10mm2 are markedly under illuminated, the presented set-up leads to a reduction in counting time of 80%. The use of the demonstrator thus allows for in-situ or in-operando investigations with a time resolution of a few minutes for a qz range from 0.005Å-1 to 0.08Å-1. Besides a short recapitulation of the concept of focusing reflectometry, a detailed description of the data reduction and its quality is given, followed by an application example.

  3. Clearing the Air: A Qualitative Investigation of Genetic Counselors' Experiences of Counselor-Focused Patient Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schema, Lynn; McLaughlin, Michaela; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2015-10-01

    Patient anger is challenging for healthcare professionals to manage, particularly when it is directed at them. This study comprises the first in-depth investigation of genetic counselors' experiences with patient anger. Using a brief survey and interview methods, this study explored prevalence and context of patient anger directed at the genetic counselor, how genetic counselors manage patient anger directed at them, and possible thematic differences due to genetic counseling experience. Individuals enrolled in the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) listserv were invited to participate in a study of their experiences with patient anger directed at them. A majority of survey respondents (95.7 %, 243/254) reported experiencing patient anger directed at them, and 19.4 % reported having feared for their safety because of patient anger. Twenty-two survey respondents were purposively selected to participate in individual interviews. Inductive and cross case analysis yielded prevalent themes concerning patient triggers for anger, including bad news, logistical mishaps, and perceived counselor characteristics. Interview results further suggest unaddressed patient anger negatively affected patient and counselor emotional well-being and hindered genetic counseling goals. Prevalent challenges included genetic counselor attempts to accurately recognize, understand, and effectively manage patient anger without taking it personally. Commonly recommended strategies for addressing anger were empathy (i.e., understanding origins of patient anger), anticipating and acknowledging anger, maintaining personal, professional and legal protection, and debriefing with colleagues. Themes were quite similar across counselor experience levels. The findings underscore the importance of training and continuing education regarding patient anger. Additional findings, practice implications, and research recommendations are presented.

  4. Perioperative Nurses' Work Experience With Robotic Surgery: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jung; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kang, Hee Sun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the work experience of perioperative nurses involved in robotic surgery. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Participants were 15 nurses who had been on a robotic surgery team at one of five major university hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were one male and 14 female nurses (mean age, 31.33 [SD, 4.19] years; range, 25-41 years). Their experience as robotic surgery nurses ranged from 8 months to 6 years. Nurses' experiences with robotic surgery were categorized within four main themes: (1) constant checking on patients' safety and the robot's functions; (2) unexpected robotic machine errors or malfunctions; (3) feelings of burden in a robotic surgical team; and (4) need and desire for more information and education. This study showed that there are common concerns about patient safety and the possibility of emergencies related to robot system failure among nurses. Offering more support for nurses involved in robotic surgery should be a priority to empower them to play an extended role in robotic surgery.

  5. Experiment Setup for Focused Learning of Advanced Servo Control of DC-motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag A. H. Samuelsen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote laboratories are normally developed for giving students and others remote access to physical laboratory facilities. In contradiction to this, the main objective of the setup presented in this paper is to create a controlled environment where unwanted side activities like hardware setup, driver problems, troubleshooting faulty components, and struggles with special software for configuring DSP systems, are removed as much as possible, in order for the students to have their full focus on the tasks that is considered relevant for the module: modeling of non-linear systems, synthetisation of controllers, and stability and performance analysis. A secondary objective is to significantly reduce the setup and maintenance cost associated with complex laboratory setups involving DSPs and expensive hardware.

  6. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, Tasso J., E-mail: tasso@bu.edu; Kramer, Mark A., E-mail: mak@bu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rotstein, Horacio G., E-mail: horacio@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  7. Introduction to Focus Issue: Rhythms and Dynamic Transitions in Neurological Disease: Modeling, Computation, and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Tasso J.; Kramer, Mark A.; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic neuronal oscillations across a broad range of frequencies, as well as spatiotemporal phenomena, such as waves and bumps, have been observed in various areas of the brain and proposed as critical to brain function. While there is a long and distinguished history of studying rhythms in nerve cells and neuronal networks in healthy organisms, the association and analysis of rhythms to diseases are more recent developments. Indeed, it is now thought that certain aspects of diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and sleep disorders, are associated with transitions or disruptions of neurological rhythms. This focus issue brings together articles presenting modeling, computational, analytical, and experimental perspectives about rhythms and dynamic transitions between them that are associated to various diseases.

  8. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. First year nursing students' experiences of social media during the transition to university: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Caleb; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Saliba, Bernard; Green, Janet; Moorley, Calvin; Wyllie, Aileen; Jackson, Debra

    2016-10-01

    Social media platforms are useful for creating communities, which can then be utilised as a mean for supportive, professional and social learning. To explore first year nursing student experiences with social media in supporting student transition and engagement into higher education. Qualitative focus groups. Ten 1st year Bachelor of Nursing students were included in three face-to-face focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Three key themes emerged that illustrates the experiences of transition and engagement of first year student nurses using social media at university. (1) Facilitating familiarity and collaboration at a safe distance, (2) promoting independent learning by facilitating access to resources, and (3) mitigating hazards of social media. This study has demonstrated the importance of social media in supporting informal peer-peer learning and support, augmenting online and offline relationships, and building professional identity as a nurse.

  10. First Experience Of Application Of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Ablation (Hifu In Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Stativko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article points out that 40 sessions of HIFU prostate ablation have been performed for estimation of clinical efficiency. Average frequency of influences presents 628±164 impulses; average volume of tissues subjected to influence during one procedure is 33,8±16,3 smi (132 % of prostate volume; average operation time constitutes 150 minutes (from 90 to 200 minutes. During the operation no complications have been occurred. In the first days after the session of HIFU there was a peak of PSA increase and then during 1,5-3 months there was decrease to the lowest index. Minimal PSA level was reached in 10-12 weeks after treatment and it constituted from 0,04 till 1,1 ngml depending on the disease state. Reduction of prostate volume occurred in average from the 30th day of postoperative period and lasted for 6 months, reaching in average 50 % from initial volume. Postoperative period varied from 10 till 16 days and constituted in average 12±0,8 days. Thus application of high-intensity focused ultrasonic ablation allows treating successfully various stages of prostate cancer with minimal number of side-effects and makes possible the early estimation of treatment efficiency

  11. Airborne field experiments and select radiance analysis focused on SNPP validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin

    2017-02-01

    The Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite began a critical first step in building the next-generation Earth observing satellite system for the US, continuing key environmental data records that are essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. Since its launch in late 2011, two airborne field campaigns have been conducted with a primary focus on SNPP instrument and data product calibration / validation: 1) mid-latitude flights based out of Palmdale, CA during May 2013 (SNPP-1), and 2) flights over Greenland during March 2015 while based out of Keflavik, Iceland (SNPP-2). In addition to under-flying SNPP, aircraft flight profiles were defined to also obtain coincident observations with the NASA A-train (i.e. AQUA), MetOP-A, and MetOP-B advanced sounder satellites (i.e. AIRS, IASI, and CrIS), along with radiosonde and ground truth sites. The NASA LaRC National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) was one of the key payload sensors aboard the ER-2 aircraft during these campaigns. This presentation gives an overview of the SNPP field campaigns and shows example infrared spectral radiance inter-comparisons involving NAST-I and other measurement assets.

  12. TU-CD-BRD-02: Henry Ford Hospital System Experience, with Focus On Motivating and Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B. [Henry Ford Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  13. TU-CD-BRD-03: UCSD Experience, with Focus On Implementing Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  14. Improving Performance in Constructing specific Web Directory using Focused Crawler: An Experiment on Botany Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian, Madjid; Boroujeni, Farsad Zamani; Mustapha, Norwati

    Nowadays the growth of the web causes some difficulties to search and browse useful information especially in specific domains. However, some portion of the web remains largely underdeveloped, as shown in lack of high quality contents. An example is the botany specific web directory, in which lack of well-structured web directories have limited user's ability to browse required information. In this research we propose an improved framework for constructing a specific web directory. In this framework we use an anchor directory as a foundation for primary web directory. This web directory is completed by information which is gathered with automatic component and filtered by experts. We conduct an experiment for evaluating effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.

  15. Search for Gluinos using Final States with One Isolated Lepton in the LHC- ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shion

    This thesis presents the updated search for gluinos via proton-proton collisions with the center- of-mass energy of √s = 13 TeV at LHC, by focusing on the final state with exactly one lepton. With respect to the past searches, the sensitivity to heavier gluino is gained using the improved analysis technique and updated data statistics (36.1 fb−1 of integrated luminosity) collected in the ATLAS detector. No significant data excess is found in the unblinded dataset, and the exclusion limits are set on various targeted gluino decay scenarios. As a general conclusion, it is confirmed that up to 1.7 TeV ∼ 2.0 TeV in gluino mass and up to ∼ 1 TeV in the lightest neutralino mass is excluded for typical mass spectra, while the limit extends up to 1.5 TeV ∼ 1.9 TeV in gluino mass for the mass spectra motivated by the well-tempered neutralino scenario.

  16. Effects of Age and Experience on the Production of English Word-Final Stops by Korean Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of second language (L2) age of acquisition and amount of experience on the production of word-final stop consonant voicing by adult native Korean learners of English. Thirty learners, who differed in amount of L2 experience and age of L2 exposure, and 10 native English speakers produced 8 English monosyllabic words…

  17. Final acceptance of the 200 GHz telescope unit for the QUIJOTE CMB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirce-García, R.; Sainz-Pardo, I.; Etxeita-Arriaga, B.; Murga-Llano, Gaizka; Fernandez-Santos, E.; Sánchez-de-la-Rosa, V.; Viera-Curbelo, T. A.; Gómez-Reñasco, F.; Aguiar-González, M.; Pérez de Taoro, M. R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) experiment is a scientific collaboration, led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), with the aim of measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the frequency range 10-40 GHz and at large angular scales (around 1°). The project is composed of 2 telescopes and 3 instruments, located in Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Idoḿs contribution for this project is divided in two phases. Phase I consisted on the design, assembly and factory testing of the first telescope (2008), the integration and functional tests for the 5 polarimeters of the first instrument (2009), and the design and construction supervision of the building which protects both telescopes (2009), including the installation and commissioning of the mechanism for domes apertures. Phase II comprised the design, factory assembly and testing, transport and final commissioning on site of the second telescope, which finished in January 2015. The optical design of both telescopes should allow them to reach up to 200 GHz. The required opto-mechanical performance was checked under nominal conditions, reaching a pointing and tracking accuracy lower than 5 arcsec in both axes, 8 times better than specified. Particular inspections and tests were carried out for critical systems, as the rotary joint that transmits fluid, power and signal to the rotary elements, or for the safety system to ensure personnel and hardware protection under emergency conditions. This paper contains a comprehensive description of the power electronics and acquisition/control design required for safely operation under nominal and emergency conditions, as well as a detailed description of the factory and observatory tests required for the final acceptance of the telescope

  18. Toward the Tailoring of Sexual Health Education Messages for Young Women: A Focus on Tourist Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2017-02-22

    Perceived anonymity and decreased influence of sexual double standards in tourism provide female travelers with opportunities for sexual experimentation and risk taking. The purpose of this study was (a) to identify the clusters of risk takers among young women based on their perceptions of and motivations for sexual risk taking in tourism and (b) to profile the clusters with respect to the psychological, sexual, demographic, and tourist characteristics. The data were collected through an online survey of 853 women (age in years: M = 23.5, SD = 6.67). Five clusters of sexual risk takers emerged based on their factor-analyzed risk perceptions and motivations. These clusters were interpreted as (a) diversely motivated broad risk perceivers; (b) fun-seeking broad risk perceivers; (c) diversely motivated physical risk perceivers; (d) anonymity- and empowerment-seeking risk disregarders; and (e) unmotivated broad risk perceivers. Women in these clusters differed in their intentions to engage in sexual risk taking in tourism, sensation-seeking propensities, perceptions of tourist characteristics, levels of sexual experience, and demographic backgrounds. Results suggest tailoring sexual health promotion messages based on cluster affiliation, leveraging cluster-specific risk perceptions, motivations, and personal characteristics. This study provides recommendations for individually tailored, context-specific, age-appropriate, and gender-sensitive sexual health education programs.

  19. Experiments and computational modeling focused on divertor and SOL optimization for advanced tokamak operation on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. L.; Boedo, J. A.; Bozek, A. S.; Brooks, N. H.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Casper, T. A.; Colchin, R. J.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Friend, M. E.; Isler, R. C.; Jayakumar, R.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Mahdavi, M. A.; Maingi, R.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Murakami, M.; Osborne, T. H.; O'Neill, R. C.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Ramsey, A. T.; Schaffer, M. J.; Stangeby, P. C.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Wade, M. R.; Watking, J. G.; West, W. P.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolf, N. S.

    2001-03-01

    We present the results from DIII-D experiments and modeling focused on the divertor issues of an `Advanced Tokamak' (AT). Operation at high plasma pressure β with good energy confinement H requires core and divertor plasma shaping and current profile J( r) control with ECH current drive. Transport modeling indicates that the available DIII-D ECH power determines a density and temperature regime for sustained DIII-D AT experiments. We demonstrate that a high-δ, unbalanced double null divertor with cryopumping (D-2000) is a flexible AT divertor. Impurity levels in AT experiments have been reduced by careful alignment of the divertor tiles; this, in turn has changed the time evolution of the core J( r) profiles. New physics has been observed near the X-point and private flux regions, including flow reversal and recombination, that is important in understanding and controlling the flows and thereby the radiation in the divertor region, which reduces the divertor heat flux.

  20. Two experiments focusing on de-escalation oriented coverage of post-war conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available War coverage has a strong bias towards the promotion of conflict escalation and - though less pronounced - this bias often survives in post-war coverage as well. Even after the end of war, only a minority of journalists frame conflict in a firmly de-escalation oriented way. Do they have a chance to reach the public? Will their reports be respected by the audience as more balanced and unbiased? Will they have an impact on the audience's mental models of the conflict? Or will the audience continue to cling to its prejudices and reject news articles which do not affirm the enemy images that emerged during wartime? The present paper investigates these questions by means of two experimental studies. In the first experiment, news articles on three events in former Yugoslavia after the fall of Milosevic were presented to a total of n = 128 subjects, representative of the readership of the German quality press: (1 violent conflicts in Southern Serbia (December 2000, (2 the extradition of Milosevic to The Hague (June, 2001 and (3 the treaty between Serbia and Montenegro (March 2003. For each of the events, four different types of articles were used: moderately escalation oriented articles from prestigious German newspapers (Die Welt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Süddeutsche Zeitung and three variants of these articles, (a with increased escalation-oriented framing, (b with moderate de-escalation oriented framing and (c with more strongly de-escalation oriented framing of the events. Each subject was asked to read one article on each of the three events in chronological order and after each article (a to narrate the reported events in their own words and (b to fill out a questionnaire designed to measure the acceptance of the articles as unbiased, well-balanced, interesting, etc. The subjects' mental models of the reported events were inferred from their narratives by means of quantitative content analysis. The second experiment measured the

  1. Management of chest pain: exploring the views and experiences of chiropractors and medical practitioners in a focus group interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowell Robert M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on a multidisciplinary focus group project related to the appropriate care of chiropractic patients who present with chest pain. The prevalence and clinical management, both diagnosis and treatment, of musculoskeletal chest pain in ambulatory medical settings, was explored as the second dimension of the focus group project reported here. Methods This project collected observational data from a multidisciplinary focus group composed of both chiropractic and medical professionals. The goals of the focus group were to explore the attitudes and experiences of medical and chiropractic clinicians regarding their patients with chest pain who receive care from both medical and chiropractic providers, to identify important clinical or research questions that may inform the development of 'best practices' for coordinating or managing care of chest pain patients between medical and chiropractic providers, to identify important clinical or research questions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of chest pain of musculoskeletal origin, to explore various methods that might be used to answer those questions, and to discuss the feasibility of conducting or coordinating a multidisciplinary research effort along this line of inquiry. The convenience-sample of five focus group participants included two chiropractors, two medical cardiologists, and one dual-degreed chiropractor/medical physician. The focus group was audiotaped and transcripts were prepared of the focus group interaction. Content analysis of the focus group transcripts were performed to identify key themes and concepts, using categories of narratives. Results Six key themes emerged from the analysis of the focus group interaction, including issues surrounding (1 Diagnosis; (2 Treatment and prognosis; (3 Chest pain as a chronic, multifactorial, or comorbid condition; (4 Inter-professional coordination of care; (5 Best practices and standardization of care; and (6

  2. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  3. The need for experience focused counselling (EFC) with voice hearers in training and practice: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, J K; Martin, C R

    2014-06-01

    A pathologizing paradigm to making sense of experiences such as hearing voices and schizophrenia remains dominant within mental health service provision. However, a real biological basis to the aetiology of hearing voices, and similar phenomena remains elusive. Antipsychotic medication, as the mainstay of the biological model, has not only been shown to have serious side effects, but is widely acknowledged as being of clinical benefit only to a limited number of people. In contrast, the Recovery Movement, and in particular the Hearing Voices Movement, have suggested that a normal life is possible despite having the experience of hearing voices. At its heart is the notion that it is possible to make sense of voices within the person's life context and to learn to live with them. Interestingly, it would seem that this approach remains largely confined to the user movement. This may in part be the result of the lack of widely accepted quantifiable and qualitative research in this area supporting such a stance. This review focuses on the current evidence base for the individual approach of the Hearing Voices Movement, which is known as Experience Focused Counselling or Making Sense of Voices. Future directions for research are indicated.

  4. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  5. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Final coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling. Preliminary particle mechanical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanne, Toivo; Johansson, Erik; Potyondy, David [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-02-01

    SKB is planning to perform a large-scale pillar stability experiment called APSE (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment) at Aespoe HRL. The study is focused on understanding and control of progressive rock failure in hard crystalline rock and damage caused by high stresses. The elastic thermo-mechanical modeling was carried out in three dimensions because of the complex test geometry and in-situ stress tensor by using a finite-difference modeling software FLAC3D. Cracking and damage formation were modeled in the area of interest (pillar between two large scale holes) in two dimensions by using the Particle Flow Code (PFC), which is based on particle mechanics. FLAC and PFC were coupled to minimize the computer resources and the computing time. According to the modeling the initial temperature rises from 15 deg C to about 65 deg C in the pillar area during the heating period of 120 days. The rising temperature due to thermal expansion induces stresses in the pillar area and after 120 days heating the stresses have increased about 33% from the excavation induced maximum stress of 150 MPa to 200 MPa in the end of the heating period. The results from FLAC3D model showed that only regions where the crack initiation stress has exceeded were identified and they extended to about two meters down the hole wall. These could be considered the areas where damage may occur during the in-situ test. When the other hole is pressurized with a 0.8 MPa confining pressure it yields that 5 MPa more stress is needed to damage the rock than without confining pressure. This makes the damaged area in some degree smaller. High compressive stresses in addition to some tensile stresses might induce some AE (acoustic emission) activity in the upper part of the hole from the very beginning of the test and are thus potential areas where AE activities may be detected. Monitoring like acoustic emissions will be measured during the test execution. The 2D coupled PFC-FLAC modeling indicated that

  6. Evaluation of agents and study of end-user needs and behaviour for e-commerce. COGITO focus group experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Hansen, C.B.; Andersen, H.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    The process of buying products and services on the Internet often implies a high degree of complexity and uncertainty about the conditions of information seeking, about items for sale, the purchase of wanted products and the actual navigation on a site.Some important problems concerning e-commerce......, as this domain has been selected as the application domain for the e-commerce in COGITO, but the requirements are mostly common covering e-commerce ingeneral. One of the main features to consider, analyse and specify in COGITO was the use of .intelligent personalised agents. Therefore, a focus group experiment...

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Final report of the first stage of the tracer retention understanding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, A. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Peter [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Grundteknik, Solna (Sweden); Byegaard, Johan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Cvetkovic, V. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    The first stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) was performed as a SKB funded project. The overall objectives of TRUE are to develop the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention in fractured rock, to evaluate the realism in applied model concepts, and to assess whether the necessary input data to the models can be collected from site characterisation. Further, to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of different model approaches, and finally to provide in situ data on radionuclide migration and retention. The strive for address with multiple approaches is facilitated through a close collaboration with the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. The TRUE programme is a staged programme which addresses various scales from laboratory (< 0.5 m), detailed scale (< 10 m) and block scale (10-50 m). The First TRUE Stage was performed in the detailed scale with the specific objectives of providing data and conceptualising the investigated feature using conservative and sorbing tracers. Further, to improve methodologies for performing tracer tests, and to develop and test a methodology for obtaining pore volume/aperture data from epoxy resin injection, excavation and subsequent analyses. The experimental site is located at approximately 400 m depth in the northeastern part of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The identification of conductive fractures and the target feature has benefited from the use of BIPS borehole TV imaging combined with detailed flow logging. The assessment of the conductive geometry has been further sustained by cross-hole pressure interference data. The investigated target feature (Feature A) is a reactivated mylonite which has later undergone brittle deformation. The feature is oriented northwest, along the principal horizontal stress orientation, and is a typical conductor for Aespoe conditions. Hydraulic characterisation shows that the feature is relatively well isolated

  8. Prosthetists' and Orthotists' experience of their work and workspace - characterising the physical and organisational environment: Focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah; Stuckey, Rwth; Oakman, Jodi R

    2016-12-01

    Little research has been undertaken into occupational health and safety in the Prosthetics and Orthotics profession. To identify physical, psychosocial and environmental workplace experiences of Prosthetists and Orthotists in organisational settings. Qualitative methodology, cross-sectional design, using thematically analysed data collected from focus groups. Focus groups explored workplace and work experiences across varied Prosthetic and Orthotic settings. Data were thematically analysed to identify physical, psychosocial and environmental workplace experiences. Three major themes, Demands of Work Practice, Impacts on the Individual and Job Design, were identified as problematic. A latent theme Perceptions of Others of P&O highlighted a lack of understanding of the Prosthetics and Orthotics job role outside the profession. This first study of occupational health and safety in the Prosthetics and Orthotics profession identifies a number of important physical and psychosocial issues, including characteristics that have been previously identified as risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Findings from the study indicate that some Australian organisations lack understanding of the Prosthetics and Orthotics job role, which results in inappropriate expectations of Prosthetics and Orthotics professionals. Preventing injuries and retaining experienced Prosthetists and Orthotists in the workplace is vital for the profession, and as a result, issues raised in this study require further exploration and then development of appropriate management strategies. This is the first study characterising the experiences of work and risk of injuries in Prosthetists and Orthotists. Preventing injuries and retaining experienced Prosthetists and Orthotists in the workplace is vital for the international profession. Issues raised in this study require further exploration and then development of appropriate management strategies. © The International Society for

  9. People with dementia and carers' experiences of dementia care and services: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Roe, Brenda; Jasper, Rowan; Jolley, David; Challis, David J

    2015-11-01

    An ageing population and an associated increase in the prevalence of dementia are of increasing concern in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Recently, the United Kingdom and other European countries implemented national dementia strategies to address this. This paper reports on the outcomes of a focus group study involving people with dementia and carers on their experiences of dementia care and support services in relation to government and third sector agencies' objectives and recommendations. Three focus groups comprising carers and people with dementia (n = 27) were undertaken covering topics related to experiences, service receipt, information sharing and service development. Some participants experienced difficulties or delays in receiving a dementia diagnosis and in accessing appropriate care. The provision of training, timeliness of information, access to appropriate advice, and consistent and flexible services were deemed important. The findings suggest that some issues raised by participants were highlighted in earlier policy objectives and recommendations but remain of central concern. The projected growth in the number of people with dementia coupled with reduced availability of informal care and increased demand for services emphasises the need to transform dementia care in the United Kingdom.

  10. Population and development beyond the first demographic transition: a focus on the experience of east and southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin W. Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers a wide scope, focusing on some trends in East and Southeast Asia that may be of interest to Latin America. The first demographic transition has essentially been completed in both regions. The issue is what should now be the focus of our consideration of population and development? East Asian countries are now stressing issues of ultra-low fertility, and policies to raise fertility. They are not comfortable with the prospect of making up future deficits through international migration. The paper also deals briefly with studies of dynamics of change in mega-urban regions, and argues that comparative studies on Latin America and Asia could be valuable. Issues of poverty, development, and equity are then addressed, with particular emphasis on the role of education as a key to equality and development. One dilemma is that in East Asia, the generally commendable obsession with education is one factor making for very low levels of fertility. Finally, the paper touches on population and environmental issues.

  11. "It's not like a fat camp" - A focus group study of adolescents' experiences on group-based obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  12. Search for MSSM Higgs bosons in Di-{tau} final states with the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Christoph

    2013-02-15

    A search for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying into a {tau} lepton pair, A/H/h{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}, is presented. The search is based on proton-proton collision events recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1 fb{sup -1}. One of the {tau} leptons is reconstructed in a leptonic, the other in a hadronic final state. The contributions of the main background processes have been estimated using data driven methods. For the Z/{gamma}{sup *}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} background an embedding method has been used, that replaces the muons in reconstructed Z/{gamma}{sup *}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} events with simulated {tau} leptons. The event yield of the W+jets background has been studied in a sideband control region and the simulation has been normalized to agree with the sideband data. The contribution from QCD multi-jet processes has been estimated from three data control regions. Systematic uncertainties due to these background estimates have been identified and studied as well as systematic uncertainties affecting the simulated signal and background event samples. The dominating systematic uncertainty has been found to be due to the uncertainty on the energy scales of jets and hadronically decaying {tau} leptons. In total 4065 data events have been selected and the number of expected events from Standard Model background processes has been estimated to be 4151{+-}66{+-}796, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. As no excess over the Standard Model expectation is found, exclusion limits at the 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section of a generic Higgs boson, {phi}, in dependence of its mass and on the production of the neutral MSSM Higgs bosons A/H/h as a function of the parameters tan {beta} and m{sub A} in the m{sup max}{sub h} scenario. These exclusion limits represent

  13. Alcohol-related hospital admissions: Missed opportunities for follow up? A focus group study about general practitioners' experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lid, Torgeir Gilje; Oppedal, Kristian; Pedersen, Bolette

    2012-01-01

    in the hospital had been recognised by the GP and how this knowledge affected their follow up of the patient's alcohol problem. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Findings: A majority of the GPs had experienced patients with already recognised alcohol problems being rediscovered......Aims: To explore general practitioners' (GPs') follow-up experiences with patients discharged from hospital after admittance for alcohol-related somatic conditions. Design and participants: Two focus groups with GPs (four women and 10 men), calling for stories about whether the intervention given...... by the hospital staff. Still, they presented examples of how seeing the patient in a different context might present new opportunities. Few participants had received adequate information from the hospital about their patient's alcohol status, and they emphasised that a report about what had happened and what...

  14. The transitioning experiences of internationally-educated nurses into a Canadian health care system: A focused ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond well-documented credentialing issues, internationally-educated nurses (IENs may need considerable support in transitioning into new social and health care environments. This study was undertaken to gain an understanding of transitioning experiences of IENs upon relocation to Canada, while creating policy and practice recommendations applicable globally for improving the quality of transitioning and the retention of IENs. Methods A focused ethnography of newly-recruited IENs was conducted, using individual semi-structured interviews at both one-to-three months (Phase 1 and nine-to-twelve months post-relocation (Phase 2. A purposive sample of IENs was recruited during their orientation at a local college, to a health authority within western Canada which had recruited them for employment throughout the region. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data was managed using qualitative analytical software. Data analysis was informed by Roper and Shapira's framework for focused ethnography. Results Twenty three IENs consented to participate in 31 interviews. All IENs which indicated interest during their orientation sessions consented to the interviews, yet 14 did not complete the Phase 2 interview due to reorganization of health services and relocation. The ethno-culturally diverse group had an average age of 36.4 years, were primarily educated to first degree level or higher, and were largely (under employed as "Graduate Nurses". Many IENs reported negative experiences related to their work contract and overall support upon arrival. There were striking differences in nursing practice and some experiences of perceived discrimination. The primary area of discontentment was the apparent communication breakdown at the recruitment stage with subsequent discrepancy in expected professional role and financial reimbursement. Conclusions Explicit and clear communication is needed between employers and recruitment

  15. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E.; Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  16. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  17. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhanguo; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption.

  18. CRISP. D3.3. Final report on field experiments and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands); Gustavsson, R. [Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH, Karlskrona (Sweden); Andrieu, C. [IDEA, Grenoble (France)

    2006-06-15

    This document describes the high level results of the three field experiments and tests performed within the CRISP project. The aims of the document are: To give an account of the lessons learned from the experiments as they have been performed; To give recommendations for strategic use of intelligent ICT in high-DG power networks (thinking forward from our experience in the experiments); and To compile 'industrial guidelines and recommendations' for the strategic use of intelligent ICT for various operational aspects of high-DG power networks. These strategic recommendations will not only cover technology issues, but also business, economic, and market considerations. The role of utilities and third parties in utilising this new technology in this changing scene forms an important issue to be dealt with.

  19. Radiation Tolerance Qualification Tests of the Final Source Interface Unit for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dénes, E; Futó, E; Kerék, A; Kiss, T; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Soós, C; Tölyhi, T; Van de Vyvre, P

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Data Link (DDL) is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE sub-detectors to the DAQ computers. The Source Interface Unit (SIU) of the DDL will operate in radiation environment. Previous tests showed that a configuration loss of SRAM-based FPGA devices may happen and the frequency of undetected data errors in the FPGA user memory area is also not acceptable. Therefore, we redesigned the SIU card using another FPGA based on flash technology. In order to detect bit errors in the user memory we added parity check logic to the design. The new SIU has been extensively tested using neutron and proton irradiation to verify its radiation tolerance. In this paper we summarize the design changes, introduce the final design, and the results of the radiation tolerance measurements on the final card.

  20. IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment. Subtask 1 Experience with Critical Deployment Issues. Final Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2010-01-01

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. ...

  1. Space, the final frontier: A critical review of recent experiments performed in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Kiss, John Z

    2016-02-01

    Space biology provides an opportunity to study plant physiology and development in a unique microgravity environment. Recent space studies with plants have provided interesting insights into plant biology, including discovering that plants can grow seed-to-seed in microgravity, as well as identifying novel responses to light. However, spaceflight experiments are not without their challenges, including limited space, limited access, and stressors such as lack of convection and cosmic radiation. Therefore, it is important to design experiments in a way to maximize the scientific return from research conducted on orbiting platforms such as the International Space Station. Here, we provide a critical review of recent spaceflight experiments and suggest ways in which future experiments can be designed to improve the value and applicability of the results generated. These potential improvements include: utilizing in-flight controls to delineate microgravity versus other spaceflight effects, increasing scientific return via next-generation sequencing technologies, and utilizing multiple genotypes to ensure results are not unique to one genetic background. Space experiments have given us new insights into plant biology. However, to move forward, special care should be given to maximize science return in understanding both microgravity itself as well as the combinatorial effects of living in space.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity of chronic daily headache: focus on traumatic experiences in childhood, post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Kai Dih; Yang, Chin-Yi

    2014-04-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (DSM-5) reclassified some mental disorders recently. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in a new section termed "trauma- and stressor-related disorder". Community-based studies have shown that PTSD is associated with a notably high suicidal risk. In addition to previous findings of comorbidity between chronic daily headache (CDH) and both depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, recent data suggest that frequency of childhood maltreatment, PTSD, and suicidality are also increased in CDH. CDH patients with migraine aura are especially at risk of suicidal ideation. Research suggests that migraine attack, aura, frequency, and chronicity may all be related to serotonergic dysfunction. Vulnerability to PTSD and suicidality are also linked to brain serotonin function, including polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). In the present review, we focus on recent advances in knowledge of traumatic experiences in childhood, PTSD, and suicidality in relation to migraine and CDH. We hypothesize that vulnerability to PTSD is associated with migraine attack, migraine aura, and CDH. We further postulate that these associations may explain some of the elevated suicidal risks among patients with migraine, migraine aura, and/or CDH. Field studies are required to support these hypotheses.

  3. The Experimental Lakes Area: Over 45 Years of Whole Ecosystem Monitoring and Manipulation Experiments and a Focus on the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The IISD Experimental Lakes Area is a unique facility which has existed since 1968 and consists of 58 lakes and their watersheds set aside for research purposes. The IISD-ELA also boasts an on-site water chemistry lab, accommodations and facilities for up to 60 personnel. Since its inception in 1968 over 50 whole ecosystem experiments have been conducted at the ELA including eutrophication, acidification of lakes, environmental mercury fates, hydro-electric reservoir impacts and much more. The recent partnership between IISD and ELA has allowed ELA to refocus on freshwater research and policy development in a time where the preservation of the earth's most precious resource is of the utmost concern. In addition to water quality monitoring, the ELA is also focused on autotrophic ecology, zooplankton community structures, fish population and behaviour and food-web interactions. Monitoring all of these disciplines and their inter-relationships gives the research facility a unique perspective and along with the long term dataset stretching back to 1968 the ELA can look at historical records to monitor long term changes in the environment.

  4. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Bediaga, I; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cheung, H W K; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Engh, D; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E; Göbel, C; Handler, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Miranda, J M D; Mitchell, R; Montiel, E; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Méndez, L; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Olaya, D; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Park, K S; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reis, A C D; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rivera, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Sarwar, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Xiong, W; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y

    2002-01-01

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  5. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Goebel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Vaandering, E.W.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Park, K.S.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J. E-mail: jew@uiuc.edu; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Boschini, M.; D' Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport III, T.F.; Agostino, L.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Segoni, I.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J.R.; Cho, K.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Johns, W.E.; Hosack, M.; Nehring, M.S.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.S.; Sheaff, M

    2002-05-21

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  6. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  7. Exploring the Experiences of Students in the Final Stage of Music Therapy Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Smyth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the experiences of three students reaching the completion of a two year Masters in Music Therapy program. Three students enrolled in a music therapy graduating class participated in individual interviews. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the interview data about these experiences. These were characterised by a "strong" feelings and emotions, b challenges, c changes in lifestyle, d coping and e enjoyment. This information may offer people interested in studying music therapy in the future some insights and may be useful to educators to consider refining what is offered in programmes. Qualified practitioners may use this material to reflect on their own experiences of study and the transition from student to professional life.

  8. Searches for squark and gluino production in hadronic final states with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Besjes, Geert-Jan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Weak scale supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and studied extensions of the Standard Model. The recent increase in the center of mass energy of the proton-proton collisions gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to production of supersymmetric particles at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetric squarks and gluinos, including third generation squarks produced directly or via decay of gluinos. The searches involved final states containing jets (possibly identified as coming from $b$ quarks), missing transverse momentum and no leptons.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Vocational Experience Curriculum for Educable and Disadvantaged Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    A project was designed to measure the effects of integrating basic reading and mathematical instruction with prevocational instruction through the addition of a basic skills resource room, a technical simulation unit, and guidance and counseling to the ninth grade vocational experience program for educable mentally handicapped and disadvantaged…

  10. Peer Teaching Experiences of Final Year Paramedic Students: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Fellows, Holly; Eastwood, Kathryn; Wallis, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is one method of teaching which involves peers, or people from similar social groups, in reciprocal learning where one peer educates another and in return learns through the teaching experience. There have been many reported benefits of PAL programs. PAL has a long history of use in healthcare education; however, for…

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  12. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer

    2004-05-25

    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  13. Experiments on the TECFLAM standard burner. Final colloquium; Experimente am TECFLAM Standard-Brenner. Abschlusskolloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This year's annual seminar had two main subjects: First, the final colloquium of the CRAY-TECFLAM project in which an industrial code for simulation of combustion processes in furnaces and gas turbines was developed in cooperation with the relevant industry, and secondly, investigations on a TECFLAM standard burner which served to establish a reliable set of state variables by different methods that were applied simultaneously, as well as the validation of the mathematical models. [German] Das alljaehrliche oeffentliche Seminar stand in diesem Jahr unter zwei zentralen Themen: zum einen das Abschlusskolloquium des CRAY-TECFLAM-Projekts, in dem ein Industriecode zur Simulation der Verbrennungsvorgaenge in Feuerungen und Gasturbinen - unter Beteiligung der relevanten Industrie - entwickelt wurde, zum anderen die Untersuchungen am TECFLAM Standardbrenner, mit denen ein verlaesslicher Satz von Zustandsgroessen mit unterschiedlichen, aber simultan angewandten Messmethoden ermittelt wird und die mathematischen Modelle validiert werden. (orig.)

  14. Search for supersymmetry in opposite-sign dilepton final states with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Niklar

    2011-10-11

    A search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with opposite-sign isolated lepton pairs accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy is presented. This signature is a typical signature in many supersymmetric models. In a study based on simulation the discovery potential and possible parameter extraction of a specific supersymmetric model is evaluated. The search is then performed using hadron-hadron data from the LHC recorded with the CMS detector during 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb{sup -1}. No evidence for an anomalous event yield beyond Standard Model expectations is found. An upper limit on the non Standard Model contribution in the signal region is deduced from the experimental results. This limit is interpreted in the constrained minimal supersymmetric model. Additional information is provided to allow testing the exclusion of other specific models of physics beyond the SM.

  15. Exploring general practitioners' experience of informing women about prenatal screening tests for foetal abnormalities: A qualitative focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiser Bettina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments have made screening tests for foetal abnormalities available earlier in pregnancy and women have a range of testing options accessible to them. It is now recommended that all women, regardless of their age, are provided with information on prenatal screening tests. General Practitioners (GPs are often the first health professionals a woman consults in pregnancy. As such, GPs are well positioned to inform women of the increasing range of prenatal screening tests available. The aim of this study was to explore GPs experience of informing women of prenatal genetic screening tests for foetal abnormality. Methods A qualitative study consisting of four focus groups was conducted in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia. A discussion guide was used and the audio-taped transcripts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. Multiple coders and analysts and informant feedback were employed to reduce the potential for researcher bias and increase the validity of the findings. Results Six themes were identified and classified as 'intrinsic' if they occurred within the context of the consultation or 'extrinsic' if they consisted of elements that impacted on the GP beyond the scope of the consultation. The three intrinsic themes were the way GPs explained the limitations of screening, the extent to which GPs provided information selectively and the time pressures at play. The three extrinsic factors were GPs' attitudes and values towards screening, the conflict they experienced in offering screening information and the sense of powerlessness within the screening test process and the health care system generally. Extrinsic themes reveal GPs' attitudes and values to screening and to disability, as well as raising questions about the fundamental premise of testing. Conclusion The increasing availability and utilisation of screening tests, in particular first trimester tests, has expanded GPs

  16. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  17. Energy Spectra of Abundant Nuclei of Primary Cosmic Rays from the Data of ATIC-2 Experiment: Final Results

    CERN Document Server

    Panov, A D; Ahn, H S; Bashinzhagyan, G L; Watts, J W; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Ganel, O; Guzik, T G; Zatsepin, V I; Isbert, I; Kim, K C; Christl, M; Kouznetsov, E N; Panasyuk, M I; Seo, E S; Sokolskaya, N V; Chang, J; Schmidt, W K H; Fazely, A R

    2011-01-01

    The final results of processing the data from the balloon-born experiment ATIC-2 (Antarctica, 2002-2003) for the energy spectra of protons and He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe nuclei, the spectrum of all particles, and the mean logarithm of atomic weight of primary cosmic rays as a function of energy are presented. The final results are based on improvement of the methods used earlier, in particular, considerably increased resolution of the charge spectrum. The preliminary conclusions on the significant difference in the spectra of protons and helium nuclei (the proton spectrum is steeper) and the non-power character of the spectra of protons and heavier nuclei (flattening of carbon spectrum at energies above 10 TeV) are confirmed. A complex structure of the energy dependence of the mean logarithm of atomic weight is found.

  18. Land use impacts of rapid transit: implications of recent experience. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.L.; Trygg, L.L.

    1977-08-01

    Evidence of land use impacts of recent major rapid transit improvements are reviewed and conclusions drawn concerning the extent and nature of such impacts and the conditions under which they have occurred. Transit improvements studied are primarily post-World War II in origin. American and Canadian examples are stressed, although European experience is teated briefly. Virtually all major modern American and Canadian rapid transit investments are included, covering conventional rapid rail, commuter rail, light rail and bus/busway. In addition to conclusions on general patterns of land use impact and causes, research recommendations and Federal policy implications are drawn.

  19. Final results of the 51Cr neutrino source experiments in GALLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Roenn, U.; Schlosser, C.; Wojcik, M.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Sann, M.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Moessbauer, R.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cribier, M.; Gosset, L.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1998-02-01

    The radiochemical GALLEX experiment, which has been measuring the solar neutrino flux since May 1991, has performed an investigation with two intense 51Cr neutrino sources that were produced in the Siloé nuclear reactor and used at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, one between June and October 1994, and the second between October 95 and February 96. The ratio, R, of the the neutrino source strength derived from the measured rate of 71Ge production, divided by the directly determined source strength is R = 1.01 (-0.11, +0.12) for the first source and R = 0.84 (-0.11, +0.12) for the second one. The combined value of R for the two source experiments is R = 0.93±0.08. It shows that the >40% deficit of solar neutrino flux observed by GALLEX cannot be attributed to experimental artifacts and demonstrates the absence of any significant unexpected systematic errors at the 10% level.

  20. Search for New Light Higgs Bosons in Boosted Tau Final States with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081769

    In this dissertation, I present a search for non-standard decays of a Standard Model-likeHiggs boson to pairs of light bosons, as predicted in models with extended Higgs sectors.In two Higgs doublet models, including the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standardmodel, the Higgs boson can decay into a pair of light pseudoscalars a.In this search, the gluon fusion, W and Z associated Higgs, and vector boson fusionproduction channels for the Higgs are all considered, and the decay H →aa with a → τ τis reconstructed from the tau decay products. The final state is characterized by oneisolated high pT muon plus at least one highly boosted pair of taus, of which one of thetaus is required to decay to a muon.Using 19.7 fb−1 of 8 TeV center of mass pp collision data recorded by the CompactMuon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, a counting experiment is performed in a region of high di-tau invariant mass. We have found no excess of events abovethe Standard Model backgrounds, and the observed data ...

  1. Final scientific and technical report: New experiments to measure the neutrino mass scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    In this work, we made material progress towards future measurements of the mass of the neutrino. The neutrino is a fundamental particle, first observed in the 1950s and subjected to particularly intense study over the past 20 years. It is now known to have some, non-zero mass, but we are in an unusual situation of knowing the mass exists but not knowing what value it takes. The mass may be determined by precise measurements of certain radioactive decay distributions, particularly the beta decay of tritium. The KATRIN experiment is an international project which is nearing the beginning of a tritium measurement campaign using a large electrostatic spectrumeter. This research included participation in KATRIN, including construction and delivery of a key calibration subsystem, the ``Rear Section''. To obtain sensitivity beyond KATRIN's, new techniques are required; this work included R\\&D on a new technique we call CRES (Cyclotron Resonance Electron Spectroscopy) which has promise to enable even-more-sensitive tritium decay measurements. We successfully carried out CRES spectroscopy in a model system in 2014, making an important step towards the design of a next-generation tritium experiment with new neutrino mass measurement abilities.

  2. Reversed field pinch experiments. Final report, November 24, 1991--November 23, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, S.

    1995-03-01

    The Reversatron reversed field pinch (RFP) is an experiment to investigate the effect of boundary conditions on plasma confinement. Earlier RFP experiments, particularly ZT-40 and Los Alamos and Eta Beta II at Padua, had found an improvement in confinement when the vacuum chamber wall was surrounded by a conducting shell. The data showed a longer discharge duration and a reduction in the applied loop voltage. The latter determines the energy input to the plasma, thus a lower loop voltage (with relatively constant plasma parameters) indicated improved energy confinement. The Reversatron RFP was designed to allow the conducting wall to be easily changed so that differing electrical boundary conditions could be compared in the same device. Specifically, it was proposed to measure the growth rates and wavenumbers of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities as a function of the boundary conditions and to determine their effect on plasma confinement. These measurements were made and reported in a series of publications (Appendices) in Physics of Fluids B and in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.

  3. Search for Supersymmetry in Opposite-sign Dilepton Final States with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, men’s curiosity drove him to explore the secrets of nature and the essentialprinciples and constituents of matter. Today, the Standard Model of particle physicssuccessfully describes a significant part of the known universe and most experimentalobservations. Still several experimental and theoretical findings indicate that the StandardModel is only valid up to an energy scale of a few TeV.The Large Hadron Collider is, together with its detector experiments, the largest and mostsophisticated experiment ever constructed and conducted in the history of mankind. It isdesigned to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of up to 14 TeV, and its purpose isto test the current Standard Model of particle physics and search for physics beyond thismodel. One promising new-physics theory is Supersymmetry, which extends the StandardModel by supersymmetric partner particles for the particles in the Standard Model.This work uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV taken byth...

  4. Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord: Impact of Final Surgical Intervention—An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, R.; Rolinger, J.; Girotti, P.; Kopp, H. G.; Heissner, K.; Amend, B.; Königsrainer, A.; Ladurner, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Paratesticular liposarcomas are almost always mistakenly diagnosed as inguinal hernias subsequently followed by inadequate operation. Methods. 14 consecutive patients with paratesticular liposarcoma were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative management was evaluated. Disease-free and overall survival were determined. Results. In 11 patients primary and in 3 patients recurrent liposarcoma of the spermatic cord were diagnosed. Regarding primary treatment in primary surgical intervention resection was radical (R0) in 7 of 14 (50%) patients, marginal (R1) in 6 (43%) patients, and incomplete with macroscopic residual tumour (R2) in 1 (7%) patient. Primary treatment secondary surgical intervention was performed in 4 patients: resection was radical (R0) in 3 (75%) patients and marginal (R1) in 1 (25%) patient. Regarding secondary treatment in recurrent disease resection was marginal (R1) in 3 patients (100%). Final histologic margins were negative in 10 patients with primary disease (71%) and positive in 4 patients with subsequent recurrent disease. After radical resection disease-free survival rates at 3 years were 100%. Overall survival at 4.5 years (54 (18–180) months) was 64%. Conclusion. An incomplete first surgical step increases the number of positive margins leading to local recurrences and adverse prognoses. Aggressive surgery should be attempted to attain 3-dimensional negative margins. PMID:27190644

  5. Multiwell Experiment: I, The marine interval of the Mesaverde Formation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment is a field laboratory in the Piceance Basin of Colorado which has two overall objectives: to characterize the low permeability gas reservoirs in the Mesaverde Formation and to develop technology for their production. Different depositional environments have created distinctly different reservoirs in the Mesaverde, and MWX has addressed each of these in turn. This report presents a comprehensive summary of results from the lowermost interval: the marine interval which lies between 7450 and 8250 ft at the MWX site. Separate sections of this report are background and summary; site description and operations; geology; log analysis; core analysis; in situ stress; well testing, analysis and reservoir evaluation; and a bibliography. Additional detailed data, results, and data file references are given on microfiche in several appendices.

  6. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Giangrande, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Kollias, P [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-01

    The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place from April 22 through June 6, 2011, centered at the ARM Southern Great Plains site (http://www.arm.gov/sites/sgp) in northcentral Oklahoma. MC3E was a collaborative effort between the ARM Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The campaign leveraged the largest ground-based observing infrastructure available in the central United States, including recent upgrades through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, and additional radar and in situ precipitation instrumentation. The overarching goal of the campaign was to provide a three-dimensional characterization of convective clouds and precipitation for the purpose of improving the representation of convective lifecycle in atmospheric models and the reliability of satellite-based retrievals of precipitation.

  7. Final Report One-Twelfth-Scale Mixing Experiments to Characterize Double-Shell Tank Slurry Uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Liljegren, Lucia M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Titzler, Patricia A.; Terrones, Guillermo

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of these 1/12-scale scoping experiments were to: Determine which of the dimensionless parameters discussed in Bamberger and Liljegren (1994) affect the maximum concentration that can be suspended during jet mixer pump operation in the full-scale double-shell tanks; Develop empirical correlations to predict the nozzle velocity required for jet mixer pumps to suspend the contents of full-scale double-shell tanks; Apply the models to predict the nozzle velocity required to suspend the contents of Tank 241 AZ-101; Obtain experimental concentration data to compare with the TEMPEST( )(Trent and Eyler 1989) computational modeling predictions to guide further code development; Analyze the effects of changing nozzle diameter on exit velocity (U0) and U0D0 (the product of the exit velocity and nozzle diameter) required to suspend the contents of a tank. The scoping study experimentally evaluated uniformity in a 1/12-scale experiment varying the Reynolds number, Froude number, and gravitational settling parameter space. The initial matrix specified only tests at 100% U0D0 and 25% U0D0. After initial tests were conducted with small diameter, low viscosity simulant this matrix was revised to allow evaluation of a broader range of U0D0s. The revised matrix included full factorial test between 100% and 50% U0D0 and two half-factorial tests at 75% and 25% U0D0. Adding points at 75% U0D0 and 50% U0D0 allowed evaluation curvature. Eliminating points at 25% U0D0 decreased the testing time by several weeks. Test conditions were achieved by varying the simulant viscosity, the mean particle size, and the jet nozzle exit velocity. Concentration measurements at sampling locations throughout the tank were used to assess the degree of uniformity achieved during each test. Concentration data was obtained using a real time ultrasonic attenuation probe and discrete batch samples. The undissolved solids concentration at these locations was analyzed to determine whether the tank

  8. Joint HVAC Transmission EMF Environmental Study : Final Report on Experiment 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Oregon Regional Primate Research Center

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration`s Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  9. Monolithic circuits for barium fluoride detectors used in nuclear physics experiments. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, R.L.; Blankenship, J.L.; Beene, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Todd, R.A. [RIS Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Custom monolithic electronic circuits have been developed recently for large detector applications in high energy physics where subsystems require tens of thousands of channels of signal processing and data acquisition. In the design and construction of these enormous detectors, it has been found that monolithic circuits offer significant advantages over discrete implementations through increased performance, flexible packaging, lower power and reduced cost per channel. Much of the integrated circuit design for the high energy physics community is directly applicable to intermediate energy heavy-ion and electron physics. This STTR project conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sought to develop a new integrated circuit chip set for barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) detector arrays based upon existing CMOS monolithic circuit designs created for the high energy physics experiments. The work under the STTR Phase 1 demonstrated through the design, simulation, and testing of several prototype chips the feasibility of using custom CMOS integrated circuits for processing signals from BaF{sub 2} detectors. Function blocks including charge-sensitive amplifiers, comparators, one shots, time-to-amplitude converters, analog memory circuits and buffer amplifiers were implemented during Phase 1 effort. Experimental results from bench testing and laboratory testing with sources were documented.

  10. Search for Contact Interactions in Dilepton Final State in the CMS Experiment: Generator-Level Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    A set of contact interaction (CI) Monte Carlo events, for which Standard Model Drell-Yan events are background, are generated using a leading-order parton-shower generator, Pythia8. We consider three isoscalar models with three different helicity structures, left-left (LL), left-right/right-left (LR), and right­right (RR), each with destructive and constructive interference. For each of these models, 150,000 events are generated for analysis of CI interactions in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV. This study is a generator level study, and detector effects are accounted for by application of kinematic cuts on the generator-level quantities rather than application of a detailed detector simulation package (e.g. GEANT). Distributions of dilepton invariant mass, Collins-Soper angle, and the forward-backward asymmetry are compared with those arising from pure Drell-Yan events.

  11. Searches for Dark Matter and Large Extra Dimensions in Monojet Final States with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286734

    This thesis presents searches for evidence for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and Extra Dimensions in proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The WIMP is one of the main candidates to constitute the particle content of Dark Matter. Extra Dimensions are introduced in several theories in order to explain the apparent weakness of gravity when compared to the other interactions in Nature. Theories with WIMPs as well as Extra Dimensions can manifest themselves at the LHC, with experimental signatures characterized by an energetic hadronic jet associated with large missing momentum. These signatures are known as monojet signatures, and are investigated in this thesis. The first analysis is performed using L = 20.3 fb$^{-1}$~of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV recorded in the ATLAS Run 1. The second analysis is performed using L = 3.2 fb$^{-1}$~of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV recorded in the ATLAS Run 2. No sign...

  12. Plasma stabilization experiment. Final report, 1 October 1979-30 April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1980-07-01

    The Plasma Stabilization Experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type III antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.

  13. What are the educational needs and experiences of asylum-seeking and refugee children, including those who are unaccompanied, with a particular focus on inclusion? - A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, A; Meehan, C; Ali, Z.; Durrant, I.

    2017-01-01

    In a context of mass displacement and flows of asylum-seeking and refugee peoples across national borders, the need to respond and attend to the education of asylum-seeking and refugee children is urgent and pressing, though it is not without its challenges. This literature review focuses on the educational experiences of asylum seeking and refugee children, including those who are unaccompanied, with a particular focus on inclusion. It seeks to respond to the following three interconnected q...

  14. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  15. Finally, it became too much - experiences and reflections in the aftermath of attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, May; Nåden, Dagfinn

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of persons after suicidal crises or recently completed suicide attempts. The research question was 'What thoughts do suicidal patients have about the crises they have experienced?' Hermeneutic approach, inspired by Gadamer, has characterized the process of collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Data were collected using qualitative research interviews. Ten participants, six men, 25-52 years old, and four women, 21-45 years old, were informed and requested by specialists in psychology at emergency or subemergency psychiatric wards or by crisis resolution teams. Nine of the participants had experienced one or more suicide attempts. One person had been prevented in the attempt, by hospitalization in an emergency ward. This type of research requires sensitivity in the interview situation, where ethical responsibilities take precedence over research interests. Results obtained through a thematic analysis of six phases revealed five themes to be central: (i) Losing touch with the world, (ii) Relationship between the suicidal accident and life history, (iii) Struggling for death and life (iv) An open door as consolation and (v) Feeling shame and guilt. Being suicidal seems like a struggle in solitude, between longing to escape from suffering through death and longing for love, safety and dignity in life. Suicidal accidents happen when suffering becomes intolerable. Suicide rarely occurs without a struggle and consideration of moral conflicts. The thought of suicide can provide consolation and comfort to go on living. Shame seems to appear when a person cannot cope with her/his own life, and because of failed attempts, while guilt seems related to hurting other people.

  16. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume II. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and a commercial assessment of a 100-MWe high-temperature line-focus central power system are presented. Parametric analyses and conceptual design of the heliostat subsystem, receiver subsystem, heat transport subsystem, energy storage subsystem, electrical power generating subsystem, and master control subsystem are included. A market analysis and development plan are given. (WHK)

  17. A report on developing a checklist to assess company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijger, N.; Starren, H.; Keus, M.; Gort, J.; Vervoort, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the process of developing a checklist to asses company plans focused on improving safety awareness, safe behaviour and safety culture. These plans are part of a programme initiated by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment aiming at improving the safety performance of co

  18. CERN In Focus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  19. Methods for Reducing Singly Reflected Rays on the Wolter-I Focusing Figures of the FOXSI Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Elsner, Ronald; Ramsey, Brian; Courtade, Sasha; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Narukage, Noriyuki; Vievering, Juliana; Subramania, Athiray; hide

    2017-01-01

    In high energy solar astrophysics, imaging hard X-rays by direct focusing offers higher dynamic range and greater sensitivity compared to past techniques that used indirect imaging. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload which uses seven sets of nested Wolter-I figured mirrors that, together with seven high-sensitivity semiconductor detectors, observes the Sun in hard X-rays by direct focusing. The FOXSI rocket has successfully flown twice and is funded to fly a third time in Summer 2018. The Wolter-I geometry consists of two consecutive mirrors, one paraboloid, and one hyperboloid, that reflect photons at grazing angles. Correctly focused X-rays reflect twice, once per mirror segment. For extended sources, like the Sun, off-axis photons at certain incident angles can reflect on only one mirror and still reach the focal plane, generating a pattern of single-bounce photons that can limit the sensitivity of the observation of faint focused X-rays. Understanding and cutting down the singly reflected rays on the FOXSI optics will maximize the instrument's sensitivity of the faintest solar sources for future flights. We present an analysis of the FOXSI singly reflected rays based on ray-tracing simulations, as well as the effectiveness of different physical strategies to reduce them.

  20. Experiences and Lessons From Polio Eradication Applied to Immunization in 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Mallya, Apoorva; Sandhu, Hardeep; Anya, Blanche-Philomene; Yusuf, Nasir; Ntakibirora, Marcelline; Hasman, Andreas; Fahmy, Kamal; Agbor, John; Corkum, Melissa; Sumaili, Kyandindi; Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Bammeke, Jane; Braka, Fiona; Andriamihantanirina, Rija; Ziao, Antoine-Marie C; Djumo, Clement; Yapi, Moise Desire; Sosler, Stephen; Eggers, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015. Government leadership, evidence-based programming, country-driven comprehensive operational annual plans, community partnership and strong accountability systems are critical for all programs and polio eradication has illustrated these can be leveraged to increase immunization coverage and equity and enhance global health security in the focus countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and commercial assessment of a 100-MWe line-focus solar central receiver power plant are reported. This volume contains the appendices: (a) methods of determination of molten salt heat-transfer coefficients and tube-wall temperatures, (b) inputs for STEAEC programs, (c) description of system analysis computer program, (d) receiver analysis program, and (e) heliostat production plan and design methodology. (WHK)

  2. Use of Student Support Services among University Students: Associations with Problem-Focused Coping, Experience of Personal Difficulty and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julal, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Universities provide a range of problem-focused social support services to help students who are experiencing personal difficulties. The current study examines how the effectiveness of students' ("N" = 131) problem-coping style, experience of personal difficulty and psychological distress are associated with actual use of support…

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  4. IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment. Subtask 1 Experience with Critical Deployment Issues. Final Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background...... information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. The Subtask 2 report covers OC3 background information and objectives of the task, OC3 benchmark exercises...... of aero-elastic offshore wind turbine codes, monopile foundation modeling, tripod support structure modeling, and Phase IV results regarding floating wind turbine modeling....

  5. Temporal focus, temporal distance, and mind-wandering valence: Results from an experience sampling and an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronken, M.; Holland, R.W.; Figner, B.C.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    When mind-wandering, people may think about events that happened in the past, or events that may happen in the future. Using experience sampling, we first aimed to replicate the finding that future-oriented thoughts show a greater positivity bias than past-oriented thoughts. Furthermore, we investig

  6. Being needy versus being needed : The role of self-regulatory focus in the experience of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieswijk, N.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Individual differences may exist in the psychological distress that women with breast cancer experience as a result of disease-related changes in both their own needs and the needs of their social environment. In the current study, we investigated whether the negative impact of one's per

  7. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  8. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  9. A comparison of Monte-Carlo simulation programs with experiment: the effect of a focusing guide on resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildes, A.R.; Farhi, E.; Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P.; Brochier, A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Saroun, J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Rez near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-07-01

    Two Monte-Carlo neutron instrument simulation programs, RESTRAX and McSTAS, were used to determine the effect of using a converging supermirror guide between a monochromator and sample on the divergence of the incident beam. The results are compared with the test results on implementing such a focusing guide on the IN14 cold neutron spectrometer, Institut Laue-Langevin. The measured non-trivial incident beam divergence in both real and reciprocal space is reproduced by both the programs, giving confidence in the accuracy of the calculations and highlighting the dangers of using such devices on high-resolution instruments. (orig.)

  10. A comparison of Monte-Carlo simulation programs with experiment: the effect of a focusing guide on resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, A. R.; Saroun, J.; Farhi, E.; Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P.; Brochier, A.

    Two Monte-Carlo neutron instrument simulation programs, RESTRAX and McSTAS, were used to determine the effect of using a converging supermirror guide between a monochromator and sample on the divergence of the incident beam. The results are compared with the test results on implementing such a focusing guide on the IN14 cold neutron spectrometer, Institut Laue-Langevin. The measured non-trivial incident beam divergence in both real and reciprocal space is reproduced by both the programs, giving confidence in the accuracy of the calculations and highlighting the dangers of using such devices on high-resolution instruments.

  11. A comparison of Monte-Carlo simulation programs with experiment the effect of a focusing guide on resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wildes, A R; Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P; Brochier, A; Saroun, J

    2002-01-01

    Two Monte-Carlo neutron instrument simulation programs, RESTRAX and McSTAS, were used to determine the effect of using a converging supermirror guide between a monochromator and sample on the divergence of the incident beam. The results are compared with the test results on implementing such a focusing guide on the IN14 cold neutron spectrometer, Institut Laue-Langevin. The measured non-trivial incident beam divergence in both real and reciprocal space is reproduced by both the programs, giving confidence in the accuracy of the calculations and highlighting the dangers of using such devices on high-resolution instruments. (orig.)

  12. How can a brief intervention contribute to coping with back pain? A focus group study about participants’ experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ree, Eline; Harris, A.; Indahl, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore how individuals who had participated in a brief back and neck pain intervention perceived connections between the intervention and their subsequent coping. METHODS: Three focus group discussions were conducted with a sample of ten employees aged 20-67 years, who...... had participated in a brief intervention for back and neck pain, perceived the intervention as helpful and had returned or remained at work subsequent to the intervention. Participants were invited to share stories of how the intervention had made a positive difference to their work situation...... and everyday life and helped them cope with their complaints. Systematic text condensation was used for analysis. RESULTS: Analysis revealed several aspects of how the participants considered the intervention to be helpful. They emphasized the importance of having the information delivered in a comprehensible...

  13. The 2nd Order Focusing by Energy for TOF Sector Field Mass Analyzer with an Orthogonal Acceleration: Theory, Modeling, Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteshin, S. S.; Chernyshev, D. M.; Sysoev, Alexey A.; Sysoev, Alexander A.

    Currently axially symmetric type of analyzer with an electrostatic sector fields (AESF) is rarely used to construct time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The main drawback, hindering the wider use of the analyzers of this type, is the lack of chromatic second-order focusing by energy. However, the configuration of AESF in combination with orthogonal accelerator (OA) allows to achieved it through compensation of energy aberrations of the analyzer in the system of orthogonal input of the ion beam. In the presented work the results of theoretical calculation, simulation and experimentally obtained data are compared. Characteristics of the analyzer with OA in a large extent depend on the parameters of the incoming ion beam. Data of modeling the 2nd stage of gas-dynamic interface, which have the greatest influence on the parameters of the ion beam, is provided.

  14. Amplitude Analysis of the Decay $D_s^+ \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$ in the Experiment E831/FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilithz, Anderson Correa; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2005-01-01

    We present in this thesis the Dalitz Plot analysis of the D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decay, with the data of the E831/FOCUS, that took data in 1996 and 1997. The masses and widhts of f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(1370) are free parametres of the fit on Dalitz Plot, objectiving to study in detail these resonances. After this analysis we present the Spectator Model study on the S wave in this decay. For this study we used the formalism developed by M. Svec [2] for scattering. We present the comparison between the Isobar Model, frequently used in Dalitz Plot analysis, and this formalism.

  15. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThe current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums.AimsTo explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities.MethodA two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar.ResultsThemes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness.ConclusionsThese results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  16. First clinical experience with a dedicated MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system for breast cancer ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Knuttel, Floor M.; Peters, Nicky H.G.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, HP E 01.132, Utrecht (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Bartels, Lambertus W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Dalen, Thijs van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schubert, Gerald [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Weits, Teun [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Diest, Paul J. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vaessen, Paul H.H.B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Anesthesiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gorp, Joost M.H.H. van [Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To assess the safety and feasibility of MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation in breast cancer patients using a dedicated breast platform. Patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer underwent partial tumour ablation prior to surgical resection. MR-HIFU ablation was performed using proton resonance frequency shift MR thermometry and an MR-HIFU system specifically designed for breast tumour ablation. The presence and extent of tumour necrosis was assessed by histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between sonication parameters, temperature increase and size of tumour necrosis at histopathology. Ten female patients underwent MR-HIFU treatment. No skin redness or burns were observed in any of the patients. No correlation was found between the applied energy and the temperature increase. In six patients, tumour necrosis was observed with a maximum diameter of 3-11 mm. In these patients, the number of targeted locations was equal to the number of areas with tumour necrosis. A good correlation was found between the applied energy and the size of tumour necrosis at histopathology (Pearson = 0.76, p = 0.002). Our results show that MR-HIFU ablation with the dedicated breast system is safe and results in histopathologically proven tumour necrosis. (orig.)

  17. TU-CD-BRD-04: UCLA Experience, with Focus On Developing Metrics and Using RO-ILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beron, P. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  18. A model independent search for new physics in final states containing leptons at the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Joel Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The standard model is known to be the low energy limit of a more general theory. Several consequences of the standard model point to a strong probability of new physics becoming experimentally visible in high energy collisions of a few TeV, resulting in high momentum objects. The specific signatures of these collisions are topics of much debate. Rather than choosing a specific signature, this analysis broadly searches the data, preferring breadth over sensitivity. In searching for new physics, several different approaches are used. These include the comparison of data with standard model background expectation in overall number of events, comparisons of distributions of many kinematic variables, and finally comparisons on the tails of distributions that sum the momenta of the objects in an event. With 1.07 fb-1 at the D0 experiment, we find no evidence of physics beyond the standard model. Several discrepancies from the standard model were found, but none of these provide a compelling case for new physics.

  19. Search for electroweakly produced supersymmetric particles in final states including two charged leptons with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, Josephine

    Three analyses searching for electroweakly produced supersymmetric particles in proton-proton collisions are presented. The collisions were recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Two leptons (electrons or muons), jets and missing transverse energy are expected in the final states. Simplified models as well as the phenomenological Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (pMSSM) are used to study the production and decay of pairs of gauginos, i.e. charginos and neutralinos. The first analysis is performed with an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb^-1 of ATLAS data, recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. Direct slepton production and three scenarios in which pairs of gauginos decay via intermediate sleptons are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the trigger strategy. No excess is observed in the number of data events. In the simplified model that assumes the direct slepton production, left-handed slepton masses between 85 and 195 GeV are excluded at 95% confide...

  20. Concurrent Chemotherapy and Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy for the Treatment of Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Ihn; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Joo Ha [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential clinical value of concurrent chemotherapy and pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (CCHT), as well as the safety of pulsed HIFU, for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Twelve patients were treated with HIFU from October 2008 to May 2010, and three of them underwent CCHT as the main treatment (the CCHT group). The overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP), the complications and the current performance status in the CCHT and non-CCHT groups were analyzed. Nine patients in the non-CCHT group were evaluated to determine why CCHT could not be performed more than twice. The OS of the three patients in the CCHT group was 26.0, 21.6 and 10.8 months, respectively, from the time of diagnosis. Two of them were alive at the time of preparing this manuscript with an excellent performance status, and one of them underwent a surgical resection one year after the initiation of CCHT. The TTP of the three patients in the CCHT group was 13.4, 11.5 and 9.9 months, respectively. The median OS and TTP of the non-CCHT group were 10.3 months and 4.4 months, respectively. The main reasons why the nine patients of the non-CCHT group failed to undergo CCHT more than twice were as follows: pancreatitis (n = 1), intolerance of the pain during treatment (n = 4), palliative use of HIFU for pain relief (n = 1) and a poor physical condition due to disease progression (n = 3). No major complications were encountered except one case of pancreatitis. This study shows that CCHT is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer

  1. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  2. Preliminary safety and efficacy results with robotic high-intensity focused ultrasound : A single center Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are no Indian data of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. Being an alternative, still experimental modality, reporting short-term safety outcome is paramount. Aims : This study was aimed at to assess the safety and short-term outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated by HIFU. Settings and Design : A retrospective study of case records of 30 patients undergoing HIFU between January 2008 to September 2010 was designed and conducted. Materials and Methods : The procedural safety was analyzed at 3 months. Follow-up consisted of 3 monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels and transrectal biopsy if indicated. All the patients had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results : A mean prostate volume of 26.9 ± 8.5 cm 3 was treated in a mean time of 115 ± 37.4 min. There was no intraoperative complication. The postoperative pain visual analogue score at day 0 was 2.1 ± 1.9 and at day 1 was 0.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 1-10. Mean duration of perurethral catheter removal was 3.9 days. The complications after treatment were: LUTS in seven patients, stress incontinence in two, stricture in two, and symptomatic urinary tract infection in five. Average follow-up duration was 10.4 months (range, 6-20 months. Mean time to obtain PSA nadir was 6 ± 3 months with a median PSA nadir value of 0.3 ng/ml. Two patients had positive prostatic biopsy in the localized (high risk group. Conclusions : HIFU was safe in carcinoma prostate patients. The short-term results were efficacious in localized disease. The low complication rates and favorable functional outcome support the planning of further larger studies.

  3. An Experimental Study of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound on Pig's Pancreas and the Early Clinical Experience on Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, LiuLin; Huang, XiaoBo; Yao, SongSen; Yu, JinSheng; Hwang, JooHa; Fei, XingBo; Yu, QiuHong; Xue, WeiCheng; Zheng, ZhuYing; Wang, XiaoFeng

    2007-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and safety of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of in vivo pig pancreases, and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HIFU in the clinical treatment of pancreatic cancer in humans. Methods: HIFU was performed in 12 domestic pig pancreases in vivo with varying acoustic energies. The safety of HIFU treatments was assessed by necropsy. The pathology and microstructure of the treated pancreases were evaluated using standard histology and transmission electron microscopy. Following the animal studies 62 patients with advanced pancreas cancer were treated with 250 - 420 W of acoustic power. There were 3 patients with stage II, 23 patients with stage III, and 36 patients with stage IV disease. Results: In animal studies, precise regions of coagulation necrosis were identified on pathology in 8 specimens that were treated with 420 W or 645 W acoustic power. Treatment effects were unable to be identified in 4 specimens treated with 300˜340 W acoustic power; however, damages to the cells microstructure and apoptosis were identified on electron microscopy. Damage to the stomach and colon were seen in some animals treated with 645 W. In the clinical treatments in humans the following were seen: local tumor control: complete response (CR) 0%, partial response (PR) 17.7%, no change (NC) 54.8%, progressive disease (PD) 27.5%. Pain relief was achieved in 87.1% of patients. The median survival for stage II and III patients was 11.2 months and median survival for stage IV patients was 5.6 months. The total median survival was 8.6 months. The survival rate at 1 year was as follows: stage II and III 42.3%, stage IV 5.6%. The survival rate at 2 years was as follows: stage II and III 15.4%, stage IV 0%. There were no severe complications or adverse events related to HIFU therapy seen in any of the patients treated. Conclusions: This study supports the feasibility of HIFU in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. The clinical

  4. Interdisciplinary Pedagogical Experience for Health Human Resources Focused on the Holistic Promotion of Health and the Prevention of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pérez Hernández

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The object of this experience is to offer thestudents the opportunity to take part in theconstruction of a pedagogic strategy centred onthe ludic, for the promotion of the integral healthand the prevention of the disease with aneducational community; directed to supportingand qualifying the well-being so much individuallyas group. The project is designed to fiveyears, about interdisciplinary character (SpeechTherapy, Medicine, Psychology, Nursery,Occupational Therapy, interinstitutional (Universidaddel Rosario, Universidad de San Buenaventuray Universidad de Cundinamarca andintersectorial (Education and Health. It considersthe different actors of the educationalcommunity and school and the home as propitiousscenes for the strengthening potential,beside being the fundamental spaces for theconstruction of knowledges and learnings concerningthe integral health.To achieve the target, one has come constructingfrom the second semester of 2003, onepedagogic strategy centred on the ludic and thecreativity, from which they are planned, theydevelop and evaluate the actions of promotionof skills, values, behaviors and attitudes in thecare of the health and the prevention of disease,orientated to the early, opportune and effectivedetection of risk factors and problematic of thedevelopment that they affect the integral health.The above mentioned strategy raises a socalled scene Bienestarópolis: A healthy worldfor conquering, centred on prominent figures,spaces and elements that alternate between thefantasy and the reality to facilitate the approximation,the interiorización and the appropriationof the integral health. Across this one, thechildren motivated by the adults enter an imaginaryworld in that theirs desires, knowledgesand attitudes are the axis of his development.Since Vigotsky raises it, in the game the childrealizes actions in order to adapt to the world thatsurrounds it acquiring skills for the learning. Theactions of the project have involved

  5. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  6. 50 kWp Photovoltaic Concentrator Application Experiment, Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, H.J.R.

    1979-06-15

    This program consists of a design study and component development for an experimental 50-kWp photovoltaic concentrator system to supply power to the San Ramon substation of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The photovoltaic system is optimized to produce peaking power to relieve the air conditioning load on the PG and E system during summer afternoons; and would therefore displace oil-fired power generation capacity. No electrical storage is required. The experiment would use GaAs concentrator cells with point-focus fresnel lenses operating at 400X, in independent tracking arrays of 440 cells each, generating 3.8 kWp. Fourteen arrays, each 9 feet by 33 feet, are connected electrically in series to generate the 50 kWp. The high conversion efficiency possible with GaAs concentrator cells results in a projected annual average system efficiency (AC electric power output to sunlight input) of better than 15%. The capability of GaAs cells for high temperature operation made possible the design of a total energy option, whereby thermal power from selected arrays could be used to heat and cool the control center for the installation. System design and analysis, fabrication and installation, environmental assessment, and cost projections are described in detail. (WHK)

  7. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    guests engaged with and were impacted by this exhibit. Findings revealed the importance of the location of interactives and signage as well as a range of readability concerns for visitor engagement. In addition, findings highlight the roles of parents in informal learning environments, and the impact of exhibit design on dwell time and questioning. This study demonstrates the value and importance of utilizing an iterative design process informed by action research when creating learning experiences in zoos. This study also reinforces how difficult it can be to both influence and measure the shifting of guests' RCPs.

  8. IEA Wind Task 23, offshore wind technology and deployment. Subtask 1: Experience with critical deployment issues. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.

    2010-10-15

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. A comprehensive approach to planning is needed that integrates impacts on ecology, the effects of electrical infrastructure, and the layout of wind farms. Governments, which usually finance ecological research, should disclose results for wide dissemination as they become available. As example the workshop held suggested that documents covering the issues like offshore wind energy legislation, Guidelines for EIAs and SEAs and best practices need to be produced and distributed on a regular basis, as ecological research progresses and experience from the planning and operation of existing wind farms emerges. Research should help strike the balance between optimum regulation and the need to get projects up and running. Such research is needed to increase understanding of offshore wind metrology and its impact on electrical power fluctuations. More work is needed to develop special grid code and standards for offshore. The transient behavior of large cable installations (switching / harmonic/ Behavior and modeling of large HV cable systems) must be better understood. Connection and control systems must be developed for large offshore wind farms. Work is needed to develop the technical architecture of offshore wind grid systems. Public access to measurements (e.g., turbine power output, meteorological masts, buoys) is important, especially for model validation. Determining wake effects is currently the most important challenge in wind engineering. Emphasis should be put into

  9. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomyagkov, A.; Levichev, E.; Piminov, P.

    2016-12-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA Φ NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA Φ NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  10. Final focus designs for crab waist colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084369; Levichev, Evgeny; Piminov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The crab waist collision scheme promises significant luminosity gain. The successful upgrade of the DA$\\Phi$NE collider proved the principle of crab waist collision and increased luminosity 3 times. Therefore, several new projects try to implement the scheme. The paper reviews interaction region designs with the crab waist collision scheme for already existent collider DA$\\Phi$NE and SuperKEKB, presently undergoing commissioning, for the projects of SuperB in Italy, CTau in Novosibirsk and FCC-ee at CERN.

  11. Focused Feasibility Study Final Field Sampling Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Military Police (410) 671-2222/2628 Commissioned Officer Operations Francine Gordon JEG Project Manager (202) 789-7290 Wayne Mandell JEG Task Manager...1986 - March 1988. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 89-387, Towson , MD Oliveros, James P. and Don A, Vroblesky, 1989, Hydrology of the Canal

  12. Closure experiment in a cloudfree continental atmosphere. Final report; Saeulen-Schliessungsexperiment in einer wolkenfreien kontinentalen Atmosphaere. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, B.; Wiegner, M.; Schluessel, P.; Seefeldner, M.

    2000-11-01

    In the frame of the Lindenberger Aerosol-Charakterisierungs-Experiment (LACE), the Meteorological Institute of the University of Munich operated a sun photometer and a mobile lidar. The photometer was equipped with 10 channels between 372 and 1009 nm wavelengths. Several independent sets of data, characterizing aerosol properties and components of the radiation field, gained from ground-based, airborne and satellite platforms and measured in-situ or from remote sensing techniques, were used to obtain a comprehensive picture of a continental atmosphere. The focus of this study was the attempt to provide a closure of radiances at the top of the atmosphere by linking all available data by radiative transfer calculations. For this purpose, the 6S-code by Vermote et al. was applied. This code was also used for a sensitivity study to assess the required accuracy of measured surface and atmospheric parameters. Unfortunately, only satellite data from SeaWIFS were available for the closure. It was confirmed by the numerical studies that the bi-directional reflectance of the surface is the crucial parameter for the radiation field at the top of the atmosphere. This information was, however, not available at Lindenberg for an area equivalent to a SeaWIFS pixel. The closure did not show any inconsistency between the satellite radiances and the calculated ones, if standard surface properties were used. It can be concluded that a pre-requisite for having a chance to derive aerosol parameters from passive radiometry is the accurate knowledge of the surface properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Lindenberger Aerosol-Charakterisierungs-Experiments (LACE) wurden vom Meteorologischen Institut Muenchen Messungen mit einem 10-Kanal-Interferenzfilteraktionometer (IFA) und einem schwenkbaren Lidar durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen fanden, zusammen mit boden- und flugzeuggestuetzten Messungen anderer Gruppen, Eingang in Strahlungstransportrechnungen mit dem Ziel, eine Schliessung anhand

  13. Proposed Physics Experiments for Laser-Driven Electron Linear Acceleration in a Dielectric Loaded Vacuum, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics. Edward L. Ginzton Lab.

    2016-07-08

    This final report summarizes the last three years of research on the development of advanced linear electron accelerators that utilize dielectric wave-guide vacuum channels pumped by high energy laser fields to accelerate beams of electrons.

  14. Design of an enhanced Integrated Management System with Customer Experience Focus: The Business Process Framework (also known as eTOM and ISO9001 Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Reilly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to suggest an enhanced Process model with customer experience focus and its related documentation structure applicable to many industrial contexts. Since the Business Process Framework, also known as eTOM, is originally a Process Model for Telco industry and now being used broadly in many industries, ISO9001 is a historical and generic standard with customer focus, and there is always a question about how to integrate the Business Process Framework and ISO9001, the enhanced process model will be based on the integration of the Business Process Framework and ISO9001 highlighting the customer aspects to meet the current trends within Telco and many other industries. The management system, containing the organization, the processes based on this integration, and the performance management system is called an Integrated Management System (IMS. The paper focus is on the processes and its introduction is about Telco Business context since the Business Process Framework was born within this industry. But, the suggested IMS is applicable to many service companies and many organizational units of any industry (Ex.: any Information System organizational unit, with its service Portfolios, of any industry since the Business Process Framework and ISO9001 are too.

  15. Design and Evaluation of Virtual Reality-Based Therapy Games with Dual Focus on Therapeutic Relevance and User Experience for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lian Ting; Fehlings, Darcy; Biddiss, Elaine

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR)-based therapy for motor rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) is growing in prevalence. Although mainstream active videogames typically offer children an appealing user experience, they are not designed for therapeutic relevance. Conversely, rehabilitation-specific games often struggle to provide an immersive experience that sustains interest. This study aims to design and evaluate two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation and to evaluate their efficacy with dual focus on therapeutic relevance and user experience. Three occupational therapists, three physiotherapists, and eight children (8-12 years old), with CP Level I-III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, evaluated two games for the Microsoft(®) (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ for Windows and completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES), and custom feedback questionnaires. Children and therapists unanimously agreed on the enjoyment and therapeutic value of the games. Median scores on the PACES were high (6.24±0.95 on the 7-point scale). Therapists considered the system to be of average usability (50th percentile on the SUS). The most prevalent usability issue was detection errors distinguishing the child's movements from the supporting therapist's. The ability to adjust difficulty settings and to focus on targeted goals (e.g., elbow/shoulder extension, weight shifting) was highly valued by therapists. Engaging both therapists and children in a user-centered design approach enabled the development of two VR-based therapy games for upper and lower limb rehabilitation that are dually (a) engaging to the child and (b) therapeutically relevant.

  16. C. Petrone et al.: "Magnetic measurement of the model magnet QD0 designed for the CLIC final focus beam transport line." CERN TE-MSC Internal Note, EDMS Nr: 1184196

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Petrone, Carlo; Russenschuck, Stephan; Walckiers, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This note presents the results of the magnetic measurements performed on QD0, model magnet for the final focus transport line for CLIC (Fig. 1). This high-gradient, hybrid quadrupole has a yoke length of 0.1 m and an aperture of 8.3 mm. ND2Fe14B Permanent magnet blocks provide a gradient of 150 T/m, which can be further increased to 530 T/m when the four coils are excited to 18.3 A. The request was to measure the strength of the field and the multipole coefficients at different currents. The measurement of the field strength, by means of the single stretched wire system, was done in December 2011 in the I8 laboratory. The measurement of the multipole was done by means of the oscillating wire system [1][2].

  17. Validation of the BERT Point Source Inversion Scheme Using the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Experiment Dataset - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Sara [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    zones. Due to a unique source inversion technique - called the upwind collector footprint approach - the tool runs fast and the source regions can be determined in a few minutes. In this report, we provide an overview of the BERT framework, followed by a description of the source inversion technique. The Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment held in Oklahoma City that was used to validate BERT is then described. Subsequent sections describe the metrics used for evaluation, the comparison of the experimental data and BERT output, and under what conditions the BERT tool succeeds and performs poorly. Results are aggregated in different ways (e.g., daytime vs. nighttime releases, 1 vs. 2 vs. 3 hit collectors) to determine if BERT shows any systematic errors. Finally, recommendations are given for how to improve the code and procedures for optimizing performance in operational mode.

  18. Final Report for "Solid State Voltammetry and Other Experiments in Molecular Melts" Semi-Solid Nanoparticles, and Biomolecule Polyether Hybrids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royce W. Murray

    2005-07-27

    Since the technical progress report of the previous renewal proposal, my students and I have published or have in press 13 papers (5 in JACS). Another is under review; several others are in draft form. This Final Report is an updated version of the Performance Report submitted with the renewal proposal for this project.

  19. Overview of the Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT): mechanistic chamber studies on the oxidation of biogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, R. H.; Teng, A. P.; Bates, K. H.; Zhang, X.; St. Clair, J. M.; Brune, W. H.; Tyndall, G. S.; Keutsch, F. N.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT) was a collaborative atmospheric chamber campaign that occurred during January 2014. FIXCIT is the laboratory component of a synergistic field and laboratory effort aimed toward (1) better understanding the chemical details behind ambient observations relevant to the southeastern United States, (2) advancing the knowledge of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of important biogenic hydrocarbons, and (3) characterizing the behavior of field instrumentation using authentic standards. Approximately 20 principal scientists from 14 academic and government institutions performed parallel measurements at a forested site in Alabama and at the atmospheric chambers at Caltech. During the 4 week campaign period, a series of chamber experiments was conducted to investigate the dark- and photo-induced oxidation of isoprene, α-pinene, methacrolein, pinonaldehyde, acylperoxy nitrates, isoprene hydroxy nitrates (ISOPN), isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in a highly controlled and atmospherically relevant manner. Pinonaldehyde and isomer-specific standards of ISOPN, ISOPOOH, and IEPOX were synthesized and contributed by campaign participants, which enabled explicit exploration into the oxidation mechanisms and instrument responses for these important atmospheric compounds. The present overview describes the goals, experimental design, instrumental techniques, and preliminary observations from the campaign. This work provides context for forthcoming publications affiliated with the FIXCIT campaign. Insights from FIXCIT are anticipated to aid significantly in interpretation of field data and the revision of mechanisms currently implemented in regional and global atmospheric models.

  20. Search for Supersymmetry in final states with jets, missing transverse momentum and at least one lepton with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Janus, Michel

    A search for Supersymmetry (SUSY) in final states with at least one lepton and large missing transverse energy based on proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The leptons are reconstructed in the hadronic decay mode. Final states with leptons o er a good sensitivity for SUSY models where the coupling to the third generation of fermions is enhanced, e.g. gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) models, for which the supersymmetric partner of the lepton is the next-to-lightest SUSY particle (NLSP) and its decay to electrons or muons is strongly suppressed. To search for new physics in final states with hadronic -lepton decays a reliable and e cient re- construction algorithm for hadronic decays is needed to separate real decays and backgrounds from quark- or gluon-initiated jets and electrons. As part of this thesis two existing -reconstruction al- gorithms were further developed and integrated into a single algorithm that has by now become the standard algorithm for recon...

  1. “It’s not like a fat camp” — A focus group study of adolescents’ experiences on group-based obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Engström

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods: In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results: We identified four major themes: 1 motivation, 2 body experience and self-image, 3 relationships and sense of belonging, and 4 the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion: Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends.

  2. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  3. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  4. Final Progress Report: FRACTURE AND SUBCRITICAL DEBONDING IN THIN LAYERED STRUCTURES: EXPERIMENTS AND MULTI-SCALE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold H. Dauskardt

    2005-08-30

    Final technical report detailing unique experimental and multi-scale computational modeling capabilities developed to study fracture and subcritical cracking in thin-film structures. Our program to date at Stanford has studied the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack-growth in structural ceramics at high temperature, bulk and thin-film glasses in selected moist environments where we demonstrated the presence of a true mechanical fatigue effect in some glass compositions. We also reported on the effects of complex environments and fatigue loading on subcritical cracking that effects the reliability of MEMS and other micro-devices using novel micro-machined silicon specimens and nanomaterial layers.

  5. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Joe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19% showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6% experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55% over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape

  6. Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Final Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Protik, Ali; Teh, Bing-ru; Bruch, Julie; Max, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    One way to improve struggling schools' access to effective teachers is to use selective transfer incentives. Such incentives offer bonuses for the highest-performing teachers to move into schools serving the most disadvantaged students. In this report, we provide evidence from a randomized experiment that tested whether such a policy intervention…

  7. Measurement of the top quark mass in the all hadronic final state at the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, Ayesh [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest fermion observed to date. A precise measurement of its mass and W boson mass is important to indirect measurements of Higgs boson mass. Furthermore, the top quark mass, W boson mass and Higgs boson mass may test the Standard Model using the correlations between them. Here in this thesis, we present a measurement of the top quark mass in the all hadronic final state using the template method. This final state has the advantage of being fully reconstructed in the detector and having the largest branching fraction. The measurement is performed on 4033 candidate events collected using the DØ detector. The data is collected from pp collisions generated at √s =1.96 GeV by the TEVATRON accelerator, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia IL. This is a two dimensional measurement formulated to extract the top quark mass as well as lower the systematic uncertainty due to the jet energy scale calibration. A kinematic fitter is employed to build the templates of signal and background for various input top quark mass points and jet energy scale variations. These templates are compared to data to obtain the fitted top quark mass, jet energy scale shift and their uncertainties.

  8. Experience of knowledge and skills that are essential in self-managing a chronic condition - a focus group study among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herre, Ann Jorunn; Graue, Marit; Kolltveit, Beate-Christin Hope; Gjengedal, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain new knowledge about how people experience participating in diabetes self-management courses with other people with type 2 diabetes and how they perceive this influences their health and ability to self-manage the disease. We conducted five focus groups with 22 people with type 2 diabetes who had participated in a group-based diabetes self-management course. We systematically coded the data and analysed them using Knodel's method. Participants gained more nuanced and specific knowledge by participating in a group setting. They increased their theoretical and practical understanding of how to handle diabetes in everyday life. The diabetes self-management course made the participants more aware of having a disease they had to take more seriously. Learning by being in the situation while guided by professionals was useful. In addition, the participation learned from each other by carrying out real tasks in a context with others struggling with similar treatment demands. They wished more room to perform practical tasks and more independent activity. Further, they suggested to make parts of the course accessible online. Still, it was noted that web-based solutions cannot replace the practical parts or the dialogue between the participants. They expressed both a need and a wish for a refresher course. This study underscored that the participants learned through concrete experience, and by trying out practical tasks by becoming part of the diabetes community. They felt safer regarding their own treatment by experiencing a variety of situations in real-life scenarios. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. An in-depth qualitative examination of the ecstasy experience: results of a focus group with ecstasy-using college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kira B; O'Grady, Kevin E; Wish, Eric D; Arria, Amelia M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ecstasy use in 30 college students who participated in one of four 60-minute focus groups with other participants who also had a history of ecstasy use. Ten topics emerged in the sessions: 1) pill ingredients, 2) mechanism of MDMA effects, 3) reasons for initiating ecstasy use, 4) risky behaviors and ecstasy use, 5) sexual activity and ecstasy, 6) positive effects from ecstasy use, 7) negative effects related to ecstasy use, 8) ecstasy and polysubstance use, 9) perceived risks of ecstasy use, and 10) motivational factors related to quitting ecstasy use. Most participants had a basic understanding of the contents of ecstasy pills, and the effects that ecstasy has on the brain and bodily functions. Participants reported positive effects on mood, social pressure, curiosity, availability, boredom, desire for an altered state of mind, desire to escape, self-medication, desire to have fun, and the ease of use of ecstasy in comparison to other drugs as reasons for initiating ecstasy use. They were divided regarding whether ecstasy increased the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including risky sexual behavior. Participants described their experiences of both the positive and negative effects (physical and psychological) that they attributed to their use of ecstasy. All participants were polysubstance users, consuming a number of other substances simultaneously and concurrently with ecstasy. The majority was unaware of specific types of problems ecstasy could potentially cause and discounted its potential harm. Participants varied in their motivation for quitting ecstasy use, including negative personal experiences while using ecstasy, health concerns, and addiction/tolerance. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  10. A qualitative study of naturopathy in rural practice: A focus upon naturopaths' experiences and perceptions of rural patients and demands for their services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardle Jon L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use - of which naturopathy constitutes a significant proportion - accounts for approximately half of all health consultations and half of out-of-pocket expenditure in Australia. Data also suggest CAM use is highest amongst rural Australians. Unfortunately little is known about the grass-roots reality of naturopathy or other CAM use in rural regions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 naturopaths practising in the Darling Downs region of South-East Queensland to assess their perceptions and experiences of rural patients and demand for their services. Results Naturopaths described strong demand in rural areas for their services and perceived much of this demand as attributable to cultural traits in rural communities that served as pull factors for their naturopathic services. Such perceived traits included a cultural affinity for holistic approaches to health and disease and the preventive philosophy of naturopathy and an appreciation of the core tenet of naturopathic practice to develop closer therapeutic relationships. However, cost and a rural culture of self-reliance were seen as major barriers to naturopathic practice in rural areas. Conclusions Demand for naturopathic services in rural areas may have strong underlying cultural and social drivers. Given the apparent affinity for and increasingly large role played by CAM services, including naturopathic medicine, in rural areas it is imperative that naturopathic medicine and the CAM sector more broadly become a core focus of rural health research.

  11. A qualitative study of naturopathy in rural practice: a focus upon naturopaths' experiences and perceptions of rural patients and demands for their services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon L; Adams, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai

    2010-06-28

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use--of which naturopathy constitutes a significant proportion--accounts for approximately half of all health consultations and half of out-of-pocket expenditure in Australia. Data also suggest CAM use is highest amongst rural Australians. Unfortunately little is known about the grass-roots reality of naturopathy or other CAM use in rural regions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 naturopaths practising in the Darling Downs region of South-East Queensland to assess their perceptions and experiences of rural patients and demand for their services. Naturopaths described strong demand in rural areas for their services and perceived much of this demand as attributable to cultural traits in rural communities that served as pull factors for their naturopathic services. Such perceived traits included a cultural affinity for holistic approaches to health and disease and the preventive philosophy of naturopathy and an appreciation of the core tenet of naturopathic practice to develop closer therapeutic relationships. However, cost and a rural culture of self-reliance were seen as major barriers to naturopathic practice in rural areas. Demand for naturopathic services in rural areas may have strong underlying cultural and social drivers. Given the apparent affinity for and increasingly large role played by CAM services, including naturopathic medicine, in rural areas it is imperative that naturopathic medicine and the CAM sector more broadly become a core focus of rural health research.

  12. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  13. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  14. PROVISION OF RESEARCH SUPPORT SERVICES TO ODL LEARNERS BY TUTORS: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University’s Bachelor of Education (Educational Management Research Students’ Supervision Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona MAPOLISA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students

  15. A search for beyond the Standard Model physics using a final state with light and boosted muon pairs at CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin

    2017-01-01

    A search for new physics phenomena is presented using a final state with multi-muons, the topology studied considers pairs of opposite sign muons (dimuons) with a low invariant mass and potentially produced far from the interaction point (displaced). Several beyond the Standard Model scenarios fit into this category, including those predicting Dark matter particles (i.e. dark photons) which weakly interact with SM particles via a kinetic mixing parameter and could have a non-negligible lifetime. Other scenario is the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) that extends the higgs sector introducing new light bosons that can decay to muon pairs. The data analyzed corresponds to the one collected by CMS experiment during 2015 using 13 TeV collision energy. This search constrains a large, previously unconstrained area of the parameter space for each mode and allows for an easy reinterpretation for new physics models with similar final state.

  16. Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) and Storm Peak Lab Validation Experiment (StormVEx) Science Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Gerald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign took place from January through June, 2011 and the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) took place from November, 2011 through April, 2012. The PI of this project, Dr. Gerald Mace, had the privilege to be the lead on both of these campaigns. The essence of the project that we report on here was to conduct preliminary work that was necessary to bring the field data sets to a point where they could be used for their intended science purposes

  17. The impact of integrated team care taught using a live NHS contract on the educational experience of final year dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D R; Holmes, S; Woolford, M J; Dunne, S M

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the responses of the dental student body in the first three years of outreach education (2010-13) at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy in the areas of integrated team work and use of a current NHS contact. Use of a questionnaire to allow both quantitative and qualitative data to be obtained, administered to the three cohorts of students at the end of their longitudinal attendance at the Academy in their final year of education at King's College London Dental Institute. Data were obtained from 227 students which represented a 95% return rate. Sixty-four percent of students strongly agreed with both statements: 'I am confident with working with a dental nurse' and 'I now understand properly the scope of practice of dental hygiene-therapists'. Sixty-seven percent strongly agreed with the statement 'I have had useful experience of working in NHS primary care during the final year'. Eighty percent either strongly agreed or agreed with the statement 'My experience of real Units of Dental Activity and Key Performance Indicators has encouraged me to positively consider NHS high street dentistry as a career option'. Within the limitations of this study the dental students reported having gained useful experience of working in integrated team care dentistry. They expressed strong support for the education that is being delivered in an outreach environment and, most importantly, the student body was looking forward to entering general dental practice in the UK.

  18. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a

  19. Physiotherapists' experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ingalill; Miller, Michael; Liljedahl, Kerstin; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-07-02

    Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists' experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001-2009), modality, journals and country, were investigated. Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial), and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment-based intervention built on a biomedical health paradigm, and

  20. Physiotherapists’ experiences of physiotherapy interventions in scientific physiotherapy publications focusing on interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a qualitative phenomenographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Ingalill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy research concerning interventions for children with CP is often focused on collecting evidence of the superiority of particular therapeutic methods or treatment modalities. Articulating and documenting the use of theory, instrumentation and research design and the assumptions underlying physiotherapy research interventions are important. Physiotherapy interventions focusing on children with Cerebral Palsy should, according to the literature, be based on a functional and environmental perspective with task-specific functional activity, motor learning processes and Family-Centred Service i.e. to enhance motor ability and improve capacity so that the child can perform the tasks necessary to participate actively in everyday life. Thus, it is important to coordinate the norms and values of the physiotherapist with those of the family and child. The aim of this study was to describe how physiotherapists’ experiences physiotherapy interventions for children with CP in scientific physiotherapy publications written by physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative phenomenographic approach was used. Twenty- one scientific articles, found in PubMed, strategically chosen according to year of publication (2001–2009, modality, journals and country, were investigated. Results Three qualitatively different descriptive categories were identified: A: Making it possible a functional-based intervention based on the biopsychosocial health paradigm, and the role of the physiotherapist as collaborative, interacting with the child and family in goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation, B: Making it work an impairment-based intervention built on a mixed health paradigm (biomedical and biopsychosocial, and the role of the physiotherapist as a coach, leading the goal setting, intervention planning and evaluation and instructing family members to carry out physiotherapist directed orders, and; C: Making it normal an impairment

  1. Study of Higgs bosons in the WW final state and development of a fast calorimeter simulation for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Duehrssen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of physics events, including the detailed simulation of the detector, are an indispensable tool in the development and implementation of analysis strategies for high energy physics experiments. Despite massive worldwide computing resources, it is expected that only the equivalent of a few percent of the recorded ATLAS data can be simulated with the full ATLAS detector simulation, while most analyses require significantly more Monte Carlo events than data events for signal and important background processes. In the course of this thesis the fast calorimeter simulation FastCaloSim was developed that is combined in the Atlfast-II detector simulation package with full simulations of the other detector components. Atlfast-II reduces the event simulation time by a factor of 10-20 without severely compromising the simulation quality of critical variables. During the last two years, Atlfast-II was validated by the ATLAS collaboration and used to simulate several hundred million events, many of...

  2. From the first year to the final year experience: Embedding reflection for work integrated learning in a holistic curriculum framework. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Lee Shircore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition pedagogies relate not only to transition into higher education, but also transition out – and into the workplace.  This paper explores the way in which a suite of new capstone work integrated learning subjects at James Cook University’s Faculty of Law Business and Creative Arts forms part of a deliberately designed program inculcating reflective skills at introductory and developmental levels, in preparation for this final transition. It highlights the importance of integrating first year experience, including content and skill development, with the whole degree.

  3. High intensity focused ultrasound with Focal-One(®) device: Prostate-specific antigen impact and morbidity evaluation during the initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Reggeti, J I; Sanchez-Salas, R; Sivaraman, A; Linares Espinos, E; de Gracia-Nieto, A E; Barret, E; Galiano, M; Rozet, F; Fregeville, A; Renard-Penna, R; Cathala, N; Mombet, A; Prapotnich, D; Cathelineau, X

    2016-12-01

    We report our initial experience in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using the Focal-One(®) device. Retrospective review of the prospectively populated database. Between June 2014 to October 2015, 85 patients underwent HIFU (focal/whole-gland) treatment for localized PCa. Preoperative cancer localization was done with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and transperineal mapping biopsies. Treatment was carried out using the Focal-One(®) device under general anesthesia. Oncological follow-up: PSA measurement and control biopsy with mpMRI according to protocol. Questionnaire-based functional outcome assessment was done. Complications were reported using Clavien classification. The median PSA was 7.79ng/ml (IQR 6.32-9.16), with a median prostate volume of 38cc (IQR: 33-49.75). Focal and whole-gland therapy was performed in 64 and 21 patients respectively. Ten patients received salvage HIFU. Complications were encountered in 15% of cases, all Clavien 2 graded. Mean hospital stay was 1.8 days (0-7) and bladder catheter was removed on day 2 (1-6). Mean percentage reduction of PSA was 54%. Median follow-up was 3 months (IQR: 2-8). Functional outcomes: All patients were continents at 3 months and potency was maintained in 83% of the preoperatively potent. Focal-One(®) HIFU treatment appears to be a safe procedure with few complications. Functional outcomes proved no urinary incontinence and sexual function were maintained in 83%. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  5. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  6. The quest for the top squark in semi-leptonic and hadronic final states with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00339743

    2015-05-29

    Two searches for the Supersymmetric partner of the top quark, the stop, are presented in this thesis for scenarios where the R-parity is conserved and the lightest supersymmetric particle is assumed to be the lightest neutralino. They have been performed by analysing the proton-proton LHC collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 and 20.1$^{fb-1}$, respectively. A study to define a parameterization for the resolution of the Soft component of the missing transverse momentum is also presented. The signal of the first search is a stop which is lighter or in the same mass range as the top-quark and decays into a b-quark and a chargino, with a 100% decay branching ratio. Events that contain jets, b-jets, one electron or muon, and missing transverse momentum are selected. The discrimination between signal and background is achieved by reconstructing the top-anti-top decay and exploiting the differences in the top mass d...

  7. Search For Cpt Violation With The Focus Experiment And Measurement Of Lambda(b) Lifetime In The Decay Lambda(b) Decaying To J/psi Lambda With The Do Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kryemadhi, A

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation describes two different projects from two different experiments. We have performed a search for CPT violation in neutral charm meson oscillations using data from the FOCUS Experiment. While flavor mixing in the charm sector is predicted to be small in the Standard Model, it is still possible to investigate CPT violation through a study of the proper time dependence of a CPT asymmetry in right-sign decay rates for D0 → K−π + and D¯0 → K +π−. We also present measurements of the L0b lifetime in the exclusive decay channel L0b → J/ yL with J/ y → μ+μ− and Λ → pπ−, the B0 lifetime in the decay B0d → J/ yK0S with J/ y → μ+μ− and K0S → π+π−, and the ratio of these lifetimes. The analysis is based on approximately 225 pb−1 of data recorded with the D&O...

  8. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  9. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  10. New measurements from fully reconstructed hadronic final states of the $B^0_2$ meson at CDF II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Ronco, Saverio [Univ. of Padua (Italy)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports the reconstruction and lifetime measurement of B+, B$0/atop{d}$ and B$0/atop{s}$ mesons, performed using fully reconstructed hadronic decays collected by a dedicated trigger at CDF II experiment. This dedicated trigger selects significantly displaced tracks from primary vertex of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions generated at Tevatron collider, obtaining, in this way, huge data samples enriched of long-lived particles, and is therefore suitable for reconstruction of B meson in hadronic decay modes. Due to the trigger track impact parameter selections, the proper decay time distributions of the B mesons no longer follow a simply exponential decay law. This complicates the lifetime measurement and requires a correct understanding and treatment of all the involved effects to keep systematic uncertainties under control. This thesis presents a method to extract the lifetime of B mesons in “ct- biased” samples, based on a Monte Carlo approach, to correct for the effects of the trigger and analysis selections. We present the results of this method when applied on fully re- constructed decays of B collected by CDF II in the data taking runs up to August 2004, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 360 pb-1. The lifetimes are extracted using the decay modes B+ → $\\bar{D}$0π+,B$0\\atop{d}$ → D-π+, B$0\\atop{d}$ → D-π+π-π+, B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$π+ and B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$ π+π-π+(and c.c.) and performing combined mass-lifetime unbinned maximum likelihood fits.

  11. Final-Year Students' and Clinical instructors' Experience of Workplace-Based Assessments Used in a Small-Animal Primary-Veterinary-Care Clinical Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.

  12. Search for CPT Violation with the FOCUS Experiment and Measurement of Λb lifetime in the decay Λb → J / Ψ Lambda with the D0 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryemadhi, Abaz [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This dissertation describes two different projects from two different experiments. We have performed a search for CPT violation in neutral charm meson oscillations using data from the FOCUS Experiment. While flavor mixing in the charm sector is predicted to be small in the Standard Model, it is still possible to investigate CPT violation through a study of the proper time dependence of a CPT asymmetry in right-sign decay rates for D0 → K- π+ and $\\bar{D}$0 → K+π-. This asymmetry is related to the CPT violating complex parameter ξ and the mixing parameters x and y: ACPT ∞ Reξy - Imξx. We determine a 95% confidence level limit of -0.0068 < Reξy - Imξx < 0.0234. Within the framework of the Standard Model Extension incorporating general CPT violation, we also find 95% confidence level limits for the expressions involving coefficients of Lorentz violation of (-2.8 < N(x,y,δ))(Δa0 + 0.6 ΔaZ< 4.8) x 10-16 GeV, (-7.0 < N(x,y,δ)Δax < 3.8) x 10-16 GeV, and (-7.0 < N(x,y,δ)Δay < 3.8) x 10-16 GeV, where N(x,y,δ) is a normalization factor that incorporates mixing parameters x, y and the doubly Cabibbo suppressed to Cabibbo favored relative strong phase δ.

  13. Experience in the Development of the CMS Inner Tracker Analog Optohybrid Circuits: Project, Qualification, Volume Production, Quality Assurance and Final Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, Daniel; Bilei, Gian Mario; Casinini, F; Postolache, Vasile

    2005-01-01

    The Tracker system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment, will employ approximately 40,000 analog fibre-optic data and control links. The optical readout system is responsible for converting and transmitting the electrical signals coming out from the front-end to the outside counting room. Concerning the inner part of the Tracker, about 3,600 Analog Optohybrid circuits are involved in this tasks. These circuits have been designed and successfully produced in Italy under the responsibility of INFN Perugia CMS group completing the volume production phase by February 2005. Environmental features, reliability and performances of these circuits have been extensively tested and qualified. This paper reviews the most relevant steps of the manufacturing and quality assurance process: from prototypes to mass-production for the final CMS use.

  14. A search for beyond the Standard Model physics using a final state with light and boosted muon pairs at the CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, A.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    A search for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) is performed using a final state with multi-muons and collision data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The topology under study considers events with pairs of oppositely charged muons (dimuons) with a low invariant mass and a common origin. This selection offers an extremely low contribution from SM processes and fits into several beyond the SM signatures. Results are interpreted in a model-independent fashion and in the context of two scenarios: Supersymmetry including “dark” sectors (dark-SUSY) and Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). Both scenarios postulate a non-SM decay of the Higgs boson to a pair of new light bosons which subsequently decay to a pair of muons. In the case of the dark-SUSY scenario, the hypothetical production of dark photons could give an insight on the origin of dark matter.

  15. Bringing the Adult Learning Experience of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance into Focus: A Narrative Analysis with Implications for Educators and Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stametz, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the many social, medical, and political viewpoints on obesity, little is known of the weight loss maintenance experience and the impact on learning processes and outcomes among adults. The purpose of this study was two-fold: a) to explore the experience and meaning-making processes of individuals who have maintained a weight loss and…

  16. Bringing the Adult Learning Experience of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance into Focus: A Narrative Analysis with Implications for Educators and Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stametz, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the many social, medical, and political viewpoints on obesity, little is known of the weight loss maintenance experience and the impact on learning processes and outcomes among adults. The purpose of this study was two-fold: a) to explore the experience and meaning-making processes of individuals who have maintained a weight loss and…

  17. Fundamental studies on ocean wave focusing. 2nd Report. ; Experiments in a wave tank. Kaiyoha shuha lens no kisoteki kenkyu. 2. ; Suisojikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashige, S. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)); Kinoshita, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science); Suzuki, T. (Hazama Gumi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    By using the slender ship the previous report, it was demonstrated possible to design, by utilizing an array of submerged circular cylinders, an ocean wave focusing lens, higher in performance than the conventional submerged focusing flat plate. Then by preparing a submerged focusing flat plate and submerged focusing circular cylinder array Fresnel lens, 20m in length, the present report showed the test result against both regular waves and irregular waves in a rectangular parallelpiped water tank, 50m in length, 30m in breadth and 2.4m in depth. The test was design conditioned to be 20m in overall length of lens, 16m in focal distance, 1.2Hz in wave frequency and 0.12m in submerged depth. As a result, the submerged focusing circular cylinder array Fresnel lens was higher in both wave and power amplification ratio against both the regular waves and irregular waves. With heightening, the incident wave was known to lower in amplification ratio. Through testing in a two-dimensional water tank, the breaking limit of waves, passing above the submerged flat plate or circular cylinder array, was known to be given by H{sub i}/h{sub p} or H{sub i}/h{sub c}{approx equal}0.38, where H{sub i}, h{sub p} and h{sub c} are incident wave height, submerged depth of plate and submerged depth of cylinder array, respectively. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Single session of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for the management of organ-confined prostate cancer: A single-institute experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cing Juho

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: High-intensity focused ultrasound is an alternative therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer. In combination with preceding transurethral resection of the prostate, this treatment shows promise in disease control with a low complication rate in short-term follow-up.

  19. Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    UU UU UU 16-08-2016 15-Sep-2011 14-Oct-2014 Final Report: Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators The views, opinions and/or findings contained...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Topological Insulators, Dirac Semimetals, Transport in magnetic field, High mobility REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...ABSTRACT Final Report: Transport Experiments on Topological Insulators Report Title The ARO-supported research focused on uncovering novel materials and

  20. Clinical Experiences as Related to Standard Precautions Compliance among Nursing Students: A Focus Group Interview Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mi Kim, RN, PhD, ICAPN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: These focus groups revealed that many nursing students worked in vulnerable environments and risked pathogen exposure. Nursing students expressed the importance of SP but reported witnessing many instances of failure to comply with established measures. Several barriers were explored as reasons of SP noncompliance. By removing the barriers presented in this study, nursing students would be able to perform their duties in a safe clinical environment.

  1. An In-Depth Qualitative Examination of the Ecstasy Experience: Results of a Focus Group with Ecstasy-Using College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LEVY, KIRA B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ecstasy use in 30 college students who participated in one of four 60-minute focus groups with other participants who also had a history of ecstasy use. Ten topics emerged in the sessions: 1) pill ingredients, 2) mechanism of MDMA effects, 3) reasons for initiating ecstasy use, 4) risky behaviors and ecstasy use, 5) sexual activity and ecstasy, 6) positive effects from ecstasy use, 7) negative effects related to ecstasy use, 8) ecstasy and polysubstance use, 9) perceived r...

  2. Self-sealing barriers of sand/bentonite-mixtures in a clay repository. SB-experiment in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Czaikowski, Oliver; Hartwig, Lothar; Hellwald, Karsten; Komischke, Michael; Miehe, Ruediger; Zhang, Chun-Liang

    2012-10-15

    Several years ago, GRS performed laboratory investigations on the suitability of clay/mineral mixtures as optimized sealing materials in underground repositories for radioactive wastes /JOC 00/ /MIE 03/. The investigations yielded promising results so that plans were developed for testing the sealing properties of those materials under representative in-situ conditions in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (MTRL). The project was proposed to the ''Projekttraeger Wassertechnologie und Entsorgung (PtWT+E)'', and finally launched in January 2003 under the name SB-project (''Self-sealing Barriers of Clay/Mineral Mixtures in a Clay Repository''). The project was divided in two parts, a pre-project running from January 2003 until June 2004 under contract No. 02E9713 /ROT 04/ and the main project running from January 2004 until June 2012 under contract No. 02E9894 with originally PtWT+E, later renamed as PTKA-WTE. In the course of the pre-project it was decided to incorporate the SB main project as a cost shared action of PtWT+E and the European Commission (contract No. FI6W-CT-2004-508851) into the EC Integrated Project ESDRED (Engineering Studies and Demonstrations of Repository Designs) performed by 11 European project partners within the 6th European framework programme. The ESDRED project was terminated prior to the termination of the SB project. Interim results were reported by mid 2009 in two ESDRED reports /DEB09/ /SEI 09/. This report presents the results achieved in the whole SB-project comprising preceding laboratory investigations for the final selection of suited material mixtures, the conduction of mock-up tests in the geotechnical laboratory of GRS in Braunschweig and the execution of in-situ experiments at the MTRL.

  3. Being an outpatient with rheumatoid arthritis - a focus group study on patients' self-efficacy and experiences from participation in a short course and one of three different outpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jette; Wagner, Lis; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    A Danish study compared three different outpatient settings for persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). All participants completed a short course before random allocation to one of three groups. A third of the patients continued with planned medical consultations. A third was allocated to a shared...... care setting with no planned consultations. The final third was allocated for planned nursing consultations every 3 months. Little knowledge exists of patients' experiences at different outpatient settings....

  4. Bringing the ‘Self’ into focus: conceptualising the role of self-experience for understanding and working with distressing voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Fielding-Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp is to reduce distress and disability, not to change the positive symptoms of psychosis, such as hearing voices. Despite demonstrated associations between beliefs about voices and distress, the effects of CBTp on reducing voice distress are disappointing. Research has begun to explore the role that the psychological construct of ‘self’ (which includes numerous facets such as self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept might play in causing and maintaining distress and disability in voice hearers. However, attempts to clarify and integrate these different perspectives within the voice hearing literature, or to explore their clinical implications, are still in their infancy. This paper outlines how the self has been conceptualised in the psychosis and CBT literatures, followed by a review of the evidence regarding the proposed role of this construct in the aetiology of and adaptation to voice hearing experiences. We go on to discuss some of the specific intervention methods that aim to target these aspects of self-experience and end by identifying key research questions in this area. Notably, we suggest that interventions specifically targeting aspects of self-experience, including self-affection, self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept, may be sufficient to reduce distress and disruption in the context of hearing voices, a suggestion that now requires further empirical investigation.

  5. [Effect of Adolescents' Abuse Experience on Suicidal Ideation: Focused on Moderated Mediation Effect of Self-esteem on Depression and Anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyunghee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating mediation effect of self-esteem on the relations among adolescents' abuse experiences, depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. The participants were selected using secondary data from a population in the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Survey (KOWEPS). Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SPSS Macro, and bootstrapping and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze multilevel models. First, analysis of the mediating effect of the adolescents' abuse showed that there was significant mediating influence between suicidal ideation and depression and anxiety. Second, hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem had significant mediation effect on depression and anxiety in adolescents' suicidal ideation. Third, SPSS Macro showed that self-esteem also significantly moderated the mediating effect of adolescents' abuse experiences on suicidal ideation through depression and anxiety. The study results suggest that in future research on adolescent's abuse experience, the risk of suicide in depression and anxiety scores should be selected through evaluation of each individual's self-esteem scale. Coping strategies with immediate early intervention should be suggested.

  6. Scheme to cooperate in the financing of Basic Education in Brazil: the experience of accounting funds in focus Regime de Colaboração no financiamento da Educação Básica no Brasil: a experiência dos fundos contábeis em foco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco Andrade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the constitutional co-responsibility between states, municipalities and the Union regarding the duties of federal agencies to ensure the assistance to all levels of school education in Brazil. The concept of Collaboration Scheme in the Brazilian educational context is initially analyzed. Then, there is a discussion about the experience of collaboration through funds accounting in Brazil. Finally, it is emphasized that the policy of education funding that is promoted by the funds accounting has contributed to the provision of a transitional agenda for the sector. Therefore, it is essential to the consolidation of a state policy that guarantees investments compatible with the total expenses on basic education in Brazil.http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198464446227 O presente texto discorre sobre a corresponsabilidade constitucional entre Estados, Municípios e União no que concerne a obrigação desses entes federado sem garantir o atendimento de todos os níveis de educação escolar no País. Analisa-se, inicialmente, a concepção de Regime de Colaboração no contexto educacional brasileiro. Em seguida, tematiza-se a experiência da colaboração por meio dos fundos contábeis no Brasil. Por fim, destaca-se que a política de financiamento da educação que é levada a efeito pelos fundos contábeis tem contribuído para o provimento de uma agenda transitória para o setor, por conseguinte, faz-se imprescindível a consolidação de uma Política de Estado que garanta investimento compatível com a totalidade do gasto com a educação básica no País.

  7. Model Selection for and Partial-Wave Analysis of a Five-Pion Final State at the COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073723; Mallot, Gerhard

    The light-meson spectrum is an important ingredient to understand quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong interaction at low energies, where quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons. However, measuring this spectrum experimentally is very challenging, due to the large number of overlapping resonances it contains. To disentangle this complicated spectrum, partial-wave techniques are used. At the COMPASS experiment at CERN, the light-meson spectrum is studied in diffractive dissociation reactions. One such reaction, π- + p→π- π+ π- π+ π- + p, puts the analysis methodology to the test, because the large number of final-state particles requires a dedicated model-selection procedure and introduces a complicated background situation. In this thesis, such a model-selection procedure is developed and verified on simulated events. In addition to finding a suitable model, it can be used to assess the reliability of the results. The model-selection procedure is then successfully applied t...

  8. Search for top squark pair production and decay in four bodies, with two leptons in the final state, at the ATLAS Experiment with LHC Run2 data

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, Marilea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) still remains one of the most interesting theories which are candidates to describe physics beyond the Standard Model, even if the latest Run1 results and interpretations have so far shown no experimental evidence for the existence of superparticles. If SUSY exists, the strong production of coloured SUSY particles is expected to be the dominant production process at the LHC. In this poster a search for the top quark Supersymmetric partner (stop) pairs production is reported, using 36.1 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 and 2016. The analysis targets the stop decaying, with 100% branching ratio, into a b quark, a neutralino (the lighest Supersymmetric particle), a fermion and an antifermion, with a final state including two isolated electrons or muons and missing transverse momentum. The results are interpreted in the stop and neutralino mass plane in terms of exclusion limits, since no excess in data has been found for this analysis.

  9. Search for top squark pair production and decay in four bodies, with two leptons in the final state, at the ATLAS Experiment with LHC Run2 data

    CERN Document Server

    Reale, Marilea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) still remains one of the most interesting theories which are candidates to describe physics beyond the Standard Model, even if the latest Run1 results and interpretations have so far shown no experimental evidence for the existence of superparticles. If SUSY exists, the strong production of colored SUSY particles is expected to be the dominant production process at the LHC. In this work a search for the top quark supersymmetric partner (stop) pairs production is reported, using 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 and 2016. The analysis targets the stop decaying, with 100% branching ratio, into a b quark, a neutralino (here assumed to be the lighest supersymmetric particle), a fermion and an antifermion, with a final state including two isolated electrons or muons and missing transverse momentum. The results are interpreted in the stop and neutralino mass plane in terms of exclusion limits, since no excess in data has been found for this...

  10. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichón, S.; Supán, J.

    2008-04-01

    A "table-top" 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (108 per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  11. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Using Sonablate® Devices for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Localized Prostate Cancer: 18-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki

    2011-09-01

    From 1993 to 2010, we have treated 156 patients benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 1,052 patients localized prostate cancer high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Four different HIFU devices, SonablateR-200, SonablateR-500, SonablateR-500 version 4 and Sonablate® TCM, have been used for this study. Clinical outcome of HIFU for BPH did not show any superior effects to transurethral resection of the prostate, laser surgery or transurethral vapolization of the prostate. However, HIFU appears to be a safe and minimally invasive therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially low- and intermediate-risk patients. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  12. Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

    1979-03-30

    The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The direct current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.

  13. An exploration of a restorative space: a creative approach to reflection for nurse lecturer's focused on experiences of compassion in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen; Gentleman, Mandy; Loads, Daphne; Pullin, Simon

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken as part of a larger programme of research; the Leadership in Compassionate Care Programme. The aim of this study was to explore and respond to the perceptions of nurse lecturers in regard to experiences of compassion in the workplace. A participatory action research approach was adopted. The study took place in a large school of nursing and midwifery in the United Kingdom, eight lecturers participated in this study. A series of four facilitated reflective workshops titled a restorative space were provided and participants used the medium of collage as a process for reflection. Data was gathered in the form of collages, field and reflective notes. Data analysis involved an iterative process between facilitators and participants during the workshops and resulting actions were implemented. Findings from this study identified three key themes related to compassion in the workplace; leadership, culture, professional and personal development. Actions identified and implemented as a consequence of these findings included opportunities for lecturers to participate in a leadership development programme and implementing rapid feedback processes between lecturers and the senior management team. The restorative space workshops and utilisation of the creative medium of collage provided a valuable process for practitioners to collaboratively reflect on their workplace experiences. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  15. Development and demonstration of Denmark's first low-energy class 1 office building with focus on electricity consumption. Final report; Udvikling og demonstration af Danmarks foerste lavenergiklasse 1 kontorbyggeri med fokus pae elforbrug. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansen, C. [En2tech, Skanderborg (Denmark); Nellemose Knudsen, H. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Busk Rohde, T. [EnergiMidt, Silkeborg (Denmark); Nielsen, Allan [Insight Building Automation, Silkeborg (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The company EnergiMidt's new office building is established as a low-energy class 1 building, and although it has shown a significantly higher consumption than expected in the first 1.5 years of operation, extensive experience and knowledge of the development and implementation of a low-energy class 1 building was provided, as well as of the possibilities for improvements so that low energy requirements can realistically be achieved. Employees' expectations for the new systems and indoor climate are largely met, but considerable experience is also gained about how to introduce and adapt new technology in the workplace for the employees. (LN)

  16. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-02-15

    This note gives details on the final analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment in terms of Beam Spin Asymmetry. It summarizes the changes between the first and second pass analysis. Then the measured asymmetry is presented for both channels e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma} and e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} including systematic studies. The final experimental result is briefly compared to some model predictions. (authors)

  18. Collaborative learning in focus groups. Experiments of TA-Akadamie on energy problems; Kollaboratives Lernen in Fokusgruppen. Experimente der TA-Akademie zu Energiefragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.

    2000-10-01

    This is a study based on the question of to which degree focus groups can serve as learning areas in solving complex problems due to their social frame conditions. It is of interest to find out if there is a stronger problem-orientation for members of focus groups which allows access to various social areas and if the incurring social processes among the members are of any help. Using a brief analysis of the present status quo of environmental education some causes are shown which explain why most of the instruction-psychological measures have only little success in environmental education. It is seen that environmental knowledge can be transferred by pedagogical activities, this knowledge, however, is seen in the activities of the ones learning only very little or not at all. The scientific considerations of Tippelt, Vester and Doerner show a variety of innovative thoughts, giving valuable support to the field of peadagogics. In compliance with the requests of the German Bundestag, Tippelt finds the improvement of problem-solving-competences to be one of the most important goals of an efficient environmental education. Therefore, these are used as subjects of a qualitative evaluation. [German] Dieser Studie liegt die Frage zugrunde, inwiefern Fokusgruppen aufgrund ihrer sozialen Rahmenbedingungen bei der Loesung von komplexen Fragestellungen als Lernfeld dienen koennen. Von Interesse ist dabei, ob in den Fokusgruppen bei den Teilnehmern eine verstaerkte Problemorientierung auftritt, die sich den Interessen unterschiedlicher Gesellschaftsbereiche oeffnet und ob die auftretenden sozialen Prozesse zwischen den Teilnehmern hilfreich sind. Am Beispiel einer kurzen Analyse des gegenwaertigen Status Quo der Umwelterziehung treten einige Ursachen zutage, die veranschaulichen, warum vorwiegend instruktionspsychologischen Massnahmen in der Umweltbildung meist unzureichende Erfolge beschieden sind. Es kristallisiert sich heraus, dass die Vermittlung von Umweltwissen durch

  19. The roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor during the final stage of folliculogenesis: a focus on oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Li, Julang

    2013-02-01

    Neurotrophic factors were first identified to promote the growth, survival or differentiation of neurons and have also been associated with the early stages of ovarian folliculogenesis. More recently, their effects on the final stage of follicular development, including oocyte maturation and early embryonic development, have been reported. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are expressed in numerous peripheral tissues outside of the CNS, most notably the ovary, are now known to stimulate oocyte maturation in various species, also enhancing developmental competence. The mechanisms that underlie their actions in antral follicles, as well as the targets ultimately controlled by these factors, are beginning to emerge. GDNF, BDNF and NGF, alone or in combination, could be added to the media currently utilized for in vitro oocyte maturation, thereby potentially increasing the production and/or quality of early embryos.

  20. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  1. Analysis of the Kpi hadronic state interaction using D into K-pi+mu+nu semileptonic decays from the FOCUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M

    2007-01-01

    We present a four-body semileptonic charm decay D^+ into K^-pi^+mu^+nu analysis in the range of 0.65 GeV/c^2 < mkpi < 1.5 GeV/c^2. We observe a low mass scalar contribution of 5.30 +- 0.74 + 0.99 - 0.96 % with respect to the total D^+ into K^-pi^+mu^+nu decay, compatible with the phase shift found by the LASS elastic scattering experiment. For the K*(892) resonance, we obtain a mass of 895.41 +- 0.32 + 0.35 - 0.43 MeV/c^2, a width of 47.79 +- 0.86 + 1.32 - 1.06 MeV/c^2, and a Blatt-Weisskopf damping factor parameter of 3.96 +- 0.54 + 1.31 - 0.90 GeV^(-1). We also report 90% CL upper limits of 4% and 0.64% for the branching ratios Gamma(D^+ into K*(1680)mu^+nu)/Gamma(D^+ into K^-pi^+mu^+nu) and Gamma(D^+ into K*_0(1430)mu^+nu)/Gamma(D^+ into K^-pi^+mu^+nu), respectively.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using Sonablate{trade mark, serif} devices for the treatment of localized prostate cancer: 13-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoaki; Tomonaga, Tetsuro; Shoji, Sunao; Kim, Hakushi; Nagata, Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    To report on the long-term results of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eight hundred and eighty-four men with prostate cancer treated with Sonablate® (SB) devices were included. All patients were followed for more than 2 years. The patients were divided into three groups: in the first group, 419 patients were treated with SB200/500 from 1999 to 2006; in the second group, 263 patients were treated with SB 500 ver. 4 from 2005 to 2009: in the third group, 202 patients were treated with SB 500 TCM from 2007 up to present. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml). The mean age, PSA, Gleason score, operation time, and follow-up period in each group were 68, 66 and 67 years, 11.2, 9.7 and 9.3 ng/ml, 6.2, 6.6 and 6.7, 167, 101 and 106 min, and 56, 48 and 36 months, respectively. The biochemical disease-free rate (bDFR) in each group at 5 years was, respectively, 54%, 61% and 84%, and was 50% at 10 years in the SB200/500 group (prisk groups in all patients at 10 years were 72% and 58%, 44%, respectively (prisk groups in the SB500 TCM group at 5 years were 97%, 83%, and 74% (p=0.0056). The negative prostate biopsy rates in 3 groups were 81%, 92% and 88%, respectively. As post HIFU complications, urethral stricture, acute epididymitis and urinary incontinence were noted in 18.0%, 6.2% and 1.9%, respectively. Rectourethral fistula was occurred in 0.6% in the first HIFU cases, Postoperative erectile dysfunction was noted in 27% of patients at 2 years after HIFU. HIFU therapy appears to be minimally invasive, efficacious, and safe for patients with localized prostate cancer. Technological advances as well as cultural and economic vectors have caused a shift from to minimally invasive techniques.

  3. Sentir-se pai: a vivência masculina sob o olhar de gênero Fatherhood: the male experience from a gender focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waglânia de Mendonça Faustino e Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O pouco envolvimento de parceiros com filhos(as desde a gestação é freqüentemente relatado por mulheres grávidas e puérperas que resultam em tensões e conflitos. Frente a essa realidade, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de compreender a emergência do sentimento de paternidade em homens que a vivenciam. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob abordagem qualitativa e enfoque teórico de gênero. O universo empírico do estudo foi constituído por dez homens, contactados em ambulatório de puericultura, sendo os dados produzidos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os depoimentos dos sujeitos do estudo foram analisados pela técnica de análise do discurso, cujo princípio básico é reconhecer no texto seus níveis mais abstratos, identificados por temas que, organizados em blocos de significação, permitem a construção de categorias empíricas. A posição social dos sujeitos do estudo frente ao momento em que se sentiram pais revela que o modelo em que homens assumem-se como pais pela função de provedor convive com o modelo do homem que busca ser um "novo pai", cujo vínculo afetivo com o(a filho(a se inicia na gestação, representando ruptura com a paternidade tradicional.Pregnant and postpartum women frequently complain about the limited involvement of their partners with their children, beginning in pregnancy. The current study thus aimed to understand men's feelings towards fatherhood during this period of their lives. The research adopted a qualitative approach and a gender-theory focus. The universe included men whose children were being treated at a pediatric outpatient clinic, and data were collected through semi-structured home interviews. Subjects' testimony was analyzed using discourse analysis, the basic principle of which is to recognize the most abstract levels of the text, identified by themes organized in blocks of meaning and allowing the construction of empirical categories. Study subjects' social position

  4. Electrostatic quadrupole focusing in the AGS g-2 storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.; Larsen, R.; Morse, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Yelk, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Z. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-01

    Electrostatic quadrupole focusing is to be used in the high precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, AGS Experiment 821. The final design uses planar rather than hyperbolic electrodes, and the field is pulsed to minimize the effect of trapped electrons. The mechanical design is described. Performance in a 1.5T magnetic field at less than 10{sup {minus}6} Torr is reviewed.

  5. Electrostatic quadrupole focusing in the AGS g-2 storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.; Larsen, R.; Morse, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Yelk, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Liu, Z. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Electrostatic quadrupole focusing is to be used in the high precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, AGS Experiment 821. The final design uses planar rather than hyperbolic electrodes, and the field is pulsed to minimize the effect of trapped electrons. The mechanical design is described. Performance in a 1.5T magnetic field at less than 10[sup [minus]6] Torr is reviewed.

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Thomas R.

    2014-03-14

    We propose to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by continued development and application of polarized 3He spin-filters. These devices are particularly relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source, as the polarizing monochromators historically used at reactor sources will usually not be suitable polarizers, and wide-angle polarization analysis will be essential. With prior support from the Office of Science, we have developed neutron spin-filters based on the large spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by 3He, and applied these devices to a small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS), polarized neutron reflectometers, a thermal energy single crystal diffractometer (SCD), and a thermal energy triple-axis instrument. Our developments have been adopted for application on the magnetism reflectometer at the SNS and for the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) 3He user capability. Results from both these programs are emerging. We have made significant progress in the past grant period on wide-angle polarization analysis. We have also performed several studies relevant to continuous optical pumping, including collaboration on experiments that have revealed neutron beam effects on spin filters that are continuously pumped by spin-exchange optical pumping. We contributed to an experiment on a neutron interferometer, in which the successful results obtained are directly related to both 3He cell technology and high accuracy 3He -based neutron polarimetry. Implementation of wide-angle polarization analysis will continue to be key thrust for our work in this new proposal. We will also focus on continuous optical pumping and the fundamental issues that determine the achievable 3He polarization. This project will be carried out by a collaboration involving scientists at NIST, Indiana University, Hamilton College, and the Univ. of Wisconsin who are experts in 3He polarization techniques, and materials scientists from the

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Benson

    2012-09-24

    This project combines outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The study is designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work is based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project will explore the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. Our work at the Colorado School of Mines was focused on the following questions: 1) What are the effects of multi-scale geologic variability on transport of conservative and reactive solutes? 2) Can those transport effects be accounted for by classical methods, and if not, can the nonlocal fractional-order equations provide better predictions? 3) Can the fractional-order equations be parameterized through a link to some simple observable geologic features? 4) Are the classical equations of transport and reaction sufficient? 5) What is the effect of anomalous transport on chemical reaction in groundwater systems? The work is predicated on the observation that upscaled transport is defined by loss of information, or spatio-temporal averaging. This averaging tends to make the transport laws such as Fick's 2nd-order diffusion equation similar to central limit theory. The fractional-order advection-dispersion equations rely on limit theory for heavy-tailed random motion that has some diverging moments. The equations predict larger tails of a plume in space and/or time than those predicted by the classical 2nd-order advection-dispersion equation. The heavy tails are often seen in plumes at field sites.

  8. Studies on calibration and validation of data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME on ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Final report; Studie zur Kalibrierung und Validation von Daten des Global Ozone Monitoring Experiments GOME auf ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, J.P.; Kuenzi, K.; Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Langer, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Neuber, R.; Eisinger, M. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on 21 April 1995 as one of six scientific instruments on board the second European remote sensing satellite (ERS-2) of the ESA. The investigations presented here aimed at assessing and improving the accuracy of the GOME measurements of sun-standardized and absolute radiation density and the derived data products. For this purpose, the GOME data were compared with measurements pf terrestrial, airborne and satellite-borne systems. For scientific reasons, the measurements will focus on the medium and high latitudes of both hemispheres, although equatorial regions were investigated as well. In the first stage, operational data products of GOME were validated, i.e. radiation measurements (spectra, level1 product) and trace gas column densities (level2 product). [German] Am 21. April 1995 wurde das Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) als eines von insgesamt sechs wissenschaftlichen Instrumenten an Bord des zweiten europaeischen Fernerkundungssatelliten (ERS-2) der ESA ins All gebracht. Das Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, die Genauigkeit der von GOME durchgefuehrten Messungen von sonnennormierter und absoluter Strahlungsdichte sowie der aus ihnen abgeleiteten Datenprodukte zu bewerten und zu verbessern. Dazu sollten die GOME-Daten mit Messungen von boden-, flugzeug- und satellitengestuetzten Systemen verglichen werden. Aus wissenschaftlichen Gruenden wird der Schwerpunkt auf Messungen bei mittleren und hohen Breitengraden in beiden Hemisphaeren liegen. Jedoch wurden im Laufe des Projektzeitraumes auch Regionen in Aequatornaehe untersucht. Im ersten Schritt sollen operationelle Datenprodukte von GOME validiert werden. Dieses sind Strahlungsmessungen (Spektren, Level1-Produkt) und Spurengas-Saeulendichten (Level2-Produkt). (orig.)

  9. [Fragility and experiencing limits as a chance for development in old age--the meaning of the particular experiences of the aging body for identification and development as focused on the very old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Lehmann, Susanne

    2008-06-01

    The main focus of this article is the meaning of particular experiences of the aging body for identity and development with respect to very old age. This experience of embodiment results from a dynamic development between unpleasant experiences of physical aging, positive bodily experiences of the pleasure of living, and reflections on this direct engagement with the aging body. The interaction of those three dimensions requires a constant rebalancing, which, in view of the frail body, becomes increasingly demanding. Beyond one's own experiences with aging through direct engagement with the body, established social relationships give room for an individual's physical nature and support the maintenance of identity and development. People who look after and care for old aged people have to recognize their own embodiment and have to acknowledge their aging body. This applies not only to contact with old aged people, but also requests that the potential for developing one's own identity be recognised. The inclusion of the body in the discourse on the aging process demands a mindset change in social gerontology and for the individual it means to submit oneself to the ethics of embodied existence.

  10. New results in charm meson spectroscopy from FOCUS and SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter S.

    2005-01-01

    I will review recent results in charmed meson spectroscopy from the Fermilab fixed target charm photo-production and hadro-production experiments, FOCUS and SELEX. FOCUS reports new measurements of the masses and widths of the D2*+ and D2* mesons, evidence for D0*+ and D0* broad states and a confirming observation of the DsJ+(2317) and other recently observed high mass DsJ+ states. SELEX has recently reported evidence for a new DsJ+(2632) state in both the Ds+η0 and D0K+ final states.

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  13. Information focus, syntactic weight and postverbal constituent order in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Heidinger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish, postverbal constituents – such as direct object, locative adjunct or depicitive – can be ordered in different ways (e.g. Juan bailó desnudo en su casa vs. Juan bailó en su casa desnudo. The present paper examines two possible factors for postverbal constituent order: information focus and syntactic weight. Based on data from a perception experiment it will be shown that information focus and syntactic weight indeed influence in postverbal constituent order in Spanish: both the focalization of a constituent and the increase of the weight of a constituent increase the frequency with which the respective constituent takes up the sentence final position. As concerns the strength of the two factors, our results suggest that information focus and syntactic weight influence in postverbal constituent order to a similar extent. As concerns the syntatic position of narrow information focus in Spanish, our results show that the sentence final position is the preferred position for narrowly focused constituents, but such constituents are not limited to the sentence final position.

  14. Optimizing the learning potential for the distance learning students - Focusing on the tension between experience and competence. An analysis of nursing education offered in three different learning programmes. The focus is on analysing the distance learning programme in relation to the other learning programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Ungermann Fredskild

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The distance learning programme has made its entrance into nursing education, and many see it as a break with the education’s traditions of teaching in the classroom, in practise rooms and at the patient’s bedside (Chaffin & Maddux 2004(5.Traditionally, many of the technical skills and personal qualities that nurses must acquire are learned through interaction with others. The distance learning programme has therefore given rise to some new problems and challenges, and this article discusses some of these.Empirically, the article builds on a comparative study of three student nurse classes from two Danish nursing schools, including one based on the distance learning programme. By following both distance learning and traditional nursing students in their clinical training, light is cast upon the differences and similarities that may exist in the clinical skills and competences that the students gain under the two programmes.Theoretically the article builds on Etienne Wengers theory on learning in communities of practice, focusing on the relationship between experience and competence in learning related communities of practice (Wenger 1998; Wenger 2004(36(37.The article contributes with findings that are related to the differences between the programmes and the different types of students that each programme attracts. The article argues that an increased didactic and pedagogical focus upon the field of tension between experience and competence will enable an optimisation of the learning conditions of the distance learning students in their clinical teaching. The article, in conclusion, thus places focus on the questions surrounding teaching design in relation to the distance learning programme.

  15. The Experience of Final Graduation Projects in the Basic Education Division of the Education Research and Teaching Center of the Universidad Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roxana Rodríguez Araya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the process experienced by graduate students and the academic staff in the Licentiate level [university degree between the Bachelor’s and the Master’s] during the execution of their final graduation projects in the Basic Education Division.  The need to evaluate the process results from a continuing reflection by the Division’s Administration.  In order to understand the information obtained from the database, data was grouped by academic programs with the purpose of analyzing their individual processes.  Using the Pearson´s chi-square test, results show that there are significant differences (p≤ 0.05 between final graduation projects for the different programs.  Due to these results, it is necessary to identify the factors that differentiate the programs and that promote the successful conclusion of the final graduation project.

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the $H -> W^+ W^- -> ℓ^+ ν ℓ^− \\overline ν$ final state with the ATLAS experiment and study of its spin and parity quantum numbers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00225109

    Search and discovery of the Standard Model Higgs Boson, with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, with up to 25 inverse femtobarns of data, in the WW -> lnulnu final state. The search has been conducted with a multivariate technique, namely the Boosted Decision Tree one, to fully exploit the topology of the final state and enhance the sensitivity. In addition, the measurement of the spin and parity quantum numbers of the newly found resounacne, has been performed, to assess its compatibility with the Higgs Boson as predicted by the Standard Model.

  17. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph T. Hupp

    2008-11-17

    The premise of this project was that coordination chemistry could be used to devise new kinds of microporous materials and that these materials could exhibit nanoscale porosity and selective chemical separation capabilities. Our initial materials focus was on aggregates of discrete hollow molecules, especially molecular squares. Subsequently our focus turned largely toward permanently microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Our approach emphasized coupling predictive & explanative computational modeling to materials design, synthesis, and property characterization.

  18. The Relationship between University Learning Experiences and English Teaching Self-Efficacy: Perspectives of Five Final-Year Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Ksenia; Pill, Shane

    2015-01-01

    No literature exists on English teaching efficacy or self-efficacy or on pre-service teachers' English teaching self-efficacy and its relationship to pre-service teacher education. This project addressed this conceptual and methodological gap in current teacher efficacy research literature. Five pre-service English teachers in their final year of…

  19. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  20. Secular, Spiritual and religious Existential concerns during final diagnostics and treatment period – The lived experiences of women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Seibæk, L.; Hvidt, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This paper deals with secular, spiritual, and religious existential concerns during severe illness. Materials and Methods. Qualitative research interviews were made before and after surgery with women who underwent final diagnostics, surgery, and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer...... a woman with ovarian cancer during her first treatment period. Although the women experienced their health to be seriously threatened, they also felt hope, will, and courage. The diagnostic procedures and treatment had comprehensive impact on their lives. However, hope and spirituality were important...

  1. Microbubble formation and pinch-off scaling exponent in flow-focusing devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, van Wim; Dollet, Benjamin; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gas jet breakup and the resulting microbubble formation in a microfluidic flow-focusing device using ultra high-speed imaging at 1 × 106 frames/s. In recent experiments [Dollet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 034504 (2008)], it was found that in the final stage of the collapse the r

  2. Virtual focus and depth estimation from defocused video sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlan; Schonfeld, Dan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for virtual focus and object depth estimation from defocused video captured by a moving camera. We use the term virtual focus to refer to a new approach for producing in-focus image sequences by processing blurred videos captured by out-of-focus cameras. Our method relies on the concept of Depth-from-Defocus (DFD) for virtual focus estimation. However, the proposed approach overcomes limitations of DFD by reformulating the problem in a moving-camera scenario. We introduce the interframe image motion model, from which the relationship between the camera motion and blur characteristics can be formed. This relationship subsequently leads to a new method for blur estimation. We finally rely on the blur estimation to develop the proposed technique for object depth estimation and focused video reconstruction. The proposed approach can be utilized to correct out-of-focus video sequences and can potentially replace the expensive apparatus required for auto-focus adjustments currently employed in many camera devices. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through error analysis and computer simulated experiments.

  3. White phosphorus pits focused feasibility study final July 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Martino, L.

    2007-08-21

    The White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP) Area of Concern (AOC) is a site of about 5.5 acres (2.2 ha) located in the J-Field Study Area, in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland (Figure 1.1). Considerable information about the WPP exists as a result of efforts to characterize the hazards associated with J-Field. Contamination in the J-Field Study Area was first detected during an environmental survey of the APG Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 (Nemeth et al. 1983) by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA; predecessor to the U.S. Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field (three of them at the WPP) (Nemeth 1989). Contamination was also detected in 1983 during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science (1984). The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved installing and sampling nine wells (four at the WPP) and collecting and analyzing surficial and deep composite soil samples (including samples from the WPP area). In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a post-wide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field. In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phase hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil-gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed (four at the WPP), a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today. The results of the USGS study were published by Hughes (1993).

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, John Martin [UF; Mitselmakher, Guenakh [UF; Korytov, Andrey [UF; Avery, Paul [UF; Furic, Ivan [UF; Acosta, Darin [UF; Konigsberg, Jacobo [UF; Field, Richard [UF; Matchev, Konstantin [UF; Ramond, Pierre [UF; Thorn, Richard [UF; Sikivie, Pierre [UF; Ray, Heather [UF; Tanner, David [UF

    2013-10-10

    We report on progress in a series of different directions within high energy physics research. 1. Neutrino research in hardware and software on the Minerva and MiniBooNE experiments 2. Experimental particle physics at the hadron colliders, with emphasis on research and development and data analysis on the CMS experiment operating at the CERN LHC. This includes research on the discovery and properties on the Higgs Boson. 3. Educational outreach through the Quarknet program, taking physics research into High School classrooms. 4. Theoretical and Phenomenological High Energy research, covering a broad range of activities ranging from fundamental theoretical issues to areas of immediate phenomenological importance. 5. Experiment searches for the Axion, as part of the ADMX experiment.

  5. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  6. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  7. An Experimental Research Project to Test a More Effective Means to Achieve Stated Work Experience Education Program Goals. Final Report (1971-1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman Center, Woodland Hills, CA.

    This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of proceduralized job guides in enabling placement of work experience students in allied health work stations requiring the performance of complex tasks. Phases of the study included: (1) establishment of work stations, which involved the identification of potential work station sponsors in San…

  8. Revising the Depreciation and Investment Credit Lessons for Farm Management and Supervised Occupational Experience for Use in Missouri Programs of Vocational Agriculture. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Norman; And Others

    This project developed four lessons that reflect the 1981 tax laws as they relate to the use of investment credit and depreciation in farm accounting systems. Project staff reviewed tax laws and related materials and identified four lessons in farm management and supervised occupational experience that needed revision. Materials were then…

  9. SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions - Iterated Finite-Orbit Monte Carlo Simulations with Full-Wave Fields for Modeling Tokamak ICRF Wave Heating Experiments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myunghee [Retired; Chan, Vincent S. [General Atomics

    2014-02-28

    This final report describes the work performed under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-08ER54954 for the period April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2013. The goal of this project was to perform iterated finite-orbit Monte Carlo simulations with full-wall fields for modeling tokamak ICRF wave heating experiments. In year 1, the finite-orbit Monte-Carlo code ORBIT-RF and its iteration algorithms with the full-wave code AORSA were improved to enable systematical study of the factors responsible for the discrepancy in the simulated and the measured fast-ion FIDA signals in the DIII-D and NSTX ICRF fast-wave (FW) experiments. In year 2, ORBIT-RF was coupled to the TORIC full-wave code for a comparative study of ORBIT-RF/TORIC and ORBIT-RF/AORSA results in FW experiments.

  10. Identification of $\\tau$ leptons and Higgs boson search in the $\\mu+\\tau$ final state at the D0 experiment at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madar, Romain [Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France)

    2011-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is the heart of our understanding of the electroweak interaction and describes all the current experimental results. However, the intrinsic incompatibility between the gauge invariance and the mass of particles leads to the introduction of a new particle, the Higgs boson, for which we have no experimental evidence as of today. This thesis describes the Higgs boson search in the μ + τ final state in 7.3 fb-1 of pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the DØ detector at the Tevatron. This analysis completes the golden channels (dimuons, electron-muon, dielectrons) exploiting the decay chain H → WW → ℓvℓv , which is the main Higgs boson decay mode in the mass window accessible to the Tevatron. Since the final state includes a lepton, work was done to improve their identification among jets. An increase of 15% was achieved thanks to the the following : changing tuning parameters for the identification neural network, use of the kinematical dependence of the algorithm performances, incorporation of the τ lepton life time information and full study of the additionnal information coming from the central preshower measurements. Then, since the dominant background of the μ + τ Higgs boson search is W+jets (where one jet fakes a τ ), a method was developed to obtain good modeling of this background, not provided by the default simulation. This method is based, among other things, on the charge correlation between the muon and the τ candidate which allows for calibration of this background in the data excluding the signal region. Finally, all the kinematic and/or topological differences between the signal and the background were exploited to optimize this search, reaching an (observed) expected sensitivity of 7.8 (6.6) times the Standard Model for mH = 165 GeV=c2. In addition, this result was also interpreted in a fourth fermion generation scenario. For the first time, this analysis is included in the D

  11. Final Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    The challenges involved in designing appropriate and desirable hybrid spatial computing environments are considerable. Two aspects highlighted through our own  experience and in the communities’ literatures are particularly demanding: 1.  The situated and social nature of human activities. 2...

  12. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  13. Collection of vegetable, fruit and flower wastes. Practical experiment in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. Final report; Inzameling groente, fruit- en bloemenafval. Praktijkproef Apeldoorn. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdijk, E.W.; Zwaneveld, A.P.

    1996-07-01

    An experiment has been carried out in Apeldoorn, Netherlands, for the separate collection of wastes from vegetables, fruit and flowers (GFB, abbreviated in Dutch) from the retail trade. Based on the results of the experiment the retail trade gained insight into the method of waste removal, the costs of waste collection, the possibilities for municipalities to collect and process GFB wastes, and the conditions under which municipal sanitation departments can collect and process GFB wastes of the retail trade in combination with similar (vegetables, fruit and garden, i.e. GFT) wastes from households. The gained insight led to recommendations for municipalities for a successful separate collection and processing of green wastes (GFB + GFT)

  14. Search for The Standard Model Higgs Boson in the four lepton final state by the D0 experiment at Run II of the Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Diego [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a measurement of Z boson pair production in p¯p collisions at 1.96 TeV with 9.6 fb-1 to 9.8 fb-1 of D0 data. We examine the final states eeee, eeμμ, and μμμμ. Based on selected data, the measured cross section in the mass region M(Z/γ*) > 30 GeV is σ(p¯p → Z/γ* Z/γ*) = 1.26+0.44 -0.36 (stat)+0.17 -0.15 (syst) ± 0.08 (lumi) pb.

  15. Packaging and assembly technologies for the pixel detector upgrade and measurement of $\\tau\\tau$ final states with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380602; Quast, Gunter; Husemann, Ulrich

    The work, performed in the context of the CMS experiment at the LHC, is related to the assembly of the future CMS pixel detector and to improvements in the identification of hadronically decaying tau leptons. The performance of the tau identification has been evaluated in the data collected by CMS in 2015 and a measurement of the inclusive Z production cross section at 13 TeV has been performed.

  16. Search for supersymmetry in final states with jets, missing transverse momentum and the least one {tau} lepton with the ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janus, Michel

    2013-04-15

    The first search for Supersymmetry (SUSY) in final states with at least one {tau} lepton, two or more jets and large missing transverse energy based on {tau} leptons are reconstructed in the hadronic decay mode. To search for new physics in final states with hadronic {tau}-lepton decays a reliable and efficient reconstruction algorithm for hadronic {tau} decays is needed. As part of this thesis two existing {tau}-reconstruction algorithms were further developed and integrated into a single algorithm that has by now become the standard algorithm for {tau} reconstruction in ATLAS. The suppression of jet background, one of the crucial aspects of {tau} reconstruction and the SUSY analysis in this thesis, was studied and the probabilities of misidentifying quark- or gluon-initiated jets as hadronic {tau}-lepton decays were measured in both the 2010 and 2011 ATLAS data at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV, using samples of di-jet events. The ATLAS data used for the SUSY search in this thesis was recorded between March and August 2011 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.05 fb{sup -1}. Eleven events are observed in data, consistent with the total Standard Model background expectation of 13.2{+-}4.2 events. As no excess of data over the expected backgrounds is observed, 95% confidence level limits are set within the framework of gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) models as a function of the GMSB parameters {Lambda} and tan {beta}, for fixed values of the other GMSB parameters: M{sub mess}=250 TeV, N{sub 5}=3, sign({mu})=+ and C{sub grav}=1. In addition to the GMSB interpretation, a model-independent upper limit of 8.5 on the number of events from potential non-Standard Model sources is derived at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  18. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D. [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

  19. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  20. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Pulak

    2013-04-01

    The overall goal of this project was the exploration of new ways to make organic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials for energy-related applications. Towards this end, our research focused on the structure and behavior of molecular monolayers at interfaces (including floating monolayers, transferred Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers, and self-assembled monolayers), as well as the biomimetic nucleation of inorganic crystals at soft-hard interfaces. The project resulted in a number of 'firsts' and other notable achievements, which are described in the report.

  1. Left alone--Swedish nurses' and mental health workers' experiences of being care providers in a social psychiatric dwelling context in the post-health-care-restructuring era. A focus-group interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    The professional role of nurses and mental health workers in social psychiatry is being re-defined towards a recovery, client-focused perspective. Approximately 0.7 percent of the adult population in Sweden suffers from severe mental illness leading to a need for community services. The primary aims of the Mental Health Reform in 1995 in Sweden were to improve the quality of life for people with severe, long-term mental illness and, through normalization and integration, enhancing their opportunities to communicate with and participate in society. This study examines nurses' and mental health workers' views and experiences of being care providers in a municipal psychiatric group dwelling context when caring for clients suffering from severe mental illness. Three focus group interviews were made and thematic content analysis was conducted. Four themes were formulated: 'Being a general human factotum not unlike the role of parents', 'Having a complex and ambiguous view of clients', 'Working in a mainly 'strangled' situation', and 'Feeling overwhelming frustration'. The staff, for instance, experienced a heavy workload that highly involved themselves as persons and restricted organization. The individual relational aspects of the nursing role, the risk of instrumentalizing the staff due to an organizational economical teleopathy (meaning a pathological desire to react goals), and the high societal demands on accomplishing the Mental Health Reform goals are discussed. To redefine the professional role of nurses and mental health workers in the community, in Sweden known as municipality, they need support in the form of continuously education, supervision, and dialogue with politicians as well as the public in general.

  2. Photovoltaic concentrator application experiment to be located at Sea World Park, Orlando, Florida. Phase I. System Design. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1979-12-01

    The General Electric/Sea World Photovoltaic Concentrator Application Experiment will be located at Sea World's Marine Park near Orlando, Florida. The experiment will consist of nine azimuth-tracking turntable arrays, each containing twenty-four elevation-tracking parabolic trough PV concentrators of a type developed on this contract. The system will produce a peak power output of 330 kW and an annual net electrical energy of 355 MWh corresponding to an annual direct normal insolation of 1375.5 kWh/m/sup 2/. A line-commutated DC/AC inverter controlled to operate at the solar array maximum power point will deliver three-phase power through a bidirectional transformer to a 13-kilovolt line serving the Sea World Park. In addition to generating electrical power, the system will produce 3.56 x 10/sup 5/ ton-hours of cooling for air conditioning a nearby shark exhibit by supplying collected thermal energy to a lithium-bromide absorption chiller. With credit included for the amount of electricity that would be required to produce this cooling by a vapor compression cycle, the overall system efficiency is estimated to be 11.7 percent.

  3. Muon performance aspects and measurement of the inclusive ZZ production cross section through the four lepton final state with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; Ströhmer, Raimund

    2013-07-08

    The "Large Hadron Collider" (LHC) is currently the most powerful particle accelerator. It provides particle collisions at a center of mass energy in the Tera-electronvolt range, which had never been reached in a laboratory before. Thereby a new era in high energy particle physics has began. Now it is possible to test one of the most precise theories in physics, the Standard Model of particle physics, at these high energies. The purpose is particularly served by four large experiments installed at the LHC, namely "A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS" (ATLAS), the "Compact-Muon-Solenoid" (CMS), the "Large Hadron Collider beauty" (LHCb) and "A Large Ion Collider Experiment" (ALICE). Besides exploring the high energy behavior of the well-established portions of the Standard Model, one of the main objectives is to find the Higgs boson included in the model, but not discovered by any preceding effort. It is of tremendous importance since fermions and heavy electroweak gauge bosons acquire mass because of this boson. Although ...

  4. Photovoltaic concentrator application experiment to be located at Sea World Park, Orlando, Florida. Phase I. System Design. Final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1979-12-01

    The General Electric/Sea World Photovoltaic Concentrator Application Experiment will be located at Sea World's Marine Park near Orlando, Florida. The experiment will consist of nine azimuth-tracking turntable arrays, each containing twenty-four elevation-tracking parabolic trough PV concentrators of a type developed on this contract. The system will produce a peak power output of 330 kW and an annual net electrical energy of 355 MWh corresponding to an annual direct normal insolation of 1375.5 kWh/m/sup 2/. A line-commutated DC/AC inverter controlled to operate at the solar array maximum power point will deliver three-phase power through a bidirectional transformer to a 13-kilovolt line serving the Sea World Park. In addition to generating electrical power, the system will produce 3.56 x 10/sup 5/ ton-hours of cooling for air conditioning a nearby shark exhibit by supplying collected thermal energy to a lithium-bromide absorption chiller. With credit included for the amount of electricity that would be required to produce this cooling by a vapor compression cycle, the overall system efficiency is estimated to be 11.7 percent.

  5. Search for squarks and gluinos in final state with jets, missing transverse momentum and boosted W bosons with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00359657

    At the time of this writing, Supersymmetry is the most discussed extension of the Standard Model. A significant part of the supersymmetric parameter space can be explored with accelerators like the Large Hadron Colider (LHC) at CERN, which provides proton collisions for the ATLAS detector. If Supersymmetry is realized at the weak scale, one of the most promising production channels at the LHC is the direct production of squark and gluino pairs. The search for such events with no lepton, large missing transverse momentum and large transverse momentum of the jets is presented in this thesis. Experimental limits on cross-sections of squark and gluino pair production are interpreted in Simplified models with various assumptions on the masses of these particles. Reconstruction of specific particles, like $W$-bosons or $\\tau$-leptons, can increase the sensitivity of the analysis in two ways: as a veto in case the desired particle is not in the final state of the signal model, or as a requirement in the opposite cas...

  6. Search for Higgs bosons with b-jets in the final state in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00368463

    2016-11-03

    This thesis discusses searches for Higgs bosons in decays with b-quark jets in the final state in data from proton-proton collisions taken with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, a search for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson in the associated production with a vector boson and the decay to b-quarks, VH(bb), is presented. It is based on the data recorded during Run 1 of the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3/fb. Other SM processes yield backgrounds with cross sections much larger than for the expected Higgs boson signal. Their contribution is efficiently separated from the signal using Boosted Decision Trees (BDT). The signal contribution is estimated using a profile likelihood fit of the BDT output distributions. The signal strength with respect to the SM expectation is measured to be 0.65+0.43-0.40, corresponding to an observed (expected) significance of 1.7 (2.5) standard deviations. In combination with the analy...

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jeff

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop tools and techniques to improve the ability of computational scientists to investigate and correct problems (bugs) in their programs. Specifically, the University of Maryland component of this project focused on the problems associated with the finite number of bits available in a computer to represent numeric values. In large scale scientific computation, numbers are frequently added to and multiplied with each other billions of times. Thus even small errors due to the representation of numbers can accumulate into big errors. However, using too many bits to represent a number results in additional computation, memory, and energy costs. Thus it is critical to find the right size for numbers. This project focused on several aspects of this general problem. First, we developed a tool to look for cancelations, the catastrophic loss of precision in numbers due to the addition of two numbers whose actual values are close to each other, but whose representation in a computer is identical or nearly so. Second, we developed a suite of tools to allow programmers to identify exactly how much precision is required for each operation in their program. This tool allows programmers to both verify that enough precision is available, but more importantly find cases where extra precision could be eliminated to allow the program to use less memory, computer time, or energy. These tools use advanced binary modification techniques to allow the analysis of actual optimized code. The system, called Craft, has been applied to a number of benchmarks and real applications.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jeff

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop tools and techniques to improve the ability of computational scientists to investigate and correct problems (bugs) in their programs. Specifically, the University of Maryland component of this project focused on the problems associated with the finite number of bits available in a computer to represent numeric values. In large scale scientific computation, numbers are frequently added to and multiplied with each other billions of times. Thus even small errors due to the representation of numbers can accumulate into big errors. However, using too many bits to represent a number results in additional computation, memory, and energy costs. Thus it is critical to find the right size for numbers. This project focused on several aspects of this general problem. First, we developed a tool to look for cancelations, the catastrophic loss of precision in numbers due to the addition of two numbers whose actual values are close to each other, but whose representation in a computer is identical or nearly so. Second, we developed a suite of tools to allow programmers to identify exactly how much precision is required for each operation in their program. This tool allows programmers to both verify that enough precision is available, but more importantly find cases where extra precision could be eliminated to allow the program to use less memory, computer time, or energy. These tools use advanced binary modification techniques to allow the analysis of actual optimized code. The system, called Craft, has been applied to a number of benchmarks and real applications.

  9. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N

    2013-03-01

    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  10. Measurements of Higgs boson properties in the four-lepton final state at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports a study of Higgs boson production in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~{\\rm TeV}$ recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), exploiting the decay channel into a pair of Z bosons that in turn decay into pairs of electrons or muons $(H\\rightarrow{\\rm Z}{\\rm Z}\\rightarrow4\\ell$, $\\ell={\\rm e},\\mu$). This work is carried out in the context of the beginning of Run II of the LHC, a new data-taking period that started in 2015, following a two-year shutdown. This restart is marked by an increase of the centre-of-mass energy from 8 TeV to 13 TeV and an upgrade of collider parameters that increases the luminosity, setting new constraints on the triggering, reconstruction and analysis of pp collision events. Therefore, considerable effort is devoted to the improvement and reoptimization of the CMS trigger system for Run II, focusing on the reconstruction and selection of electrons and on the preparation of multilepton trigger paths that preserve a maximal effi...

  11. ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Military Large-Scale Experiment (LSE-1): system design and support activities. Final report, November 23, 1976-November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ATU/Fort Hood Solar Total Energy System will include a concentrating solar collector field of several acres. During periods of direct insolation, a heat-transfer fluid will be circulated through the collector field and thus heated to 500 to 600/sup 0/F. Some of the fluid will be circulated through a steam generator to drive a turbine-generator set; additional fluid will be stored in insulated tanks for use when solar energy is not available. The electrical output will satisfy a portion of the electrical load at Fort Hood's 87,000 Troop Housing Complex. Heat extracted from the turbine exhaust in the form of hot water will be used for space heating, absorption air conditioning, and domestic water heating at the 87,000 Complex. Storage tanks for the hot water are also included. The systems analysis and program support activities include studies of solar availability and energy requirements at Fort Hood, investigation of interfacing LSE-1 with existing energy systems at the 87,000 Complex, and preliminary studies of environmental, health, and safety considerations. An extensive survey of available concentrating solar collectors and modifications to a computerized system simulation model for LSE-1 use are also reported. Important program support activities are military liaison and information dissemination. The engineering test program reported involved completion of the Solar Engineering Test Module (SETM) and extensive performance testing of a single module of the linear-focusing collector.

  12. A search for pair produced resonances in four jets final states in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for the pair production of resonances, each decaying into two jets. The analysis uses 15.4 fb$^{−1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess is observed above the background prediction. The results are interpreted in a model with top squark pair production with R-parity violating decays into two quarks. Top squark masses between 250 and 405 GeV and between 445 and 510 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level. For the pair production of color octets with decays into two jets, masses from 250 to 1500 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

  13. A robótica educacional como ferramenta metodológica no processo ensino-aprendizagem: uma experiência com a segunda lei de Newton na série final do ensino fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Zanatta, Ronnie Petter Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Acompanha: Proposta didática: a robótica educacional como ferramenta metodológica no processo ensino-aprendizagem: uma experiência com a segunda lei de Newton no ano final do ensino fundamental, p. 92. As tecnologias, no decorrer da história, têm apoiado e ressignificado os diferentes processos de ensino-aprendizagem, ao mesmo tempo em que são influenciadas por esses processos. A robótica educacional, assim como os mais recentes recursos didático-tecnológicos, abre novas possibilidades edu...

  14. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-06-15

    MEMO-I was written in February 2006 to give details of the second pass analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment. Since then there was our VCS Meeting in March, the production of the PhD thesis by I. Bensafa in May, and complementary studies of the asymmetry which triggered some afterthoughts. Instead of updating MEMO-I which is long enough this memo summarizes these complementary remarks and proposes asymmetry results which are more finalized in view of publication. Various nomenclatures like cuts, variables,etc. have NOT been redefined: please read MEMO-I for that. (authors)

  15. Fracture mechanical experiments on EUROFER 97 and MANET II mini-bar specimens. Final report for task TW5-TTMS 005-D04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaganidze, E.; Dafferner, B.; Aktaa, J.

    2006-08-15

    This report summarizes Fracture Mechanical (FM) experiments carried out under the contract of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), subtask TW5-TTMS-005-D04 for supporting the modeling work on size effects in ductile and ductile to brittle transition region performed within a task TW5-TTMS-005-D3. Quasi-static three-point-bend (3PB) experiments have been performed on the European reference RAFM steel EUROFER 97 and on a martensitic steel MANET II. The crack resistance curves have been constructed from the original fracture mechanical data in the ductile and ductile to brittle transition regions. Additionally, in the ductile region, where complexity of the three dimensional fracture surfaces prevented an explicit quantitative assessment of the crack extension, the validity of the failure assessment diagram (R6) has been verified for RAFM steel EUROFER 97. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht werden die bruchmechanischen Untersuchungen zusammengefasst, welche zur Unterstuetzung von Modellierungsarbeiten von Groesseneffekten in duktilen und sproedduktilen Uebergangsbereichen (Subtask TW5-TTMS-005-D03) im Rahmen des Europaeischen Abkommens zur Entwicklung der Fusionsforschung (EFDA), Subtask TW5-TTMS-005-D04 durchgefuehrt wurden. Es wurden quasi-statische Drei-Punkt-Biegeversuche (3PB) an dem Europaeischen RAFM Referenzstahl EUROFER 97 und an dem martensitischen Stahl MANET II durchgefuehrt. Die Risswiderstandskurven wurden durch die Auswertung von bruchmechanischen Versuchen in duktilen und sproed-duktilen Uebergangsbereichen erstellt. Im duktilen Bereich, wo die Komplexitaet der drei dimensionalen Bruchflaechen eine explizite quantitative Auswertung des Risswachstums verhinderte, wurde zusaetzlich die Gueltigkeit der Auslegungskurve (R6) an dem RAFM Stahl EUROFER 97 ueberprueft.

  16. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A. [Universidad Nacional del Centro, Pladema-CNEA-Conicet, Tandil (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 3} neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)

  17. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  18. H2moves.eu Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.

    2013-02-15

    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  19. A cross-sectional study on different time intervals from the appreciation of symptoms to final diagnosis in inoperable primary lung cancer: An Eastern Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Diagnostic delays continue to remain a common problem, and surgery could be offered in time in <5% of the cases. Aims and Objectives: Assessment of different time intervals from the appreciation of symptoms to final diagnosis and identify probable factors contributing to delay in those intervals. This study will be helpful to find out the obstacle in the lung cancer diagnosis. Settings and Design: Observational cross-sectional tertiary care hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases were collected consecutively according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessed based on prefixed questionnaires. Application interval, referral interval, tertiary center interval, and total time to diagnose were measured. Results: Among 50 cases, 36 cases (72% were male and 14 cases (28% were female. Mean age was 55.50 years (range 22–81; standard deviation [SD] 12.68. Squamous cell carcinoma was found more in male and adenocarcinoma in female group (Fisher's P 0.0250. Mean application interval mean was 92 days (range 23–210, SD 41.81, mean referral interval 39 days (range 2–160, SD 26.89, mean interval at tertiary center 15 days (range 5–40, SD 8.027, and total interval mean was 146 days (range 45–240, SD 47.33. Among total cases, application delay was in 38 (76% cases and referral delay in 35 (70% cases. Median application interval in delay group was 94 days, and in no delay group was 40 days. Among total cases, 35 (70% were in referral delay group. There was mean referral interval of 50 days and 14 days, respectively among the referral delay and no delay groups. Conclusion: There was maximum delay in application interval. Awareness of lung cancer and level of education along with neglect of a cough as index symptom are the major factors causing application delay. Significant numbers of the patient were not advised computed

  20. The Influence of Educational Experience on the Development of Cognitive Skills as Measured in Formal Tests and Experiments: A Case Study from the Mexican States of Yucatan and Quintana Roo. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Donald W.; Cole, Michael

    The major purpose of the research reported was to assess whether developmental changes in performance on standard psychological tests may be more a reflection of educational experience than maturation or traditional socialization practices. The investigation was reported in three phases: 1) description of the general and specific experimental…

  1. Systematic study on the performance of elliptic focusing neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Rodriguez, D., E-mail: damian.rodriguez@esss.se [European Spallation Source ERIC, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); DiJulio, D.D. [European Spallation Source ERIC, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bentley, P.M. [European Spallation Source ERIC, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 751 20 (Sweden)

    2016-02-01

    In neutron scattering experiments there is an increasing trend towards the study of smaller volume samples, which make the use of focusing optics more important. Focusing guide geometries based on conic-sections, such as those with parabolic and elliptic shapes, have been extensively used in both recently built neutron instruments and upgrades of existing hardware. A large fraction of proposed instruments at the European Spallation Source feature the requirement of good performance when measuring on small samples. The optimised design of a focusing system comes after time consuming Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. Therefore, in order to help reduce the time needed to design such focusing systems, it is necessary to study systematically the performance of focusing guides. In the present work, we perform a theoretical analysis of the focusing properties of neutron beams, and validate them using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and Particle Swarm Optimisations (PSOs), where there is a close correspondence between the maximum divergence of the beam and the shape of the guide. The analytical results show that two limits can be considered, which bound a range of conic section shapes that provide optimum performance. Finally, we analyse a more realistic guide example and we give an assessment of the importance of the contribution from multiple reflections in different systems.

  2. Analysis of data from the plasma composition experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE 1). Final report, 1 January 1990-31 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, O.W.

    1994-05-01

    The Lockheed plasma composition experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft has provided one of the largest and most varied sets of data on earth's energetic plasma environment, covering both the solar wind, well beyond the bow shock, and the near equatorial magnetosphere to a distance of almost 23 earth radii. This report is an overview of the last four years of data analysis and archiving. The archiving for NSSDC includes most data obtained during the initial 28-months of instrument operation, from early November 1977 through the end of February 1980. The data products are a combination of spectra (mass and energy angle) and velocity moments. A copy of the data user's guide and examples of the data products are attached as appendix A. The data analysis covers three major areas: solar wind ions upstream and downstream of the day side bowshock, especially He(++) ions; terrestrial ions flowing upward from the auroral regions, especially H(+), O(+), and He(+) ions; and ions of both solar and terrestrial origins in the tail plasma sheet and lobe regions. Copies of publications are attached.

  3. Investigation of battery-charged-capacitor pulsed-power systems for electromagnetic-launcher experiments. Final report, Jan 90-Apr 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornette, J.B.

    1992-02-01

    Candidate pulsed power systems for electromagnetic launchers constitute two broad categories: rotating machinery and non-rotating devices. Rotating machinery for this purpose is under development at several industrial and educational institutions around the world. Non-rotating hardware includes capacitors, batteries, and inductors. These, too, are the subject of research programs, but as yet, are much larger than rotating supplies of equal power and energy capability. In 1988, system studies identified several attractive pulsed power systems for electromagnetic launchers. Battery charged capacitor pulsed power systems were among those identified as promising for electromagnetic launcher systems. The basic equations governing the battery charging capacitor sequence, and the capacitor discharge into an electromagnetic launcher are the subject of this report. A battery charged capacitor system powering an electromagnetic launcher has also been built and tested. This experiment not only validates the system concept with presently available hardware, but can be used to establish a baseline for evaluation of future systems when technology in capacitor and battery power and energy densities improve.

  4. Search for Supersymmetry in Final States with a Single Lepton, B-Quark Jets, and Missing Transverse Energy at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, Niklas Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetry constitutes an attractive extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. It provides a natural Dark Matter candidate and is able to resolve thehierarchy problem. If Supersymmetry is a natural solution of the hierarchy problem,the supersymmetric partner particles of the top and the bottom quark may be copiously produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, resultingin final states with isolated leptons, jets, some of which originate from a bottomquark, and missing transverse energy.In this thesis, the first search for Supersymmetry in events with a single lepton,bottom quark-jets, and missing transverse energy at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is presented. This search is one of the worldwide first analyses that directlyprobe natural Supersymmetry. The search is performed with proton-proton collisiondata recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to anintegrated luminosity of 4.98 fb−1 . To minimize the systematic uncertainties of...

  5. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  6. Differential cross-section measurements of top-quark-pair production in the dilepton final state at 13 TeV with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of top-quark pair differential cross-sections are a test of the Standard Model and quantum chromodynamics, and can be sensitive to possible new physics. They also provide inputs for modelling top-quark kinematics in simulations. Differential cross-sections are measured as a function of the transverse momentum and absolute rapidity of the top quark, and of the transverse momentum, absolute rapidity and invariant mass of the $t\\bar{t}$ system, using an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton data at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015. The $t\\bar{t}$ events are selected by requiring one electron and one muon of opposite electric charge, and at least two jets, one of which must be tagged as containing a $B$-hadron. The measured differential cross-sections are compared to predictions of NLO generators matched to parton showers.

  7. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Timothy, Ginn R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 µM. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5 M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and

  8. Focus takes time: structural effects on reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Previous eye-tracking work has yielded inconsistent evidence regarding whether readers spend more or less time encoding focused information compared with information that is not focused. We report the results of an eye-tracking experiment that used syntactic structure to manipulate whether a target word was linguistically defocused, neutral, or focused, while controlling for possible oculomotor differences across conditions. As the structure of the sentence made the target word increasingly more focused, reading times systematically increased. We propose that the longer reading times for linguistically focused words reflect deeper encoding, which explains previous findings showing that readers have better subsequent memory for focused versus defocused information.

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  10. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active

  11. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jon B

    2006-04-30

    High performance computational science and engineering simulations have become an increasingly important part of the scientist's problem solving toolset. A key reason is the development of widely used codes and libraries that support these applications, for example, Netlib, a collection of numerical libraries [33]. The term community codes refers to those libraries or applications that have achieved some critical level of acceptance by a user community. Many of these applications are on the high-end in terms of required resources: computation, storage, and communication. Recently, there has been considerable interest in putting such applications on-line and packaging them as network services to make them available to a wider user base. Applications such as data mining [22], theorem proving and logic [14], parallel numerical computation [8][32] are example services that are all going on-line. Transforming applications into services has been made possible by advances in packaging and interface technologies including component systems [2][6][13][28][37], proposed communication standards [34], and newer Web technologies such as Web Services [38]. Network services allow the user to focus on their application and obtain remote service when needed by simply invoking the service across the network. The user can be assured that the most recent version of the code or service is always provided and they do not need to install, maintain, and manage significant infrastructure to access the service. For high performance applications in particular, the user is still often required to install a code base (e.g. MPI), and therefore become involved with the tedious details of infrastructure management. In the network service model, the service provider is responsible for all of these activities and not the user. The user need not become an expert in high performance computing. An additional advantage of high-end network services is that the user need not have specialized

  12. Study of Double Parton Scattering in Photon + 3 Jets Final State In Proton-Proton Collisions at √s = 7TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, You-Hao

    2017-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on the study of photon + 3 jets final state in Proton-Proton Collisions at √s = 7TeV, searching for patterns of two (or more) distinct hard scatterings in the same collision, i.e the so-called Double Parton Scattering (DPS). A new method by using Monte Carlo generators was performed and provides higher order corrections to the description of the Single Parton Scattering (SPS) background. Further it is investigated whether additional contributions from DPS can improve the agreement between the measured data and the Monte Carlo predictions. The current theoretical uncertainties related to the SPS background are found to be larger than expectation. At the same time a rich set of DPS-sensitive measurements is reported for possible further interpretation.

  13. Prometheus Project final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  14. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETER, GARY F. [UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2014-07-16

    of biomass samples imaged with all three methods, and using common analytical software to quantify parameters from the three dimensional images. In addition to the proposed experiments, we conducted imaging studies with a novel TOF-SIMS instrument available through collaborations with the AMOLF goup led by Ron Heeren at the FOM Institute in Amersterdam, Netherlands. ToF-SIMS was used to image intact cross sections of Populus stems with high spatial resolution, chemically selectivity. ToF-SIMS images were correlated with fluorescence microscopy which allowed for more positive ion identification.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Forest products provide essential resources for human civilization, including energy and materials. In processing forest products, however, unwanted byproducts, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. The goal of this study was to develop a cost effective and reliable air pollution control system to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from pulp, paper and paperboard mills and solid wood product facilities. Specifically, this work focused on the removal of VOCs and HAPs from high volume low concentration (HVLC) gases, particularly methanol since it is the largest HAP constituent in these gases. Three technologies were developed and tested at the bench-scale: (1) A novel composite material of activated carbon coated with a photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) (referred to as TiO{sub 2}-coated activated carbon or TiO{sub 2}/AC), (2) a novel silica gel impregnated with nanosized TiO{sub 2} (referred to as silica-titania composites or STC), and (3) biofiltration. A pilot-scale reactor was also fabricated and tested for methanol removal using the TiO{sub 2}/AC and STC. The technical feasibility of removing methanol with TiO{sub 2}/AC was studied using a composite synthesized via a spay desiccation method. The removal of methanol consists of two consecutive operation steps: removal of methanol using fixed-bed activated carbon adsorption and regeneration of spent activated carbon using in-situ photocatalytic oxidation. Regeneration using photocatalytic oxidation employed irradiation of the TiO{sub 2} catalyst with low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light. Results of this technical feasibility study showed that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate a spent TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent. A TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent was then developed using a dry impregnation method, which performed better than the TiO{sub 2}/AC synthesized using the spray desiccation method. The enhanced performance was likely a result of the better

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Forest products provide essential resources for human civilization, including energy and materials. In processing forest products, however, unwanted byproducts, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. The goal of this study was to develop a cost effective and reliable air pollution control system to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from pulp, paper and paperboard mills and solid wood product facilities. Specifically, this work focused on the removal of VOCs and HAPs from high volume low concentration (HVLC) gases, particularly methanol since it is the largest HAP constituent in these gases. Three technologies were developed and tested at the bench-scale: (1) A novel composite material of activated carbon coated with a photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) (referred to as TiO{sub 2}-coated activated carbon or TiO{sub 2}/AC), (2) a novel silica gel impregnated with nanosized TiO{sub 2} (referred to as silica-titania composites or STC), and (3) biofiltration. A pilot-scale reactor was also fabricated and tested for methanol removal using the TiO{sub 2}/AC and STC. The technical feasibility of removing methanol with TiO{sub 2}/AC was studied using a composite synthesized via a spay desiccation method. The removal of methanol consists of two consecutive operation steps: removal of methanol using fixed-bed activated carbon adsorption and regeneration of spent activated carbon using in-situ photocatalytic oxidation. Regeneration using photocatalytic oxidation employed irradiation of the TiO{sub 2} catalyst with low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light. Results of this technical feasibility study showed that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate a spent TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent. A TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent was then developed using a dry impregnation method, which performed better than the TiO{sub 2}/AC synthesized using the spray desiccation method. The enhanced performance was likely a result of the better

  17. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  18. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  19. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  20. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  1. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W

    2005-01-01

    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  2. New results in charm meson spectroscopy from FOCUS and SELEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Peter S [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500 Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    I will review recent results in charmed meson spectroscopy from the Fermilab fixed target charm photo-production and hadro-production experiments, FOCUS and SELEX. FOCUS reports new measurements of the masses and widths of the D{sub 2}{sup *+} and D{sub 2}* mesons, evidence for D{sub 0}{sup *+} and D{sub 0}* broad states and a confirming observation of the D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and other recently observed high mass D{sub sJ}{sup +} states. SELEX has recently reported evidence for a new D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2632) state in both the D{sub s}{sup +}{eta}{sup 0} and D{sup 0}K{sup +} final states.

  3. New results in charm meson spectroscopy from FOCUS and SELEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    I will review recent results in charmed meson spectroscopy from the Fermilab fixed target charm photo-production and hadro-production experiments, FOCUS and SELEX. FOCUS reports new measurements of the masses and widths of the D*{sub 2}{sup +} and D*{sub 2} mesons, evidence for D*{sub 0}{sup +} and D*{sub 0} broad states and a confirming observation of the D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and other recently observed high mass D{sub sJ}{sup +} states. SELEX has recently reported evidence for a new D{sub sJ}{sup +}(2632) state in both the D{sub s}{sup +} {eta}{sup 0} and D{sup 0}K{sup +} final states.

  4. A search for R-parity violating decays of the top squark in four-jet final state with the ATLAS experiment at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$~TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for direct production of pairs of top squarks, each decaying into a $b$- and an $s$-quark through R-parity violating couplings. The analysis uses $3.2$ fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$~TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015. Four jets, two of which are $b$-tagged, are selected and paired according to their angular separation. Signal regions are defined by imposing requirements on the masses of the two resonance candidates and their angular distribution. The average mass of the resonances is then used as the final discriminant. No significant excess is observed above the background prediction and a 95\\% confidence level lower limit on the mass of the top squark in the model considered is derived to be 345~GeV.

  5. Data-driven background predictions for a search of direct gluino pair production in the single-lepton final state using 13 TeV pp-collisions at the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobanov, Artur; Seitz, Claudia; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present a search for direct gluino-pair production in events with a single lepton using 13 TeV pp-collisions at the CMS experiment. This final state is characterised by high multiplicities of jets and b-quark jets, as well as a large scalar sum of all jet transverse momenta, and a large scalar sum of the transverse missing momentum and the lepton transverse momentum, called L{sub T}. The dominating Standard Model backgrounds in this phase-space are tt+jets and W+jets production. A data-driven method is used to estimate the background in the search regions. All backgrounds except for QCD in the (high ΔΦ(W,l)) signal regions are predicted by from the number of events in the low ΔΦ(W,l) region, with transfer factors determined also from data, while for the multi-jet events a fake-lepton enriched side-band is used. We conclude by showing predictions and final results from data corresponding to 2.1 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity recorded with the CMS detector during the LHC Run2 in 2015.

  6. CAUSE Resiliency (West Coast) Experiment Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    recommendations relating to both the overall conduct of the project and each technology are summarised below: Overall Findings Recommendations...removal, talk about the need to get an engineer down there to determine whether the foreshore and area around the plaza of nations is of sufficient grade

  7. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  8. Measurement of the production cross-section of pair of top quarks in a final state with di-electrons in the data collected by D0 experiment in Run-IIa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand [Univ. Joseph Fourier Grenoble (France)

    2008-09-29

    The top quark has been discovered in 1995 by CDF and D0 collaborations in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. The amount of data recorded by both experiments makes it possible to accurately measure the properties of this very massive quark. This thesis is devoted to the measurement of the top pair production cross-section via the strong interaction, in a final state composed of two electrons, two particle jets and missing transverse energy. It is based on a 1 fb-1 data set collected by the D0 experiment between 2002 and 2006. The reconstruction and identification of electrons and jets is of major importance in this analysis, and have been studied in events where a Z boson is produced together with one or more jets. The Z+jets process is indeed the dominant physics background to top pair production in the dielectron final state. The primary goal of this cross-section measurement is to verify Standard Model predictions. In this document, this result is also interpreted to indirectly extract the top quark mass. Moreover, the cross-section measurement is sensitive to new physics such as the existence of a charged Higgs boson. The selection established for the cross-section analysis has been used to search for a H+ boson lighter than the top quark, where the latter can decay into a W+ or H+ boson and a b quark. The model that has been studied makes the assumption that the H+ boson can only decay into a tau lepton and a neutrino.

  9. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  10. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  11. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  12. Experiments for the development of a circulating pressurized gasification plant (brown coal feeding and combustion). Combustion exeriments. Coal feeding experiments. Final report; Verfahrenstechnische Versuche fuer die Entwicklung einer zirkulierenden Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung (Braunkohleeintrag und -verbrennung). Verbrennungsversuche. Kohleeintragsversuche. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Combustion experiments with moist raw LAUBAG and MIBRAG coal were carried out in the pressurized gasification pilot plant at Friedrichsfeld. The following parameters wre investigated: Ignition and combustion behvaviour of the moist brown coal in a pressurized gasification plant; Emission ratings of CO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and dust contents of standard coal; Combustion efficiencies at furnace temperatures over 850 C as determined by ash analysis; Measurements of the temperature distribution in the fluidized bed; Brown coal fly ash retention capacity of the hot gas filters; Analysis of ash turnover in order to maintain a stable circulation; Investigation of ash abrasion in circulating operation; Performance tests of secondary systems, e.g. feeding systems, ash removal systems for fly ash and bed ash, and measurement of the thermodynamic data in the ash cooler. [Deutsch] In der Druckwirbelschicht-Versuchsanlage Friedrichsfeld sind Verbrennungsversuche mit rohfeuchter LAUBAG- und rohfeuchter MIBRAG-Kohle durchgefuehrt worden. Bei genereller Verwendung des Aufbaus der Versuchsanlage Friedrichsfeld waren folgende Betriebs-/Auslegungswerte zu ermitteln: Ermittlung des Zuend- und des Ausbrandverhaltens der feuchten Braunkohle in der zirkulierenden Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung; Bestimmung der Emissionswerte wie CO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} und Staubgehalt fuer die Auslegungskohle; Bestimmung der Ausbrandwerte in der Asche bei einer Feuerraumtemperatur von ueber 850 C; Messung der Temepraturverteilung in der Wirbelschicht; Verhalten der Heissgasfilter bei Beaufschlagung mit Braunkohleflugasche; Untersuchung des Aschehaushaltes zur Erhaltung eines stabilen Zirkulationsbetriebes; Untersuchung des Ascheabriebverhaltens im Zirkulationsbetrieb; Pruefung der Funktionstuechtigkeit von Nebenanlagen wie Bekohlungseinrichtungen, Entaschungseinrichtungen fuer Flug- und Bettasche sowie Ermittlung der thermodynamischen Daten im vorhandenen Aschekuehler. (orig./HS)

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  14. Agribusiness Industry Study Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Instituto Riograndense do Arroz, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Empresa Bunge Alimentos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Universal Leaf Tobacos Ltda., Rio...become a networked web . A final note on the industry defined. This study focuses primarily on the portion of the agribusiness industry concerned

  15. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  16. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    -production, purchases, and financing.Often, no one single function or department is responsible for the handling and completion of the individual customer orders, and the information systems in use are frequently not too well-functioning. Finally, too much time is used for handling acticities that do not add value...

  17. Nanochannel arrays etched into hexagonal boron nitride mesa-membranes by focused ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcrand, Remy; Linas, Sébastien; Cauwet, François; Poinsot, Blaise; Brioude, Arnaud

    2016-11-01

    Meso-membranes with highly ordered nano channel arrays have been fabricated by patterning hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films using a focused ion beam. The complete experimental procedure will be given in detail form the chemical vapor deposition for h-BN synthesis to its patterning and the final membrane design for nanofluidic experiments. The membranes obtained are characterized at each experimental step by electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The technique is finally applied to fabricate devices in which the only passage for a fluid is a nano channel array etched into a h-BN film.

  18. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  19. Focusing Vacuum Fluctuations, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, L H

    2002-01-01

    The quantization of the scalar and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a parabolic mirror is further developed in the context of a geometric optics approximation. We calculate the mean squared scalar and electric fields near the focal line of a parabolic cylindrical mirror. These quantities are found to grow as inverse powers of the distance from the focus. We give a combination of analytic and numerical results for the mean squared fields. In particular, we find that the mean squared electric field can be either negative or positive, depending upon the choice of parameters. The case of a negative mean squared electric field corresponds to a repulsive Van der Waals force on an atom near the focus, and to a region of negative energy density. Similarly, a positive value corresponds to an attractive force and a possibility of atom trapping in the vicinity of the focus.

  20. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  1. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  2. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rudolf

    2015-09-16

    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  3. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...

  4. Curriculum Mapping. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This "Focus On" discusses curriculum mapping, a process that allows educators to align the curriculum both within and across grades and to ensure that the curriculum is in line with school, local, and state standards. It outlines the steps of the curriculum mapping process from planning the mapping initiative to creating and editing curriculum…

  5. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  6. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  7. Neocortical focus: experimental view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Handbook on the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This illuminating Handbook presents the state-of-the-art in the scientific field of experience economy studies. It offers a rich and varied collection of contributions that discuss different issues of crucial importance for our understanding of the experience economy. Each chapter reflects diverse...... scientific viewpoints from disciplines including management, mainstream economics and sociology to provide a comprehensive overview. The Handbook is divided into three subsections to explore progression in the scientific field of experience economy studies. The first section focuses on fundamental debates...... surrounding the nature and importance of the experience economy. The second section presents more specific topics including innovation, networks and the design of experiences. Finally, the last section explores issues such as cultural events, cuisine, theatre and video games. Moreover, the Handbook gives...

  9. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial....... Phase 2: Development of mirror based test cutting heads. Phase 3: Test and evaluation of the cutting heads on high power CO2 laser sources in the 6-12 kW power range. The test phase concentrates on cutting steels, applied in the heavy industry. In the first part of the project fundamental studies have...... gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...

  10. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    . Phase 2: Development of mirror based test cutting heads. Phase 3: Test and evaluation of the cutting heads on high power CO2 laser sources in the 6-12 kW power range. The test phase concentrates on cutting steels, applied in the heavy industry. In the first part of the project fundamental studies have......This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial...... gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...

  11. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-12-31

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs.

  12. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  13. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q

    2012-08-07

    To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Participants' descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation.

  14. Focus on Succes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Slimák; Kristina Zgodavova

    2011-01-01

    The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physi...

  15. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  16. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  17. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  19. MTX final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. [ed.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K. [and others

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  20. CATE 2016 Indonesia: Optics and Focus Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M. A.; Jenson, L.; Kovac, S. A.; Bosh, R.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hare, H. S.; Watson, Z.; Penn, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The 2017 solar eclipse will be a natural phenomenon that will sweep across the United State would provide an excellent opportunity to observe and study the solar corona. The Citizens Continental Astronomical Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment directed my Matt Penn, intends to take advantage of this scientific opportunity by organizing 60 sites along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to observe the eclipse and make a 90 min continuous video of the solar corona. The preliminary observation was done with the 2016 eclipse in Indonesia, with 5 sites along the path of totality. The sites were provided with an 80mm diameter Telescope with a 480mm focal length with an extension tube, Celestron equatorial mount, a CMOS camera, a Dell dual processor running Windows, GPS and an Arduino box, more details will be provided. I observed at the furthest east site in Ternate, Indonesia, with Dr. Donald Walter. The day of the eclipse we had clouds but still had a successful observation. The observation was successful with 4 out of the 5 sites collected eclipse data, due to weather the other site was not able to observe. The data was then collected and processed over the summer. To prepare for the observation in 2017, the 60 sites will be provided with the equipment, software and training. The groups will then practice by doing solar and lunar observations, where they will follow an almost identical procedure for the eclipse to do their observations. These test will increase our chances to have a successful observation among all sites. The focus will play a crucial role in this observation to provide a high quality image. Currently, a new focusing method using an image derivative method to provide quantitative feedback to the user is being developed. Finally, a Graphical User Interface is also being developed using the codes produces from the summer 2016 data analysis, to process the images from each site with minimal effort and produce quality scientific images